NGC 6001 = NGC 6002: = UGC 10036 = MCG +05-37-027 = CGCG 166-058 = PGC 56056

15 47 45.9 +28 38 31

V = 13.6;  Size 1.0'x1.0';  Surf Br = 13.4;  PA = 162d

 

17.5" (6/15/91): fairly faint, fairly small, round, very weak concentration.  Located 10' N of mag 7.5 SAO 84005.

 

WH discovered NGC 6001 = H III-371 on 11 Apr 1785 (sweep 397) and recorded "vF, S, R. 240x showed it very distinctly."  His position is within 1' of UGC 10036 = PGC 56056.  This was last of 72 objects discovered on 11 Apr 1785, perhaps his most productive night.

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NGC 6002

15 47 44.4 +28 36 35

 

=*?, Gottlieb, =NGC 6001, RNGC.  =NF, Carlson.

 

Lawrence Parsons, the 4th Earl of Rosse, discovered NGC 6002 on Apr 20 1873 while observing NGC 6001. He noted "Nova Pos 197.3¡ [SSW], distance 97.6Ó [~1.6']."  A mag 16.7 star is fairly close to his offset at PA 190¡ and separation 116" [~1.9'].

 

MCG and PGC identify MCG +05-37-026 = PGC 56051 as NGC 6002.  This dim edge-on is situated 57" southwest of NGC 6001 in PA 225¡, a poor match with Parsons' position and likely too faint to have been picked up, even in the 72".  Harold Corwin suggests the faint star is more likely NGC 6002, thought it too is quite faint. So perhaps Parsons made some type of error, such as misidentifying NGC 6001.

 

Karl Reinmuth reported "no neb 100" S of NGC 6001" based on his photographic survey at Heidelberg (repeated by Dorothy Carlson) and RNGC classifies the number as nonexistent with the comment NGC 6002 = NGC 6001.

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NGC 6003 = UGC 10048 = MCG +03-40-048 = CGCG 107-043 = PGC 56130

15 49 25.6 +19 01 55

V = 13.4;  Size 0.9'x0.9';  Surf Br = 13.0

 

17.5" (5/14/88): faint, very small, round, small bright core.  NGC 6004 lies 15' ESE.

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 6003 = St X-28 on 19 Jun 1879.  His position is accurate.

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NGC 6004 = UGC 10056 = MCG +03-40-051 = CGCG 107-046 = PGC 56166

15 50 22.7 +18 56 21

V = 12.3;  Size 1.9'x1.7';  Surf Br = 13.4;  PA = 105d

 

17.5" (5/14/88): moderately bright, moderately large, round, broad concentration.  NGC 6003 lies 15' WNW.

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 6004 = St X-29 on 14 Jun 1879.  His position is accurate.

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NGC 6005 = Cr 294 = ESO 178-SC003

15 55 49 -57 26 12

V = 10.7;  Size 4'

 

14" (4/5/16 - Coonabarabran, 184x): ~40 stars mag 13 and fainter in a small group, roughly 4' in diameter.  Stands out well in the field.  A wide pair of mag 10.5 stars [~27" separation] is off the southwest side.  The cluster is pretty rich, with many stars arranged in two intersecting strings.  A thin, winding chain of stars extends N-S through the center.  A second strip of stars bisects this chain, angling WNW to ESE.  The central 45" of the cluster is fairly dense, with ~15 stars packed into this region.

 

James Dunlop discovered NGC 6005 = D 334 = h3615 on 8 May 1826 and described "a faint round nebula, about 1.5' diameter, very slightly bright towards the centre. A small star is south, rather preceding the nebula, and Iota Normae is south following."  His position is 15' east of the cluster.

 

JH first observed the cluster on 9 Jul 1834 and recorded "a milky way cluster; but so densely concentrated as to merit as a fine cluster VI class; irregularly round, gbM, stars 11..15th mag."  On a second sweep he noted "cluster, small, irregularly round, gbM, a group or rather a small oval pretty much compressed cluster of stars 16..17th mag. A few = 15th mag."

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NGC 6006 = CGCG 078-093 = Mrk 862 = PGC 56295

15 53 02.5 +12 00 19

V = 14.4;  Size 0.6'x0.4';  Surf Br = 12.7;  PA = 162d

 

17.5" (5/13/88): very faint, very small, slightly elongated.  In a trio with brighter NGC 6007 6' ESE and NGC 6009 NE.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 6006 = m 294, along with NGC 6007 and 6009, on 2 Jun 1864 and noted "vF, S." His position is accurate (to within 1' of polar distance).

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NGC 6007 = UGC 10079 = MCG +02-40-018 = CGCG 078-095 = PGC 56309

15 53 23.3 +11 57 33

V = 13.2;  Size 1.7'x1.2';  Surf Br = 13.8;  PA = 65d

 

17.5" (5/13/88): faint, fairly small, oval NW-SE, weak concentration.  Brightest of three with NGC 6008 5.8' WNW and NGC 6009 6' N.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 6007 = m 295, along with NGC 6006 and 6009, on 2 Jun 1864 and noted "F, pL." His position is accurate.

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NGC 6008 = UGC 10076 = MCG +04-37-052 = CGCG 136-110 = Holm 726a = LGG 403-006 = PGC 56289

15 52 56.0 +21 06 02

V = 13.0;  Size 1.4'x1.3';  Surf Br = 13.6

 

17.5" (5/14/88): faint, fairly small, round, small bright core.  There is possibly an extremely faint knot or star at the east end (there is a slightly brighter "arc" in the eastern arm on the POSS).  Forms a pair with NGC 6008B = PGC 56301 3.3' ESE.  Located 25' ENE of Rho Serpentis (V = 4.8).

 

NGC 6008B appeared very faint, very small, round.  Collinear with two mag 14/15 stars close SE (the mag 14 star is 1.3' SE).

 

13" (6/29/84): faint, small, round, diffuse.

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 6008 = St XI-39 on 10 Jun 1880.  His position is accurate.

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NGC 6009 = CGCG 078-096 = PGC 56312

15 53 24.2 +12 03 30

V = 14.6;  Size 0.5'x0.2';  Surf Br = 11.9;  PA = 168d

 

17.5" (5/13/88): very faint, very small, round.  A mag 15 star is close east.  Located 6' N of NGC 6007 in a tight trio.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 6009 = m 296, along with NGC 6006 and 6007, on 2 Jun 1864 and noted "F, vS, stell." His position is accurate.

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NGC 6010 = UGC 10081 = MCG +00-40-013 = CGCG 022-048 = PGC 56337

15 54 19.2 +00 32 34

V = 12.6;  Size 1.9'x0.5';  Surf Br = 12.3;  PA = 105d

 

17.5" (6/11/88): fairly faint, fairly small, very elongated WNW-ESE, small bright core, stellar nucleus.  A mag 14.5 star is 1.9' S and a mag 15 star 40" S of center.

 

WH discovered NGC 6010 = H II-583 = h1939 on 3 May 1786 (sweep 562) and recorded "vF, S, E, r."  His position is less than 1' south of UGC 10081.  A second observation on 28 May 1786 (sweep 568) states "pB, S, bM, E, nearly in the parallel."  JH made the single observation "pB; S; lE in parallel [E-W], gbM."

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NGC 6011 = UGC 10047 = MCG +12-15-016 = CGCG 338-017 = PGC 56008

15 46 32.9 +72 10 09

V = 13.5;  Size 2.0'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.8;  PA = 110d

 

17.5" (5/14/88): fairly faint, small, elongated 2:1 WNW-ESE, bright core.  A mag 14 star is off the east edge 52" from the center.

 

WH discovered NGC 6011 = H III-313 on 16 Mar 1785 (sweep 389) and logged "vF, vS, lE."  His position is within 3' of UGC 10047.  On 6 May 1791 (sweep 1005) he noted "vF, cS, E nearly in the parallel, just preceding a very small star."  MCG doesn't label its entry as NGC 6011.

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NGC 6012 = UGC 10083 = MCG +03-40-059 = CGCG 107-054 = CGCG 108-003 = PGC 56334

15 54 13.9 +14 36 04

V = 12.0;  Size 2.1'x1.5';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 168d

 

17.5" (5/13/88): fairly bright, moderately large, elongated NNW-SSE, brighter core, mottled appearance.  Several bright stars in field and bracketed by mag 9 SAO 101806 2.0' S and a mag 10 star just 1.4' NE of center.

 

WH discovered NGC 6012 = H II-657 on 19 Mar 1787 (sweep 720) and recorded "F, bM; between, but a little preceding 2 bright stars."

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NGC 6013 = UGC 10080 = MCG +07-33-004 = CGCG 223-007 = PGC 56287

15 52 53.0 +40 38 48

V = 13.6;  Size 1.3'x0.8';  Surf Br = 13.5;  PA = 174d

 

17.5" (7/1/89): faint, fairly small, very elongated ~N-S, brighter center.  Four mag 12-13 stars are within a 5' radius including a pair of mag 13 stars 2.6' NNW with separation 28" which are collinear with NGC 6013" (aligned NNW-SSE).

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 6013 = St VII-1 on 21 Jun 1876.  His position is accurate.

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NGC 6014 = UGC 10091 = MCG +01-41-002 = CGCG 051-007 = IC 4586 = PGC 56413

15 55 57.5 +05 55 56

V = 12.2;  Size 1.7'x1.6';  Surf Br = 13.2

 

17.5" (5/13/88): fairly faint, fairly small, even surface brightness.  A pair of mag 14/15 stars are at the NE end [the mag 14 star is 32" from center].

 

JH discovered NGC 6014 = h1940 on 24 Apr 1830 and recorded "pB; pL; E; 30" l, 18" br."  His position is accurate.

 

Lewis Swift found this galaxy again on 19 Aug 1897 and recorded IC 4586 = Sw XII-13 as "eF, S, R, bet *8 following and curve of stars preceding."   His description is a perfect match with NGC 6014, though his RA is off by a minute too small, as well as his dec by 5'.  Dorothy Carlson equated the two numbers in her 1940 paper on NGC/IC Corrections.

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NGC 6015 = UGC 10075 = MCG +10-23-003 = CGCG 298-003 = CGCG 319-028 = PGC 56219

15 51 25.2 +62 18 35

V = 11.1;  Size 5.4'x2.1';  Surf Br = 13.6;  PA = 28d

 

13" (5/14/83): fairly faint, fairly large, elongated 2:1 SSW-NNE, 4.0'x1.8', diffuse, almost even surface brightness.  Located 2.3' E of a mag 11 star.  A mag 13.5 star is at the SSW end 1.9' from the center.

 

WH discovered NGC 6015 = H III-739 on 2 Jun 1788 (sweep 844) and recorded "vF; R; about 3' diam; vgbM; easily resolvable."  Dreyer also gives d'Arrest's summary description "B, mE" in the NGC as it differs so much from WH's.  In the IC 1 Notes, Dreyer mentions that William Denning stated that d'Arrest's description was correct.

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NGC 6016 = UGC 10096 = MCG +05-38-001 = CGCG 167-004 = PGC 56410

15 55 54.9 +26 57 59

V = 14.3;  Size 1.0'x0.4';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 26d

 

17.5" (6/15/91): extremely faint, small, very elongated 3:1 SSW-NNE, low even surface brightness.  Located 5.4' SSW of mag 8 SAO 84084.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 6016 = m 297 on 28 Jun 1864 and noted "vF, S, E."  His position is accurate.

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NGC 6017 = UGC 10098 = MCG +01-41-003 = CGCG 051-008 = PGC 56475

15 57 15.5 +05 59 54

V = 13.1;  Size 0.8'x0.7';  Surf Br = 12.3;  PA = 140d

 

17.5" (5/13/88): fairly faint, small, slightly elongated NW-SE, small bright core.

 

JH discovered NGC 6017 = h1941 on 9 May 1828 and recorded "pF; vS; R; much condensed in the centre.  A disc with a burred borders.  Almost a planetary nebula."  His position is fairly accurate.

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NGC 6018 = UGC 10101 = MCG +03-41-006 = CGCG 108-016 = IC 1150? = PGC 56481

15 57 29.8 +15 52 23

V = 13.4;  Size 1.4'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 75d

 

17.5" (5/13/88): fairly faint, fairly small, elongated SW-NE, weak concentration.  A mag 15 is 1' S.  In a trio with NGC 6021 5.1' N and an anonymous companion 2.6' E.

 

WH discovered NGC 6018 = H III-646 = h1942 on 19 Mar 1787 (sweep 720) and noted "vF, lE, S."  NGC 6021, situated 5' north, was discovered 3 years earlier on 21 Mar 1784.

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NGC 6019 = CGCG 319-031 = PGC 56265

15 52 09.1 +64 50 26

V = 15.4;  Size 0.4'x0.4';  Surf Br = 13.3

 

17.5" (4/15/93): extremely faint, very small, 15" diameter, round, very low surface brightness.  Located 2.6' S of a mag 10 star which detracts from viewing.  A mag 11 star lies 3.5' ESE.  Forms a pair with NGC 6024 8' NE.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 6019 = Sw IV-18, along with NGC 6024 on 28 Jun 1886 and recorded "eeeF; S; R; double star points to it; ee difficult."   His position is 24 sec east and 1' north of CGCG 319-031 = PGC 56265, but his comment "D * points to it" clinches the identification.  The wide pair of stars is 2' north.

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NGC 6020 = UGC 10100 = MCG +04-38-002 = CGCG 137-005 = LGG 403-009 = IC 1148 = PGC 56467

15 57 08.1 +22 24 16

V = 12.7;  Size 1.4'x1.0';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 140d

 

17.5" (5/14/88): fairly faint, small, round, broad concentration.  Situated among a group of stars and at the midpoint of a mag 11 star 1.9' WSW and a 13 star 1.9' ESE of center.  Another mag 13 star is 1.7' SSE of center.

 

Truman Safford discovered NGC 6020 = Sf 10 = St VII-2 on 9 May 1866 with the 18.5" refractor at the Dearborn Observatory.  The discovery list was not published until 1887 so Safford is not credited in the main NGC table.  ƒdouard Stephan independently found the galaxy on 27 Jun 1876, measured an accurate position, and was credited by Dreyer with the discovery.  When Dreyer obtained Safford's list, he apparently missed the equivalence with NGC 6020 and catalogued this galaxy again as IC 1148.  So, NGC 6020 = IC 1148.

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NGC 6021 = UGC 10102 = MCG +03-41-005 = CGCG 108-017  = PGC 56482

15 57 30.7 +15 57 22

V = 13.1;  Size 1.4'x0.8';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 160d

 

17.5" (5/13/88): fairly faint, fairly small, slightly elongated, bright core.  Brightest of three with NGC 6018 5.1' S and an anonymous galaxy 5.5' SSE.  In the foreground of rich cluster AGC 2147.

 

WH discovered NGC 6021 = H III-739 = h1943 on 21 Mar 1784 (sweep 183) and recorded "eF, vS.  I suspected it with 157 and 240 showed it very plainly."  He observed this galaxy three years later (19 Mar 1787) and also picked up NGC 6018 to the south.

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NGC 6022 = MCG +03-41-009 = CGCG 108-020 = PGC 56495

15 57 47.7 +16 16 56

V = 14.7;  Size 0.7'x0.5';  Surf Br = 13.5

 

17.5" (5/13/88): extremely faint, small, oval.  Located 1.6' SSW of NGC 6023 in AGC 2147.

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 6022 = St XII-76, along with NGC 6023, on 19 May 1881.  His position is accurate.

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NGC 6023 = UGC 10106 = MCG +03-41-010 = CGCG 108-021 = PGC 56492

15 57 49.6 +16 18 37

V = 13.1;  Size 1.4'x1.0';  Surf Br = 13.4;  PA = 70d

 

17.5" (5/13/88): faint, small, round, gradually increases to a brighter core.  Brightest in AGC 2147 with NGC 6022 1.6' SSW.

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 6023 = St XII-77, along with NGC 6022, on 19 May 1881.  His position is an exact match with UGC 10106.

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NGC 6024 = MCG +11-19-026 = CGCG 319-032 = PGC 56294

15 53 07.8 +64 55 05

V = 14.1;  Size 0.7'x0.6';  Surf Br = 13.0

 

17.5" (4/15/93): faint, small, 30" diameter, round.  Surrounding the galaxy are several stars: a mag 12.5 star is off the WSW edge 49" from center, a mag 13 star 1.2' ESE and two mag 14 stars are off the north edge 31" from center and 1.2' SE.  Also several mag 9-10 stars in field: forms the vertex of a perfect isosceles triangle with mag 9 SAO 16879 6.2' WNW and a mag 10 star 6.3' SW.  Brighter of a pair of galaxies with NGC 6019 8' SW.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 6024 = Sw IV-19, along with NGC 6019, on 28 Jun 1886 and recorded "pF; pS; R; BM; * close; forms a little right angle with 2 stars."  His position is 10 sec east of CGCG 319-032 = PGC 56294 and his description applies to this galaxy.

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NGC 6025 = Cr 296 = ESO 136-SC014

16 03 18 -60 25 54

V = 5.1;  Size 12'

 

18" (7/7/02 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): at 76x with 27 Panoptic, this cluster is loose but bright and large, ~13' diameter, with 50-60 stars resolved and a very pretty sight.  A couple of dozen stars are mag 11.5 or brighter and seem to form a continuous loop or exaggerated "S" shape with no central concentration!  At 128x, ~80 stars are visible but the cluster is really too large for a good view at this power.  Two brighter mag 7 and 8 stars are at the SE end with mag 8.5 and 9 stars near the NW edge.  The cluster straddles TrA and Norma and is just visible naked-eye.  Abell 3627 (the core of the "Great Attractor"!) lies 1.5 degree SE and deep images show a number of very faint galaxies within and around the borders of the cluster that are probably outlying members.

 

Nicolas-Louis de Lacaille discovered NGC 6025 = Lac III 10 = D 304 = h1941 in 1751-1752 using a 1/2" telescope at 8x during his expedition to the Cape of Good Hope. With this small telescope he noted "three faint stars in line in nebulosity."  Dunlop observed the cluster 5 times with his 9-inch reflector from Parramatta and recorded "(Lambda Circini) Lacaille describes this as three small stars in a line with nebula. No particular nebula exists in this place. A group of about twenty stars of mixt magnitudes, forming an irregular figure, about 5' or 6' long, answer to the place of the Lambda. This is in the milky way; and there is no nebula in the group of stars except what is common in the neighbourhood."

 

JH lists 4 observations in the Cape Catalogue: on his first sweep (22 Apr 1835) he logged "VII.; loose; scattered; brilliant; stars large; much more than fills field; 46 stars counted above 12th mag; chief star 7th mag taken."  On a second sweep as ""Chief star 7th mag of a large, oblong, bright scattered cluster, stars 7..10th mag."

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NGC 6026 = PK 341+13.1 = ESO 389-PN7 = PN G341.6+13.7

16 01 20.9 -34 32 39

V = 13.2;  Size 54"x36"

 

18" (6/7/08): fairly faint, moderately large glow surrounding a mag 13-13.5 central star at 150x.  Excellent contrast gain using a NPB filter and the disc appeared moderately bright and crisply defined and slightly elongated.

 

18" (7/22/06): picked up unfiltered at 160x as a mag 13.5-14 star surrounded by a 40"x30" faint halo elongated SW-NE.  A UHC filter increases the contrast so the disc appears fairly faint to moderately bright (easy with direct vision).  325x provided a good view unfiltered and the elongation appeared closer to WSW-ENE.  The easy central star was visible steadily and the dimensions roughly 45"x35".

 

18" (7/5/05 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): at 228x, this planetary appeared moderately bright, moderately large, elongated 4:3 SW-NE, ~0.8'x0.6'.  Dominated by a mag 13.5 central star with an even surface brightness halo.  Nice contrast gain using a UHC filter at 228x.

 

17.5" (6/30/00): at 220x this fairly faint PN appeared slightly elongated SW-NE, ~50"x35".  The 14th magnitude central star is easily visible encased by an evenly lit disc.  The edges of the halo appear somewhat ragged but the PN is crisp-edged at 280x using a UHC filter.

 

13" (7/5/83): very faint, small, round.  A very faint mag 14 central star is visible.  The planetary is visible with direct vision using a UHC filter.  Located 7.3' NW of mag 7.6 SAO 207243.

 

8": not found.

 

JH discovered NGC 6026 = h3617 on 8 Jun 1837 and recorded "F; S; R: 15"; gpmbM.  There are 3 stars forming a triangle about 60¡, np the nebula."  His position is at the west edge of the planetary.

 

NGC 6026 was misclassified as an elliptical galaxy in the Shapley-Ames catalogue (dimensions 1.0'x0.8', mag(p) = 12.5).  In the course of a photographic survey of bright southern galaxies at Mt Stromlo, de Vaucouleurs noticed the appearance suggest it might be a galactic PN.  He notified Nicholas Mayall of Lick Observatory who obtained a spectrogram, which established it was a planetary nebula (announced in 1955PASP...67..418D).

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NGC 6027 = Seyfert's Sextet = HCG 79B = VV 115 = (VII Zw 631) = (UGC 10116) = MCG +04-38-005 = (CGCG 137-010) = PGC 56575

15 59 12.5 +20 45 49

V = 14.3;  Size 0.4'x0.2';  Surf Br = 11.7

 

48" (5/15/12): the brightest components of Seyfert's Sextet were NGC 6027 = HCG 79b and NGC 6027A = HCG 79a.  Both were moderately bright at 610x, though NGC 6027 was more elongated at 2:1 E-W, ~20"x10".  NGC 6027E, a diffuse plume, was easily visible extending 30" NE and narrowing near the end where it brightens slightly. NGC 6027D = HCG 79e is situated barely off the south side and appeared faint, extremely small, round, 6" diameter.  NGC 6027B = HCG 79c (third brightest member) is just 24" W and appeared fairly faint, small, oval 3:2 SW-NE, 18"x12".  Finally NGC 6027C = HCG 79d is furthest south (fifth brightest) and appeared faint, fairly small, very elongated 4:1 N-S, ~25"x7", with a low, nearly even surface brightness.

 

18" (8/3/05): at 257x, the brightest component of Seyfert's Sextet appeared faint, very small, slightly elongated ~E-W, 15"x10", contains a faint stellar nucleus with direct vision.  A mag 14.5 star lies 1' ESE and two additional mag 14.5 stars lie close SE.  Just resolved from HCG 79c which lies 22" W of center.

 

18" (6/20/04): at 320x, a trio of galaxies forming a small equilateral triangle were fairly easily resolved with careful viewing.  The brightest of the trio (HCG 79b) is at the NE corner and appeared elongated 3:2 E-W, ~20"x13".  The other two members (HCG 79a and HCG 79c) are both extremely small, round, ~10" diameter.  Two mag 14.5 stars 1'-1.5' SE are collinear with HCG 79b and a slightly brighter mag 14 star lies 2' W.

 

17.5" (5/14/88): faint, small, elongated ~E-W.

 

17.5" (6/6/86): this is Seyfert's Sextet = HCG 79, an extremely compact group!  On close inspection, the confused "clump" resolves into three components with the brightest component (HCG 79b) appearing fairly faint, small.  Extremely close are HCG 79a = NGC 6027A just 36" SSW and HCG 79c = NGC 6027B 22" W of center.  A mag 14.5 star is 1.1' ESE and other faint stars are near.  These three galaxies are just resolved at 220x.

 

13" (6/18/85): slightly elongated E-W.

 

13" (5/26/84): faint, very small, irregularly round, weak concentration.

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 6027 = St XII-78 on 20 Mar 1882 and measured an accurate position.  Although Stephan recorded this ultra-compact group as only a single entry, his description "eF, vF* inv, 2 vF st nr" implies he probably resolved two or three members.  Barnard ran across NGC 6027 while sweeping on 29 Jan 1889 with the 12-inch refractor at Lick Observatory.

 

Carl Seyfert's name was attached after his 1951 paper "A Dense Group of Galaxies in Serpens" (PASP...63...72S).  Different lettering of the components were introduced by VV, RNGC and Hickson, so there is often confusion on the designations.  There are likely only 4 galaxies in the group as NGC 6027D has a discordant redshift over four times the other members and NGC 6027E is considered either a tidal tail of HCG 79b or a partially dissolved remnant.  Seyfert's Sextet is probably the densest (most compact) galaxy aggregate in the local Universe with all 4 members fitting within the confines of the Milky Way.

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NGC 6028 = NGC 6046 = UGC 10135 =  MCG +03-41-043 = CGCG 108-063 = I Zw 133 = PGC 56716

16 01 28.9 +19 21 34

V = 13.5;  Size 1.3'x1.2';  Surf Br = 13.8;  PA = 30d

 

48" (5/15/12): this Hoag-type ring galaxy contains a bright, very small core, ~18" diameter.  A star is right at the south edge of the core.  The 1' diameter detached outer ring occasionally popped into view and the galaxy appeared as a slightly elongated Cheerio!  NGC 6028 is the nearest and brightest of the Hoag-style rings.

 

17.5": faint, very small, round, bright core, faint stellar nucleus.  Forms a pair with CGCG 108-053 7' NW.  I only recorded the bright, inner core of the ring galaxy.

 

Guillaume Bigourdan found NGC 6028 = B. 76 on 4 May 1886.  His position matches UGC 10135.  WH originally discovered this galaxy on 14 Mar 1784 and catalogued as H III-33 = NGC 6046 (see notes), but with a 3.5 min error in RA.  NGC 6028 is the primary designation because of Bigourdan's unambiguous position.

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NGC 6029 = CGCG 079-023 = PGC 56756

16 01 58.7 +12 34 30

V = 14.5;  Size 0.1'x0.1';  Surf Br = 9.3

 

17.5" (5/13/88): very faint, small, elongated ~E-W, bright core, very faint stellar nucleus.  This is a double system (not resolved).

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 6029 = m 298 on 2 Jun 1864 and noted "vF, vS." His position is 1' north of CGCG 079-023 = PGC 56756.

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NGC 6030 = UGC 10139 = MCG +03-41-044 = CGCG 108-065 = LGG 403-010 = PGC 56750

16 01 51.4 +17 57 27

V = 12.8;  Size 1.1'x0.8';  Surf Br = 12.5;  PA = 43d

 

17.5" (5/13/88): fairly faint, small, bright core, elongated SW-NE.  Two mag 13 stars are 1.0' NNW and 2.5' N.  Located between 5 Herculis (V = 5.1) 12' SW and mag 7.4 SAO 101890 14' NE.

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 6030 = St XIII-84 on 17 Jun 1884.  His position is accurate.

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NGC 6031 = Cr 297 = ESO 178-SC009

16 07 35 -54 00 54

V = 8.5;  Size 2'

 

18" (4/5/16 - Coonabarabran, 236x): small, fairly rich cluster with 40-50 stars (with careful viewing) packed into a 2.5' region.  The cluster is roughly triangular with vertices on the southwest, east and northeast ends.  Contains a tight knot of 4-5 stars within 20".  A close double star (mag 11 primary, separation <5") is 1' off the north end.  Located 50' WNW of NGC 6067.

 

James Dunlop discovered NGC 6031 = D 359 = h3618 on 28 Jul 1826 and described "three very minute stars forming a triangle, with a faint round nebula, about 20 arcseconds diameter in the centre, but none of the stars are involved in the nebula."  His position is 5' south of the cluster.  JH made a single observation on 19 Jun 1835: "cluster, a small, compact knot of stars 11..14th mag, in a magnificently full field and zone."

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NGC 6032 = UGC 10148 = MCG +04-38-016 = CGCG 137-021 = LGG 403-001 = PGC 56842

16 03 01.1 +20 57 23

V = 13.5;  Size 1.6'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.4;  PA = 0d

 

13.1" (4/10/86): very faint, fairly small, slightly elongated N-S.  Appears as an unconcentrated diffuse glow which requires averted vision.  Pair with NGC 6035 6.6' SE.

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 6032 = St XI-40, along with NGC 6035, on 9 Jun 1880.  His position is accurate.

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NGC 6033 = UGC 10159 = MCG +00-41-003 = CGCG 023-011 = PGC 56941

16 04 27.9 -02 07 15

V = 13.7;  Size 1.1'x1.0';  Surf Br = 13.6;  PA = 90d

 

17.5" (6/11/88): very faint, small, round.  A close very faint double star is 1' S.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 6033 = m 299 on 23 Jul 1864 and noted "vF neb *."  His position is accurate.

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NGC 6034 = MCG +03-41-062 = CGCG 108-084 = PGC 56877

16 03 32.1 +17 11 55

V = 13.8;  Size 1.1'x0.8';  Surf Br = 13.4;  PA = 64d

 

17.5": faint, very small, slightly elongated, small bright core, stellar nucleus.  A mag 13.5 star is 0.8' SSE.  Member of AGC 2151.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 6034 = Sw IV-20 on 19 Jun 1886 and logged "eeeF; vS; R; eee diff."  His position is 1.5' north of CGCG 108-084 = PGC 56877.

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NGC 6035 = UGC 10154 = MCG +04-38-018 = CGCG 137-024 = PGC 56864

16 03 24.2 +20 53 29

V = 13.5;  Size 1.0'x0.9';  Surf Br = 13.1

 

13.1" (4/10/86): faint, fairly small, almost round.  Slightly brighter of pair with NGC 6032 6.2' NW.

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 6035 = St XI-41, along with NGC 6032, on 9 Jun 1880.  His micrometric position is very accurate.

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NGC 6036 = UGC 10163 = MCG +01-41-010 = CGCG 051-032 = PGC 56950

16 04 30.8 +03 52 06

V = 13.4;  Size 1.1'x0.4';  Surf Br = 12.3;  PA = 146d

 

17.5" (6/11/88): faint, small, elongated NW-SE, small bright core, stellar nucleus.  A mag 14 star is 0.7' NE and a fainter mag 15 star is just 0.8' NNW of center.  Forms a pair with NGC 6037 3.3' S.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 6036 = m 300, along with NGC 6037, on 23 Jul 1864 and noted "vF, vS, R, stell."  His position is accurate.

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NGC 6037 = MCG +01-41-009 = CGCG 051-031 = PGC 56947

16 04 29.8 +03 48 54

V = 14.0;  Size 0.7'x0.7';  Surf Br = 12.9

 

17.5" (6/11/88): very faint, very small, round, broad concentration, can just hold steadily with direct vision.  Pair with NGC 6036 3.3' N.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 6037 = m 301, along with NGC 6036, on 23 Jul 1864 and noted "vF, S."

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NGC 6038 = UGC 10149 = MCG +06-35-026 = CGCG 195-008 = PGC 56812

16 02 40.5 +37 21 34

V = 13.5;  Size 1.1'x1.1';  Surf Br = 13.6

 

17.5" (6/15/91): faint, fairly small, 1' diameter, round, low almost even surface brightness with no discernable core, halo gradually fades into background.  A mag 11 star is 40" off the SE edge and 1.3' from center.

 

WH discovered NGC 6038 = H III-622 = h1944 on 17 Mar 1787 (sweep 715) and noted "vF, S, R.  I saw it in the field while I was gauging otherwise it would have certainly been overlooked."  His position is 22 sec of RA east of UGC 10149. JH made 3 observations and measured an accurate position.

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NGC 6039 = NGC 6042? = MCG +03-41-079 = CGCG 108-104 = PGC 56972

16 04 39.5 +17 42 03

V = 13.9;  Size 0.9'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.3

 

See observing notes for NGC 6042.  Possibly =*, HC.  Incorrect identification in the RNGC; (R)NGC 6039 = NGC 6040B.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 6039 = Sw IV-21 on 27 Jun 1886 on the west side of the Hercules Galaxy Cluster and recorded "eeeF; vS; R; sp of 3 in a line, the other 2 being 2 of Stephan's, 3rd of 10."  The three galaxies near his position are NGC 6040, 6041 and 6042, with NGC 6042 (the south-following of 3) 14 sec of RA east of Swift's position.  He also added a note that "three of the ten of more nebulae in this interesting group are M. Stephan's, presumably [NGC 6040] and certainly [NGC 6041] and [NGC 6042].  Two or 3 more are suspected.  They are very difficult objects to see and especially to measure, atmospheric condition seldom allowing them to be seen at all except Stephan's last two, which are quite interesting objects, but those he describes as faint and small and very small, I call pretty large."

 

Despite Swift's note, NGC 6039 is mostly likely is a duplicate of NGC 6042, which is the third in a line with NGC 6040 and 6041, though his description should reads "sf of 3."  RNGC misidentifies NGC 6040B = MCG +03-41-073 as NGC 6039.  This galaxy is attached to the southwest end of NGC 6040.

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NGC 6040 = Arp 122 NED2 = VV 212a = UGC 10165b = MCG +03-41-074 = CGCG 108-096n = PGC 56932

16 04 26.8 +17 45 02

V = 14.2;  Size 1.3'x0.5';  Surf Br = 13.6;  PA = 47d

 

24" (6/4/16): at 322x; fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 5:2 SW-NE, small brighter core.  The southwest and northeast extensions are slightly curved or misaligned.  NGC 6040B, just 26" S of center, appeared fairly faint, small, round, 12" diameter.  Easily visible due to relatively high surface brightness.

 

17.5" (5/13/88): faint, small, elongated 5:2 SSW-NNE, low even surface brightness.  Forms a close interacting system with NGC 6040B 26" S.  The companion appeared very faint, very small, slightly elongated E-W.

 

First of three NGC galaxies with NGC 6041 2.7' SE and NGC 6042 4.3' SE.  Also, IC 1170 is just visible 2.0' SSE.  Located within the central core of AGC 2151.

 

17.5" (3/23/85): faint, small, elongated SSW-NNE.  First of 3.  NGC 6040B was not resolved.

 

13.1" (5/14/83): very faint, small, diffuse.

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 6040 = St I-1, along with NGC 6041 and NGC 6042, on 27 Jun 1870.  His micrometric position is an exact match with the brighter northern component of this pair (Arp 71).  Many sources label the northern component as NGC 6040A with the southern galaxy NGC 6040B.  MCG misidentifies this galaxy as IC 1170.

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NGC 6041 = VV 213a = NGC 6041A = UGC 10170ne = MCG +03-41-078 = CGCG 108-101ne = PGC 56960

16 04 35.8 +17 43 18

V = 13.8;  Size 1.3'x1.1';  Surf Br = 13.6;  PA = 46d

 

24" (6/4/16): at 322x; fairly faint/moderately bright, fairly small, slightly elongated, 25"x20", well concentrated with a small bright core.  Forms a double system with NGC 6041 at the southwest end [19" between centers] with the companion faint, extremely small, round, 6".  IC 1170, a small faint edge-on, is 1' due west.

 

17.5" (5/13/88): very faint, very small, oval SW-NE.  Forms a double system with NGC 6041B attached at the southwest end.  The fainter companion appeared extremely faint and small or stellar.  In a quadruple subgroup with NGC 6040 2.7' NW (another double system!), NGC 6042 1.5' SE and IC 1170 0.9' W ("extremely faint and small, elongated E-W, requires averted vision").  A mag 11 star lies 1.5' S.  Located on the west side of the rich central region of AGC 2151.

 

17.5" (3/23/85): faint, irregularly round or slightly elongated SW-NE.  Suspected to be double.

 

13.1" (5/14/83): very faint, very small, round, similar to NGC 6040 3' NW.

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 6041 = St I-2, along with NGC 6040 and NGC 6042, on 27 Jun 1870.  His position matches the galaxy often called NGC 6041A.

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NGC 6042 = NGC 6039? = MCG +03-41-079 = CGCG 108-104 = PGC 56972

16 04 39.6 +17 42 03

V = 14.2;  Size 0.9'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 60d

 

17.5" (5/13/88): very faint, very small, round.  Third of three NGC galaxies on a line with NGC 6041 1.5' NW and NGC 6040 4.3' NW in the core of AGC 2151.  Also extremely faint IC 1170 lies 2.3' NW.  Located 1.7' NE of a mag 11 star.

 

17.5" (3/23/85): faint, very small, roundish.  Faintest in trio on a line in AGC 2151.

 

13.1" (6/29/84): extremely faint, at visual threshold, very small, round.

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 6042 = St I-3, along with NGC 6040 and NGC 6041, on 27 Jun 1870.  His position is accurate.

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NGC 6043 = MCG +03-41-086 = CGCG 108-109 = PGC 57019

16 05 01.4 +17 46 32

V = 14.3;  Size 0.65'x0.5';  PA = 35d

 

24" (6/4/16): at 322x; fairly faint to moderately bright, fairly small, slightly elongated, 20"x16", strong bright core.  NGC 6045 is 1.9' SE.  A mag 15 star is 0.8' SSW and a mag 13 star is 1.8' S.  NGC 6045 is 1.9' SE.

 

48" (4/5/13): moderately bright, fairly small, slightly elongated SW-NE, 0.3'x0.2', small bright core.  Located 1.9' NW of NGC 6045.  I didn't look for the faint companion attached at the SW edge, but it should be visible.

 

17.5" (5/13/88): very faint, small, slightly elongated ~E-W, collinear with two stars to the south including a mag 13.5 star 1.8' S.  First of three NGC galaxies on a line with NGC 6045 1.9' SE and NGC 6047 3.3' SSE.  Also nearby are NGC 6050 5.3' ESE and NGC 6044 5.6' N.  This is a double system (not resolved) in the central region of AGC 2151.

 

17.5" (3/23/85): first of three galaxies aligned NW to SE with NGC 6045 and NGC 6047 in the core of the Hercules Galaxy Cluster.  Faint, very small, round, faint star off the south side (45").

 

13.1" (5/14/83): extremely faint, small, round.  First of four in a subgroup of AGC 2151.  A mag 15 star is off the south side.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 6043 = Sw IV-22 on 27 Jun 1886, along with several other members of the Hercules Galaxy Cluster. He recorded "eeF; lE; pS; 4th of 10."  There is nothing at his exact position, but 13 seconds of time east is CGCG 108-109 = PGC 57019.  Guillaume Bigourdan measured an accurate position in Jun 1888 (repeated in the IC 2 Notes).

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NGC 6044 = IC 1172 = MCG +03-41-084 = CGCG 108-110 = PGC 57015

16 04 59.7 +17 52 13

V = 14.3;  Size 0.6'x0.6';  Surf Br = 13.0

 

17.5" (5/13/88): very faint, very small, round.  A mag 14 star lies 1.4' WSW.  Located 5.6' N of NGC 6043 in the core of AGC 2151.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 6044 = Sw IV-23 on 27 Jun 1886, along with several other members of the Hercules Galaxy Cluster.  His description reads "eeF; vS; R; vf * nr p[receding]; 5th of 10." and his position is 10 seconds west of CGCG 108-110 = IC 1172 = PGC 57015.

 

Bigourdan found the galaxy on 8 Jun 1888, assumed it was new and recorded B. 199 = IC 1172 with an accurate position.  CGCG labels the galaxy as IC 1172, though MCG uses NGC 6044.  In any case, NGC 6044 = IC 1172.

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NGC 6045 = Arp 71 = UGC 10177 = MCG +03-41-088 = CGCG 108-112 = PGC 57031

16 05 07.9 +17 45 28

V = 13.9;  Size 1.3'x0.3';  Surf Br = 12.8;  PA = 82d

 

24" (6/4/16): at 322x; faint to fairly faint, very elongated 7:2 WSW-ENE, 45"x 12", slightly brighter elongated core.  NGC 6045B was occasionally glimpsed at or just off the east end.

 

48" (5/15/12): fairly faint to moderately bright, edge-on 5:1 WSW-ENE, 1.0'x0.2', slightly brighter core.  A very small companion is attached at the east end, dangling to the south perpendicular to the major axis.  It appeared faint, small, elongated 2:1 N-S, 12"x6".

 

17.5" (5/13/88): very faint, small, very elongated 4:1 WSW-ENE.  Located in the core of AGC 2151 between the NGC 6040/6041/6042 trio to the west and NGC 6050 3.8' E.  The companion attached at the east end was not seen.

 

17.5" (3/23/85): second of a faint collinear trio.  Very faint though slightly brighter than NGC 6043 1.9' NW and NGC 6047 1.7' S, though the nearby stars to these two galaxies was more eye catching.

 

13.1" (5/14/83): very faint, elongated.  Second of four in subgroup of AGC 2151.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 6045 = Sw IV-24 on 27 Jun 1886, along with several other members of the Hercules Galaxy Cluster.  He logged "eeF; vS; R; v diff; 6th of 10." and his position is 13 seconds preceding UGC 10177 (a similar offset as NGC 6043).  Bigourdan measured an accurate position in June 1888 (repeated in the IC 2 Notes).

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NGC 6046 = NGC 6028 = UGC 10135 =  MCG +03-41-043 = I Zw  133 = PGC 56716

16 01 28.9 +19 21 34

V = 13.5;  Size 1.3'x1.2';  Surf Br = 13.8;  PA = 30d

 

See observing notes for NGC 6028.

 

WH discovered NGC 6046 = H III-33 on 14 Mar 1784 (sweep 171) and recorded "A nebula suspected by 157 and the suspicion strengthened by 240; but the latter power does not remove all doubt.  It follows 3 pB stars making an arch [concave towards np or nnp direction by a diagram], south of which arch there is a still brighter star."

 

There is nothing near WH's offset, but based on his description of the nearby stars, Harold Corwin identifies NGC 6046 = NGC 6028 (correctly placed by Bigourdan).  This galaxy is nearly 3.5 min of RA west of WH's position.  The 3 stars are actually concave to the northeast and the "still brighter star" is mag 9.0 HD 143614.  RNGC classifies the number nonexistent (Type 7).

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NGC 6047 = MCG +03-41-087 = CGCG 108-111 = 4C 17.66 = PGC 57033

16 05 09.0 +17 43 47

V = 13.5;  Size 1.0'x0.8';  Surf Br = 13.4

 

24" (6/4/16): at 322x; fairly faint, small, round, very small bright core.  A mag 13 star is just off the northwest side, 25" from the center.  NGC 6045 lies 1.7' N.

 

48" (4/5/13): moderately bright, fairly small, irregularly round, 24" diameter, bright core.  A mag 13.5 star is just off the northwest edge.  Located 1.7' S of NGC 6045.

 

17.5" (5/13/88): very faint, very small, round.  A mag 13.5 star is just 26" NW of the center.  This galaxy is the third of three in a the central region of AGC 2151 with NGC 6043 3.3' NNW and NGC 6045 1.7' NNW.  Also nearby is NGC 6050 4.0' NW.

 

17.5" (3/23/85): third of trio in a line.  Appears very faint, small, a faint star is close preceding.

 

13.1" (5/14/83): very faint, very small.  Third of four in a subgroup of AGC 2151 and located 2' SSE of NGC 6045.  A mag 13.5 star is very close west.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 6047 = Sw IV-25 on 27 Jun 1886, along with several other members of the Hercules Galaxy Cluster.  He logged "eF; R; pS; F * close north; 7th of 10."  His position is 9 seconds west of CGCG 108-111 = PGC 57033 (similar offset in RA as NGC 6043 and 6045) and the comment about the faint star applies.

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NGC 6048 = UGC 10124 = MCG +12-15-038 = CGCG 338-032 = PGC 56484

15 57 30.2 +70 41 21

V = 12.3;  Size 2.2'x1.7';  Surf Br = 13.7;  PA = 140d

 

17.5" (7/9/88): fairly faint, small, round, bright core, faint stellar nucleus.  Located 13' SSW of mag 7.3 SAO 8382.  NGC 6071 lies 18' ESE.

 

17.5" (4/18/87): fairly faint, small, oval, brighter core.  Forms a pair with 2MASX J15575417+7039470 2.5' SE.

 

17.5" (3/28/87): fairly faint, small, slightly elongated, brighter center, faint stellar nucleus.

 

WH discovered NGC 6048 = H II-873 on 6 May 1791 (sweep 1005) and noted "F, R, bM, about 1' dia."  CH's reduced position is 37 sec of RA following UGC 10124.

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NGC 6049 = SAO 121361 = HD 144426

16 05 37.9 +08 05 46

 

=*6.3 = SAO 121361, Gottlieb. =NF, Carlson.  No nebulosity surrounds mag 6.3 star.

 

JH discovered NGC 6049 = h1945 on 24 Apr 1830 and recorded "a * 7m which I strongly incline to think has a nebulous atmosphere about 2' dia."  On 14 May 1855 LdR noted the "star looked quite sharp and well defined in the finding eyepiece", but on 26 May 1875 Lawrence Parsons commented "*7-8m with vF surrounded atmosphere which could be traced about 1' from the star."  Two days later, Henry Chamberlain Russell of Sydney Observatory was also shown the star and the entry reads "Mr. H.C. Russell from Sydney was not sure of the reality of the atmosphere, but I had no doubt of it."  Reinmuth wasn't sure: "BD +8 3134; *6.8 with halo?"  All of these observations are spurious as there is no halo around the star.

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NGC 6050 = Arp 272 = VV 220a =  IC 1179A = UGC 10186 = MCG +03-41-092 = CGCG 108-118 = PGC 57058 + PGC 57053

16 05 23.4 +17 45 32

V = 14.7;  Size 0.9'x0.6';  Surf Br = 13.9;  PA = 132d

 

48" (5/15/12): this is an interconnected pair of galaxies with the brighter component (NGC 6050A) on the northeast side.  The pair appeared as a moderately bright, irregular glow, slightly elongated SW-NE, and roughly 60"x45". They were not individually separated at 375x although NGC 6050A has a slightly brighter nucleus and NGC 6050B (often called IC 1179) is a faint, diffuse glow attached to its southwest side.  NGC 6050B displayed a very weak central brightening and a very faint nucleus.  This double system is centered in an amazingly rich field of galaxies, the closest being PGC 1540468, just 45" S.

 

17.5" (5/13/88): very faint, small, round, diffuse.  This member of AGC 2151 forms a close pair with NGC 6054 1.9' ENE.  Follows the trio of NGC 6047 4.0' SW, NGC 6045 3.8' W and NGC 6043 5.3' WNW.  This is an interacting pair with IC 1179 20" SW (not individually resolved).

 

17.5" (3/23/85): faint but easily visible, small, roundish.  This is a double system, but IC 1179 was not seen.

 

13.1" (5/14/83): very faint, small, round.  Fourth of 4 in a subgroup of AGC 2151.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 6050 = Sw IV-26 on 27 Jun 1886, along with several additional members of the Hercules Galaxy Cluster.  He logged "eeeF; S; R; e diff.; 8th of 10." and his position is 13 seconds west of UGC 10186 (similar offset in RA as NGC 6043, 6045 and 6047).  Bigourdan measured an accurate RA on 1 Jun 1888 (repeated in the IC 2 Notes).

 

Swift "discovered" the galaxy again on 3 Jun 1888 and reported it in list VII-71 (this time described as "11th of 12").  Dreyer added this second entry as IC 1179.  Most modern sources including PGC, HyperLeda and SIMBAD misidentify the southwest component (NGC 6050B) as IC 1179.  It's extremely unlikely that IC 1179 refers to the southwest galaxy in list VII, as Swift described NGC 6050 as "eeeF" and NGC 6050B is much fainter and he makes no mention of the nebula being double!

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NGC 6051 = UGC 10178 = MCG +04-38-021 = CGCG 137-030 = AWM 4-1 = PGC 57006

16 04 56.6 +23 55 57

V = 13.1;  Size 1.3'x0.9';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 165d

 

24" (7/23/14): fairly faint to moderately bright, fairly small, elongated 4:3 N-S, 0.6'x0.45', weak concentration.  A mag 11.2 star is 0.7' SSE of center and a mag 16.7 star is 0.7' W of center. Brightest in a faint compact cluster (AWM 4) with 5 members within 3'!

 

IC 4588 = PGC 57025 lies 2' SE and is very faint (B = 16.3), round, 10" diameter.  PGC 57003, 2.9' NNW, is very faint (B = 16.4), round, 12" diameter.  PGC 57010, 2' N, is extremely faint (B = 16.9), round, 10" diameter.  PGC 57014, 2.3' NNE, is very faint (B = 16.2), elongated 3:1 WNW-ESE, 25"x8".  PGC 140564, 1.2' WNW, is extremely difficult (B = 17.3), slightly elongated NW-SE, 12"x8".

 

17.5" (6/15/91): faint, fairly small, elongated 3:2 NNW-SSE, weak concentration.  A mag 11 star is just off the SSE edge 44" from center.

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 6051 = St XII-79 on 20 Jun 1881.  His micrometric position is very accurate.

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NGC 6052 = Arp 209 = VV 86a/b = NGC 6064 = UGC 10182 = MCG +04-38-022 = CGCG 137-032 = Mrk 297 = LGG 403-008 = PGC 57039

16 05 13.2 +20 32 33

V = 13.0;  Size 0.9'x0.7';  Surf Br = 12.4;  PA = 171d

 

48" (4/5/13): the main glow of this disrupted system or merger appeared fairly bright, fairly small, slightly elongated, irregular or mottled.  The glow brightens along the eastern side and very thin, faint extensions protrude along the eastern side to the north and south (more prominent on the south end).  The appearance is similar to an edge-on galaxy attached to the larger, mottled western component.

 

48" (5/15/12): at 488x, the disrupted system NGC 6052 = Arp 209 had a very strange appearance.  Attached on the southeast side is a faint, elongated glow, ~22"x6", extending out from the main portion of the system and giving the strong impression that an edge-on galaxy was involved in this merger.  Also on the northeast side, a fainter and broader extension or plume was visible oriented N-S.  Although these two features seemed detached, they may be part of the same partially merged galaxy.  To the west of these extended features is the most prominent region or core of the galaxy, which appeared bright, irregular round and mottled.  The halo was very irregular in shape and brightness, particularly on the west side which had a mottled, tattered appearance.

 

24" (7/23/14): using 375x, moderately bright, fairly small, elongated 3:2 N-S, ~25"x18".  Contains an extremely small nucleus that appears offset to the north side.  The eastern component is merged, except for a small, thin extension that juts out to the south on the southeastern side.  A mag 15 star lies 0.8' W.

 

24" (6/28/14): at 375x, appeared fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 3:2 N-S, 30"x20", contains a quasi-stellar nucleus and mottled core that is slightly displaced to the north side.  The two components were not clearly resolved.

 

18" (7/12/10): fairly faint, fairly small, very elongated 3:1 N-S, 0.9'x0.3', fairly even surface brightness except at 285x and 335x there was a very faint, slightly brighter "bulge" or knot on the west side (VV 86a) in the direction of a faint star 45" W.  On the SDSS, this is a highly disrupted system with jets or knots of material appearing to shoot out on the west side.

 

17.5": fairly faint, fairly small, oval ~N-S, bright core.  Appears asymmetric as the galaxy is brighter on the west side. The POSS reveals this is an attached contact system (Arp 209).  A mag 14.5 star is 1' W.

 

13.1" (7/5/83): faint, small, round, even surface brightness.  In line with two mag 12/13 stars equally spaced.

 

8" (7/5/83): extremely faint, very small, at visual threshold.

 

Albert Marth found NGC 6052 = m302 on 2 Jul 1864 and recorded "F, about 1' diameter, irr R, ??III. 140 [NGC 6064]."

 

WH discovered H III-140 = NGC 6064 on 11 Jun 1784 (sweep 225), but his position was 1 min 47 sec of RA too large, so Marth was uncertain if H. III-140 was the same nebula.  Dreyer concluded in his 1912 "Scientific Papers of William Herschel" that this number "is no doubt = NGC 6052 (Marth 302).  H did not observe the neb in the centre of the field but applies a correction of -0.7m, which appears to have been too small."

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NGC 6053 = NGC 6057 = MCG +03-41-106 = CGCG 108-130 = PGC 57090

16 05 32.5 +18 09 34

V = 13.7;  Size 1.0'x0.6';  Surf Br = 13.0

 

See observing notes for NGC 6057.  RNGC misidentifies CGCG 108-129 as NGC 6053.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 6053  = Sw III-86, along with NGC 6055, on 8 Jun 1886 and recorded "eeeF, S, R, ee diff; 1st of 4".  His position is 8 sec of RA west and 1.5' south of UGC 10191, but is a close match with his offset of NGC 6055 from CGCG 108-130.  Swift likely discovered NGC 6053 just 2 nights earlier, and it was also catalogued as NGC 6057.  So, NGC 6053 = NGC 6057 = UGC 10191.  See notes on NGC 6057.

 

Most modern catalogues ignore the number NGC 6053, assigning NGC 6055 to UGC 10191 and NGC 6057 to CGCG 108-130.  RNGC misidentifies CGCG 108-129 as NGC 6053.  This galaxy is roughly 6' south of the pair.

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NGC 6054 = IC 1183 = MCG +03-41-103 = CGCG 108-128 = PGC 57086

16 05 38.1 +17 46 04

V = 14.5;  Size 0.8'x0.4';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 70d

 

48" (5/15/12): fairly faint to moderately bright, small, oval 4:3 WSW-ENE, 20"x15".  Located 1.0' NE of a mag 12.6 star with a mag 16 star 1' S.  Brighter IC 1182 lies 2.1' NNW, fainter PGC 1541356 is 40" NE and MCG +03-41-099 (often identified as NGC 6054) is 1.8' W.  NGC 6054 is identified as IC 1183 in most sources

 

17.5" (5/13/88): very faint, very small, slightly elongated.  Located 1.0' NE of a mag 12.5 star. An extremely faint galaxy (MCG +03-41-099) is 1.5' W with IC 1182 2.1' NNW.  Member of AGC 2151.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 6054 = Sw IV-27 on 27 Jun 1886, along with several other members of the Hercules Galaxy Cluster.  His description reads "eeeF; pS; lE; f * v nr sp; 9th of 10."   His position is 13 seconds west of CGCG 108-128 = PGC 57073 (similar offset as NGC 6043, 6045, 6047, 6050) and his comment "faint star very near south-preceding" applies (the star is 1' southwest).

 

His position, though, happens to fall closer to fainter CGCG 108-121, and MCG, PGC and RNGC misidentify CGCG 108-121 as NGC 6054. But if this was the case, the star would be southeast and he would have picked up brighter CGCG 108-121 in any case.  NGC 6054 was independently found and measured by Bigourdan on 1 Jun 1888 and again by Stephane Javelle on 11 Aug 1892.  Dreyer combined these two observations as IC 1183.  So, NGC 6054 = IC 1183 = PGC 57073.

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NGC 6055 = MCG +03-41-106 = CGCG 108-130 = PGC 57090

16 05 39.6 +18 09 52

V = 14.7;  Size 0.6'x0.6';  Surf Br = 13.4

 

18" (7/13/07): very faint, very small, round, 15" diameter, very small or stellar nucleus.  Forms a pair with brighter NGC 6057 just 1.7' WSW in the northern part of the Hercules Galaxy Cluster.

 

17.5" (6/14/96): extremely faint, very small, round, 20" diameter, low even surface brightness.  Situated in the northeast portion of AGC 2151 1.7' ENE of brighter NGC 6057.  Several faint galaxies lie northeast.

 

17.5" (5/28/89): extremely faint and small, round.  Forms a close pair with NGC 6057 1.7' WSW in the northern region of AGC 2151.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 6055 = Sw II-87 on 8 Jun 1886 and logged "eeeF; S; R; ee diff; 2nd of 4 [with N6053, N6056 and N6057].  Although his description is not of much help, his position is 5 seconds of time east of NGC 6053, also discovered the same night.  Assuming NGC 6053 refers to UGC 10191, this implies NGC 6055 = CGCG 108-130.  This contradicts modern sources, which apply NGC 6055 to UGC 10191 and NGC 6057 to CGCG 108-130.  It also places NGC 6057 and NGC 6053 out of order in RA, but agrees with the historical record.  See notes on NGC 6057 for more on these numbers.

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NGC 6056 = MCG +03-41-100 = CGCG 108-122 = IC 1176: = PGC 57075

16 05 31.3 +17 57 49

V = 13.9;  Size 0.9'x0.5';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 56d

 

18" (7/13/07): faint, small, round, 25" diameter, broad and very weak concentration.

 

17.5" (5/13/88): faint, small, round, broad concentration.  Forms a pair with MCG +03-41-096 3' SSW.  This is one of the brighter galaxies in AGC 2151.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 6056 = Sw III-88 on 8 Jun 1886 and recorded "eeeF; pS; R; ee diff; 3rd of 4 [with NGC 6053, 6055 and 6061 in the Hercules Cluster].  His position is 1.5' south of CGCG 108-122 = PGC 57075.  Swift "discovered" this galaxy again exactly two years later and recorded Sw VII-69 = IC 1176 as "eeF; pS; iR; pB star near south."  The positions for Swift's two observations are nearly identical and his description of VII-69 clearly applies to CGCG 108-122.  So, NGC 6056 = IC 1176.

 

CGCG and MCG label this galaxy as IC 1176, though the NGC designation should apply by prior discovery.

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NGC 6057 = NGC 6053 = UGC 10191 = MCG +03-41-101 = CGCG 108-123 = PGC 57076

16 05 32.6 +18 09 34

V = 13.8;  Size 1.0'x0.6';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 40d

 

18" (7/13/07): faint, small, irregularly round, 30"x25".  Brighter of a pair with NGC 6055 1.7' ENE in the northeast section of the Hercules Galaxy Cluster.

 

17.5" (6/14/96): very faint, small, elongated 3:2 SW-NE, 45"x30".  Situated in the NE corner of AGC 2151 with NGC 6055 1.7' ENE, IC 1189 7' ENE, MCG +03-41-115 6' ENE, UGC 10195 6' NE and NGC 6061 12' NE.

 

17.5" (5/28/89): very faint, very small, almost round, weak concentration, faint stellar nucleus.  A mag 15 star is 40" WSW.  Forms a pair with NGC 6055 1.7' ENE in AGC 2151.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 6057 = Sw III-89 on 6 Jun 1886 and recorded "eeeF; eS; R."  His position is 2' south of the pair UGC 10191 and CGCG 108-130.  Two nights later he found Sw III-86 = NGC 6053 and Sw III-87 = NGC 6055 nearby and assumed they were different.  But there are only two reasonably bright galaxies, UGC 10191 and CGCG 108-130, close to his three positions.  Assuming he picked up the brighter of these two galaxies on the first night, then NGC 6057 = UGC 10191.  Two nights later he logged both galaxies and placed them 5 seconds apart in RA (the actual separation is 7 seconds).  This implies NGC 6053 = NGC 6057 = UGC 10191 (observed both nights) and NGC 6055 = CGCG 108-130 (observed only on the 8th of June).  After an email exchange in Nov 2014 with Harold Corwin, he concurs with these identifications.

 

This changes the standard identification in modern catalogues (UGC, MCG, CGCG, RNGC) that NGC 6055 = UGC 10191 and NGC 6057 = CGCG 108-130!  It also places NGC 6057 to the west of NGC 6055, an unfortunate result if we preserve the historical record.

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NGC 6058 = PK 64+48.1 = PN G064.6+48.2

16 04 26.4 +40 40 59

V = 12.9;  Size 24"x21"

 

18" (7/20/06): picked up at 115x as a mag 13-13.5 star surrounded by a small 20" halo.  Adding an OIII filter the halo brightened significantly and increased slightly in size.  Nice view at 225x as the central star and halo are both prominently displayed.  At this magnification, the halo was slightly elongated NNW-SSE, roughly 25"x20" in size.  At 325x, the planetary was beautifully framed within an isosceles triangle that just fits within the high power field of view.  Adding a UHC filter the halo appeared irregular in surface brightness and dimmed around the periphery, perhaps extending to 30".

 

17.5" (5/27/00): fairly bright, fairly small, slightly elongated NNW-SSE, 25"x20".  Contains an easy mag 13.5 central star which stands out well at all powers.  At 380x, the halo appears to brighten surrounding the central star.  Nicely framed within a triangle of mag 9-10 stars.

 

17.5" (5/30/92): fairly bright, small, 20" diameter.  A bright mag 13 central star is easily visible.  Located within a bright isosceles triangle consisting of mag 8.8 SAO 45874 4.8' NW, mag 8.7 SAO 45881 6.3' NE and a mag 10 star 3.5' S. 

 

13.1" (7/5/83): fairly faint, small.  Fairly easy central star at 166x, two stars to the north form an equilateral triangle.  Can take 333x.

 

8" (7/5/83): at 100x, faint, very small, round, even surface brightness.  At 200x, an extremely faint mag 13.5-14 central star is visible surrounded by a small faint halo.  Two mag 9 stars to the north form an rough isosceles triangle.

 

WH discovered NGC 6058 = H III-637 = h1946 on 18 Mar 1787 (sweep 718) and recorded "vF, eS, 300 showed 2 very close stars affected with nebulosity, a very small star in the field with it was perfectly free from that nebulosity."  CH's reduced position is 16 sec of RA too large.  JH made two observations on consecutive sweeps and noted "pB, vS, R, almost stellar or psbM; diam 10"."

 

At Birr Castle, an annular ring was noticed. The observation on 5 Apr 1851 mentions "like [NGC 2392], dark ring plainer seen on p part of neb; vS * n, about 3/4' diam of neb off.  The following part of dark ring a little broader than the preceding part."  Samuel Hunter made a sketch on 9 May 1861 and this was included at the last minute in the 1861 publication.

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NGC 6059

16 06 48 -06 23 36

 

=Not found, Corwin and RNGC.  =**?, Gottlieb.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 6059 = Sw III-91 on 6 May 1886 and recorded "vF; S; R."  There is nothing near his position.  Bigourdan claimed he found NGC 6059 12 seconds of RA after the NGC position (20 Apr 1891 Comptes Rendus), but there is nothing at his position except 3 stars 1.5' north.  Jeff Corder suggested NGC 6059 might apply to the faint double star about 25 seconds further west (and 1' north).  In any case, there are no nearby galaxies Swift might have seen.  See Harold Corwin's identification notes.

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NGC 6060 = UGC 10196 = MCG +04-38-025 = CGCG 137-036 = LGG 403-002 = PGC 57110

16 05 52.0 +21 29 05

V = 13.1;  Size 2.0'x1.1';  Surf Br = 13.8;  PA = 105d

 

17.5": fairly faint, moderately large, elongated WNW-ESE, large brighter core, fainter extensions.

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 6060 = St VII-3 on 22 Jun 1876.  His position is very accurate.

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NGC 6061 = UGC 10199 = MCG +03-41-118 = CGCG 108-145 = PGC 57137

16 06 16.0 +18 15 00

V = 13.7;  Size 1.0'x0.8';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 95d

 

24" (6/14/15): fairly faint to moderately bright, fairly small, round, 36" diameter, very small bright core, stellar nucleus.  Forms the northern vertex of a near perfect rhombus (sides 3') with three mag 10.5-11 stars to the south.  Several galaxies are nearby including IC 1189 4' due south, IC 1191 3' ENE and UGC 10195 6' WSW.

 

18" (7/13/07): fairly faint, fairly small, round, 36" diameter, weak concentration.  Collinear with two mag 10.5-11 stars 2.8' and 6' S.  Two additional mag 10.5 and 11.5 stars form a striking "Y" asterism to the south of NGC 6061.

 

17.5" (6/14/96): faint, small, slightly elongated E-W, 0.8' diameter, very weak concentration.  Forms the north vertex of a near perfect rhombus (of sides 3') with three mag 10-11 stars in the NE corner of AGC 2151.  IC 1189 lies 4.0' S

 

17.5" (5/28/89): faint, small, round, small bright core.  Four bright stars form an upside down "Y" asterism just south including a mag 11 star 2.9' SE and two mag 10 stars 3.1' SW and 2.8' S.  Located in the northern region of AGC 2151 with IC 1190: = UGC 10195 6' WSW.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 6061 = Sw III-90 on 8 Jun 1886 and recorded "eeeF; S; R; ee diff; 4th of 4 [with NGC 6053, 6055 and 6056]; 4 B stars south with the nebula form a cross like cross in Cygnus.  Neb. placed as is Deneb Cygni."  His position is just 4 seconds west of UGC 10199 and his description matches (three brighter stars just south form a parallelogram).

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NGC 6062 = UGC 10202 = MCG +03-41-125 = CGCG 108-148 = Holm 728a = PGC 57145

16 06 22.7 +19 46 40

V = 13.6;  Size 1.2'x0.9';  Surf Br = 13.5;  PA = 10d

 

24" (6/13/15): at 260x; fairly faint to moderately bright, fairly small, oval 4:3 SSW-NNE, ~36"x27", broad weak concentration but no distinct nucleus.  Four brighter stars are in the field including mag 9.8 SAO 101926 4' NW and mag 9.0 HD 144621 5' SW.

 

Forms a close (physical) pair with NGC 6062B = MCG +03-41-122 just 1.2' SW.  At 375x the companion appeared extremely faint, very small, round, 12"-15" diameter, only visible occasionally.  It is situated directly on a line with HD 144621 to the southwest.

 

17.5": fairly faint, fairly small, oval SW-NE, weak concentration, fairly diffuse.

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 6062 = St XIII-84 on 20 Jun 1884.  His position is accurate.  NGC 6062B lies 1.3' southwest.

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NGC 6063 = UGC 10210 = MCG +01-41-012 = CGCG 051-045 = PGC 57205

16 07 13.1 +07 58 44

V = 13.1;  Size 1.7'x0.9';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 159d

 

17.5" (5/13/88): fairly faint, moderately large, diffuse, even surface brightness, elongated NW-SE.  Bracketed by a mag 14 star 1.8' NNE and a mag 14.5 star 2.3' SW.

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 6063 = St XII-80 on 10 Jun 1882.  His micrometric position using the 31-inch silvered glass reflector at Marseille Observatory is very accurate.

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NGC 6064 = NGC 6052 = UGC 10182 = MCG +04-38-022 = CGCG 137-032 = VV 86 = Mrk 297 = Arp 209 = PGC 57039

16 05 13.2 +20 32 33

V = 13.0;  Size 0.9'x0.7';  Surf Br = 12.4;  PA = 171d

 

See observing notes for NGC 6052.

 

WH discovered NGC 6064 = H III-140 on 11 Jun 1784 (sweep 225) and recorded "vF, vS, r, 240 verified it; np a pB star, with another equally B st in the field sp the former; also several eS stars in the field."  There is nothing near his position and III-140 was not found by Bigourdan."  But 1 min 47 sec of RA preceding his position (CH's reduction) is UGC 10182.  Dreyer concludes in his 1912 "Scientific Papers of William Herschel" that this number "is no doubt = NGC 6052 (Marth 302).  H did not observe the neb in the centre of the field but applies a correction of -0.7m, which appears to have been too small."   Karl Reinmuth, Dorothy Carlson and Harold Corwin concur that NGC 6052 = NGC 6064.

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NGC 6065 = MCG +02-41-008 = CGCG 079-051 = PGC 57215

16 07 22.9 +13 53 16

V = 13.8;  Size 0.7'x0.7';  Surf Br = 12.9

 

17.5" (5/13/88): faint, small, slightly elongated, bright core.  Collinear with two unequal double stars due east; an unequal mag 10/14 double at 21" is 2' E and a mag 10/13 double at 29" is 4' E.  Forms a pair with NGC 6066 4.5' NNE.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 6065 = Sw IX-53, along with NGC 6066, on 19 Jun 1887 and recorded "eeF; vS; R; D * follows point to it; sp of 2 [with NGC 6066]."  The discovery was communicated directly to Dreyer (indicated as list VI in the NGC), but not published until 1890 (list IX).  The NGC positions are good but his published declinations for NGC 6065 and 6066 are reversed.  See Harold Corwin's notes for more.

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NGC 6066 = CGCG 079-054 = PGC 57230

16 07 35.3 +13 56 37

V = 14.0;  Size 0.7'x0.6';  Surf Br = 12.9

 

17.5" (5/13/88): faint, small, round, small bright core.  Forms a pair with NGC 6065 4.5' SSW.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 6066 = Sw IX-54, along with NGC 6065, on 19 Jun 1887 and recorded "eeF; vS; R; 2 pB stars near south both double; nf of 2 [with NGC 6065]."  The discovery was communicated directly to Dreyer (indicated as list VI in the NGC), but not published until 1890 (list IX), where he accidentally switched the declinations.

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NGC 6067 = Cr 298 = ESO 178-SC012

16 13 11 -54 13 06

V = 5.6;  Size 13'

 

22" (6/28/06 - Hawaii): this stunning cluster was partially resolved in my 15x50 IS binoculars.  At 110x a few hundred stars were resolved and formed a gorgeous group.  A striking 11" pair (h4835) is in the center with the western star a noticeable orange color.  Just south of the eastern star is a fainter, third close companion and several other pairs are in the vicinity.  The cluster is compressed in the center with a number of curving chains and loops of stars that appear to spiral out into the periphery.  Located 25' N of mag 5 Kappa Normae.

 

18" (7/6/05 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): at 76x (27 Panoptic), this cluster was a stunning sight with a few hundred stars sparkling in a 20' region.  Appears comparable to one the richer Messier clusters.  The cluster is compressed towards the center and thins out in the periphery, blending in with the rich, surrounding Milky Way.  The cluster includes a few striking pairs including a bright mag 8.8/9.4 pair at 10" near in the center that is collinear with a much closer and fainter equal mag pair.  At 228x, the cluster appear much more irregular and most of the stars seem to be arranged in elegant loops and chains that enclose starless holes in the cluster.

 

8" (7/13/91 - Southern Baja): At 83x, in excess of 100 stars mag 8-12 in a 20' diameter.  Very bright, large, very rich, compressed towards the core which includes a striking double star at center (h4835 = 8.8/9.4 at 10").  Many stars arranged in spirals and arcs, rich in faint stars.  The brightest mag 7.8 star is located at the south edge with a mag 8 star off the east edge.  This is a beautiful open cluster in the rich Norma starcloud!

 

James Dunlop discovered NGC 6067 = D 360 = h3619 on 8 May 1826 and described "a pretty large cluster of small stars of mixed magnitudes, about 12' diameter; the stars are considerably congregated towards the centre, extended south preceding and north following."  He made 5 observations of the cluster and his position is unusually accurate.

 

JH made 3 observations: On 9 Jul 1834 he recorded "the chief star in middle of a most superbly rich and large cluster, 20' at least in diameter, as it much more than fills field; not much compressed in the middle, stars 10..12th mag." On a second sweep he called it "place of a near double star in centre of a superb cluster; very large and rich; composed of equal stars 12th mag, a fine object, Much more than fills field."

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NGC 6068 = UGC 10126 = MCG +13-11-019 = CGCG 354-031 = CGCG 355-005 = Holm 727a = PGC 56388

15 55 26.5 +78 59 48

V = 12.8;  Size 1.1'x0.7';  Surf Br = 12.4;  PA = 155d

 

17.5" (5/14/88): moderately bright, moderately large, slightly elongated, small bright core.  Follows a triangle of mag 13-14 stars 0.8' SSW, 1.3' NW and 2.5' WSW.  Forms a close pair with NGC 6068A 2.0' WSW.  The companion appeared faint, small, elongated 2:1 N-S, brighter core.  Can hold steadily with direct vision.  Located along the south side of a small triangle of mag 13-14 stars.

 

WH discovered NGC 6068 = H III-973 on 6 Dec 1801 (sweep 1104) and recorded "vF; S; lE in the meridian [N-S], r."  His position is 2.3' south-southeast of UGC 10126, though he missed NGC 6068A.

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NGC 6069 = MCG +07-33-043 = CGCG 223-042 = PGC 57237

16 07 41.7 +38 55 51

V = 14.2;  Size 0.8'x0.8';  Surf Br = 13.6

 

17.5" (6/24/95): very faint, very small, round.  Shows a weak concentration to a slightly brighter core and faint stellar nucleus.  A mag 14 star is 40" SW of center.  There are two bright stars in the field; mag 8.9 SAO 65098 9' S and mag 7.7 SAO 65093 7' SW.

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 6069 = St XII-81 on 21 Jun 1882.  His position is accurate.

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NGC 6070 = UGC 10230 = MCG +00-41-004 = CGCG 023-017 = LGG 404-001 = Holm 729a = PGC 57345

16 09 58.6 +00 42 32

V = 11.8;  Size 3.5'x1.9';  Surf Br = 13.7;  PA = 62d

 

24" (6/28/14): fairly bright, large, elongated 2:1 SW-NE, 2'x1', contains a large brighter core, fades out around the periphery. A very faint "star" is near the northeast tip is actually a compact HII region labeled as region IV in the 2010 paper "Giant HII regions in NGC 7479 and NGC 6070". Located 8' SE of mag 6.7 HD 145204.

 

NGC 6070 is the brightest in a trio with NGC 6070B = CGCG 023-018 (double) 4.2' NE and NGC 60670C = PGC 1175364 5.6' NE.  NGC 6070B appeared very faint, small, elongated 2:1 ~N-S, low surface brightness.  This is a close double system and the noted elongation implies both systems were visible, but not individually resolved.  NGC 6070C is extremely faint, very small, round, 12" diameter.  The fainter companions are much more distant at ~590 million l.y., compared to NGC 6070 (~100 million l.y.).

 

17.5" (6/11/88): fairly bright, large, oval 2:1 SW-NE, broad moderate concentration.  Brightest of trio with NGC 6070B 4.3' NE and 6070C 5.6' NE.  Located 7.9' SW of mag 7 SAO 121396.

 

13" (6/4/83): fairly large, diffuse, elongated ~E-W, almost even surface brightness.  A mag 7 star is 7' N.

 

WH discovered NGC 6070 = H III-553 = h1947 on 3 May 1786 (sweep 562) and recorded "cF, iF, 4 or 5' long, 2 or 3' br."  His position and description matches UGC 10230.  JH called this galaxy "F; L; pmE; vgbM; 2 1/2' long."

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NGC 6071 = MCG +12-15-047 = CGCG 338-041 = PGC 56767

16 02 06.9 +70 25 01

V = 14.0;  Size 0.9'x0.9';  Surf Br = 13.7

 

17.5" (3/28/87): faint, small, round, weak concentration.  Forms a pair with CGCG 338-039 4' SW.  Located 13' SE of NGC 6071.  A bright unequal double star 0··143 = 6.7/9.3 at 47" lies 17' SE.  This galaxy was identified as NGC 6071 by Harold Corwin, but is not identified as NGC 6071 in any other catalogue except NED.  (R)NGC 6071 = UGC 10157 lies 13' NW.

 

17.5" (4/18/87): faint, small, round, brighter core.

 

WH discovered NGC 6071 = H III-883 on 6 May 1791 (sweep 1005) and noted "eF, vS, 300 verified it."   CH's reduced  position is 1 tmin east and 1.5' south of CGCG 338-041 = PGC 56767 and Harold Corwin identifies this galaxy with NGC 6071.  Corwin also notes that his relative position from NGC 6079 (the next object in the sweep) points to PGC 56767.

 

UGC and PGC misidentify UGC 10157 as NGC 6071.

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NGC 6072 = PK 342+10.1 = PN G342.1+10.8 = ESO 389-PN15 = Hb 3

16 12 58.1 -36 13 48

V = 11.3;  Size 70"

 

18" (7/22/06): viewed unfiltered at 225x, 325x and 435x as a moderately bright, round, 1' disc of irregular surface brightness.  The disc appears mottled with slightly darker and brighter regions though I couldn't say there was a definite annularity.  Inside the rim there appeared to be a darker zone or darker patches that did not extend, though, all the way to the center.  In fact, the very center appeared to brighten very slightly.

 

17.5" (6/30/00): at 280x using a UHC filter this southerly PN appeared fairly bright, round, 60" diameter.  The surface brightness was uneven with an irregularly brighter rim and a slightly darker center.

 

13" (4/10/86): moderately bright and large, roundish, 1.0' diameter, fairly prominent with a UHC filter at 166x.  No structure at 332x although this planetary is far south for viewing from northern California.

 

8" (6/19/82): faint, fairly small, round.

 

JH discovered NGC 6072 = h3620 on 7 Jun 1837 and recorded "pF; R; vgvlbM; 60"; with left eye slightly mottled; but not resolved."

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NGC 6073 = UGC 10235 = MCG +03-41-139 = CGCG 108-160 = Holm 731a = LGG 43-011 = PGC 57353

16 10 10.8 +16 41 58

V = 13.5;  Size 1.3'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 130d

 

17.5": faint, fairly small, oval NW-SE, broad weak concentration and has a fairly even surface brightness overall.

 

WH discovered NGC 6073 = H III-74 = h1948 on 21 Mar 1784 (sweep 183) and noted "vF, S, r.  Pointed out by 157 and verified at 240."  CH's reduced position is 2' north-northeast of UGC 10235.

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NGC 6074 = MCG +02-41-015/016 = CGCG 079-075 = PGC 57418/57419

16 11 17.2 +14 15 32

V = 14.3;  Size 0.2'x0.2';  Surf Br = 10.7

 

24" (7/24/14): this contact pair was nearly tangent at 260x and barely resolved at 375x.  The brighter component, MCG +02-41-016, is on the north end and appeared faint, very small, round, 12" diameter.  The fainter component, MCG +02-41-016, is attached at the south-southwest end (just 15" between centers!) and was very faint, round, 9" diameter.  Located 1.0' ENE of a mag 11.9 star.  NGC 6078, another close double system, lies 12' ESE.

 

2MFGC 13014, located 3.7' NE, appeared extremely faint, small, elongated 2:1 N-S, 15"x8".  At B = 17.3, it required averted vision to glimpse.

 

17.5": very faint, very small, round.  A mag 12 star is 1.0' WSW.  An extremely faint anonymous companion is at south end 15" from the center.  NGC 6078 lies 12' ESE.

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 6074 = St VII-3 on 21 Jun 1874.  His position is an exact match with the northern component of this double system.

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NGC 6075 = MCG +04-38-038 = VV 380 = CGCG 137-055 = PGC 57426

16 11 22.6 +23 57 53

V = 14.2;  Size 0.9'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.5

 

17.5": faint, very small, broad concentration, faint stellar nucleus.  Located 8' N of mag 8.8 SAO 84237.

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 6075 = St XII-82 on 27 Jun 1881.  His position is accurate.  Stephane Javelle found the galaxy again on 20 Jul 1903, but he used the wrong sign on the declination offset and assumed J. III-1393 = IC 4594 was new.  So, NGC 6075 = IC 4594.

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NGC 6076 = UGC 10253 = MCG +05-38-023 = CGCG 167-034 = PGC 57409

16 11 13.3 +26 52 21

V = 14.4;  Size 1.0'x0.5';  Surf Br = 13.5;  PA = 63d

 

24" (6/14/15): at 225x; this double system appeared faint to fairly faint, elongated 2:1 WSW-ENE, 24"x12".  At 375x, the elongated glow occasionally resolved into two extremely small nuclei within a common halo.  The fainter eastern component (NGC 6076 NED2) is listed in HyperLeda as PGC 200331.  Located just 1.7' SE of mag 7.5 HD 145676.  Slightly brighter NGC 6077 lies 3' N.

 

17.5" (7/15/93): very faint, very small, round.  Forms a pair with NGC 6077 3.5' N.  Located 2' SE of mag 7.3 SAO 84233.  A mag 14 star is 45" NE.  This double system was not resolved.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 6076 = m 303, along with NGC 6077, on 24 Jun 1864 and noted "vF, S, E."  His position is accurate.

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NGC 6077 = UGC 10254 = MCG +05-38-024 = CGCG 167-035 = PGC 57408

16 11 14.1 +26 55 24

V = 13.3;  Size 1.2'x1.1';  Surf Br = 13.5

 

24" (6/14/15): slightly brighter of a pair with NGC 6076 (double system) 3.0' S.  At 260x it appeared fairly faint, fairly small, round, 24" diameter, small bright core increases to the center.  The pair of galaxies flank mag 7.5 HD 145676 with NGC 6077 2.3' NE of the bright star.

 

17.5" (7/15/93): brighter of a pair with NGC 6076 3.5' S.  Faint, small, round, broad concentration.  Located 2.5' NE of a mag 7.3 star.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 6077 = m 304, along with NGC 6076, on 24 Jun 1864 and noted "F, sbM."  His position is accurate.

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NGC 6078 = MCG +02-41-017 = CGCG 079-076 = PGC 57460

16 12 05.4 +14 12 32

V = 13.6;  Size 0.9'x0.9'

 

24" (7/24/14): moderately bright, fairly small, round, 30" diameter, increases to a very small bright core and down to a stellar nucleus.  This is dominant component of a very close pair with MCG +02-41-018 attached to the south-southeast side, just 25" between centers!  The companion appeared faint, very small, round, 12" diameter, occasional stellar nucleus.  The pair was just resolved at 260x.  NGC 6074, another double system, lies 12' WNW.

 

17.5": fairly faint, small, round, small bright core, substellar nucleus.  Two mag 14-15 stars are 1.1' WNW and 1.3' NNW of center.  Located 5.9' SE of mag 9.3 SAO 101996.  NGC 6074 is 12' WNW.

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 6078 = St VII-5 on 21 Jun 1876.  His micrometric position using the 31-inch silvered glass reflector at Marseille Observatory is very accurate.

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NGC 6079 = IC 1200 = UGC 10206 = MCG +12-15-050 = CGCG 338-043 = PGC 56946

16 04 29.0 +69 40 05

V = 12.7;  Size 1.4'x1.0';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 150d

 

17.5" (3/28/87): fairly faint, small, slightly elongated, brighter core.  A mag 14 star is 1.1' SSE.  Forms a pair with IC 1201 7.7' SE.

 

WH discovered NGC 6079 = H III-884 on 6 May 1791 (sweep 1005) and noted "vvF, vS, 300 verified it very plainly, and showed it of a considerable size."  His position is 1 min of RA east and 2' south of UGC 10206 (similar offset as H. III 883 = NGC 6071, the previous object in the sweep).  Bigourdan measured an accurate position on 18 Jul 1884 (repeated in the IC 2 notes).

 

Lewis Swift independently found the galaxy on 2 Aug 1888 (and discovered IC 1201 to the southeast) and recorded it in list VII-77 = IC 1200.  His position is a close match with NGC 6079, as well as his relative offset from IC 1201.  Dreyer must have felt Sw VII-77 was a new object because of the discrepancy in position for III-884, so recatalogued it as IC 1200.

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NGC 6080 = UGC 10268 = MCG +00-41-007 = CGCG 023-023 = PGC 57509

16 12 58.6 +02 10 38

V = 12.9;  Size 1.1'x0.8';  Surf Br = 12.6;  PA = 90d

 

24" (6/12/15): at 225x and 375x; fairly faint to moderately bright, small, slightly elongated, ~24"x18", very small bright nucleus.  Forms a very close double system with PGC 93131 at the northeast edge of the halo, just 18" between centers!  The physical companion (identified in NED as NGC 6080 NED02) appeared very faint to faint, extremely small, quasi-stellar (~6" diameter)

 

17.5" (6/11/88): fairly faint, small, slightly elongated, stellar nucleus.  Forms a double system with a faint companion (PGC 93131) attached at the north end.  PGC 93131 is extremely faint and small, appears as a mag 15-15.5 "star" attached at the northeast end of NGC 6080.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 6080 = Sw VI-87 on 30 Mar 1887 and recorded "pB; pS; R; mbM."  His position is 6 seconds west of UGC 10268.  Herbert Howe, observing with the 20-inch refractor in Denver in 1900, commented "this is accompanied by a star of mag 12.5, 20" distant at 45¡, which appeared to be nebulous."  The "star" is actually the compact companion PGC 93131.

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NGC 6081 = UGC 10272 = MCG +02-41-019 = CGCG 079-078 = IC 1202 = PGC 57506

16 12 56.8 +09 52 02

V = 13.1;  Size 1.8'x0.6';  Surf Br = 13.0;  PA = 131d

 

17.5": faint, fairly small, very elongated WNW-ESE, small brighter core, very faint extensions.

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 6081 = St II-1 on 26 Jul 1870.  His micrometric position using the 31-inch silvered glass reflector at Marseilles Observatory is an exact match with UGC 10272.  Lewis Swift found the galaxy again on 7 Apr 1888, assumed it was new and included it as Sw VII-79.  Dreyer missed the equivalence and recatalogued the galaxy as IC 1202. So, NGC 6081 = IC 1202.  Rudolph Spitaler also observed this galaxy (AN 2993).

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NGC 6082 = ESO 390-?1 = IC 4597??

16 15 36 -34 15

 

=IC 4597??, Corwin.  =NF, Dreyer and ESO.  =**?, Gottlieb.

 

JH discovered NGC 6082 = h3621 on 7 Jun 1837 and recorded "eF, E, lbM, 25."  There is nothing at this position and Frost reported it was not found on a plate of 4 hours exposure.  A close pair of mag 15 stars at 6" separation is 1' north of JH's position and another small group is 1' further west. Harold Corwin suggests NGC 6082 may be identical to IC 4597, though that would require a 2 minute error in RA as well as a 7' error in declination.

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NGC 6083 = MCG +02-41-020 = CGCG 079-080 = PGC 57520

16 13 12.6 +14 11 07

V = 14.2;  Size 0.7'x0.5';  Surf Br = 12.9

 

17.5": extremely faint, very small, round.  Surrounded by a triangle consisting of three mag 13-14 stars located 1.5' NNW, 2.4' WSW and 1.5' SE.

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 6083 = St VII-6 on 21 Jun 1876.  His position is accurate.

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NGC 6084 = UGC 10291 = MCG +03-41-143 = CGCG 108-168 = PGC 57575

16 14 16.6 +17 48 27

V = 13.9;  Size 1.0'x0.5';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 30d

 

17.5": very faint, very small, slightly elongated SW-NE, small faint nucleus.  A mag 14 star is 39" WNW of center.  Located just 1.9' NE of a mag 10 star.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 6084 = Sw III-92 on 6 Jun 1886 and logged "eeeF, pS, R, eee diff."  There is nothing at his position, but 1.1 minutes east is UGC 10291 (same declination), the only nearby candidate.  Assuming this is Swift's object, it's odd he didn't mention the bright mag 10 star close southwest.

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NGC 6085 = UGC 10269 = MCG +05-38-034 = CGCG 167-044 = PGC 57486

16 12 35.2 +29 21 54

V = 13.0;  Size 1.5'x1.2';  Surf Br = 13.6;  PA = 165d

 

18" (7/28/03): fairly faint, moderately large, roundish, ~0.9' diameter, well concentrated with a suddenly brighter 20" core.  The halo appears elongated or irregular at times, but the orientation is difficult to pin down.  Located 1.9' W of a mag 11 star.  This galaxy is the second brightest of 9 galaxies viewed in AGC 2162 and similar NGC 6086 is located 7' N.

 

17.5" (5/30/92): faint, very small, elongated 3:2 NNW-SSE, almost even surface brightness.  Forms a similar pair with NGC 6086 7.2' N.  These are the two brightest members of AGC 2162.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 6085 = m 305 on 2 Jul 1864 and noted "F, S."  His position is 1' north of UGC 10269.

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NGC 6086 = UGC 10270 = MCG +05-38-035 = CGCG 167-045 = PGC 57482

16 12 35.5 +29 29 05

V = 12.8;  Size 1.7'x1.2';  Surf Br = 13.5;  PA = 0d

 

18" (7/28/03): fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 3:2 N-S, 0.8'x0.5', sharply concentrated with a very small bright core.  A mag 12.5 star is just off the NW edge, 40" from center.  This galaxy is the brightest of 9 galaxies viewed in AGC 2162 with NGC 6085 7' S slightly fainter.  Forms the north vertex of a right triangle with two mag 10.5 stars 3' SW and 3' S.

 

17.5" (5/30/92): faint, very small, slightly elongated N-S, very small bright core, stellar nucleus.  A mag 12 star is just off the NW edge 0.7' from center.  Located within a group of several fairly bright stars including three mag 10 stars, the closest being 2.8' SW.  Forms a pair with NGC 6085 7.2' S and these two galaxies are the brightest members of the AGC 2162 cluster.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 6086 = m 306 on 24 Jun 1864 and noted "F, vS, with stellar nucleus."  His position is accurate.

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NGC 6087 = Cr 300 = Mel 141 = Lund 693

16 18 51 -57 56 06

V = 5.4;  Size 12'

 

8" (7/13/91 - Southern Baja): about three dozen stars mag 7-11 visible at 63x.  Very bright, large, ~15' diameter.  Contains several bright stars including mag 6.7 south Normae (varies from 6.1-6.8 over 10 days) and three mag 8-9 stars just south.  Many stars form an arrowhead outline with vertex at the north end.  Also a bright string of stars is off the SW end of the arrowhead aligned N-S.  Impressive although no dense spots.

 

James Dunlop discovered NGC 6087 = D 335 = h3622 on 8 May 1826 and described "a group of very small stars of an irregular branched figure, 15' or 20' diameter. The central part is very thin of stars."  Dunlop's position was 8' southeast of the center of the cluster.

 

JH credited Dunlop with the discovery and made two observations: on 22 Apr 1835 he logged "Cluster VIII class, large, loose, brilliant, irregular figure, fills field, chief star about 7th mag taken." On a second sweep he called it "Cluster VIII; large, coarse, bright, fills field, stars 7, 8, 9, 10th mag; a star about 7th mag taken."

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NGC 6088 = MCG +10-23-029/030 = CGCG 298-013 = Holm 732a/b = PGC 57383

16 10 42.6 +57 27 59

V = 14.0;  Size 0.7'x0.3';  PA = 138d

 

24" (6/28/14): at 375x appeared faint, fairly small, elongated 5:3 NW-SE, ~25"x15", weak concentration with no defined core or nucleus.  Forms a very close double with MCG +10-23-030 = PGC 57384 at the southeast edge [22" between centers].  The companion was seen as an extremely faint glow, very small, ~12" diameter.  In moments of good seeing, it was barely detached from NGC 6088.  The two components form a physical pair at roughly 245 million l.y.

 

17.5" (6/15/91): very faint, small, elongated 2:1 NW-SE, weak concentration.  Located 6.6' E of mag 8.6 SAO 29827.  This is a double system on the POSS, although in the observation the two components were not individually resolved.

 

WH discovered NGC 6088 = H III-812 on 24 Apr 1789 (sweep 928) and noted "vF, vS, lE."  His RA (CH's reduction) is 30 sec preceding MCG +10-23-029/030 = PGC 57383.  Bigourdan measured an accurate position on 27 Apr 1886 (repeated in the IC 2 Notes).

 

This double system (oriented northwest-southeast) is listed in the RNGC as NGC 6088A and 6088B and the MCG also has two entries.

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NGC 6089 = MCG +06-36-001 = CGCG 196-091 = PGC 57491

16 12 40.5 +33 02 10

V = 14.0;  Size 0.7'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.1

 

17.5" (6/24/95): faint, round, 40" diameter, weak even concentration to a slightly brighter core and a faint stellar nucleus.  A mag 13 star is 1.7' SW of center.  Located 7' ESE of mag 9 SAO 65135.

 

WH discovered NGC 6089 = H III-889 = h1949 on 28 May 1791 (sweep 1014) and recorded "vF; S; R; vglbM."  JH made the single observation "vF; S; R: bM" and measured an accurate position.

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NGC 6090 = UGC 10267 = VV 626 = MCG +09-26-064 = CGCG 275-029 = CGCG 276-002 = Mrk 496 = I Zw 135 = WBL 610-003 = PGC 57437

16 11 40.5 +52 27 24

V = 13.8;  Size 1.5'x0.6';  Surf Br = 12.8

 

24" (7/9/13): at 280x appeared moderately bright, fairly small, oval 4:3 SSW-NNE, 24"x18", high surface brightness.  Inspection of the SDSS reveals a close double nucleus of a merged pair with very low surface brightness plumes extending SW and NE.

 

Last and brightest in a trio = WBL 610 with CGCG 275-28 3' W and UGC 10261 6' W.  CGCG 275-28 was fairly faint, small, round, very small brighter nucleus, 15" diameter and UGC 10261 appeared fairly faint, moderately large, oval 4:3 NNW-SSE, 40"x30", weak concentration.

 

17.5" (6/15/91): faint, very small, elongated 4:3 SW-NE, even surface brightness.  Forms a pair with CGCG 275-028 3' W.  Also nearby is UGC 10261 6' W which was not recorded.  This is a close double system, though was not resolved.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 6090 = Sw IX-56 on 24 Jun 1887 and recorded "vF; S; R."  His position is 8 seconds west of UGC 10267, though he missed the two companions to the west.   This galaxy, itself, is a merged, interacting system with tidal tails, etc. similar to the Antenna Galaxies.

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NGC 6091 = MCG +12-15-054 = CGCG 338-047 = PGC 57242

16 07 52.9 +69 54 17

V = 13.7;  Size 0.4'x0.3'

 

24" (6/14/15): fairly faint, fairly small, irregularly round, very small bright core, 25" diameter.  A mag 12 star is 1.4' NNW.  IC 1204 lies 3.6' WNW.

 

17.5" (4/18/87): faint, small, round, weak concentration.

 

Edward Swift, Lewis' 14 year-old son, discovered NGC 6091= Sw II-39 on 8 Jul 1885 and noted "vF; vS; R; * nr north."  Their position matches MCG +12-15-054, though MCG fails to label this galaxy as NGC 6091. Lewis Swift credited his son with the discovery in the errata to list VI.

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NGC 6092

16 14 04.6 +28 07 32

 

=**, Harold Corwin.  =NF, Malcolm Thomson  =UGC 10275, RNGC and RC3

 

Guillaume Bigourdan discovered NGC 6092 = Big. 77 on 11 May 1885.  At his Comptes Rendus position is a 10" double star with a third wide companion. Harold Corwin identifies NGC 6092 with this double star.

 

RNGC misidentifies UGC 10275 as NGC 6092.  This galaxy is 1.2 min west and 8' south of Bigourdan's position.

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NGC 6093 = M80 = ESO 516-SC11

16 17 02.5 -22 58 30

V = 7.3;  Size 8.9'

 

18" (7/24/06): at 325x appears bright, fairly large, round, pretty symmetrical appearance, contains a blazing 1.5' core in a 5' to 6' halo.  At 435x the halo and the periphery of the core are well resolved into roughly 100 stars and additional extremely faint stars pop in and out of visibility.  The core itself is overlayed with a number of faint stars.  Beautiful view at 565x as the cluster nearly fills the 7' field with stars from edge to edge with 100-150 stars and the core region is well resolved.  The cluster appears asymmetric with the halo more extensive to the west (core offset to the east).

 

17.5" (6/3/00): fairly bright, round, 5' diameter, well concentrated with a bright 1.5' core and an intense 30" nucleus.  At 500x, the nucleus is clearly offset east of center and the outer halo is well resolved into at least 75 stars.  A dim galaxy, IC 4596, lies 25' NW.

 

13" (7/5/83): contains a small intense unresolved core surrounded by fairly compact halo 5' diameter.  The nucleus is offset to the east within the halo.  The outer shell resolves into a few dozen faint stars over haze.

 

8": a few faint stars resolved at moderate to high power at edges, very grainy, difficult to resolve.

 

Charles Messier discovered M80 = NGC 6093 = h3624 on 4 Jan 1781. On 21 May 1784 (sweep 222), WH reported "a large cluster of exceedingly small and compressed stars, about 6 or 7' in dia; a great many of the stars are visible, the rest so small as to appear nebulous; those that are visible are of one size and are scattered all over equally.  The cluster is of an iR form."  On 24 May 1835 (sweep 588), JH logged "Glob. Cl.; v m comp M; psvmbM; diam 12.0'; st = 14 m; all resolved. Fine object."

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NGC 6094 = UGC 10228 = MCG +12-15-052 = CGCG 338-045 = PGC 57167

16 06 33.9 +72 29 40

V = 13.2;  Size 1.8'x1.4';  Surf Br = 14.1;  PA = 120d

 

17.5" (5/14/88): faint, very small, round, bright core.

 

WH discovered NGC 6094 = H III-314 on 16 Mar 1785 (sweep 389) and recorded "eF, vS, lE, may be only a patch of a few eF small stars."  His position is 8' southeast of UGC 10228, the only nearby galaxy.  Bigourdan measured an accurate position on 1 May 1886 (repeated in the IC 2 Notes).

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NGC 6095 = UGC 10265 = MCG +10-23-033 = CGCG 298-014 = PGC 57411

16 11 11.2 +61 16 04

V = 12.6;  Size 1.8'x1.6';  Surf Br = 13.6

 

17.5" (6/15/91): faint, fairly small, round, fairly weak even concentration down to a small bright core, faint stellar nucleus.  Very symmetrical appearance.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 6095 = Sw III-95 on 27 May 1886 and recorded "eF; pS; R; in line with 2 stars.  His position is 13 seconds west and 1.8' south of UGC 10265 and the two stars in line are equally spaced to the east.

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NGC 6096 = MCG +05-38-044 = CGCG 167-057 = Holm 735a = PGC 57598

16 14 46.7 +26 33 32

V = 14.2;  Size 0.9'x0.5';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 122d

 

17.5" (7/24/95): very faint, very small, round, 20" diameter, very weak even concentration with a slightly brighter core.  Located 2.1' NE of mag 9.4 SAO 84259.  A mag 15 star is 1' SW midway between the mag 9 star and the galaxy.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 6096 = m 307 on 24 Jun 1864 and noted "vF, vS, R, bM."  His position is accurate.

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NGC 6097 = MCG +06-36-007 = CGCG 196-011 = PGC 57583

16 14 26.2 +35 06 33

V = 13.8;  Size 1.1'x0.6';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 156d

 

17.5" (6/27/87): faint, very small, round, small brighter core.  Located 13.6' ESE of mag 7.5 SAO 65158 in Zwicky Cluster 1615.8+3505.

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 6097 = St XI-42 on 7 Jun 1880.  His micrometric position using the 31-inch silvered glass reflector at Marseille Observatory is very accurate.

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NGC 6098 = VV 192b = MCG +03-41-145 = CGCG 108-170 = PGC 57634

16 15 34.2 +19 27 42

V = 12.2;  Size 1.3'x1.3';  Surf Br = 12.6

 

17.5": faint, very small, slightly elongated, stellar nucleus.  Located 10.2' WSW of mag 7.7 SAO 102051.  Forms a close double system with NGC 6099 off the SE edge 36" between centers.

 

Truman Safford discovered NGC 6098 = Sf 76 = Sw VI-88, along with NGC 6099, on 24 Apr 1867.  In his 1887 list (too late to be included in the main NGC table) Safford described a "double nebula, pretty faint, dist 40"."  His position is off the southeast side of this close pair.  Lewis Swift found the pair again on 3 Apr 1887 and recorded "eF; vS; R; B * f 41s and is n of it; F * f 16s; np of 2 [with NGC 6099]."  Swift is credited with the discovery in the NGC.

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NGC 6099 = VV 192a = UGC 10299se = MCG +03-41-146 = CGCG 108-170 = PGC 57640

16 15 35.5 +19 27 11

V = 12.4;  Size 1.1'x1.1';  Surf Br = 12.5

 

17.5": faint, very small, slightly elongated NW-SE, stellar nucleus.  Forms a very close double system with similar NGC 6098 off the NW edge and just 36" separation!

 

Truman Safford discovered NGC 6098 = Sf 76, along with NGC 6098, on 24 Apr 1867.  In his 1887 list (too late to be included in the main NGC table) Safford described a "double nebula, pretty faint, dist 40"."  His position is off the southeast side of this close pair.  Lewis Swift found the pair again on   3 Apr 1887 and described Sw VI-89 as "eF; vS; R; forms D neb with above."  Swift is credited with the discovery in the NGC.

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NGC 6100 = UGC 10307 = MCG +00-41-012 = CGCG 023-032 = PGC 57706

16 16 52.5 +00 50 27

V = 13.0;  Size 1.9'x1.1';  Surf Br = 13.7;  PA = 120d

 

17.5" (6/11/88): faint, very small, slightly elongated NW-SE, stellar nucleus.  A mag 15 star is at the east end.  A wide unequal double star is 1.5' NW consisting of a mag 9.5/13 pair at 30" separation.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 6100 = Sw IV-28 on 3 Jul 1886 and recorded "eeF; vS; a B and a F * nr np. point to it; an eeF * close p; e diff.".  His position is 9 seconds west and 1.7' north of UGC 10307 and his description applies, although the "eeF * close p" should read close following.

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NGC 6101 = ESO 069-SC004

16 25 48.5 -72 12 05

V = 9.2;  Size 10.7'

 

18" (7/6/05 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): at 171x about two dozen stars are resolved over a fairly large but apparently loose globular with little central concentration.  At 228x at least three dozen stars mag 14 and fainter are resolved including a clump of faint stars near the center.  At this power the periphery is quite irregular and ragged with most of the brighter resolved stars hugging close to the edges of the halo.  A group of brighter mag 11 field stars are just off the NNE side.  A mag 10 star lies 8' NW of center and a similar star is placed 7' SE.  Located 28' SE of a mag 6.7 star.

 

18" (7/5/05 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): at 128x appears moderately bright, fairly large, round, 4'-5' diameter.  This globular has an unusual appearance, as there is only weak concentration except for a very small brighter nucleus.  At 228x a number of mag 14-15 stars are superimposed over the background glow while a number of faint stars huddle around the edges of the halo.  Several of the faint, resolved stars reside very near the center and these may have been the "very small brighter nucleus" I recorded at the lower magnification.

 

12" (6/29/02 - Bargo, Australia): at 140x this moderately faint globular is ~4' diameter with just a weak concentration.  A scattering of mag 14 stars pepper the face of the cluster and at the edges of the irregular halo.

 

James Dunlop discovered NGC 6101 = D 68 = h3623 on 1 Jun 1826 and recorded "A pretty large rather faint round nebula, about 3.5-4' diameter, a little brighter in the middle. There is a very small nebula on the N.p. side joining the margin of the large nebula."  Dunlop's position is off by a relatively small 4'.

 

On 18 Jun 1835 from the CGH, JH recorded "Globular cluster, large, faint, round, very gradually a little brighter in the middle, all resolved into stars 15..18th mag, 4' diam, with stragglers. A delicate and beautiful object."  A week later he called it "pretty bright, large, irregularly round, gradually brighter in the middle, resolved into stars 13..16th mag; pretty compressed, diam 5' or 6' by estimation, approx. 50 seconds in RA. A fine object."

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NGC 6102 = UGC 10300 = MCG +05-38-047 = CGCG 167-060 = PGC 57639

16 15 37.0 +28 09 30

V = 13.8;  Size 1.2'x0.8';  Surf Br = 13.6;  PA = 70d

 

17.5" (6/24/95): very faint, small, round, low even surface brightness.  A mag 12 star lies 3.1' NNE of center.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 6102 = m 308 on 24 Jun 1864 and noted "vF, S, R."  His position is accurate.

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NGC 6103 = UGC 10302 = MCG +05-38-049 = CGCG 167-062 = PGC 57648

16 15 44.6 +31 57 50

V = 13.8;  Size 0.7'x0.5';  Surf Br = 12.5;  PA = 80d

 

17.5" (6/18/93): very faint, small, round, 30" diameter, low even surface brightness.  Located on line between a mag 14 star 1.2' WNW and a mag 14.5 star 1.6' ESE.

 

WH discovered NGC 6103 = H III-888 = h1950 on 27 May 1791 (sweep 1013) and recorded "eF; vS; R; 300 showed it very plainly and of a considerable size."  JH described it as "vF; vglbM; 30...40"." and measured an accurate position (2 sweeps).

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NGC 6104 = UGC 10309 = MCG +06-36-011 = CGCG 196-020 = PGC 57684

16 16 30.8 +35 42 28

V = 13.2;  Size 0.8'x0.7';  Surf Br = 12.5

 

24" (6/12/15): at 375x; fairly faint, fairly small, round, 30" diameter, broad weak concentration, no nucleus.  Forms a physical pair with CGCG 196-022 3.9' E.  The companion appeared faint, very small, round, 15" diameter.  Mag 8.3 HD 146914 lies 8.3' E and mag 8.2 HD 146621 is 10' SW.

 

17.5" (6/27/87): faint, small, slightly elongated, weak concentration.  Located 8.4' W of mag 8.3 SAO 65198 in Zwicky Cluster 1615.8+3505.

 

WH discovered NGC 6104 = H III-688 = h1951 on 16 May 1787 (sweep 739) and recorded "vF, cS, iR."  His RA was 10 seconds too large. JH made two observations and measured a more accurate position.

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NGC 6105 = MCG +06-36-013 = CGCG 196-023 = PGC 57716

16 17 09.3 +34 52 44

V = 14.3;  Size 0.6'x0.5';  Surf Br = 12.8

 

18" (7/13/07): faint, small, oval 3:2 NW-SE, 0.5'x0.35'.  Forms a close pair with 2MASX J16171197+3452583 just off the NE side.  Located 2.6' SW of NGC 6107 in a large group and 2.8' SW of a mag 9 star.

 

17.5" (5/10/86): faint, very small, slightly elongated, small brighter core.  Located 2.6' SW of NGC 6107 in cluster.

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 6105 = St XI-43, along with NGC 6107, on 1 Jul 1880.  His micrometric position is very accurate. Stephan found all 7 NGC galaxies in this cluster and measured the positions over three nights; July 1, 7 and 10.

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NGC 6106 = UGC 10328 = MCG +01-41-016 = CGCG 052-001 = PGC 57799

16 18 47.3 +07 24 40

V = 12.2;  Size 2.5'x1.4';  Surf Br = 13.4;  PA = 140d

 

17.5": fairly faint, fairly small, gradually increases to a bright core, mottled appearance.  A knot is visible on the west side (there is a brighter extension on the SW side on the POSS).  A mag 15 star is 1.1' S of center and an extremely faint mag 16 star is just off the NNW end.

 

13.1" (7/5/83): fairly faint, fairly small, brighter core.

 

8" (7/5/83): very faint, small, slightly elongated N-S.

 

WH discovered NGC 6106 = H II-151 = h1952 on 13 Apr 1784 (sweep 191) and recorded "not vF, pL, bM, roundish, r."  JH logged "F; pL; lE; vgbM; 50" l, 40" br." and measured an accurate position.

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NGC 6107 = UGC 10311 = MCG +06-36-014 = CGCG 196-024 = PGC 57728

16 17 20.1 +34 54 05

V = 13.8;  Size 0.9'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 40d

 

18" (7/13/07): the largest and possibly brightest of 12 members of a cluster appears faint, fairly small, elongated 2:1 SW-NE, broad concentration and then suddenly increases to a very small brighter nucleus.  Situated just 0.9' SE of a mag 9 star that detracts from viewing.  NGC 6105 and near stellar companion lie 2.6' SW.

 

17.5" (5/10/86): this is the brightest member of the NGC 6107 cluster.  Fairly faint, small, almost round, small bright core.  A mag 9 star (SAO 65201) lies just 0.9' NNW of center!  Forms a pair with NGC 6105 2.6' SW.

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 6107 = St XI-44, along with NGC 6105, on 1 Jul 1880.  His position is accurate.

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NGC 6108 = MCG +06-36-015 = CGCG 196-025 = PGC 57734

16 17 25.6 +35 08 09

V = 14.3;  Size 0.7'x0.5';  Surf Br = 13.0;  PA = 124d

 

18" (7/13/07): fairly faint, fairly small, round, 25" diameter.  A 15th magnitude star is just off the WSW edge, 0.6' from center. PGC 57737 lies 2' E.

 

17.5" (5/10/86): fairly faint, fairly small, slightly elongated.  A mag 15 star is at the WSW edge 34" from center. This is one of the largest galaxies in the NGC 6107 cluster.  NGC 6110 lies 4.7' SW and PGC 57737 is 2.0' E.

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 6108 = St XI-45 on 10 Jul 1880.  His micrometric position is very accurate.

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NGC 6109 = UGC 10316 = MCG +06-36-016 = CGCG 196-026 = PGC 57748

16 17 40.5 +35 00 15

V = 12.7;  Size 1.0'x1.0';  Surf Br = 12.7

 

18" (7/13/07): faint, small, round, 20" diameter, 20" diameter, weak concentration.  Situated between NGC 6107 7.5' SSW and NGC 6110 5' N.

 

17.5" (5/10/86): fairly faint, small, slightly elongated, brighter core.  Member of the NGC 6107 cluster with NGC 6110 5.0' N.

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 6109 = St XI-46 on 7 Jul 1880.  His position is accurate.

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NGC 6110 = CGCG 196-027 = PGC 57751

16 17 44.0 +35 05 13

V = 14.6;  Size 0.6'x0.3';  Surf Br = 12.6;  PA = 105d

 

18" (7/13/07): faint, fairly small, round, 25" diameter, weak concentration.  Slightly fainter than NGC 6112 located 3.7' NE.

 

17.5" (5/10/86): very faint, small, slightly elongated.  In a trio with NGC 6112 3.7' ENE and an anonymous galaxy 1.9' SW, also nearby is NGC 6109 5.0' S.  This is the faintest NGC galaxy in the NGC 6107 cluster.

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 6110 = St XI-47 on 10 Jul 1880.  His position is accurate.

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NGC 6111 = MCG +11-20-007 = CGCG 320-014 = VII Zw 638 = PGC 57579

16 14 22.4 +63 15 38

V = 13.1;  Size 0.7'x0.6';  Surf Br = 12.0

 

17.5" (6/24/95): faint, very small, round, 20" diameter, even surface brightness.  Located 4.5' NW of a mag 9.5 star.  Collinear with a faint double star 3' S (13/14.5 at 18").  Incorrect identification in the RNGC and plotted incorrectly on the U2000.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 6111 = Sw IX-57 on 31 May 1887 and recorded "vF; pS; lE; D * nr south points to it."  The NGC position, based on personal correspondence from Swift, is in error.  His published position in list IX is nearly a degree further north and corresponds with CGCG 320-014 = PGC 57579.  His comment "D * nr s points to it" clinches the identification as a faint double star 3' south (mag 13/14.5 at 18") is collinear with the galaxy.  Dreyer published a correction to Swift's position in the IC I Notes section.  Bigourdan's "corrected" position from 1 May 1897 (repeated in the IC 2 Notes) corresponds with a star.

 

MCG and CGCG fail to label this galaxy as NGC 6111 and it is misplotted on the first edition of the Uranometria 2000 Atlas.  RNGC misidentifies IC 1210 as NGC 6111.  IC 1210 is located 10' north of Swift's original position and there are no is no double star to the south.  Coincidentally, Swift discovered IC 1210 and placed it correctly in List IX.  The identification errors are discussed by Malcolm Thomson in his unpublished "Catalogue Corrections", my RNGC Corrections #5 list and Harold Corwin's identification notes.

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NGC 6112 = MCG +06-36-017 = CGCG 196-028 = PGC 57762

16 18 00.5 +35 06 37

V = 13.9;  Size 0.5'x0.5';  Surf Br = 12.4

 

18" (7/13/07): faint, fairly small, round, 25" diameter, weak concentration.  This member of the NGC 6107 cluster is slightly brighter than NGC 6110 located 3.7' SW.

 

17.5" (5/10/86): fairly faint, fairly small, slightly elongated, weak concentration.  Member of the NGC 6107 cluster with NGC 6110 3.7' WSW.

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 6112 = St XI-48 on 7 Jul 1880.  His micrometric position is very accurate.

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NGC 6113 = MCG +02-41-024 = CGCG 080-004 = PGC 57807

16 19 10.5 +14 08 01

V = 13.8;  Size 0.9'x0.4';  Surf Br = 12.5;  PA = 147d

 

17.5": faint, very small, elongated NNW-SSE, small bright core.  This galaxy is not identified as NGC 6113 in the CGCG or MCG.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 6113 = Sw IX-59 on 19 Jun 1887 and recorded "eF; S; R."  The discovery was communicated directly to Dreyer and referenced as list VI in the NGC, but it was not published until list IX.  His position is 2' northeast of CGCG 080-004 = PGC 57807.

 

Neither CGCG nor MCG label this galaxy as NGC 6113.  The RNGC position is 2' too far south.

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NGC 6114 = MCG +06-36-019 = CGCG 196-030 = PGC 57784

16 18 23.6 +35 10 27

V = 14.2;  Size 0.8'x0.5';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 100d

 

18" (7/13/07): very faint, very small, round, 15" diameter.  Nestled in a "W" shaped asterism of stars.  Located 6' NE of NGC 6112 and 6.4' WNW of NGC 6116 in the NGC 6107 cluster.

 

17.5" (5/10/86): faint, small, slightly elongated.  Member of the NGC 6107 cluster with NGC 6116 6.4' ESE.

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 6114 = St XI-49 on 10 Jul 1880.  His position is accurate.

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NGC 6115 = ESO 226-007 = Ru 118

16 24 26 -51 56 54

V = 9.8;  Size 3'

 

18" (4/5/16 - Coonabarabran, 236x): ~30 stars resolved in a small 3' cluster.  The brightest mag 10.8 star is at the west edge and includes a number of mag 11.5-13 stars, mostly on the east side.  Unimpressive, though, as set in a glorious rich Norma star field that overwhelms the cluster!  Ruprecht 116, a scattered group of bright stars (brightest is mag 8.6 SAO 243732), lies 10' WSW.

 

JH discovered NGC 6115 = h3625 on 8 Jul 1834 and recorded "A part of the milky way, so immensely rich as to be one vast cluster of clusters."  His single position matches the cluster Ru 118.   James Dunlop's D 379 may be an earlier discovery.  On 26 Jun 1826 he noted, "a small faint round nebula, with a bright centre", and his position is just 5' northeast of Ru 118.

 

Sky Catalogue 2000.0 labels the cluster as Ru 118 and RNGC misclassifies the NGC 6115 as nonexistent (Type 7).

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NGC 6116 = UGC 10336 = MCG +06-36-021 = CGCG 196-032 = PGC 57800

16 18 54.6 +35 09 14

V = 14.3;  Size 1.1'x0.6';  Surf Br = 13.7;  PA = 12d

 

18" (7/13/07): faint, moderately large, elongated 5:2 SSW-NNE, 1.0'x0.4', low even surface brightness.  Last of a dozen galaxies viewed in the NGC 6107 cluster.

 

17.5" (5/10/86): faint, fairly small, broad concentration, elongated.  NGC 6114 lies 6.4' WNW.  Located at the east end of the NGC 6107 cluster.

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 6116 = St XI-51, along with NGCs 6108, 6110 and 6114, on 10 Jul 1880.  His positions are all accurate.

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NGC 6117 = UGC 10338 = MCG +06-36-022 = CGCG 196-036 = Holm 737a = PGC 57816

16 19 18.2 +37 05 43

V = 13.6;  Size 1.2'x1.2';  Surf Br = 13.8

 

18" (7/30/08): fairly faint, moderately large, oval N-S, 0.9'x0.65'.  There appears to be a very small knot or star on the south side that may be detached and the appearance is a bit mottled as if this was a face-on spiral.  Located 2.6' S of a mag 9.7 star. Forms a pair with NGC 6117B = MCG +06-36-024 1.7' SSE.  The companion appeared very faint, very small, round, 15" diameter.

 

17.5" (6/27/87): very faint, small, round, weak concentration.  A mag 14 star is 1.6' W of center.  Located just 2.6' S of mag 9.5 SAO 65226.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 6117 = m 309 on 5 Jul 1864 and noted "vF, S, R."  His declination is 1' too far south.

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NGC 6118 = UGC 10350 = MCG +00-42-002 = CGCG 024-008 = PGC 57924

16 21 48.6 -02 17 03

V = 11.7;  Size 4.7'x2.0';  Surf Br = 13.9;  PA = 58d

 

13.1" (6/4/83): moderately large, elongated WSW-ENE.  This is a very diffuse object with no concentration and ill-defined edges.  Located 17' SW of mag 6.2 SAO 141129 in the SE corner of Serpens Caput.

 

WH discovered NGC 6118 = H II-402 = h1953 on 14 Apr 1785 (sweep 400) and recorded "F, cL, E from sp to nf, about 3' l and 2' broad, r."  JH made the single observation "eF; vL; oval; 3' l, 2' br; cloudy; 3m preceding nearly in the parallel is a fine double star [STF 2033]."  NGC 6118 is often mentioned as one of the most challenging objects on the Herschel 400 list.

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NGC 6119 = MCG +06-36-026 = CGCG 196-040 = PGC 57837

16 19 41.9 +37 48 23

V = 14.4;  Size 0.9'x0.6';  Surf Br = 13.6

 

17.5" (6/27/87): very faint, small, slightly elongated.  A mag 15 star is at the south end just 19" from center.  Forms a trio with NGC 6120 2.3' SE and NGC 6122 5.5' E.

 

JH discovered NGC 6119 = h1954 on 27 Apr 1827 while observing nearby NGC 6120 and noted "vF; eS; R."  His position falls closer to NGC 6120, but his relative position from NGC 6120 (7 seconds west and 100" north) is accurate.

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NGC 6120 = UGC 10343 = MCG +06-36-029 = CGCG 196-041 = I Zw 141 = Holm 739a = PGC 57842

16 19 48.0 +37 46 27

V = 13.8;  Size 0.6'x0.4';  Surf Br = 12.2

 

17.5" (6/27/87): fairly faint, very small, almost round, even surface brightness.  Located 2' N of a wide unequal double star mag 10/13 at 44".  Brightest of three with NGC 6119 2.3' NW and NGC 6122 4.6' ENE.

 

WH discovered NGC 6120 = H III-623 = h1955 on 17 Mar 1787 (sweep 715) and noted "vF, vS, north of 2 stars.  300 confirmed it."  JH made 3 observations and measured an accurate position. Nearby NGC 6119 and 6122, were discovered by JH and Bigourdan, respectively.

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NGC 6121 = M4 = ESO 517-SC1

16 23 35.3 -26 31 32

V = 5.9;  Size 26.3'

 

24" (8/16/12): M4 displayed several orange/red supergiants, including the brightest star (mag 12) within the central bar.  This star is situated at the northern intersection point of the bar and the partial oval ring of stars that extends mostly to the east of the bar.  Another orange star is on the southwest side of the core, 4' from center.  A bright, orange mag 10 star is on the SSW side of the halo, 6.5' from center.  A wide, bright pair of orange stars (10.8/10.9 at 17") is SE of the bar (1.8' from center).

 

18" (7/12/07): at 225x, the remarkable 10' central region is bounded by a nearly complete ring of stars with a prominent string (bar) of brighter stars oriented SSW-NNE nearly bisecting the central region.  The center of this ridge of stars is intersected by a dense, elongated ring of stars with major axis E-W, with the majority of the stars to the east of the bar. A wide, brighter pair of stars (10.8/10.9 at 17") to the SE of the bar has an orange tint.  Sprays of stars appear to emanate from the bar in all directions with a beautiful arc of stars curving along the entire north side of the core.  The outer halo is relatively sparse but includes a number of brighter stars and appears to extend 15'-18' in diameter.

 

17.5" (7/4/86): very bright, very large, 15' diameter.  Resolved into an extremely dense swarm of several hundred stars with many stars arranged in strings.  Appears fully resolved at moderate power including the distinctive bar extending N-S through the center.  M4 is possibly the closest GC at a distance of 5600 light-years.

 

13.1" (6/19/82): the core is beautifully resolved including the bar which resolves into a number of faint stars.  The halo is fully resolved with many star lanes.

 

8": superb resolution of mag 11-13 stars.

 

Philippe de ChŽseaux discovered M4 = NGC 6121 = Lac I-9 in 1745-46.  Nicolas-Louis de Lacaille found it again in 1751-1752 with a 1/2" telescope at 8x during his expedition to the Cape of Good Hope.  WH did not catalogue M4 as he tried to avoid repeating the Messier objects but described M4 as "a rich cluster of considerably compressed small stars surrounded by many straggling ones.  It contains a ridge of stars running through the middle from south preceding to north following.  The ridge contains 8 or 10 pretty bright stars.  All the stars are red."  He noted in his 1814 publication that the observed red color was probably owing to the low elevation of M4, though there is one conspicuous red star in the bar. JH has no entry in his Cape of Good Hope catalogue, though he undoubtedly observed this showpiece.

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NGC 6122 = MCG +06-36-032 = PGC 57858

16 20 09.5 +37 47 53

V = 14.3;  Size 0.9'x0.3';  Surf Br = 12.7;  PA = 156d

 

17.5" (6/27/87): extremely faint, averted only, very small, round.  Third and faintest of three in a group and located 4.6' ENE of NGC 6120 and 5.5' E of NGC 6119.

 

Guillaume Bigourdan discovered NGC 6122 = Big 78 on 6 May 1886.  There is nothing at his Comptes Rendus (5 Dec 1887) position but his corrected position 6' further north (published in the Corrections table of his 1 Jul 1901 Comptes Rendus paper) matches MCG +06-36-032 = PGC 57858.  The MCG doesn't label this galaxy with the NGC designation. See Harold Corwin's identification notes.

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NGC 6123 = UGC 10333 = MCG +10-23-060 = CGCG 298-028 = PGC 57729

16 17 19.7 +61 56 21

V = 13.8;  Size 0.8'x0.3';  Surf Br = 12.0;  PA = 4d

 

17.5" (4/15/93): faint, fairly small, very elongated 3:1 N-S, small bright core, thin extensions.  A mag 12.5 star is 1.4' SSW of center.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 6123 = Sw II-40 in 1884-85 (exact date unknown) and recorded "pF; vS; E; * nr."  His position is 15 seconds west of UGC 10333.  Bigourdan measured an accurate position on 31 Aug 1888 as well as Kobold in Mar 1894.

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NGC 6124 = Cr 301 = ESO 331-SC003

16 25 20 -40 39 12

V = 5.8;  Size 29'

 

13.1" (6/18/85): bright, fairly rich, large, roughly 125 stars are resolved.  Appears partially resolved even in 16x80 finder.

 

8" (6/27/81): fairly large but scattered, richer in center.

 

Nicolas-Louis de Lacaille discovered NGC 6124 = Lac I-8 = D 514 = h3626 in 1751-1752 with a 1/2" telescope at 8x during his expedition to the Cape of Good Hope.  He noted it as "a fairly big tailless comet."  James Dunlop observed it on 10 May 1826 as "a round cluster of small stars of nearly equal magnitudes, about 12' diameter, considerably congregated to the centre, not rich in small stars. This answers to the place of 44 Normae, but there is no nebula."  Dunlop made a total of 5 observations and his position is accurate.

 

On 5 Jun 1834 JH logged "Viewed; a brilliant cluster class VII.; p rich, L, irregularly scattered, fills field, stars 8,9,10,11th mag."  On 4 Aug 1834 he recorded the cluster as "cluster, bright, large, loosely scattered, not much compressed in the middle, fills nearly a field, consists of about 50 or 60 stars 9..11th mag."

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NGC 6125 = NGC 6130 = UGC 10347 = MCG +10-23-066 = CGCG 298-030 = PGC 57828

16 19 33.4 +57 36 55

 

See observing notes for NGC 6127.

 

WH discovered NGC 6125 = H II-810 on 24 Apr 1789 (sweep 928) and noted "pF, pS, lE."  His position is close to NGC 6130 = UGC 10347 (independently discovered by Lewis Swift) but Dreyer assumed that WH made a 20' error in dec (partly because Bigourdan was unsuccessful on 4 attempts at WH's position) and that II-810 refers to NGC 6127 = NGC 6128 = UGC 10345.

 

But in an email from 28 Jan 2013, Steinicke wrote that "I've now detected that [UGC 10345] could not be seen by WH: It was well outside (north) of his sweep 928!  Moreover, the zone of this 12 mag galaxy was never swept, so he could not find it. His position, based on the 5th mag reference star of Bode's catalogue (SAO 29727), clearly points to NGC 6130 [UGC 10347], located 24' south. His description "pF, pS, lE" matches the elongated object, whereas [UGC 10345] is brighter and round. That he does not mention the 9 mag star 3' west is nothing special. There is no PD error! The position of NGC 6088 (III 812), based on the same star is also pretty good. Another position, relative to Mu Draconis, confirms both nebulae.

 

This galaxy was also found twice by Swift on 6 Jul 1886 and on 28 Jun 1886, so it received two more NGC numbers, NGC 6127 = Sw IV-29 and NGC 6128 = Sw IV-30, respectively.  Swift's positions and description make it clear he saw the same galaxy.  Reinmuth equates NGC 6125 = NGC 6130, which coincidentally has the same dec as H's original position but is 50 tsec E of the NGC position for NGC 6125.  See Corwin's notes.

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NGC 6126 = UGC 10353 = MCG +06-36-035 = CGCG 196-055 = I Zw 144 = PGC 57908

16 21 27.9 +36 22 36

V = 13.6;  Size 0.8'x0.8';  Surf Br = 13.1

 

17.5" (6/18/93): faint, fairly small, round, 40" diameter, broadly concentration halo, slightly brighter core.  Located 1.6' S of a mag 10.5 star.

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 6126 = St XII-83 on 19 Jun 1880.  His micrometric position is very accurate.

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NGC 6127 = NGC 6128 = UGC 10345 = MCG +10-23-065 = CGCG 298-029 = I Zw 142 = PGC 57812

16 19 11.5 +57 59 03

V = 12.0;  Size 1.4'x1.4';  Surf Br = 12.7

 

17.5" (6/15/91): moderately bright, fairly small, 1.5' diameter, round.  Sharp concentration with a small very bright core containing a stellar nucleus, faint round halo.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 6127 = Sw IV-29 on 6 Jul 1886 and logged "pF; vS; R."  His position matches UGC 10345.  He found this galaxy again just 3 weeks later (28 Jul) and recorded it as Sw IV-30 = NGC 6128.  His positions and descriptions are nearly identical, so it seems odd that neither Swift nor Dreyer suggested the equivalence NGC 6127 = NGC 6128.

 

It's been assumed that this galaxy was first discovered by WH and catalogued as H II- 810 = NGC 6125 with a 20' error in declination.  But Wolfgang Steinicke has shown that WH could not have seen this galaxy, as it is too far north in his sweep.  Instead, WH II-810 refers to NGC 6130 = UGC 10347.

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NGC 6128 = NGC 6127 = NGC 6125 = UGC 10345 = MCG +10-23-065 = CGCG 298-029 = I Zw 142 = PGC 57812

16 19 11.5 +57 59 03

 

See observing notes for NGC 6127.

 

Lewis Swift found NGC 6128 = Sw IV-30 on 28 July 1886 and logged "pF, pS, R, bM."  His position is less than 1' northeast of the center of UGC 10345.  He discovered this galaxy just 3 weeks earlier on 6 July 1886 and included it in the same list as Sw IV-29 = NGC 6127.  Neither Swift nor Dreyer assumed an equivalence, although the positions and descriptions are very similar.  So, NGC 6128 = NGC 6127.  According to Wolfgang Steinicke, NGC 6125 = H II-180 is not the original observation of this galaxy.  See notes on NGC 6125.

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NGC 6129 = MCG +06-36-037 = CGCG 196-048 = Holm 741a = PGC 57920

16 21 43.2 +37 59 45

V = 13.7;  Size 0.8'x0.8';  Surf Br = 13.0

 

24" (7/22/14): fairly faint, fairly small, round, 24" diameter, weak concentration.  Forms a pair (similar redshift) with CGCG 196-047 2.0' NW.  The companion appeared faint, small, round, 18" diameter, low surface brightness.

 

17.5" (6/27/87): faint, very small, slightly elongated, weak concentration.

 

WH discovered NGC 6129 = H III-891 on 30 May 1791 (sweep 1015) and recorded "eF, vS, R, lbM.  300 confirmed it with great ease."  His position is accurate.

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NGC 6130 = UGC 10347 = MCG +10-23-066 = CGCG 298-030 = PGC 57828

16 19 33.4 +57 36 55

V = 13.5;  Size 1.0'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.0;  PA = 25d

 

17.5" (6/15/91): fairly faint, small, elongated 3:2 SSW-NNE, almost even surface brightness.  Several brighter stars in field including mag 8 SAO 29889 2.7' SW!

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 6130 = Sw IV-31 on 28 Jun 1886 and recorded "pF; pL; R; B * near preceding."  His position is just 4 sec of RA east of UGC 10347 and the comment about the bright star applies.

 

According to Wolfgang Steinicke, WH discovered this galaxy on 24 Apr 1789 (sweep 928) and noted II-810 = NGC 6125 as "pF, pS, lE."  Wolfgang states that WH's offset from SAO 29727 matches UGC 10347.  In this case, NGC 6130 = NGC 6125. 

 

Dreyer assumed that WH made a 20' error in dec for II-810 and NGC 6125 = NGC 6127 = NGC 6128.  Corwin concurs with Dreyer's identification.

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NGC 6131 = UGC 10356 = MCG +07-34-004 = CGCG 224-004 = Holm 742a = PGC 57927

16 21 52.5 +38 55 56

V = 13.3;  Size 1.0'x1.0';  Surf Br = 13.2

 

17.5" (6/27/87): very faint, small, round.  Located 3.5' E of mag 9 SAO 65250.

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 6131 = St XII-84 on 15 Jun 1882.  His position is very accurate.

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NGC 6132 = IC 4602 = UGC 10363 = MCG +02-42-002 = CGCG 080-020 = PGC 58002

16 23 38.8 +11 47 10

V = 13.6;  Size 1.5'x0.5';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 127d

 

17.5" (7/1/89): faint, small, elongated WNW-ESE, weak concentration.  A mag 15 star is 1' SE.

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 6132 = St VII-7 on 16 Jul 1876.  His micrometric position is very accurate.  Lewis Swift apparently found this galaxy again on 22 Jul 1897 and recorded Sw XI-183 = IC 4602 as "eeeF; S; lE; F * near following; 2 bright stars south nearly point to it; eee diff."  There is nothing near Swift's position, but 1 degree south is NGC 6132 and his description of the nearby stars fits.  So NGC 6132 = IC 4602. See Harold Corwin's identification notes for more on IC 4602.

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NGC 6133

16 20 17.2 +56 39 08

 

=***??, Corwin. =**?, Gottlieb.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 6133 = Sw V-69 on 23 Oct 1886 and recorded "eeeF; S; cE; ee diff."  There is nothing at his position. One possible candidate is CGCG 276-012, but this galaxy is 2.4 min of RA east and 4' south of Swift's position.  A mag 14.7/15.1 double star at 15" separation is close southeast of Swift's position, with a third fainter star forming a triple.  Harold Corwin suggests this asterism may have appeared nebulous to Swift, but this identification is very uncertain.

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NGC 6134 = Cr 303 = ESO 226-SC009

16 27 46 -49 09 06

V = 7.2;  Size 7'

 

18" (7/9/02 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): at 128x, this is a bright, fairly large open cluster, at least 10' diameter, with roughly 150 stars mag 10 and fainter.  Many of the stars are arranged in chains, loops and rings although there is no central concentration.  The brightest mag 9.3 star is on the SE side about 4' from the center.  The Norma Milky Way background is very rich in this region.

 

James Dunlop discovered NGC 6134 = D 412 = h3627 on 10 May 1826 and described as "a pretty large round nebula, about 4' diameter, gradually a little brighter towards the centre.  There is a small star on the north, and another on the south side, both involved.  This is easily resolved into stars, with slight compression to the centre."  His position is 6' too far northeast.

 

On 5 Jul 1834, JH recorded "a pretty rich loose large, roundish cluster of stars 12..14th mag, 7' diameter, not m comp M." On 15 Apr 1836 he called it "VII class, rich, L, gradually a little compressed in the middle, irregularly round, 12', stars 13,14,15th mag, nearly fills field."

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NGC 6135 = MCG +11-20-008 = CGCG 320-015 = PGC 57580

16 14 24.9 +64 58 58

V = 13.9;  Size 0.9'x0.3';  Surf Br = 12.4;  PA = 45d

 

18" (7/30/08): fairly faint, moderately large, elongated nearly 3:1 SW-NE, 0.9'x0.35', broad concentration.  A mag 14 star is just off the west edge [30" from the center].  The identification of this galaxy with NGC 6135 is very uncertain as it differs quite a bit from Swift's position.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 6135 = Sw IV-32 on 9 Jul 1886 and recorded "vF, vS, cE, 2 st nr."  There is nothing near his position.  Harold Corwin suggests NGC 6135 may apply to CGCG 320-015 = PGC 57580.  This galaxy is elongated 3:1 and has a couple of stars nearby, matching Swift's description.  But his position is a particularly bad fit --  5.5 minutes of RA too far east and 5' too far north, so this identification is very uncertain.

 

RNGC classifies NGC 6135 nonexistent and neither CGCG, MCG or PGC label PGC 57580 as NGC 6135.

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NGC 6136 = MCG +09-27-019 = CGCG 276-010 = PGC 57892

16 20 59.4 +55 58 14

V = 14.5;  Size 0.9'x0.4';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 95d

 

17.5" (6/15/91): extremely faint, very small, round, very low even surface brightness.  A nice row of stars is just north consisting of four mag 11-12 stars oriented WNW-ESE ending at mag 8.5 SAO 29903 at the WNW end.  NGC 6136 is located 5.5' SW of SAO 29903.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 6136 = Sw IV-33 on 6 Jul 1886 and recorded "eeeF; S; R; nearly between 5 pB stars in a curve north and 3 F stars in a curve south; ee diff.".  His position and description matches CGCG 276-010 = PGC 57892.

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NGC 6137 = UGC 10364 = MCG +06-36-039 = CGCG 196-053 = Holm 744a = PGC 57966

16 23 03.2 +37 55 19

V = 12.4;  Size 1.9'x1.2';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 175d

 

24" (7/22/14): at 375x appeared fairly bright, moderately large, elongated 5:3 N-S, 0.8'x0.5', broad concentration with a brighter core.  Increases in size with averted vision.  A mag 14.3 star is 1' E and a mag 14.8 star is 1' NW.

 

Three galaxies are aligned in a string to the NNW.  NGC 6137B = CGCG 196-052, 1.7' NNW, appears fairly faint (B = 15.8), small, round, 18" diameter.  PGC 214491, 3.9' NNW, appears faint (B = 16.3), very small, round, 12"-15" diameter.  PGC 3498453, 7.3' NNW appears faint, small, slightly elongated E-W, 18"x15".

 

17.5" (6/27/87): faint, small, slightly elongated oval.  Located between two mag 14 stars 1.0' NW and 1.0' E.  Forms a close pair with NGC 6137B 1.7' NW.  The companion appeared extremely faint, very small, round.  A mag 14.5 star is 0.8' S (same one 1' NW of NGC 6137).

 

WH discovered NGC 6137 = H III-624 = h1956 on 17 Mar 1787 (sweep 715) and recorded "vF, S, bM.  Discovered with 300x."  CH's reduced position is 1.5' southwest of UGC 10364.   

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NGC 6138 = NGC 6363 = UGC 10827 = MCG +07-36-005 = CGCG 226-008 = PGC 60164

17 22 40.0 +41 06 06

 

See observing notes for NGC 6363.  Incorrect identification in the RNGC.

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 6138 = St II-2 around September 1872.  His published position is roughly 25' west of NGC 6145 (within Abell 2197) and there are only faint stars near this position.  But Stephan made an error with his offset star and once corrected, his position matches NGC 6363 (found again by Stephan on 24 July 1879 and assumed to be a new discovery).  The error was caught and mentioned by Emmanuel Esmiol in the introduction to his 1916 reduction of Stephan's positions with a note that NGC 6138 is identical to NGC 6363.  Esmiol, though, made a typo and called NGC 6138 = NGC 6263.  So, NGC 6138 = NGC 6363.  Despite the earlier discovery of NGC 6138, this galaxy is known as NGC 6363 due to its unambiguous identification.

 

RNGC and PGC (as well as secondary sources) misidentify MCG +07-34-020 = PGC 58070 as NGC 6138.  This is an edge-on galaxy located 7' north of NGC 6145.

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NGC 6139 = ESO 331-SC004

16 27 40 -38 50 54

V = 9.0;  Size 5.5'

 

18" (7/10/02 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): this is a moderately bright globular which is well concentrated to a bright 1' core.  The halo spans ~3.5' and the overall structure is symmetric.  A number of very faint stars blink in and out of view with the seeing and it appears on the verge of extensive resolution at 171x.  Did not view with higher power.

 

8" (6/27/81): faint, small, even concentration to core, easily visible but no resolution.

 

James Dunlop discovered NGC 6139 = D 536 on 13 May 1826 and recorded "a round nebula, about 1' diameter, bright immediately at the centre, and very faint from the bright nucleus to the margin. Another observation makes the figure rather elliptical, with a bright nucleus."  He observed the cluster twice and his position is pretty poor -- 23' east of center.

 

JH acknowledged Dunlop's discovery despite the poor position and observed the globular on 4 nights.  On his first sweep of 24 Jun 1834 he logged "vB, R, pL, pgmbM, 2.5'. Evidently a globular, but moonlight very bright and near full, and I cannot see the individual stars."  Two nights later he wrote "B, R, pgbM, resolvable, 2'."  Another two nights later he wrote "pB, R, pgbM, resolvable, with left eye I can barely discern a few of the stars."

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NGC 6140 = UGC 10359 = MCG +11-20-012 = CGCG 320-025 = PGC 57886

16 20 57.3 +65 23 23

V = 11.3;  Size 6.3'x4.6';  Surf Br = 14.8;  PA = 95d

 

24" (7/22/14): fairly bright, moderately large, oval 3:2 WSW-ENE, broad concentration.  Often a thin brighter "bar" oriented WSW-ENE stands out.  It appears offset from center as the south portion of the halo is very weak. At 375x, a narrow spiral arm oriented E-W is occasionally visible just south of the bar, and it extends slightly further east than the brighter central region.  A mag 11.5 star lies 2.3' NW and several mag 15 stars are nearby.

 

17.5" (7/9/88): moderately bright, moderately large, elongated ~E-W, broadly concentrated halo, very faint extensions.  A mag 12 star lies 2.2' NW.  Bracketed by three mag 15 stars 1.4' SE, 1.6' NNE and 1.9' SW of center.

 

WH discovered NGC 6140 = H III-740 on 3 Jun 1788 (only nebula in sweep 845) and logged "cF, pL, iE."  There is nothing at his position but 95 sec of RA following is UGC 10359.  Dreyer noted this error in his 1912 Scientific Papers.

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NGC 6141 = 2MASXi J1623063+405129 = PGC 58077

16 23 06.4 +40 51 30

V = 15.0;  Size 0.4'x0.3';  Surf Br = 12.5

 

17.5" (7/18/01): very faint, very small, slightly elongated 25"x20".  With direct vision contains a fairly faint quasi-stellar nucleus.  Since this galaxy is not in the MCG or CGCG I expected the observation to be more difficult.  A wide pair of mag 11/12 stars lies 3.5' NE and a mag 14.5 star is 1.2' N.  The RNGC incorrectly identifies NGC 6147 = MCG +07-34-023 as NGC 6141.  Member of AGC 2197.

 

Guillaume Bigourdan discovered NGC 6141 = Big. 79 on 27 May 1886.  There is nothing at his Comptes Rendus position, but 3.2' due north is PGC 58077, and Harold Corwin associates NGC 6141 with this galaxy.

 

The RNGC and HyperLEDA misidentifies NGC 6147 = MCG +07-34-023 as NGC 6141.  This galaxy is located 2.7 minutes of time east and 4.8' north of Bigourdan's position.  See my RNGC Corrections #2 and Harold Corwin's identification notes.

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NGC 6142 = UGC 10366 = MCG +06-36-041 = CGCG 196-056 = PGC 57984

16 23 21.1 +37 15 29

V = 13.8;  Size 1.9'x0.5';  Surf Br = 13.6;  PA = 165d

 

17.5" (6/24/95): very faint, fairly small, elongated 2:1 NNW-SSE, broad weak concentration.  A mag 15 star is just off the SW edge 55" from center.  Located almost at midpoint of two mag 12/12.5 stars 5.6' N and 4.4' S.  Two mag 14.5-15 between 2'-3' NW are collinear with the galaxy.

 

WH discovered NGC 6142 = H III-892 on 30 May 1791 (sweep 1015) and recorded "eF, S, bM."  Recomputing his offset from 25 Her shows his position is less than 1' too far south and exact in RA.  UGC does not label UGC 10366 as NGC 6142 but the galaxy is correctly labeled in MCG, CGCG and RC3.

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NGC 6143 = UGC 10358 = MCG +09-27-024 = CGCG 276-011 = PGC 57919

16 21 42.4 +55 05 09

V = 13.2;  Size 1.0'x0.9';  Surf Br = 12.8

 

17.5" (6/20/87): fairly faint, fairly small, round, weak concentration.  Bracketed by two bright stars; a mag 10 star 2.3' ESE and mag 8.7 SAO 29911 4.0' W.

 

WH discovered NGC 6143 = H II-811 on 24 Apr 1789 (sweep 928) and recorded "pB, iR, vgvlbM."  His position (CH's reduction) is 20 sec of RA east of UGC 10358.

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NGC 6144 = ESO 517-SC6 = IC 4606:

16 27 14.1 -26 01 29

V = 9.1;  Size 9.3'

 

18" (7/26/06): at 325x roughly two dozen stars were resolved over an irregular, scraggly glow. A mag 12 star at the west edge is probably a field star.  Very weak central condensation (concentration class XI) so the appearance does not look like a typical globular.

 

17.5" (6/6/86): about 20 stars mag 12-14 resolved at 286x.  The brightest mag 12 star is at the west edge.  Located 37' NW of Antares.  This globular is about 30,000 light years away or 5 times the distance of nearby M4.

 

13.1" (6/18/85): a dozen very faint stars are resolved at 220x over haze.  Includes a string of stars to the SE.

 

13.1" (6/19/82): just resolves in steady moments into perhaps 15 very faint stars over haze.  Otherwise the globular is very lively and mottled.

 

8" (6/27/81): faint, small.  A mag 12 star is at the SW end but no other resolution.  Located 40' NW of Antares.

 

WH discovered NGC 6144 = H VI-10 = h3629 on 22 May 1784 (sweep 223) and recorded "a very close considerably L cluster of the smallest stars imaginable; all the stars are of a dusky red colour.  This cluster is the next step to an easily resolvable nebula."  JH called the globular "pL; oval; gbM; resolved."

 

David Frew comments "I'm almost sure that IC 4606 (observed by Finlay from the Cape) is just an observation of the globular cluster NGC 6144 with an error in position [4.3 min of time too large]. His description fits perfectly: "follows a faint star 4.5 secs., and is 0.5 [arcmin] S."  There is a 12th magnitude star on the north-preceding side of the core, so this identification seems very plausible.

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NGC 6145 = MCG +07-34-021 = CGCG 224-017 = Holm 747a = PGC 58074

16 25 02.4 +40 56 48

V = 14.1;  Size 0.8'x0.4';  Surf Br = 12.8;  PA = 2d

 

18" (7/29/08): faint, fairly small, elongated 2:1 N-S, 0.7'x0.35', weak concentration.  First of 3 in a NNW-SSE line with NGC 6147 1.3' SSE and brighter NGC 6146 3.6' SSE within AGC 2197.

 

17.5" (7/24/95): faint, fairly small, 1.0' diameter, slightly elongated N-S.  Similar size to NGC 6146 but lacks the central concentration.  Only a very weak brightening with no core or nucleus.  Forms a trio with NGC 6146 3.6' SE and NGC 6147 1.4' SE.

 

17.5" (7/5/86): faint, weak concentration, elongated ~N-S.  Forms a pair with NGC 6146 3.5' SE.  Member of AGC 2197.

 

13.1" (8/5/83): extremely faint, small, elongated N-S.

 

JH discovered NGC 6145 = h1957 on 12 May 1828, while observing nearby NGC 6146 (discovered by his father), and recorded "F; R; bM; sky very clear."  His position is less than 1' south of CGCG 224-017 = PGC 58074.  Nearby NGC 6147 was discovered at Birr Castle.

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NGC 6146 = UGC 10379 = MCG +07-34-024 = CGCG 224-018 = PGC 58080

16 25 10.4 +40 53 33

V = 12.5;  Size 1.3'x1.0';  Surf Br = 12.7;  PA = 75d

 

18" (7/29/08): moderately bright, fairly small, elongated 3:2 WSW-ENE, 0.9'x0.6', well concentrated with a very small bright core, bright stellar nucleus.  Two mag 13/14 stars 1.2' and 2' E.  In a line with NGC 6147 2.3' NNW and NGC 6145 3.6' NNW in AGC 2197.

 

17.5" (7/24/95): moderately bright, fairly small, 1.0' diameter, slightly elongated E-W.  Broad concentration with a fairly high surface brightness core, stellar nucleus.  A mag 13 star is 1.2' E of center.  Brightest of a collinear trio with NGC 6145 3.6' NNW and NGC 6147 2' NNW in AGC 2197.

 

17.5" (7/5/86): fairly faint, almost round, bright core, stellar nucleus.  Forms a pair with NGC 6145 3.5' NW.

 

13.1" (8/5/83): fairly faint, moderately large.  Forms a pair with NGC 6145.

 

WH discovered NGC 6146 = H III-638 = h1958 on 18 Mar 1787 (sweep 718) and noted "vF, vS."  CH's reduced position is 7 sec of RA east of UGC 10379.

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NGC 6147 = MCG +07-34-023 = Holm 747b = PGC 58077

16 25 05.8 +40 55 44

V = 15.1;  Size 0.4'x0.4';  Surf Br = 13.0

 

18" (7/29/08): very faint, very small, round, 20" diameter.  Located 2.3' NNW of NGC 6146 and 1.4' SSE of NGC 6145 within AGC 2197.  The three galaxies are collinear.

 

17.5" (7/24/95): extremely faint and small, 15" diameter, round.  Only able to glimpse repeatedly <25% of time with averted vision.  Faintest of trio and situated 1.4' SE of NGC 6145 and 2' NW of NGC 6146 in AGC 2197.  Incorrect identification in the RNGC.

 

George Johnstone Stoney, LdR's assistant, discovered NGC 6147 on 26 May 1849.  He noted "2 new neb, alpha (on diagram) eF st, Beta small."  The diagram clearly shows NGC 6147 = PGC 58077 (labeled as Alpha) on a line between NGC 6146 (not labeled) and NGC 6145 (labeled Beta), with NGC 6147 slightly closer to NGC 6145.   The direction of drift is not shown but is presumably down in the diagram. Dreyer later added the parenthetical comment "Query h1957 [NGC 6145] and h1958 [NGC 6146] and one Nova."  One faint star (labeled alpha) is shown on the diagram and it appears to correspond with MCG +07-34-022 = PGC 58078.  Since Stoney didn't record it as nebulous, it didn't receive a NGC designation.

 

MCG and UGC (notes section) does not label PGC 58077 as NGC 6147.  The RNGC misidentifies PGC 58078 as NGC 6147 and mislabels NGC 6147 as NGC 6141.

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NGC 6148 = 2MASX J16270405+2405357 = PGC 58162

16 27 04.0 +24 05 36

V = 16.1;  Size 0.5'x0.3';  Surf Br = 13.8;  PA = 60d

 

24" (7/7/13): at 282x appeared faint to very faint, very small, elongated 3:2 SW-NE, 15"x10", low even surface brightness.  Can just hold steadily with averted.  Located 9' SSE of mag 8.9 HD 148405 within a small trapezoid of mag 13-14.5 stars.  This galaxy, found by Marth in 1864, is one of the faintest he discovered with the 48" on Malta and was missed previously in my 17.5".

 

17.5" (5/28/89): not found.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 6148 = m 310 on 10 Jun 1864 and noted "vF, S, with **."  There is nothing at his position.  RNGC identifies PGC 58162 as NGC 6148.  This faint galaxy is 33 seconds of time east and 4.3' south of Marth's position, an unusually poor match, and in RNGC Corrections #4, I listed the RNGC identification as questionable.  But PGC 58162 is surrounded by a small group of a half-dozen stars and may match Marth's comment "with **".

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NGC 6149 = UGC 10391 = MCG +03-42-011 = CGCG 109-021 = PGC 58183

16 27 24.3 +19 35 50

V = 13.5;  Size 1.1'x0.8';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 22d

 

17.5": faint, very small, round, bright core, stellar nucleus.  Located 3.8' N of mag 8.7 SAO 102184.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 6149 = Sw VI-90 on 3 Apr 1887 and recorded "vF; pS; R; pB * nr south."  His position is just 6 seconds west of UGC 10391 and his description applies.  UGC does not label this galaxy as NGC 6149.

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NGC 6150 = MCG +07-34-029 = CGCG 224-022 = Holm 748a = PGC 58105

16 25 50.0 +40 29 19

V = 14.0;  Size 1.0'x0.4';  PA = 61d

 

18" (7/30/08): fairly faint, small, elongated 3:2 SW-NE, 24"x16", gradually increases to the center.  Forms a close pair with NGC 6150B = MCG +07-34-027 1.3' SW.  The companion appeared very faint, very small, round, 10" diameter. MCG +07-34-033 lies 9.5' E

 

17.5" (5/23/87): faint, small, elongated SW-NE, weak concentration.  MCG +07-34-033 lies 9.5' E.  This is a double system (unresolved) within AGC 2197.

 

WH discovered NGC 6150 = H III-639 = h1959 on 18 Mar 1787 (sweep 718) and noted "eF, eS."  CH's reduced position is 10 tsec east of CGCG 224-022 (double system).

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NGC 6151

16 38 25.2 -73 15 09

Size 0.9'

 

18" (4/6/16 - Coonabarabran, 139x and 236x): at 139x, this asterism (very small group of faint stars) appeared fairly faint grainy patch, less than 1' in diameter.  At 236x, two or three mag 14.5-15 stars were occasionally resolved.  Situated 2.5' WSW of a mag 11 star and nearly collinear with a closer mag 13 star.

 

JH discovered NGC 6151 = h3630 on 29 Jun 1835 and recorded "vF and S; is pointed to by 2 small stars 9m and 14m; the * 9m is the only one of that magnitude within 6'."  His position corresponds with a 1' group of at least 7 stars.  A 10th and 14th magnitude star are collinear to the east-northeast (by ~1.5' and 2.5'), matching his description.  Harold Corwin also identifies this group of stars as NGC 6151.

 

ESO and PGC (and modern sources that follow these sources) misidentify ESO 043-003 = PGC 58689 as NGC 6151.  This galaxy is 50 seconds of RA following JH's position.  RNGC classifies the number as an "Unverified southern object."

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NGC 6152 = Cr 304 = ESO 179-SC009

16 32 46 -52 38 36

Size 30'

 

18" (7/9/02 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): At 76x (27mm Panoptic), this is a large 30' cluster in a glorious Milky Way field.  A couple of hundred stars generally mag 10 and fainter are resolved including a few dense clumps of stars.  Many of the stars are arranged in loops and knots.  A wide mag 8/10 pair is on the east side.  The surrounding region is rich, so the cluster does no stand out except at low power.

 

JH discovered NGC 6152 = h3631 on 8 Jul 1834 and logged a large and coarse milky way cluster, tolerably insulated, composed of large stars."  His position is near the center of this large cluster.

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NGC 6153 = PK 341+5.1 = ESO 331-PN6 = PN G341.8+05.4

16 31 30.5 -40 15 13

V = 10.9;  Size 28"x21"

 

13.1" (6/18/85): fairly bright, fairly small, almost round, picked up at 62x.  Striking location as forms the southern vertex of a small "kite" or cruciform asterism (rhombus) with two mag 10 stars 2.6' N and 2.7' NW and a mag 9.5 star 2.5' NE.  This planetary is very far south for a prominent planetary to be seen from northern California.

 

Ralph Copeland discovered NGC 6153 on 27 May 1883 near Lake Titicaca, using a 6.1" refractor with a direct vision Vogel-spectroscope.  The position given in Copernicus III (1884) is just 1' too far north.

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NGC 6154 = UGC 10382 = MCG +08-30-012 = CGCG 251-016 = PGC 58095

16 25 30.6 +49 50 24

V = 12.7;  Size 2.1'x2.0';  Surf Br = 14.1

 

17.5" (7/1/89): fairly faint, fairly small.  Sharp concentration with an elongated NW-SE core and a faint rounder halo with no distinct edges.

 

WH discovered NGC 6154 = H III-680 on 15 May 1787 (sweep 737) and recorded "eF, S, easily resolvable, near some small stars."  CH's reduction is 10 sec of RA east and 2' north of UGC 10382.  He observed this galaxy again on 13 Apr 1788 (sweep 832) and noted "vF, S, R, lbM."  Bigourdan measured an accurate RA (repeated in the IC 2 Notes) on 19 Jul 1884.

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NGC 6155 = UGC 10385 = MCG +08-30-013 = CGCG 251-018 = PGC 58115

16 26 08.5 +48 21 59

V = 12.2;  Size 1.3'x0.9';  Surf Br = 12.3;  PA = 145d

 

17.5" (7/1/89): moderately bright, fairly small, elongated NW-SE, broadly concentrated halo.  Located equidistant from two double stars; a mag 9.5/12.5 at 30" separation is 3.2' SW and an evenly matched mag 14 pair at 12" separation is 3.3' E.

 

WH discovered NGC 6155 = H II-690 on 12 May 1787 (sweep 735) and recorded "F; pL; gbM; iF."  His position is 37 sec of RA too large.  He logged this galaxy again on 13 Apr 1788 (sweep 832) and noted "eF, S, iF."  His RA on this sweep was 17 sec too large.  Bigourdan's measured an accurate position on 29 May 1884 (repeated in the IC 2 Notes).

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NGC 6156 = ESO 137-033 = LGG 407-004 = PGC 58536

16 34 52.3 -60 37 06

V = 11.6;  Size 1.6'x1.4';  Surf Br = 12.3;  PA = 0d

 

14" (4/3/16 - Coonabarabran, 184x): fairly bright, moderately large, slightly elongated E-W, 0.8'x0.6', high but irregular surface brightness, slightly brighter core.  Appears brightest, though, at the west end; either a faint star is superimposed or perhaps a knot in the galaxy.  Situated in a very rich star field with a mag 11 star 1.7' NE.

 

JH discovered NGC 6156 = h3632 on 24 Apr 1835 and logged "pF; lE; glbM; 50" long."  A second observation called this galaxy "pF; R; gpmbM; 45"; in a field full of small stars."

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NGC 6157 = MCG +09-27-039 = CGCG 276-018 = PGC 58101

16 25 48.4 +55 21 38

V = 14.5;  Size 0.6'x0.5';  PA = 19d

 

17.5" (6/20/87): very faint, very small, almost round, brighter core.  A mag 15 star is off the SW edge just 20" from the center.  Located 13' ENE of mag 7.0 SAO 29930.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 6157 = Sw IV-34 on 28 Jun 1886 and recorded "eeF; pS; R; v diff."  His position is fairly accurate.

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NGC 6158 = MCG +07-34-041 = CGCG 224-031 = Holm 749a = PGC 58198

16 27 40.9 +39 22 59

V = 13.7;  Size 0.9'x0.6';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 81d

 

18" (8/12/10): fairly faint, small, slightly elongated E-W, 25"x20", sharply concentrated with a very small bright core.  PGC 58195, an extremely faint companion, is just 28" SE.

 

13.1" (5/26/84): faint, very small, round.  Located 2.1' NW of a mag 10 star and 5.3' N of a second mag 10 star.  Brighter than the faint companions of NGC 6166.  Located 14' SW of NGC 6166 in AGC 2199.

 

WH discovered NGC 6158 = H II-647 on 17 Mar 1787 (sweep 715) and recorded "F, S, iF.  Discovered with 300, but I could see very well with the sweeping power.  The time inaccurate."  His rough position is ~1 min of RA east of CGCG 224-031 = PGC 58198.  Herman Schultz measured an accurate position (used in the NGC) at the Uppsala Observatory.

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NGC 6159 = UGC 10397 = MCG +07-34-038 = CGCG 224-029 = PGC 58185

16 27 25.1 +42 40 47

V = 14.2;  Size 1.1'x1.0';  Surf Br = 14.2

 

17.5" (7/1/89): faint, easy with direct vision, small, round, bright core.  Collinear with mag 8.8 SAO 46092 5.4' W and a mag 11 star 2.6' W.  Pair with CGCG 224-033 3.4' SE.  The companion was very faint, very small, round, bright core, stellar nucleus.

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 6159 = St X-30 on 20 Jul 1879.  His position is accurate.

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NGC 6160 = UGC 10400 = MCG +07-34-042 = CGCG 224-032 = PGC 58199

16 27 41.2 +40 55 36

V = 13.2;  Size 1.8'x1.5';  Surf Br = 14.3;  PA = 65d

 

18" (7/29/08): moderately bright, fairly small, elongated 5:3 SW-NE, ~40"x25", very small bright core ~10"x6".  Two mag 14 stars are at the NE end.  A few times I glimpsed an extremely faint star or stellar galaxy (2MASX J16273992+4054518) just off the SW end.  A number of faint galaxies are huddled nearby with LEDA 214502 3.1' S, LEDA 214501 4' NE, LEDA 2173685 7' ENE, LEDA 87321 8' ESE, 2MASX J16282511+4051298 9' SE and LEDA 2171275 10' SW.

 

LEDA 214502:  extremely faint, very small, 15" diameter.

LEDA 214501: extremely faint and small, round, 6" diameter, requires averted.

LEDA 2173685: very faint, very small, slightly elongated, 12"x9".

LEDA 87321: faint, small, round, 20" diameter, very small slightly brighter core.

2MASX J16282511+4051298: faint, small, round (elongated on DSS), 22" diameter, very small brighter core.

LEDA 2171275: very faint, small, slightly elongated, 20"x15".

 

17.5" (7/5/86): fairly faint, fairly small, oval WSW-ENE, small brighter core.  Two mag 14 stars are just off the NE side 23" and 37" from the center.  Member of the galaxy cluster AGC 2197 with NGC 6146 28' WSW.

 

13.1" (8/5/83): faint, diffuse, moderately large, slightly elongated, extremely faint star at the NE edge.  Located 28' E of NGC 6146.

 

WH discovered NGC 6160 = H II-652 = h1960 on 18 Mar 1787 (sweep 718) and noted "F, pL, r."  CH's reduced position is 10 sec of RA east of UGC 10400.  JH made two observations and measured an accurate RA.

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NGC 6161 = MCG +06-36-046 = CGCG 168-013 = HCG 82C = PGC 58235

16 28 20.6 +32 48 38

V = 14.7;  Size 0.7'x0.3';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 159d

 

24" (7/15/15): at 375x; fairly faint, small, elongated nearly 2:1 N-S, 24"x12", very small bright nucleus.  A mag 16 star is at the south tip.

 

24" (6/16/12): at 322x this member of HCG 82 appeared faint to fairly faint, small, elongated 2:1 N-S, 0.4'x0.2,' very small brighter nucleus.

 

18" (6/7/08): this is the third brightest member of the HCG 82 quarter.  At 260x it appeared very faint, small, elongated ~5:2 N-S, 33"x12".  Located 2.3' S of NGC 6162.  HCG 82D, the faintest member, lies 50" WNW.

 

18" (8/3/05): the third brightest member of HCG 82 appeared very faint, very small, slightly elongated N-S, just 0.3'x0.2'.  Forms the southwest vertex of a small right triangle with NGC 6162 2.2' N and NGC 6163.  The difficult 4th member, PGC 58231 is just 48" west.

 

17.5" (8/14/96): the third brightest member of HCG 82 appears very faint, very small, elongated 2:1 ~N-S, slightly  brighter core.  In a compact quartet with HCG 82D 50" WNW and NGC 6162 = HCG 82A 2.3' due north.

 

17.5" (7/1/89): very faint, very small, low even surface brightness.  In a tight trio (HCG 82 group) with NGC 6162 2.3' N and NGC 6163 2.6' NNE.  Located 10' NE of mag 7 SAO 65320.

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 6161 = St I-4, along with NGC 6162 and 6163, on 30 Jun 1870.  His positions are accurate.

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NGC 6162 = UGC 10403 = MCG +06-36-047 = CGCG 168-014 = HCG 82a = PGC 58238

16 28 22.3 +32 50 57

V = 13.6;  Size 0.9'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.0;  PA = 30d

 

24" (7/15/15): at 375x; fairly faint, small, slightly elongated SSW-NNE, 24"x20", very small bright nucleus.

 

24" (6/16/12): at 322x appeared fairly faint, small, slightly elongated SSW-NNE, 0.4'x0.3', very small bright core.  Slightly smaller and fainter NGC 6263 lies 1.2' E.

 

18" (6/7/08): faint, small, elongated 4:3 SW-NE, 0.4'x0.25'. Forms a similar pair with slightly fainter NGC 6163 just 1.2' E in the HCG 82 quartet.  Located 10' NE of mag 6.9 HD 148616 (best to keep out of the field).

 

18" (8/3/05): the brightest member of HCG 82 appeared fairly faint, small, slightly elongated SSW-NNE, 0.4'x0.3'.  Contains a very small slightly brighter core with direct vision.  Forms a very close pair with NGC 6163 = HCG 82B just 1.2' E and a right triangle with NGC 6161 2' S.

 

17.5" (8/14/96): this galaxy is the brightest in the very compact HCG 82.  Appears faint, small, slightly elongated, ~30" diameter, slightly brighter core, very faint stellar nucleus.  In the quartet are NGC 6163 1.2' E, NGC 6161 2.3' S and HCG 82D 2.5' SW.

 

17.5" (7/1/89): faint, small, round, bright core.  Brightest of HCG 82 with NGC 6163 1.2' E and NGC 6161 2.3' S.  Located 10' NE of mag 7 SAO 65320.

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 6162 = St I-5, along with NGC 6161 and 6163, on 30 Jun 187.  His micrometric position is very accurate.

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NGC 6163 = MCG +06-36-048 = CGCG 168-015 = HCG 82b = PGC 58250

16 28 27.8 +32 50 47

V = 14.4;  Size 0.8'x0.45';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 54d

 

24" (7/15/15): at 375x; fairly faint, small, elongated N-S, 24"x18", very small bright nucleus.

 

24" (6/16/12): at 322x this member of HCG 82 appeared faint to fairly faint, small, elongated N-S, 0.4'x0.25' very small brighter nucleus.  Forms a very close pair with NGC 6162 1.2' W.

 

18" (6/7/08): just slightly fainter than similar NGC 6162 1.2' W.  At 260x appeared faint, small, elongated N-S, 0.4'x0.25'.  NGC 6161 lies 2.7' SW.

 

18" (8/3/05): second brightest member of HCG 82 appeared faint, small, slightly elongated N-S, 0.4'x0.3'.  Appears pretty similar to NGC 6162 1.2' W, but it slightly fainter with a less concentrated core.

 

17.5" (8/14/96): second brightest of four in HCG 82 located just 1.2' following NGC 6162.  Appears very faint, small, slightly elongated, ~30" diameter.  More weakly concentrated and slightly fainter than NGC 6162 but has a similar size.

 

17.5" (7/1/89): faint, very small, elongated N-S, weak concentration.  Second brightest of three in HCG 82 with NGC 6162 1' W and NGC 6161 3' SSW.

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 6163 = St I-6, along with NGC 6161 and 6162, on 30 Jun 1870.  His position is accurate.

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NGC 6164 = ESO 226-EN012 = PK 336-0.1 = Ced 135a = Gum 52 = RCW 107

16 33 52.4 -48 06 40

Size 6'

 

24" (4/11/08 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): this striking bi-polar nebula was quite impressive at 200x and UHC filter.  The two bright loops or arcs are symmetrically placed along the rim, 2.6' NW and 3' SE of center with the southeastern arc brighter.  The interior of the rim is filled with a fainter glow and the entire object forms a slightly elongated, 6.2'x5.2' oval.  The nebula is dominated by the mag 6.8 central star (HD 148937).  Mag 9 HD 148988 lies 3' NE of center.

 

18" (7/8/02 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): this bipolar emission nebula was a startling sight at 171x and UHC filter!  A bright illuminating star (HD 148937 at V = 6.8) is surrounded by two lobes or loops to the NW (NGC 6164) and SE (NGC 6165).  Both loops contain brighter arcs symmetrically placed at the opposite ends.  This is a large object, ~6' diameter, with the southeastern knot a bit brighter.  A mag 9 star is 3' NE, outside the nebulosity.  Located near the midpoint of mag 4.5 Epsilon Normae 1.3¡ NW and NGC 6188/6193 a similar distance SE.

 

JH discovered NGC 6164 = h3633 on 1 Jul 1834, along with NGC 6165, and recorded "Neb violently suspected immediately preceding a double star."  His rough position (marked as approximate in RA and Dec (nearest arcmin)) is less than 2' south of the northwest wing of this large emission shell.  NGC 6165 refers to the southeast wing.

 

Several older sources, including the RNGC, misclassify this object as a planetary nebula.  The illuminating star is a massive, evolved O-star, losing mass from its outer layers through a strong stellar wind  (similar mechanism to the Crescent Nebula = NGC 6188 and Thor's Helmet = NGC 2359).

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NGC 6165 = ESO 226-EN014 = Gum 52 = RCW 107 = Ced 135b

16 34 03 -48 09 12

Size 6'

 

24" (4/11/08 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): this striking bi-polar nebula was quite impressive at 200x and UHC filter.  The two bright loops or arcs are symmetrically placed along the rim, 2.6' NW and 3' SE of center with the southeast arc brighter.  The interior of the rim is filled with a fainter glow and the entire object forms a slightly elongated, 6.2'x5.2' oval.  The nebula is dominated by the mag 6.8 central star (HD 148937).  Mag 9 HD 148988 lies 3' NE of center.

 

18" (7/8/02 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): this bipolar emission nebula was a startling sight at 171x and UHC filter!  A bright illuminating star (HD 148937 at V = 6.8) is surrounded by two lobes or loops to the northwest (NGC 6164) and southeast (NGC 6165).  Both loops contain brighter arcs symmetrically placed at the opposite ends.  This is a large object, ~6' diameter, with the southeast knot a bit brighter.  A mag 9 star is 3' NE, outside the nebulosity.  Located near the midpoint of mag 4.5 Epsilon Normae 1.3¡ NW and NGC 6188/6193 a similar distance SE.

 

JH discovered NGC 6165 = h3634 on 1 Jul 1834, along with NGC 6164, and recorded "F; S; lE; vglbM; 35"; certain; follows a double star."  His position corresponds with the bright arc on the southeast end.  Harold Corwin notes the central star is not double on the DSS.

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NGC 6166 = UGC 10409 = VV 364 = MCG +07-34-060 = CGCG 224-039 = 3C 338 = Holm 751a = PGC 58265

16 28 38.4 +39 33 05

V = 11.8;  Size 1.9'x1.4';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 35d

 

18" (7/13/07): moderately bright, moderately large, oval 4:3 SW-NE, clumpy with a brighter core.  The major axis is collinear with mag 14 star 2.7' NE.  This cD galaxy is surrounded by a swarm of very small, faint galaxies and 10 companions were viewed from Lassen within a 9' circle!

 

17.5" (8/1/92): fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 4:3 SW-NE, broad concentration.  Brightest and largest of seven galaxies in AGC 2199 within a 5' circle!  The following close companions were viewed: NGC 6166A = MCG +07-34-050 2.3' SW, NGC 6166B = MCG +07-34-076  2.9' E, NGC 6166C = MCG +07-34-048 3.1' NW, NGC 6166D = MCG +07-34-056 2.0' S, MCG +07-34-064 4.8' SSE and an anonymous galaxy just off the south edge of NGC 6166.

 

13.1" (5/26/84): fairly faint, fairly small, slightly elongated.  Brightest and largest in A2199.  Several faint companions are near.

 

WH discovered NGC 6166 = H II-875 = h1961 on 30 May 1791 (sweep 1015) and recorded "pB, S, lE, vgmbM."  His position is poor - roughly 20 seconds of RA too far west and 3' too far north.  JH made the single observation "F; S; R." and measured an accurate position.  See Harold Corwin's identification notes for a discussion of the close companions and the letter designations.

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NGC 6167 = ESO 226-SC16 = Cr 305 = Harvard 11

16 34 35 -49 46 18

V = 6.7;  Size 8'

 

22" (6/28/06 - Hawaii): this bright cluster contains roughly 150 stars in a 10' region.  The brightest mag 7.4 star (HD 14919) is on the west edge of the cluster and the richest region is just following this star.  At the east edge of this rich group is a nice double star. Several curving strings and sprays of stars crisscross the cluster.  NGC 6164/6165 lies 1.7¡ north.

 

8" (7/13/91 - Southern Baja): about 50 stars within a 10' diameter at 63x.  Bright, fairly large, rich and pretty with both bright and faint stars.  Includes many faint stars over unresolved haze.  Includes curved arcs of stars and a nice string of stars to the south.  The brightest mag 7.4 star is at the west side.  Located on the Norma-Ara border.  Observation from Baja.

 

James Dunlop discovered NGC 6167 = D 400 = h3635 on 26 Jun 1826 with his 9-inch reflector from Parramatta, New South Wales.  He recorded "a pretty large faint nebula, about 6' diameter, easily resolvable, round figure, with two rows of small stars following."  His position is 13' northeast of center of the cluster.  Apparently D 401 is a duplicate observation: "A very faint cluster of small stars, with a branch extended; the head of the cluster is rich in small stars."  His position for D 401 is 16.5' east-southeast of the cluster and he notes 3 observations.  JH recorded "a large irregular cluster of loose stars 11..14th magnitude which fills field; place that of an 8th magnitude star in the preceding part."

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NGC 6168 = UGC 10434 = MCG +03-42-016 = CGCG 109-028 = PGC 58423

16 31 21.4 +20 11 06

V = 14.3;  Size 1.4'x0.3';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 111d

 

17.5": very faint, fairly small, very elongated WNW-ESE.  A mag 14.5 star is attached at the east end 39" from center.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 6168 = Sw I-46 on 21 May 1884 and recorded "eeF; vE; F * at p[receding] end; v diff." There is nothing at his position, and CGCG 109-025, 4' north-northwest, is small and round.  When Howe observed the field in 1899-00, he remarked "The "F * at p end" I did not see."  His position, though, matches CGCG 109-025.

 

A more likely candidate, though, is UGC 10434, which is 80 seconds of RA east of Swift's position.  This galaxy fits the comment "vE" and has a star at its end, but on the following side.  Neither UGC (10434), MCG (+03-42-016) or CGCG (109-028) label this galaxy as NGC 6168, though it is taken as NGC 6168 in the RNGC.

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NGC 6169 = Mu Normae Cluster = Cr 306 = ESO 276-SC005

16 34 05 -44 02 42

Size 7'

 

18" (4/5/16 - Coonabarabran, 139x and 236x): at low power a number of scattered stars surround mag 4.9 Mu Normae, but these are not eye-catching or cluster-like as the star density is high in this area, especially to the north and west.  At 236x, a number of very faint stars surround Mu itself, particularly in a wreath-like shape on the north side and a east-west trending chain of mag 12-13.5 stars about 5' south.  A nice triangle of mag 12 stars (sides ~1') lies 4' S of Mu.

 

JH discovered NGC 6169 = h3636 on 1 Jun 1834 and recorded "Cluster; place of a * Mu Normae in it."

 

The 1973 study by Vogt and Moffat "Southern Open Star Clusters III." (1973A&AS...10..135M) states "According to the Catalogue of Star Clusters and Associations this cluster has a diameter of 7' and is centered on the bright super-giant mu Nor. However, there is no obvious clustering here. To check this, three stars close to mu Nor were observed which show no genetic relation to one another or to mu Nor."  A 2011 study ("A Catalog of 120 NGC Open Star Clusters") also found no CMD could be determined, so this group is an asterism.

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NGC 6170 = NGC 6176 = MCG +10-23-076 = CGCG 298-038 = PGC 58188

16 27 36.4 +59 33 45

V = 13.8;  Size 0.5'x0.5';  Surf Br = 12.4

 

See observing notes for NGC 6176.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 6170 = Sw IV-35 on 9 Jul 1886 and recorded "eeF; vS; R; in vacancy; many pB stars south; e diff."  His position is 39 seconds of RA west of CGCG 298-038 = PGC 58188 and his description is a perfect match.  Swift found this galaxy again less than 3 months later and published it in list V-70 = NGC 6176, with a very similar description.

 

Jack Sulentic, in the RNGC, equated NGC 6170 = NGC 6176 and Harold Corwin concurs.  By prior discovery, this galaxy should be identified as NGC 6170, but it is known as NGC 6176 because of the accurate position.

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NGC 6171 = M107

16 32 31.9 -13 03 13

V = 8.1;  Size 13'

 

18" (7/26/06): beautifully resolved at 325x and framed by three mag 11.5-12.5 stars to the east, west and south.  In the halo, roughly 35-40 stars were resolved and in addition the bright 1.5' core was partially resolved into a large number of densely packed stars.  The cluster extends roughly to 6'x4.5', reaching the bright stars off the east and west side and elongated E-W at least 4:3.

 

17.5" (7/10/99): this bright globular was well resolved at 220x, with a ~5'x3' halo elongated in an E-W orientation although the sharply defined core is circular and ~2' in diameter.  Enclosing the globular on the west, east and south sides are brighter mag 11.5-12.5 stars.  Roughly 30 stars are scattered throughout the outer halo at 280x and a couple of dozen densely packed stars overlay the core of the globular in steady moments.

 

13" (6/19/82): bright core with several faint stars resolved in the halo and a few stars resolved at the edge of the core.

 

8": bright core, fainter halo, mottled.  A few stars are visible at the northwest edge.

 

15x50 IS binoculars: faint but not difficult.

 

Pierre MŽchain discovered M107 = NGC 6171 = H VI-40 = h3637 in April 1782 and described to Johann Bernoulli in a letter dated 6 May 6 1783: "In April 1782 I discovered a small nebula in the left flank of Ophiuchus between the stars Zeta and Phi, the position of which I have not yet observed any closer."  This was the last of Mechain's discoveries.  WH independently found the globular on 12 May 1793 (sweep 1043) and called it "a very beautiful extremely compressed cluster of stars, extremely rich, R, about 5 or 6' dia, gradually more compressed toward the center."  It was found again by Karl Harding around 1823 and reported as new.  JH, observing from the Cape of Good Hope on 5 Jun 1836, recorded "Globular; v rich; gpmbM; diam in RA = 20.0s; that of the most compressed part 4.5s; stars well separated."

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NGC 6172 = UGC 10352 = MCG +00-42-003 = CGCG 024-009 = IC 1213 = PGC 57937

16 22 10.2 -01 30 54

V = 12.8;  Size 1.0'x1.0';  Surf Br = 12.8

 

17.5" (7/24/95): fairly faint, small, round, 30" diameter.  Moderate concentration with a very small bright core which stands out well surrounded by a small halo.  Preceded by three mag 13 and 14 stars within 3'.  Located 9' NW of a mag 10 star and 11' NE of a similar star. Incorrectly listed as nonexistent in RNGC.  Identified as IC 1213 in UGC, MCG.

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 6172 = St XIII-86 on 21 Jun 1884.  Due to a misprint in Stephan's list XIII, the RA is 10 tmin too large.  The position for his comparison star (SAO 141069) is 16 16 19.5 -01 38 55 (2000) and once this correction is applied the recomputed coordinates for NGC 6172 matches UGC 10352.  The error was caught and corrected by Esmiol in his 1916 re-reduction of Stephan's position.  Esmiol dropped NGC 6172 from the list and adds an anonymous nebula at the position of UGC 10352.

 

Lewis Swift found this galaxy on 19 Apr 1890, and reported Sw IX-61 = IC 1213 as "F; vS; R."  His RA is 9 seconds too small.  So, NGC 6172 = IC 1213 with priority to Stephan's observation.

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NGC 6173 = UGC 10421 = MCG +07-34-083 = CGCG 224-049 = PGC 58348

16 29 45.0 +40 48 40

V = 12.1;  Size 1.9'x1.4';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 140d

 

18" (7/29/08): moderately bright, moderately large, elongated 3:2 NW-SE, 0.7'x0.45', contains a large bright core that gradually increases to the center.  Nearby companions included PGC 58358 1.6' NE and NGC 6174 3.7' N.  Mag 7.9 HD 149025 lies 8.5' SE.

 

17.5" (7/5/86): moderately bright, moderately large, strong bright core, oval NW-SE.  One of the brightest and largest members of AGC 2197.  NGC 6174 lies 3.5' N and NGC 6175 11.3' SSE.  Located 8.5' NW of mag 7.9 SAO 46127.

 

13.1" (8/5/83): fairly faint, moderately large, brighter core, slightly elongated.  A mag 8 star is 9' SE.

 

WH discovered NGC 6173 = H III-640 = h1962 on 18 Mar 1787 (sweep 718) and noted "vF, vS."  His position is accurate.

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NGC 6174 = MCG +07-34-085 = IV Zw 63 = PGC 58351+ 58350

16 29 47.7 +40 52 19

V = 14.5;  Size 0.4'x0.4';  Surf Br = 12.4

 

18" (7/29/08): faint, small, slightly elongated, 20" diameter.  Appears to have an extremely faint star involved.  This is a double system (IV Zw 63) with a nearly stellar companion on the northwest side, and the "star" I noted is a compact galaxy (PGC 58350).

 

CGCG 224-047 = PGC 58334 lies 4.5' W.  This galaxy was also discovered and sketched in the Birr Castle observation and Harold Corwin favors it as NGC 6174.  CGCG 224-047 appeared faint, small, round, 25" diameter, even surface brightness.  MCG +07-34-081 = PGC 58321 lies 2.5' further southwest and appeared faint, small, round, 20" diameter, low even surface brightness.

 

17.5" (7/5/86): very faint, small, slightly elongated, requires averted vision.  Located 3.5' N of NGC 6173 in AGC 2197.  This is a double system (unresolved).

 

George Johnstone Stoney, LdR's observing assistant, discovered two new nebulae in the field of NGC 6173, on 26 May 1849.  The 1861 LdR publication notes, "another near" in the entry for NGC 6160, 6173 and 6175.  But the 1880 LdR monograph includes a diagram and states, "3 new neb as in diagram, double star suspected in Alpha, Beta faint, Gamma pL & eeF."  The three nebulae shown in the diagram are not labeled, but assuming the arrowed direction is west, the configuration fits NGC 6173 (Gamma), the double system IV Zw 63 = PGC 58350 + 58351 (Alpha, shown with two nuclei on the sketch!) to the north, and CGCG 224-047 = PGC 58334 (Beta) due west of the double system.  The separations indicated on the sketch are too large -- IV Zw 63 is marked 6' north (actual separation is just under 4') and CGCG 224-047 is marked 8' to its west (actual separation is 4.5').  Two years later (30 May 1851) Bindon Stoney confirmed "Alpha is a double neb, Gamma is vF."  Dreyer added the comment "diagram agreeing with the one made in 1849."

 

JH only included a single LdR nova in the GC based on the note in 1861 publication.  In the NGC, Dreyer added a note to NGC 6174, "Second of 3, forming a rectangular triangle, the 2 others being assumed to be h1962 [NGC 6173] and h1963 [NGC 6175], but the identity of the group is doubtful."  RNGC and PGC identify the double system IV Zw 63 = PGC 58350 + 58351 as NGC 6174 (as here).  Harold Corwin and Wolfgang Steinicke favor CGCG 224-047 = PGC 58334, as Dreyer didn't mention NGC 6174 was double.  Both assignments, though, are reasonable.  See Corwin's notes for more.

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NGC 6175 = UGC 10422 = MCG +07-34-087 = CGCG 224-050 = PGC 58362

16 29 57.6 +40 37 50

V = 13.7;  Size 1.3'x0.8';  Surf Br = 13.6;  PA = 100d

 

18" (7/30/08): moderately bright, fairly small, elongated 3:2 WNW-ESE, 30"x20".  The very small brighter core appears offset from the center. A very faint star is just off the WNW edge with a brighter mag 13 star 1.4' ESE.  Located 8' SW of mag 7.9 HD 149025.

 

On the DSS, this is an overlapping double system and my description of an offset core probably refers to the compact companion PGC 200339 on the south side.

 

17.5" (7/5/86): fairly faint, elongated ~E-W, fairly small, brighter core.  Bracketed by a mag 15 star at the west edge and a mag 13 star 1.5' E of center.  Located 11.3' SSE of NGC 6173 in AGC 2197.

 

13.1" (8/5/83): faint, diffuse.  A star is off the east edge.

 

WH discovered NGC 6175 = H III-641 = h1963 on 18 Mar 1787 (sweep 718) and noted "vF, vS."  His position is accurate.

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NGC 6176 = NGC 6170 = MCG +10-23-076 = CGCG 298-038 = PGC 58188

16 27 36.4 +59 33 45

V = 13.8;  Size 0.5'x0.5';  Surf Br = 12.4

 

17.5" (6/20/87): fairly faint, small, slightly elongated, brighter core, stellar nucleus.  Located 30' WSW of NGC 6176.

 

Lewis Swift found NGC 6176 = Sw V-70 on 1 Oct 1886 and recorded "eF; eS; e diff.; in vacancy; 2 others and Comet 1884 I near."  His position is a good match with CGCG 298-038 = PGC 58188 (7 seconds east).  Perhaps one of the "2 others" nearby is NGC 6189.  Swift discovered CGCG 298-038 just 3 months earlier and published it in list IV-35 = NGC 6170.  His earlier position, though, was 39 seconds too far west and apparently he didn't catch the equivalence.  So, NGC 6176 = NGC 6170.  There are several cases where Swift "discovered" a galaxy twice and sometimes published both positions in the same list.

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NGC 6177 = UGC 10428 = MCG +06-36-049 = CGCG 196-072 = PGC 58390

16 30 39.0 +35 03 22

V = 13.6;  Size 1.7'x1.2';  Surf Br = 14.2;  PA = 10d

 

17.5" (7/1/89): faint, small, elongated SSW-NNE, bright core.  A mag 12 is 1.1' NE of center.  Pair with NGC 6179 3.2' NE.

 

WH discovered NGC 6177 = H III-890 = h1964 on 28 May 1791 (sweep 409) and recorded "vF; pL; lE; lbM."  JH logged "F; irr fig; r; 2 or 3 of its stars seen, also on 13m 30" distance nf.  RA reduction fluctuating and uncertain in this sweep."  Nevertheless, his mean position from two sweeps is accurate.  Nearby NGC 6179 was discovered at Birr Castle.

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NGC 6178 = Cr 308 = ESO 276-SC006

16 35 47 -45 38 36

V = 7.2;  Size 4'

 

17.5" (7/4/86): about 15 stars in a triangular outline with mag 8 SAO 226939 at the NW vertex and similar star (SAO 226941) at the south vertex.  A 10th magnitude star marks the NE vertex.  Fainter stars mag 10-14 are inside the triangle.  Appears fairly distinctive in the field.

 

JH discovered NGC 6178 = h3638 on 27 Jul 1834 and noted "middle of a small group of pB stars."  On a later sweep (20 Apr 1836) he recorded "Chief * 9m of a small, bright clustering group of from 12 to 20 pL stars, with stragglers."  His position is accurate.

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NGC 6179 = CGCG 196-073 = PGC 58401

16 30 47.0 +35 06 08

V = 14.9;  Size 0.1'x0.1';  Surf Br = 9.8

 

17.5" (7/1/89): extremely faint and small, stellar nucleus, very small halo with averted.  Located 3.2' NE of NGC 6177.

 

R.J. Mitchell, LdR's assistant, discovered NGC 6179 on 19 Apr 1855.  While observing NGC 6177, he noted "another neb 4' nf, vF, S, has a nucl."

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NGC 6180 = MCG +07-34-095 = CGCG 224-058 = PGC 58386

16 30 34.0 +40 32 21

V = 14.1;  Size 0.9'x0.6';  Surf Br = 13.5;  PA = 9d

 

18" (7/30/08): fairly faint to moderately bright, small, elongated 4:3 ~N-S, 30"x22", gradually increases to a very small bright core and faint stellar nucleus.  Forms a close 1.7' pair with MCG +07-34-097 to the southeast.

 

MCG +07-34-097 appeared very faint, very small, round, 20", low even surface brightness.  Forms a close 1.7' pair to the SE of brighter NGC 6180.

 

17.5" (5/23/87): faint, very small, round, bright core, stellar nucleus.  A pair of mag 11/12 stars oriented E-W are 2.5' WSW and 3.7' WSW, respectively.  Located on the east side of the core of AGC 2197.

 

17.5" (7/5/86): fairly faint, very small, round, stellar nucleus. Two stars preceding.

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 6180 = St VII-8, along with NGC 6184, on 23 Jun 1876.  His position is accurate.

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NGC 6181 = UGC 10439 = MCG +03-42-020 = CGCG 109-031 = PGC 58470

16 32 21.2 +19 49 32

V = 11.9;  Size 2.5'x1.1';  Surf Br = 12.8;  PA = 175d

 

17.5": fairly bright, moderately large, elongated N-S, gradually increases to a small bright core, mottled appearance, brighter along the major axis.  There is a hint of arm structure at the north and south ends.

 

8" (4/24/82): fairly faint, elongated N-S, bright core.

 

WH discovered NGC 6181 = H II-753 on 28 Apr 1788 (sweep 835) and recorded "pF, pS, mbM, vlE."  There is nothing at his position but 40 sec of RA west and 3' north is UGC 10439 (only fairly bright galaxy around).  A second observation on 24 May 1791 (sweep 1007) is accurate.

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NGC 6182 = UGC 10424 = MCG +09-27-048 = CGCG 276-024 = PGC 58338

16 29 34.2 +55 31 03

V = 13.5;  Size 1.7'x0.6';  Surf Br = 13.4;  PA = 146d

 

17.5" (6/20/87): fairly faint, fairly small, small bright core, thin fainter extensions NW-SE.  Located 3.0' SE of mag 9 SAO 29964.  Forms a pair with CGCG 276-023 2.1' SSW.  The companion appeared very faint, very small, elongated ~E-W, brighter core, visible continuously with averted at 222x.

 

17.5" (6/18/88): faint, small, small bright core, elongated NW-SE.

 

WH discovered NGC 6182 = H III-813 on 24 Apr 1789 (sweep 928) and logged "vF, vS, iR."  His position (CH's reduction) is 25 sec of time following UGC 10424, the only nearby galaxy he might have picked up.  Bigourdan measured an accurate position on 19 Jul 1884.

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NGC 6183 = ESO 069-008 = PGC 58785

16 41 41.9 -69 22 21

V = 13.8;  Size 1.6'x0.6';  Surf Br = 13.6;  PA = 36d

 

14" (4/3/16 - Coonabarabran, 184x and 230x): fairly faint, moderately large, very elongated 7:2 SW-NE, 1.0'x0.3', contains a small brighter core.  A mag 13 star is 1.3' SSW of center and mag 8.5 HD 149556 is 3.8' SW.   Located 42' SW of mag 1.9 Alpha TrA (Atria).

 

ESO 069-009 lies 38' NE, just 7' SSW of orangish Atria. It was a challenging object due to the glare of the bright star, but appeared faint, moderately large, slightly elongated, 0.9'x0.7', low surface brightness, weak concentration.  The best view was at 230x with Atria kept outside of the field.  A mag 8.5 star is 5' W.

 

JH discovered NGC 6183 = h3639 on 25 Apr 1835 and noted "vF; eS; R; gbM; 10"."  His single position is accurate.

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NGC 6184 = MCG +07-34-109 = CGCG 224-070 = PGC 58432

16 31 34.5 +40 33 56

V = 14.0;  Size 0.8'x0.5';  Surf Br = 12.4;  PA = 128d

 

18" (7/30/08): faint, small, elongated 3:2 NW-SE, 27"x20", very weak concentration.  Located on the SE end of AGC 2197 and 11' ENE of NGC 6180.

 

17.5" (5/23/87): faint, small, round.  Located 11.6' E of NGC 6180 in AGC 2197.

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 6184 = St VII-9, along with NGC 6180, on 23 Jun 1876.  His positions for both galaxies are accurate.

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NGC 6185 = UGC 10444 = MCG +06-36-052 = CGCG 196-077 = PGC 58493

16 33 17.8 +35 20 32

V = 13.3;  Size 1.2'x0.9';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 0d

 

17.5" (7/1/89): faint, small, elongated SSW-NNE, weak concentration.  A mag 12 star is 45" N of center.

 

JH discovered NGC 6185 = h1965 on 27 Apr 1827 and recorded "F; S; R; gbM; has a * 11m 75¡ np (by diagram)."  His position is just off the east side of UGC 10444, though the nearby star is due north.

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NGC 6186 = UGC 10448 = MCG +04-39-015 = CGCG 138-038 = PGC 58523

16 34 25.5 +21 32 26

V = 12.9;  Size 1.5'x1.2';  Surf Br = 13.4

 

17.5": fairly faint, fairly small, small bright core, substellar nucleus, faint extensions SW-NE.

 

WH discovered NGC 6186 = H III-730 on 28 Apr 1788 (sweep 835) and recorded "eF, vS, E."  His position is good.  11 minutes later he noted the "moon very bright" and ended the short sweep.

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NGC 6187 = MCG +10-23-079 = CGCG 298-042 = PGC 58429

16 31 36.6 +57 42 24

V = 14.3;  Size 0.5'x0.4';  Surf Br = 12.4

 

17.5" (6/20/87): faint, small, round, bright core.  Located 3.4' S of a mag 8 star and 8.2' SSE of mag 7.7 SAO 29975.

 

17.5" (6/18/88): faint, very small, round, slightly brighter core.  Located 3' S of a mag 8 star.

 

Charles Augustus Young discovered NGC 6187 on 5 Oct 1883 with the 23" Clark refractor at Halsted Observatory while observing Comet Pons-Brooks.  His discovery position in Sidereal Messenger, Vol II, 252 matches CGCG 298-042 = PGC 58429.

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NGC 6188 = ESO 226-EN019 = RCW 108 = Gum 53 = Ced 136a

16 40 06 -48 39 42

Size 20'x12'

 

18" (7/10/02 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): With the 27mm Panoptic at 76x and UHC filter, this is an amazing region of bright and dark nebulosity involving open cluster NGC 6193 and extending throughout the entire 51' field in a N-S orientation. The bright nebulosity is split into two large sections by a dark lane that runs N-S.  The eastern portion is the most prominent and includes the scattered cluster NGC 6193 and its three brighter stars (5.6/6.8/7).  On the southern end of this section the nebulosity tapers down towards the SW corner, 15'-20' from the core of the cluster.  The western rim of the nebula is sharply defined with a locally brighter, crisp edge delineated by the dark river that meanders N-S throughout the field.  The eastern and northern ends fade into the rich Milky Way background field.

 

A nearly perfect ellipse of moderately bright stars is just SW of the main body of the cluster and beyond the edge of nebulosity into the rift.  The center of this ring is within the highest contrast portion of the dark rift although the eastern side of the ring intersects the bright edge.  This 15'x10' loop of stars spans the two sections of nebulosity.

 

The western portion of the nebulosity extends mostly NW of the elliptical ring and is clearly fainter.  The highest contrast is along its eastern rim and runs N-S, roughly parallel to its brighter counterpart on the east side of the rift.  The nebulosity fades towards the north and west with no well-defined edge but again is quite extensive.  The catalogued dimensions of 20'x12' are too small and covers only the brightest portion of this much more extension HII/dark nebula complex.

 

8" (7/13/91 - Southern Baja): very large faint nebulosity which envelops open cluster NGC 6193, about 20' diameter.  Extends roughly E-W through the cluster but also a very long brighter streak oriented N-S extends mainly to the south on the west side of cluster.  This streak is well defined with an abrupt edge but there is no contrast gain with a UHC filter.

 

8" (7/16/82): faint, moderately large, low surface brightness glow on the west side of open cluster NGC 6193.  This object is very low on the horizon from Northern California (less than 3 degrees max elevation).

 

JH discovered NGC 6188 = h3640 on 15 Apr 1836 and recorded "The brightest part of a vL, faint, diffused, branching nebula, which involves in it nf part the star Brisbane 5789, and extends into the cluster D 413 [NGC 6193], which it in part surrounds. No doubt about the nebula, which in the brightest part of it precedes the cluster about 1 min of time. The following stars behind the double star, and quite free of nebula. I presume the neb and cluster to be unconnected."

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NGC 6189 = NGC 6191? = UGC 10442 = MCG +10-23-081 = CGCG 298-043 = CGCG 299-003 = PGC 58440

16 31 40.9 +59 37 35

V = 12.7;  Size 1.9'x0.9';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 20d

 

17.5" (6/20/87): moderately bright, moderately large, oval SSW-NNE, the halo is weakly concentrated but has a sharp stellar nucleus or star superimposed.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 6189 = Sw II-41 on 3 Aug 1885 and recorded "vF; pS; lE; v coarse double star nr, forming with it an equilateral triangle."  His position and description matches UGC 10442.  It's possible that Swift found this galaxy again on 6 Jul 1886 and recorded it in discovery list IV-36 = NGC 6191, but with a 50' error in declination.  Swift mentioned two stars preceding and but the "v coarse double star nr" is following, so this equivalence is not certain.

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NGC 6190 = UGC 10443 = MCG +10-23-082 = CGCG 298-044 = CGCG 299-004 = PGC 58458

16 32 06.6 +58 26 20

V = 12.6;  Size 1.4'x1.3';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 60d

 

17.5" (6/18/88): faint, small, slightly elongated, even surface brightness.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 6190 = Sw II-42 on 30 Oct 1883 and recorded "vF; pS; R; F * nr."  His position is at the west edge of UGC 10443 and a mag 14 star is 1' northeast.

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NGC 6191 = NGC 6189? = UGC 10442 = MCG +10-23-081 = CGCG 298-043 = CGCG 299-003 = PGC 58440

16 31 40.9 +59 37 35

V = 12.7;  Size 1.9'x0.9';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 20d

 

See observing notes for NGC 6189.  Identification uncertain.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 6191= Sw IV-36 on 6 Jul 1886 and recorded "pF; pL; E; 2 stars near preceding." There is nothing near his position.  If Swift made a 50' error in declination, then NGC 6191 = UGC 10442, though the two nearby star are following.  Swift discovered this galaxy on 3 Aug 1885, and it was catalogued in list II-41 = NGC 6189.  As expected, Bigourdan was unable to find NGC 6191.  RNGC classifies the number as nonexistent and the equivalence with NGC 6189 is very uncertain.  See Harold Corwin's identification notes for additional candidates.

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NGC 6192 = Cr 309 = Mel 149

16 40 24 -43 22 00

Size 8'

 

8" (6/19/82): 20 faint stars mag 11-12.5 over unresolved haze, small, fairly rich with averted.  Easy to identify in the field, though very far south.

 

James Dunlop discovered NGC 6192 = D 483 = h3641 on 13 May 1826 and recorded "a cluster of very minute stars, of a round figure, about 4' diameter, following v Normae."  He made 3 observations and his position is less than 4' north of center of the cluster.  D 470 is probably a duplicate observation but his position is 19' too far east.

 

On 1 Jun 1834, JH logged "Cluster VII, pretty rich, irr R, gbM, 10', stars 12..14th mag, a straggling group."  Two nights later, he called it "a coarse but rich cluster of stars 11.12th mag, which leaves dark lines unoccupied, forming sections (see fig 4, Plate V)."  The central section in his sketch shows 4 circular wedges separated by dark lanes.

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NGC 6193 = Cr 310 = ESO 226-SC020 = Gum 53 = Ced 136b

16 41 20 -48 45 48

V = 5.2;  Size 15'

 

18" (7/10/02 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): ~75 stars in a 15' field at 117x surrounding the bright double star h4876 (5.6/6.8 at 10") with a mag 7 star on the west side.  There are also a couple of very faint mag 15 companions to the bright double.  The three bright stars are encased in nebulous halos which respond to UHC filters.  The cluster itself is scattered with no central concentration and includes a mixture of mostly bright and some very faint stars.  A perfect ellipse of moderately bright stars is just southwest of the main portion of the cluster.  Interestingly, the center of this ring is mostly free of the nebulosity that permeates the field (see NGC 6188 for description) .

 

8" (7/13/91 - Southern Baja): 45 stars in a 15' diameter at 63x.  Includes bright double star mag 5.6/6.8 at 10" separation and mag 7 SAO 227038 6' W.  A circular group of seven fairly bright stars is just east of the double star with a fainter curved string of stars in the center.  There are several brighter stragglers on the east side.  Generally spread out with no rich regions.  Extensive nebulosity is involved (see NGC 6188).

 

8" (7/17/82): three bright stars including h4876 (6.0/7.0 at 10").  Many faint stars are visible with averted vision.  Includes emission/reflection nebula NGC 6188.  Extreme southern object for observation from Fiddletown (Sierra foothills).

 

James Dunlop discovered NGC 6193 = D 413 = h3640 with his 9-inch f/12 reflector from Parramatta, New South Wales.  He reported "A cluster of small stars, with a bright star in the preceding side. A very considerable branch or tail proceeds from the north side, which joins a very large cluster."

 

On 15 Apr 1836, JH described a "cluster VIII; consists of about a dozen stars 10..11m, and perhaps as many less, with stragglers, which fill field. In its preceding part is a fine double star [HJ 4876] and yet more preceding is a vL, faint nebula [NGC 6188], in which the preceding part of the cl is involved."

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NGC 6194 = MCG +06-36-054 = CGCG 196-082 = PGC 58598

16 36 37.1 +36 12 01

V = 13.6;  Size 0.6'x0.5';  Surf Br = 12.1

 

18" (6/7/08): fairly faint, small, sharply concentrated with a very small bright core surrounded by a 24" halo with averted.

 

17.5" (6/6/86): fairly faint, small, round, bright core.  Member of the NGC 6196 group with UGC 10473 13' NNE.  Located 10' N of mag 7 SAO 65430.

 

13.1" (8/5/83): faint, extremely small, visible without averted.

 

13.1" (7/5/83): faint, very small, requires averted.

 

JH discovered NGC 6194 = h1967 on 27 Apr 1827 and recorded "vF; vS; smbM to a * 12m; 12"."  There is nothing at his single position, but 44 sec of RA west is CGCG 196-082 = PGC 58598.  Herman Schultz measured an accurate micrometric position at the Uppsala observatory.

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NGC 6195 = UGC 10469 = MCG +07-34-118 = CGCG 224-075 = PGC 58596

16 36 32.6 +39 01 41

V = 13.0;  Size 1.5'x1.1';  Surf Br = 13.4;  PA = 45d

 

17.5" (7/1/89): faint, very small, slightly elongated, bright core.  Located midway between a mag 12 star 1.0' WSW and a mag 13 star 1.1' E.

 

WH discovered NGC 6195 = H III-893 = h1966 on 30 May 1791 (sweep 1015) and recorded "eF, vS, iF.   300 confirmed it with some difficulty, but left no doubt."  His position is good. JH made 3 observations, first logging "vF; S; between 2 stars."

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NGC 6196 = IC 4615 = UGC 10482 = MCG +06-36-058 = CGCG 196-088 = PGC 58644

16 37 53.9 +36 04 22

V = 12.9;  Size 2.0'x1.2';  Surf Br = 13.7;  PA = 140d

 

18" (6/7/08): middle and brightest of three on a line.  At 260x it appeared fairly faint, fairly small, slightly elongated, sharply concentrated with a bright, 20" core that increases to a stellar nucleus with direct vision and a 35"x25" halo.  IC 4614 lies 3' NNW and NGC 6197 is 5' SSE.

 

17.5" (6/6/86): brightest in the NGC 6196 group.  Fairly faint, small, slightly elongated NW-SE, bright core, fairly faint stellar nucleus.  A pair of mag 15 stars are 1.3' S and 1.3' SSE.  NGC 6196 is the middle of a linear trio with IC 4614 3.0' NNW and NGC 6197 = IC 4616 4.8' SSE.  An extremely faint galaxy (2MASX J16374842+3603393) lies 1.3' SW.

 

13.1" (8/5/83): fairly faint, bright core.

 

13.1" (7/5/83): faint, small, round, small bright core.  Brightest in group located 45' W and 24' S of M13!

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 6196 = m 311, along with NGC 6197 and 6199, on 9 Jul 1864 and noted "vF, vs, stellar."  There is nothing at his position,  but 39 seconds of RA east and 1.6' south is UGC 10482.  The same offset applies to NGC 6197 = CGCG 196-089.  Because of Marth's poor position, Bigourdan found NGC 6196 again on 28 Aug 1886, reported it as new (B. 325) and Dreyer catalogued it as IC 4615.  So, NGC 6196 = IC 4615. 

 

MCG and CGCG label this galaxy as IC 4615 and UGC does not use either the NGC or IC designation.  See Harold Corwin's notes for more on this field.

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NGC 6197 = IC 4616 = MCG +06-36-059 = CGCG 196-089 = PGC 58655

16 37 59.8 +35 59 43

V = 14.5;  Size 0.6'x0.3';  Surf Br = 12.5;  PA = 38d

 

18" (6/7/08): faint, small, elongated 3:2 SW-NE, 20"x14".  Located 5' SSE of NGC 6196 and second brightest in chain of three galaxies.

 

17.5" (6/6/86): faint, very small, almost round.  A mag 12.5 star lies 1.5' SE.  This is the second brightest and furthest south in a trio with NGC 6196 4.8' NNW and IC 4614 7.6' NNW.  This galaxy is identified as IC 4616 in the CGCG and MCG and RNGC misidentifies NGC 6197 with an extremely faint companion a 1.3' SW of NGC 6196.

 

13.1" (8/5/83): very faint, very small, near visual threshold.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 6197 = m 312, along with NGC 6196 and 6199, on 9 Jul 1864 and noted "eF, E, stellar."  There is nothing at his position, but 39 sec of RA east and 1.4' south is CGCG 196-089 = PGC 58655.  This is the same offset, though, as NGC 6196 = UGC 10482, so the identification is certain.  Because of Marth's poor position, Bigourdan found NGC 6197 again on 28 Aug 1886, reported it as new (B. 426) and Dreyer catalogued it as IC 4616.  So, NGC 6197 = IC 4616. 

 

CGCG, MCG and UGC label this galaxy as IC 4616, though NGC 6197 technically should apply by historical precedence.  RNGC misidentifies PGC 214518 as NGC 6197.  This extremely compact galaxy is situated 1.3' southwest of NGC 6196.  Also, the data listed under RNGC 6199 applies to NGC 6197.  See my RNGC Corrections #1, Malcolm Thomson's article in WSQJ July 1982, and Harold Corwin's identification notes under NGC 6196.

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NGC 6198 = UGC 10467 = MCG +10-24-003 = CGCG 299-007 = PGC 58554

16 35 30.6 +57 29 12

V = 13.6;  Size 1.0'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 90d

 

17.5" (6/20/87): faint, small, slightly elongated, small bright core surrounded by a diffuse halo.  Located 16' S of mag 7.4 SAO 30011.

 

17.5" (6/18/88): very faint, very small, round, low surface brightness.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 6198 = Sw IV-37 on 28 Jun 1886 and recorded "vF; vS; R; forms right angle with 2 stars following."  His position is 12 second east and 1' north of UGC 10467 = PGC 58554 and his description applies to this galaxy.

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NGC 6199

16 39 29.0 +36 03 32

 

=*, Corwin.  Incorrect identification in the RNGC. (R)NGC 6199 = NGC 6197.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 6199 = m 313, along with NGC 6196 and 6197, on 9 Jul 1864 and simply noted "eF".  Marth's positions for both NGC 6196 and NGC 6197 are off by 39 seconds in RA and 1.5' in declination.  Assuming NGC 6199 suffers from the same systematic error, his recomputed position falls very close to a wide pair of mag 12.5 and 15.5 stars. Harold Corwin suggests the fainter star applies to NGC 6199, though this is not certain.

 

RNGC misidentifies NGC 6197 as NGC 6199 and then reassigns NGC 6197 to PGC 214518, located 1.3' southwest of NGC 6196.  See Malcolm Thomson's article on the identifications here in Webb Society Quarterly Journal, July 1982 and in my RNGC Corrections #1.

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NGC 6200 = Cr 311 = ESO 277-SC008

16 44 07 -47 27 48

V = 7.4;  Size 12'

 

22" (6/28/06 - Hawaii): at 110x this large, rich open cluster resolves into roughly 200 stars, extending over one-half the 22mm Panoptic field (~20'x15').  A very close triple star is near the center (one component fainter) and a wider pair lies 3.5' NE.

 

11" (8/8/04 - Haleakala Crater): at 80x perhaps 150 stars were visible in a roughly 20' cluster (the catalogued dimension of 12' appears significantly too small).  Includes roughly 30 brighter mag 9.5-11.5 stars over a rich background of mag 12-14 stars.  No distinct boundary to the cluster.  A mag 7 star is off the SE side.

 

8" (7/13/91 - Southern Baja): about 75 stars in a 20' diameter at 63x.  Bright, large, rich, many stars mag 9-11 over a carpet of faint stars.  Mag 7.1 SAO 227144 is off the SE edge 13' from the center of the cluster.

 

JH discovered NGC 6200 = h3643 on 1 Jul 1834 and recorded "a great space full of milky way stars, so thickly sown as to merit being called a cluster."  His position and description matches this large cluster.

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NGC 6201 = CGCG 138-053 = PGC 58727

16 40 14.4 +23 45 55

V = 14.6;  Size 0.3'x0.2';  Surf Br = 11.4

 

17.5": extremely faint, very small, round.  A mag 14.5 star is at the NE edge 26" from center.  Forms a pair with NGC 6203 about 3' NE.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 6201 = m 314, along with NGC 6203, on 6 Jun 1864 and noted "eF, vS."  His position matches CGCG 138-053 = PGC 58727.

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NGC 6202 = NGC 6226?

16 36 12 +61 57

 

=Not found, RNGC.  =**?, Gottlieb.  =NGC 6226?, Corwin

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 6202 = Sw IV-38 on 9 Jul 1886 and recorded "eeF, pS, * nr following".  There are no candidates near his position and RNGC classifies the number as nonexistent (not found by Sulentic).

 

Harold Corwin suggests NGC 6202 may be a duplicate of NGC 6226 as this galaxy has a mag 11.5 star 2' east and the declination is within a couple of arc minutes. But this implies his RA would be 7 minutes too small, too large for a confident identification, so this number is probably lost.

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NGC 6203 = MCG +04-39-019 = CGCG 138-055 = PGC 58729

16 40 27.4 +23 46 29

V = 14.0;  Size 0.8'x0.8';  Surf Br = 13.4

 

17.5": very faint, very small, round.  A mag 14.5 star is just 27" NNE of center.  Forms a pair with NGC 6201 about 3' SW.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 6203 = m 315, along with NGC 6201, on 6 Jun 1864 and noted "eF, vS."  His position is fairly accurate.  Bigourdan measured a very accurate micrometric position on 14 May 1887.

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NGC 6204 = Cr 312 = ESO 277-SC010 = OCl 982 = vdB-Ha 196 = Lund 723

16 46 09 -47 01 00

V = 8.2;  Size 2.3'

 

22" (6/28/06 - Hawaii): ~100 stars mag 10-14 in an 8' group.  A number of the stars are arranged in interesting chains and loops.  One N-S chain on the east side ends in a knot of bright stars including mag 7.5 HD 150958 and a mag 8.5 star, although this detached group may be a separate cluster (Hogg 22).  Another long curving string of stars (extended N-S) is located in the NE edge of the cluster.  But the richest clustering is a 3' circular group including a nice trio of mag 13 stars with separations of ~10".

 

18" (7/9/02 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): at 171x, this is a bright cluster with roughly 80 stars in a 7' circle.  Near the center is knot of four stars with additional very faint stars huddled around at 228x.  Many of the stars in the cluster are arranged in a few loops and chains.  Most of the brighter stars in the cluster are situated around the edges including a line of four stars at the east edge.  Four bright stars are off the SE side including mag 7.3 SAO 227189 (catalogued as Hogg 22).

 

8" (7/13/91 - Southern Baja): about 40 stars in 8' diameter at 63x.  Rich appearance over an unresolved haze.  A close triple star is in the center with four bright mag 8-9 stars in a tight group off the SE edge (this is a separate cluster Hogg 22).

 

8" (7/16/82): only a few faint stars are visible over unresolved haze but appears to be rich.  This is one of the southernmost clusters I've viewed from Northern California latitude.

 

James Dunlop discovered NGC 6204 = D 442 = h3644 on 13 May 1826 and recorded "seven or eight small stars in a group, about 1' diameter, with a minute line of stars on the north side."  His position is 15' too far northeast, typical of his rough positions.

 

JH first recorded NGC 6204 on 1 Jul 1834 as a "cluster moderately compressed class VIII; stars 11.12th mag; S.f. is a brilliant knot of stars, one of which is 8th mag, and the others 9th magnitude."  On a later sweep he noted a "singular shaped cluster, irregularly round, compressed VII class, set as it were in a nearly rectangular frame of stars detached from cluster."  He included a sketch of the unusual star chains in Plate V, figure 6 and the "brilliant knot of stars" south following is Hogg 22.

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NGC 6205 = M13 = Hercules Cluster

16 41 41.6 +36 27 27

V = 5.8;  Size 16.6'

 

17.5" (7/9/94): several hundred stars in a 10'-12' diameter with a bright central core of 6' diameter.  Many stars are arranged in strings and loops including a distinctive streamer attached on the SE side which heads south and curves west forming a semicircle and another string is attached on the west side of the core and precedes the cluster.  Several chains of stars are also resolved over the 6' core.  Running along the north edge of the core is a starless strip or a long dark lane which separates the central region from the northern outer halo members.  A dark "lane" protrudes into the core on the SE side - this is one of three dark lanes that converge forming a "Y" and referred to as the "Propeller" (first described by Lord Rosse).  NGC 6207 lies 28' NE and extremely faint IC 4617 lies 14' NNE.  HD 150998, a mag 6.8 orange K2 star, lies 17' ENE of center.

 

8": very bright, very large, round, highly resolved into several hundred stars mag 11.5-13.5 over the entire disc.  Includes several star chains and streamers.

 

Naked-eye: fairly easy object in a dark sky, appearing as a dim bloated star.

 

Edmond Halley discovered M13 = NGC 6205 = h1968 in 1714 with a 24-foot (focal length) refractor.  He noted "This is but a little Patch, but it shews it self to the naked Eye, when the Sky is serene and the Moon absent."  Charles Messier independently found the cluster on 1 Jun 1764 and reported (first Messier catalogue), "I have discovered a nebula in the girdle of Hercules, of which I am sure it doesn't contain any star; having examined it with a Newtonian telescope of four feet and a half [FL], which magnified 60 times, it is round, beautiful & brilliant, the center brighter than the borders.."

 

WH, in perhaps his first observation using his 6-inch reflector on 22 Aug 1779, noted M13 was "without stars".  On 16 May 1787 (sweep 739) he recorded "a most beautiful cluster of stars, exceedingly compressed in the middle and very rich, the scattered stars which belong to it extend to 8 or 9' diam.  The most compressed part about 2' or 2 1/2'; the later is R.  The former more irregular."

 

William Parsons (LdR), in his 1850 monograph, noted "an unquestionable curvilinear sweep in the disposition of the exterior stars."  Bond later "confirmed" this spiral structure (seems a case of imagining spiral arrangements in deep sky objects, which was common at the time) in 1860.  Bindon Stoney's sketch on 26 May 1851 was included in the 1861 publication and clearly showed three dark "lanes", sometimes referred to as the "propeller".  The dark lanes were mentioned in numerous observations.

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NGC 6206 = UGC 10506 = MCG +10-24-018 = CGCG 299-009 = IC 1227 = PGC 58723

16 40 08.1 +58 37 02

V = 13.6;  Size 0.7'x0.7';  Surf Br = 12.7

 

17.5" (6/20/87): fairly faint, small, round, small bright core, stellar nucleus.

 

17.5" (6/18/88): faint, very small, round, stellar nucleus.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 6206 = Sw V-71 on 23 Oct 1886 and recorded "pF; eS; R; stellar; 3 vF stars near north point to it."  His position is 22 seconds west of UGC 10506, and his comment about the 3 stars clinches this identification.  Guillaume Bigourdan found the galaxy on 13 Aug 1888 while searching for NGC 6206 at Swift's position and reported it as new (Big. 210).  Dreyer recatalogued the galaxy as IC 1227, though Bigourdan later realized his object was equivalent to NGC 6206 (corrected in Comptes Rendus, 1 Jul 1901).  Dreyer repeated NGC 6206 = IC 2227 in the IC 2 Notes. See Corwin's notes on IC 2227 for the full story.

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NGC 6207 = UGC 10521 = MCG +06-37-007 = CGCG 197-007 = PGC 58827

16 43 03.9 +36 49 57

V = 11.6;  Size 3.0'x1.3';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 15d

 

24" (6/16/12): fairly bright, fairly large, elongated 5:2 NNW-SSE, sharply concentrated with a very small bright core and blazing stellar nucleus or superimposed star.  The outer extensions clearly have an irregular surface brightness and an asymmetric appearance.

 

17.5" (6/6/86): fairly bright, very elongated 3:1 SSW-NNE, bright stellar nucleus, possible asymmetric appearance.  Located 28' NE of M13.  The noted stellar nucleus is likely a superimposed 13th magnitude foreground star.

 

13.1" (8/5/83): moderately bright and large, elongated SSW-NNE.

 

WH discovered NGC 6207 = H II-701 = h1969 on 16 May 1787 (sweep 739) and recorded "pB, pS, E from sp to nf, vgmbM."

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NGC 6208 = Cr 313 = ESO 179-SC014

16 49 28 -53 43 42

V = 7.2;  Size 16'

 

18" (7/9/02 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): best at 76x with 27 Panoptic.  Appeared as a 10' cloud of mostly fainter stars which blends into the surrounding field with many stars arranged in an elongated, curving shape.  Includes one mag 10 star on the south side while the majority are 12-13th magnitude.

 

James Dunlop discovered NGC 6208 = D 364 = h3646 on 28 Jul 1826 and recorded "A round, faint nebula, about 1' diameter, with three small stars in it; a bright star south of the nebula."  His position is 8' south-southwest of the center of the cluster.  On 8 Jul 1834 from the CGH, JH logged "A pretty insulated milky way cluster, class VII of large stars; 8' diameter; stars 9...12th magnitude."  On a second sweep he called it a "cluster class VII; rich; not much compressed in the middle; more than fills field; stars 11...14th mag but chiefly small."

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NGC 6209 = ESO 043-008 = AM 1649-723 = PGC 59252

16 54 57.7 -72 35 12

V = 11.8;  Size 2.0'x1.6';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 10d

 

24" (4/4/08 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): fairly bright, fairly large, oval 3:2 SSW-NNE.  I noticed a faint star or knot at the south end.  A mag 11.5 star is located 4' and a couple of fainter stars are at the SW and SE ends.

 

JH discovered NGC 6209 = h3645 on 28 Jun 1835 and recorded "eF; pL; vgvlbM; 2' dia; quite hopeless, except in the clearest and finest night, and with the mirror bright.".  The next night he confirmed the observation: "Found in the place, and viewed.  It is very visible, and PD is right per index." His position is accurate.

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NGC 6210 = Turtle Nebula = PK 43+37.1 = ·5 = PN G043.1+37.7

16 44 29.4 +23 48 00

V = 8.8;  Size 20"x13"

 

48" (5/5/16): at 488x; extremely bright, high surface brightness planetary, oval 5:4 WSW-ENE, somewhat rectangular main body.  The central star was continuously visible and situated slightly east of center.  A small darker region surrounds the central star.  On close inspection the main body has an irregular outline, is slightly brighter along the north side and bulges out on the southwest end.  A thin fainter "strip" or shell with a much lower surface brightness and a pinkish color encases the main body.  Two or three broad "jets" or wings (broadest at the base) extend out of the halo on the north and south ends (images show the central part is NNW and SSE) with the northern wing more obvious.  A third wing was sometimes visible on the west side.

 

24" (6/12/15): at 375x and 500x; slightly elongated oval disc E-W or WSW-ENE.  The very high surface brightness central region is encased in a small, but obvious lower surface brightness shell.  Extremely faint "wings" appear to extend to the north and south, though the northern extension is more definite.  These are roughly in the direction of the minor axis.

 

28" (7/8/13): viewed at 375x with an "inverse OIII" or central star filter, which dramatically dimmed this extremely high surface brightness green planetary.  Without the filter the central star was not seen at this magnification (the planetary had a strong green color), but with the filter the central star was easily visible!

 

18" (7/20/06): appears as a beautiful light blue cosmic egg at 225x with an extremely high surface brightness.  Appears slightly elongated ~E-W, ~25"x20" with a very faint thin outer envelope.  At 325x and 435x the faint outer halo is obvious, increasing the size ~35"x28" with the elongation possibly WSW-ENE.  Viewed in fairly poor seeing on 7/20 but on 7/22 in good seeing I was able to use as much as 807x.  With these better conditions the surface brightness was irregular and the faint outer shell fairly prominent.  The bright inner disc was oval but not symmetric.

 

17.5" (5/27/00): beautiful bluish oval at 220x, elongated 4:3 E-W, roughly 24"x18".  At 380x, there appears to be a very small fainter halo.  At 500x, the narrow outer envelope is more evident and is elongated in the direction of the major axis, increasing the size to ~30"x20".

 

17.5" (7/4/86): very bright, small blue oval 20"x15" with an unusually high surface brightness.  At 572x, a fainter outer envelope is suspected.  An evenly matched close double star ·2094 = 7.4/7.7 at 1.3" lies 17' SSW.

 

13.1" (7/5/83): very bright, extremely high surface brightness, blue, takes very high power.  The mag 12.6 central star was not seen.

 

Wilhelm Struve discovered NGC 6210 = · 5 = h1970 in 1825 while searching for double stars with the 9.6" Fraunhofer refractor at the Dorpat Observatory in Estonia.  It was included as #5 in a list of 9 "Nebulae dectae" in an appendix to his main catalogue of double stars published in 1827.  He described a "bright planetary nebula, diameter 6", like a star of mag 7".  The planetary was earlier catalogued as a star in Lalande's catalogue of 1801 (LL 30510).

 

JH observed the nebula on 25 May 1830 and recorded, "Struve's fifth nebula, very bright, equal to a star of 8 to 9m, 6" diameter and of uniform light, but with the edges boiling and ragged.  A fine object like a star out of focus".  Vogel observed and sketched the central star with the 27" Grubb refractor at the Vienna observatory on 4 Jun 1883.  He noted a "Bright planetary nebula of elliptical shape.  A delicate star is in the nebula, nearly at the centre.  The nebula is surrounded by a faint elliptical shell."

 

On 5 May 1850, Johnstone Stoney (Lord Rosse's assistant) recorded, "intense blue centre fading off to some distance all around.  Small star nf to which neb nearly extends.  Fancied a projection from the bright centre towards np, but I think it was only fancy."  It is possible, though, that Rosse detected the wing or extension to the northwest!  James Keeler clearly sketched the wings using the Lick 36-inch refractor.

 

Wolfgang Steinicke explained why William Herschel missed NGC 6210 in his sweeps: "On 15 May 1784 he swept the region (sweep 217).  However he stopped for about 30 minutes for star counts, i.e. the sky passed horizontally through the eyepiece.  Unfortunately the strip runs about 1¡ below the nebula, starting 25 tmin west and ending 6 tmin east of it.  Thus the object could not enter his field of view (15').  On 10 April 1785 he inspected the field again (sweep 395), but saw only some Flamsteed stars in the morning twilight.Ó

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NGC 6211 = UGC 10516 = MCG +10-24-027 = CGCG 299-014 = VII Zw 655 = PGC 58775

16 41 27.6 +57 47 01

V = 12.6;  Size 1.7'x1.3';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 105d

 

18" (6/23/09): fairly bright, moderately large, elongated 5:4 SW-NE, 1.2'x1.0', well concentrated.  First of four in a string of the galaxies to the NE (identical redshifts) with NGC 6213 2.2' NE.

 

17.5" (6/18/88): fairly faint, small, round, bright compact core.

 

17.5" (6/20/87): moderately bright, moderately large, almost round, strong bright core, stellar nucleus.  Brightest in chain of four with NGC 6213 2.2' NE.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 6211 = Sw IX-63, along with NGC 6213 on 25 Jun 1887 and recorded "vF; pS; lE; D * nr south points to it."  His position is 3' too far west-northwest, a similar offset as NGC 6213.  Swift's original discovery was sent directly to Dreyer and noted as list VI in the NGC, but wasn't published until list IX in 1890.  Bigourdan measured an accurate position on 27 Aug 1888 and Dreyer published the correct position in the IC 2 Notes.

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NGC 6212 = MCG +07-34-142 = CGCG 224-096 = PGC 58840

16 43 23.2 +39 48 23

V = 14.1;  Size 0.5'x0.5';  Surf Br = 12.6

 

17.5" (7/1/89): very faint, very small, slightly elongated, gradually brightens but no well-defined core.

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 6212 = St II-3 on 26 Jul 1870.  His micrometric position is very accurate.

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NGC 6213 = MCG +10-24-030 = CGCG 299-017 = PGC 58778

16 41 37.2 +57 48 54

V = 14.7;  Size 0.7'x0.4';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 57d

 

18" (6/23/09): faint, small, elongated 2:1 SW-NE, 0.5'x0.25'.  Second of four galaxies in a SW-NE string with NGC 6211 2.2' SW, CGCG 299-018 2.3' NE and CGCG 299-019 6' NE.

 

CGCG 299-018 is very faint, small, elongated 2:1 SSW-NNE, 0.4'x0.2'.  Situated between two stars 1' NW and 1' ESE.  CGCG 299-019 appeared very faint to extremely faint, very small, round, 15" diameter.  Located 1.3' N of a mag 14.5 star.  Faintest of 4 on a line and furthest NE with similar CGCG 299-018 3.9' SW.

 

17.5" (6/18/88): very faint, very small, slightly elongated, low even surface brightness.

 

17.5" (6/20/87): faint, small, elongated WSW-ENE, weak concentration, fairly low surface brightness.  Second of four with NGC 6211 2.2' SW.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 6213 = Sw IX-64, along with NGC 6211 on 25 Jun 1887 and recorded "eF; vS; R; nf of 2."  His position is 2' too far west-northwest, a similar offset as NGC 6213.  Bigourdan measured an accurate position on 27 Aug 1888 and Dreyer published the correct position in the IC 2 Notes.  Swift's original discovery was sent directly to Dreyer and noted as list VI in the NGC, but wasn't published until list IX in 1890.

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NGC 6214 = UGC 10507 = MCG +11-20-024 = CGCG 320-036 = PGC 58709

16 39 31.9 +66 02 22

V = 13.5;  Size 1.0'x0.8';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 145d

 

17.5" (7/9/88): faint, small, slightly elongated, bright core.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 6214 = Sw I-47 = Sw IV-39 on 2 Aug 1884 and recorded "vF; S; R: coarse double star in field north."  His position is an excellent match with UGC 10507.  He found this galaxy again on 3 Aug 1886 and recorded (IV-39) "eF; vS; R; forms a L equilateral triangle with 2 pB stars."  His position was 12 seconds of RA too small (only 1.3') and the description matches.  Dreyer combined both entries into NGC 6214.

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NGC 6215 = ESO 137-046 = PGC 59112

16 51 06.9 -58 59 32

V = 11.5;  Size 2.1'x1.8';  Surf Br = 12.8;  PA = 78d

 

18" (7/8/02 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): moderately bright and large, round, 1.3' diameter, weak concentration.  A mag 12.5 star is superimposed on the north edge ~25" from the center and a couple of additional faint stars are very near or involved.  Situated in a rich star field 11' ENE of mag 3.8 Eta Arae.  Brightest in a group along with NGC 6221 19' SE.

 

JH discovered NGC 6215 = h3647 on 9 Jul 1836 and recorded "pF; R; vglbM; has a yellow * 5m preceding it [Eta Ara], 1min 19s +/- Delta RA, and 3' or 4' south." His single position is on the south side of the galaxy.

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NGC 6216 = NGC 6222 = ESO 277-SC14 = OCL-989 = Mel 152

16 49 25 -44 43 36

Size 4'

 

17.5" (7/4/86): faint, fairly small, ~3' diameter, roundish.  About a dozen faint stars are visible over haze at low power.

 

James Dunlop discovered NGC 6216 = D 454 = h3648 on 13 May 1826 and described "a faint nebula, about 4' or 5' diameter, irregular round figure, easily resolvable into stars; with stars of larger magnitudes scattered in the preceding side of it."  He made 6 observations of the cluster and his published position was 7' southeast of the center of the cluster.  On 1 Jun 1834, JH logged the cluster as "a p rich cl of small stars, 11m and under, broken up into 2 or 3 groups; fill 2/3 of field."  Exactly a month later, he recorded "a round cl of stars 13m; gbM; 4'; with two appendages of stars, n and s, making together a long cluster."

 

Just two nights after his first observation (3 Jun 1834), he found the cluster again, but his position was 1.4 minutes too far east and he assumed it was new!  He recorded h3650 = NGC 6222 as "a vL, v rich cl; not brilliant; not materially comp M; full 20' diameter; stars 12...13m."  His descriptions appear to describe the same object, so NGC 6216 = NGC 6222.

 

RNGC labels the cluster NGC 6222, Lynga as NGC 6216 and ESO as NGC 6216 = NGC 6222.

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NGC 6217 = Arp 185 = UGC 10470 = MCG +13-12-008 = CGCG 355-014 = Kaz 73 = PGC 58477

16 32 39.3 +78 11 54

V = 11.2;  Size 3.0'x2.5';  Surf Br = 13.2

 

48" (10/22/11): at 375x, this beautiful, two-armed barred spiral spans ~2.3'x1.5' NNW-SSE.  A bright central bar is well-defined, mottled and sharply concentrated with an intensely bright, very small nucleus.  A mag 15 star is superimposed just SE of the nucleus.  The bar contains a brighter, mottled patch at the NNW end.  A long spiral arm is attached at this patch and wraps counterclockwise around the north and northwest side.  A thinner second arm on the SSE side wraps around the south side towards the west.

 

18" (9/3/08): this fascinating barred spiral displays subtle spiral structure.  At 280x, the main portion appears to be a large central bar, 1.5'x1.0', oriented NNW-SSE.  The bar is punctuated by an unusually bright stellar nucleus.  An extremely faint star is close SSE along the central bar.  Off the north end of the bar is a faint appendage or arm is attached that gently curves to the SE and increases the overall dimensions to 2'x1.5' .  Off the SSE end of the bar, some very weak haze extends to the southwest (beginning of an arm).

 

17.5" (7/22/01): fairly bright, fairly large, elongated 2:1 NW-SE, ~2.5'x1.5', small bright core.  Contains a bright stellar nucleus.  A very faint star is just off the NW edge.  At the NW end a faint spiral arm is attached to the main body, winding north and then trailing back nearly halfway along the NE flank (this increases the dimensions to ~2.5'x2.0').  With concentration a dark gap is visible between the arm and the main body (bar) of the galaxy.  A very short extension is strongly suggested at the SE end, bending towards the west.  All of these features were sketched and later verified on the DSS.

 

17.5" (5/14/88): bright, fairly large, bright stellar nucleus, elongated.  Irregular appearance; either darker or an indentation on one side (this is probably a gap between the spiral arms).

 

13" (8/24/84): fairly bright, slightly elongated, stellar nucleus, fairly diffuse outer halo.

 

8": faint, fairly small, slightly elongated.

 

WH discovered NGC 6217 = H I-280 on 12 Dec 1797 (sweep 1071) and logged "cB, cL, E, lbM.  The extent points almost to 2 np pB stars, or rather a little on the following side of them.  This is one of the later galaxies he discovered while searching closer to the pole to finish up his third catalogue.

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NGC 6218 = M12

16 47 14.5 -01 56 52

V = 6.8;  Size 14.5'

 

18" (7/11/07): at 325x this globular nearly fills the field and extends roughly 11' in diameter.  Contains a very bright 3.5'x2.5' oval core, extended WNW-ESE.  A mag 10 star with an orange tint is just south of the core, 2' from the center.  Two other mag 10-11 stars lie 4' N and 5' ENE of center in the halo.  The core is plastered with an immense number of mag 12.5-13.5 stars and in the central 2' is an incredibly dense mat of mag 13.5 and fainter stars. Very irregular sprays of stars emanate from the central region and form part of the very scraggly outer halo.

 

17.5" (7/15/99): at 220x this bright cluster is highly resolved over the entire disc.  Appears smaller than M10, perhaps 11'-12' diameter with a fairly well-defined 3.5' core.  Two bright field stars are embedded in the north edge of the halo and a third bright star is off the following end.  A mag 10 star is also superimposed just off the SE edge of the core.  A number of brighter resolved mag 12 stars appear to be grouped into pairs and trios.  There are a couple of hundred fainter stars in the central 8' over unresolved haze.  The outline is very irregular and there are distinctive star-poor areas in the outer halo.

 

13.1" (6/19/82) : bright, large, round, very intense core with faint stars scattered over the core.  The outer halo is highly resolved into scores of stars.  Slightly inferior to M10 in faint stars.

 

8": the outer halo is well resolved and partial resolution of the core.  There are two or three brighter stars in the outer halo.

 

Charles Messier discovered M12 = NGC 6218 = h1971 on 30 May 1764.  Johann Bode independently found M12, along with M10, on 14 Aug 1774.  WH first observed the globular on 21 May 1783, along with several other clusters, using his 8-inch (10-ft focal length) reflector and noted a "cluster of close stars of different sizes."  Using his 18.7-inch (20-ft focal length) on 3 May 1786 (sweep 562), he recorded "a beautiful cluster of very compressed and vS stars; they are however of various magnitudes.  The most compressed part takes up about 2'; the whole not less than 7 or 8'.  Very gradually most compressed in the middle."

 

JH called M12 a "v rich globular cluster.  The stars 10...16m; vgmbM, but has stragglers in lines and branches extending some distance from the condensed part, which is 3' diam.  Comes almost to a blaze in the middle, and has a * 10-11m in the centre."

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NGC 6219 = MCG +02-43-001 = CGCG 081-004 = PGC 58944

16 46 22.5 +09 02 16

V = 14.0;  Size 0.7'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.1

 

17.5" (7/1/89): very faint, very small, round, weak concentration, very faint stellar nucleus.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 6219 = m 316 on 10 Jun 1863 and noted" F, S."  There is nothing at his position (marked as verified) but 28 seconds of time preceding is CGCG 081-004 = PGC 58944.  Hermann Kobold measured an accurate position with the 18-inch refractor at Strasboug Observatory in May 1890.

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NGC 6220 = UGC 10541 = CGCG 25-004 = PGC 58979

16 47 13.2 -00 16 32

V = 13.7;  Size 1.6'x0.9';  Surf Br = 13.9;  PA = 135d

 

17.5" (7/14/93): very faint, very small, slightly elongated NW-SE, broad concentration, faint stellar nucleus.  A mag 15 star is at the SW edge of the halo and an extremely faint mag 16 star is highly suspected at the south edge of the halo.  On the POSS there are several close mag 15-16 stars off the south side.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 6220 = Sw IX-65 and recorded "eeF; pS; iR; 3 F stars south point to it."  His position is 1.5' northeast of UGC 10541 and his description clinches the identification.  The discovery was sent directly to Dreyer, reported as list VI in the NGC, but not published until list IX.

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NGC 6221 = ESO 138-003 = AM 1648-590 = PGC 59175

16 52 46.1 -59 13 07

V = 9.9;  Size 3.5'x2.5';  Surf Br = 12.1;  PA = 5d

 

18" (7/8/02 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): fairly bright, fairly large, slightly elongated N-S, ~2.5'x2.0', broad concentration to a small brighter core.  I was surprised to find a strong impression a spiral arm on the west side of the halo extending to the north and there appeared to be a very small knot at the northern end, probably within this spiral arm.  Brightest in a group with NGC 6215 19' NW.  Located 25' SE of mag 3.8 Eta Arae in a rich Milky Way field.

 

JH discovered NGC 6221 = h3649 on 3 May 1835 and recorded "pF; L; R; glbM; 80"."  On a second sweep (5 Jul 1836), he logged it as a "Globular cluster; pB; pL; R; gbM; 2 1/2' dia; barely resolvable."

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NGC 6222 = NGC 6259 = Cr 322 = Mel 158

17 00 45 -44 39 18

V = 8.0;  Size 10'

 

See observing notes for NGC 6259.

 

JH found NGC 6222 = h3650 on 3 Jun 1834 and recorded "a vL, v rich cl; not brilliant; not materially comp M; full 20' diameter; stars 12..13m."  There is nothing at his position, but Harold Corwin checked the sweep record and found that JH made a transcription error of 10 minutes in RA.  Once this correction is made, his position lands on the southeast of side of open cluster NGC 6259.  Interestingly, he first observed this cluster just two nights previously and placed h3660 = D 456 (later NGC 6259) accurately.  So, NGC 6222 = NGC 6259 and not equal to NGC 6216 as previously assumed.

 

RNGC misidentifies NGC 6216 as NGC 6222 and ESO equates NGC 6222 with NGC 6216.

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NGC 6223 = UGC 10527 = MCG +10-24-040 = CGCG 299-021 = VII Zw 657 = PGC 58828

16 43 04.4 +61 34 44

V = 11.8;  Size 3.5'x2.6';  Surf Br = 14.1;  PA = 88d

 

18" (6/21/09): moderately bright, fairly small, elongated 5:3 NW-SE, 1.0'x0.6'.  Contains a large bright core and a fainter envelope.  UGC 10517 lies 20' SW.

 

17.5" (6/18/88): moderately bright, fairly small, slightly elongated ~E-W, very bright core, faint halo.  Contains a stellar nucleus with direct vision.

 

Heinrich d'Arrest discovered NGC 6223 on 24 Sep 1862, along with NGC 6226, with the 11-inch refractor at Copenhagen.  His position (2 measures) is fairly accurate.  Lewis Swift independently found this galaxy on 16 Aug 1885 and included it in list II-43 with description "pB, vS, R."  His position is 10 seconds of RA too small.

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NGC 6224 = UGC 10555 = MCG +01-43-002 = CGCG 053-010 = PGC 59017

16 48 18.6 +06 18 43

V = 13.5;  Size 0.9'x0.9';  Surf Br = 13.1

 

17.5" (7/1/89): faint, very small, round, small bright core.  A mag 11 star is 1.6' N.  Forms a pair with NGC 6225 5.4' S.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 6224 = Sw IX-66, along with NGC 6225, on 15 Jun 1887 and recorded "eeeF; vS; lE; pB * nr north both in trap; eee diff; np of 2 [with NGC 6225]."  His RA is 9 seconds too large (similar offset as NGC 6224).  The discovery was sent directly to Dreyer, reported as list VI in the NGC, but not published until list IX.

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NGC 6225 = UGC 10556 = MCG +01-43-003 = CGCG 053-011 = PGC 59024

16 48 21.7 +06 13 21

V = 13.8;  Size 0.9'x0.6';  Surf Br = 12.8;  PA = 156d

 

17.5" (7/1/89): faint, very small, slightly elongated.  A mag 16 star is involved at the east edge just 12" from the center.  Pair with NGC 6224 5' N.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 6225 = Sw IX-67, along with NGC 6224, on 15 Jun 1887 and recorded "eF; vS; lE; 2 or 3 vF stars involved; sf of 2 [with NGC 6224]."  His RA is 8 seconds too large (same offset as NGC 6224).  The discovery was sent directly to Dreyer, reported as list VI in the NGC, but not published until list IX.

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NGC 6226 = UGC 10532 = MCG +10-24-043 = CGCG 299-022 = PGC 58847

16 43 23.2 +61 59 02

V = 13.2;  Size 0.7'x0.4';  Surf Br = 11.7;  PA = 68d

 

17.5" (6/18/88): fairly faint, fairly small, oval WSW-ENE, weak concentration.  A mag 12 star is 1.8' ESE.

 

Heinrich d'Arrest discovered NGC 6226 on 24 Sep 1862, along with NGC 6223, with the 11-inch refractor at Copenhagen and noted it formed an equilateral triangle with two mag 12/14 stars.  His single position is ~40" south of UGC 10532.

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NGC 6227 = ESO 332-**5

16 51 33.7 -41 13 50

 

18" (6/12/10): this description assumes NGC 6227 refers to the beautifully rich fields to the east and northeast of mag 5.2 HD 151804 (at 16 51 37.7 -41 13 50), extending over a degree.  At 108x, Tr 24 is a striking, very large, bright scattered grouping that overfills the 56' field with no distinct borders.  A number of the stars appeared to be grouped into long chains with smaller knots and concentrations including vdB-Ha 202 and vdB-Ha 205.  On the northern side is IC 4628, a very large, irregular HII nebula that shows up best with a UHC filter.  On the south edge of IC 4628 is mag 7.2 HD 152723 and 5' SW is a distinctive 8' string oriented NW-SE.  About 20' S of the mag 7.2 star is a mag 6.2 star (V861 Sco) and to the NW is another 20' string extending WNW.  To the south of this string is another 20' string oriented NW-SE that includes vdBH 202.

 

vdB-Ha 202, situated 10' NNW of mag 6.1-6.4 V861 Sco, is located in a beautifully rich region on the SW side of Tr 24. Within this string is a 15" pair of mag 10 stars and just south of a mag 9 situated 2' NW of the double is vdB-Ha 202, a faint, very rich dusting of stars that is elongated ~N-S.  The cluster is dense, just 2' in length and only partially resolved.  A group of faint stars spread out E-W off the south end.

 

vdB-Ha 205, situated 20' NE of vdB-Ha 202, consists of 20 stars mag 7.5 to 13.5 in a distinctive 4' group.  The brightest star is on the NW  side.  The center and south side of the group is devoid of stars.  A smaller clump of stars 7' S of vdB-Ha 205 is catalogued as ESO 332-011.  Another string of stars 7' NE is listed as ESO 332-013.

 

JH discovered NGC 6227 = h3651 on 5 Jun 1834 and noted "A star 5m in a great cl, or an immensely rich milky way patch."  His position corresponds with mag 5.2 HD 151804 at 16 51 37.7 -41 13 50 (2000).  Although the location is definite, the actual size of an "immense" and "great cl" is uncertain.  This star is 45' NW of NGC 6231 but I would assume Herschel is referring to the very rich fields to the east and northeast (Cr 316) which includes Tr 24 and specifically, the rich region around vdB-Ha 202 and vdB-Ha 205, which are 44' and 60' northeast of HD 151804.

 

Burnham's Celestial Handbook mentions this object as a "rich milky way field northwest NGC 6231.  Not a true cluster."  The ESO description reads "Part of Milky way only."  RNGC classifies NGC 6227 as a nonexistent cluster.

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NGC 6228 = UGC 10558 = MCG +04-40-001 = CGCG 139-003 = VV 791 = VV 846 = PGC 59007

16 48 02.9 +26 12 46

V = 13.9;  Size 1.1'x0.6';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 130d

 

17.5": extremely faint, fairly small, edge-on NW-SE, very low surface brightness.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 6228 = m 317 on 28 Jun 1864 and noted "vF, S."  His position is just 1' south-southwest of UGC 10558.

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NGC 6229

16 46 58.8 +47 31 40

V = 9.4;  Size 4.2'

 

18" (7/23/06): at 225x, appears bright, moderately large, slightly elongated, ~3.5' diameter with a blazing core.  Several extremely faint stars pop in and out of view in the halo.  At 435x a number of very faint stars are clearly visible in the halo (roughly two dozen) and the core is quite mottled with several brightness levels towards the center.  The globular forms a perfect equilateral triangle with two 8th magnitude stars 6' W and 6' SW.  While searching for NGC 6229 I ran into a neat little asterism of 6 stars (Leiter 6) located 27' NNW that I had observed the previously month.

 

17.5": bright, fairly small, very bright core, faint mottled halo.  Roughly 10 extremely faint mag 15-16 stars are resolved around the edges of the halo at 280x.  Forms an equilateral triangle with two mag 8 stars 6' W and 6' SW.

 

WH discovered NGC 6229 = H IV-50 on 12 May 1787 (sweep 735) and recorded "vB, R, about 4' dia.  The whole of it is almost equally bright with a faint, resolvable margin."  It was misclassified as a planetary nebula (class IV).  CH's reduced position is 4'-5' too far north.  Giuseppe Bianchi independently found this globular on 11 Jun 1839 and announced the discovery in an AN letter, apparently unaware of WH's prior discovery.

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NGC 6230 = UGC 10575 = MCG +01-43-005 = CGCG 053-014 = PGC 59106

16 50 46.8 +04 36 16

V = 14.5;  Size 0.5'x0.5';  Surf Br = 12.8

 

24" (6/12/15): at 375x; faint, small, round, 18" diameter.  A mag 14.5 star is at the southeast edge. A wide pair of mag 14.1/14.9 stars is less than 1' NW.  Located 5' W of mag 9 HD 152087.

 

Forms a close pair with PGC 214543 1' W.  The companion (identified in NED as NGC 6104 NED01) appeared very faint to faint, small, round, 15" diameter, low surface brightness but not difficult.  The components have a similar redshift with a light-travel time of ~430 million years, though there is no obvious evidence of interaction.

 

17.5" (7/1/89): very faint, extremely small, round.  A mag 15 star is off the south edge.  NGC 6234 lies 22' SE.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 6230 = Sw IV-40 on 3 Jul 1886 and recorded "eeeF; pS; R; between a distant B * following and a distant F * preceding; ee diff."  His position is 4 seconds of RA west and 1' north of UGC 10575 and his description matches the field.  Swift apparently missed the small companion 1' west.

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NGC 6231 = Gum 55 = Cr 315 = Mel 153 = "False Comet"

16 54 11 -41 49 30

V = 2.6;  Size 240'

 

11" (8/8/04 - Haleakala Crater): at 103x this is a stunning open cluster with a half-dozen stars brighter than 7th magnitude and a dozen mag 8 or brighter.  This bright subset is set over a rich carpet of 100-150 fainter stars in a roughly 20' field.  This bright naked-eye cluster sits just north of Zeta Scorpii.  Extending to the north following a chain of stars is the sprawling open cluster Tr 24 (60' diameter) that includes IC 4628, a large irregular HII region (see notes below).

 

18" (6/12/10): at 108x Tr 24 is a striking, very large, bright scattered group that overfills the 56' field.  A number of the stars appeared to be grouped into long chains with smaller knots and concentrations including vdBh 202 and vdBH 205.  On the northern side is IC 4628, a very large, irregular HII nebula that shows up best with a UHC filter.  On the south edge of IC 4628 is mag 7.2 HD 152723 and 5' SW is a distinctive 8' string oriented NW-SE.  About 20' S of the mag 7.2 star is a mag 6.2 star (V861 Sco) and to the NW is another 20' string extending WNW.  To the south of this string is another 20' string oriented NW-SE that includes vdBH 202.

 

IC 4628 is a large, HII region embedded on the northern half of Tr 24.  At 108x and UHC filter IC 4628 stood out as a very large, fairly bright glow within Tr 24.  The main glow was elongated E-W, roughly 30'x12' with mag 7.2 HD 152723 just off the south side.  A number of mag 8-10 stars are embedded along the SW and west end of the nebulosity. A fainter extension begins on the east end and extends NE for ~15', ending in a brighter patch with several stars involved.

 

11" (8/8/04 - Haleakala Crater): at 103x the 40' field to the north of NGC 6231is filled with a huge, scattered grouping with no distinct boundaries.

 

8" (7/13/91 - Southern Baja): over 100 stars mag 8-12.  Bright, very large, scattered.  Divided into two main groups and fills the 40' field.  Emission nebula IC 4628 is involved on the north side (seen from Baja) and a trail of stars extends towards NGC 6231.

 

8" (6/27/81): bright, large, scattered cluster in two main groups.

 

17.5" (7/4/86): 100 stars at 84x in the main part including 10 bright stars.  Impressive cluster at low power.

 

13" (7/5/83): five bright stars are in the cluster with a dozen stars in the central portion and 50 stars in a 20' field.  There is a 1¡ field to the NW and NE consisting of fairly bright stars = NGC 6227 and Tr 24 = H12.

 

8" (7/13/91 - Southern Baja): bright group of stars in center like jewels over rich sprays of stars, excellent low power field.  Located 30' N of Zeta Scorpii.  Partially resolved in 8x50 finder.

 

8" (6/27/81): impressive cluster at 100x with a bright group of 8 stars in the center.  Partially resolved in the 8x50 finder.

 

Naked-eye (numerous times): this is an easy naked eye cluster, even from northern California, looking like a comet heading north from Zeta Scorpii.   From further south (southern Baja or southern Hemisphere), it is a very prominent naked-eye cluster.

 

Giovanni Hodierna discovered NGC 6231 = Lac II-13 = D 499 = h3652 around 1650.  Discovery credit is often given to Nicholas-Louis de Lacaille, who observed it in 1751-1752 with a 1/2" telescope at 8x during his expedition to the Cape of Good Hope.  He noted a "close group of seven or eight close faint stars".  But Edmund Halley clearly identified the cluster earlier in 1677.  James Dunlop described "a cluster of pretty bright stars of mixt small magnitudes, considerably congregated to the centre, about 10' diameter, with a large branch of very small stars extended on the north side; this is 150 Scorpii."

 

Ashworth argues in the "Journal for the History of Astronomy" (1981) that Ptolemy listed NGC 6231 in his catalogue as a star (14 Scopii), though did not observe it as nebulous.  It was included as a star or nebula, in every major catalogue and atlas since, but it's position and different labels were so inconsistent that it was not recognized as the same object found by Lacaille in 1752.  For example, it was listed as Bayer's southern Mu, and Sharp's Zeta.  It was depicted as the southern of a pair of stars in Bayer's atlas and the northern in Hevelius' atlas.

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NGC 6232 = UGC 10537 = MCG +12-16-007 = CGCG 339-016 = PGC 58841

16 43 20.1 +70 37 57

V = 12.5;  Size 1.6'x1.6';  Surf Br = 13.4

 

17.5" (7/9/88): fairly faint, very small, round, small bright core, faint stellar nucleus.  A mag 15 star is at the west edge.  Located 10.9' SW of NGC 6236 in a group.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 6232 = Sw I-48, along with NGC 6236, on 28 Jun 1884 and recorded "pF; pL; lE.  1st of 4 [with NGC 6236, 6237, 6245]."  His position RA is 15 seconds too small, but at this dec it abouts to just 1' west of UGC 10537.  Kobold measured an accurate micrometric position with the 18" refractor at Strassburg.  See notes on NGC 6237, which may be a duplicate number.

 

MCG mislabels NGC 6232 as NGC 6237.  The RNGC has the correct identification.

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NGC 6233 = UGC 10573 = MCG +04-40-002 = CGCG 139-007 = PGC 59086

16 50 15.6 +23 34 47

V = 13.3;  Size 1.4'x1.0';  Surf Br = 13.5;  PA = 33d

 

17.5": faint, small, almost round, gradually increases to a small bright core.

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 6233 = St XI-51 on 12 Jul 1880 and recorded "pF, S, R, gbM."  His position is accurate.

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NGC 6234 = MCG +01-43-007 = CGCG 053-018 = PGC 59144

16 51 57.3 +04 23 01

V = 14.5;  Size 0.3'x0.3';  Surf Br = 11.7

 

17.5" (6/8/91): very faint, very small, round, low surface brightness.  Located 9.4' WNW of mag 8.8 SAO 121919.  NGC 6230 lies 22' NW.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 6234 = m 318 on 17 Jun 1863 and noted "F, S, R."  His position is 1' too far south.

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NGC 6235 = ESO 586-SC5

16 53 25.3 -22 10 39

V = 10.2;  Size 5.0'

 

18" (7/24/06): at 435x this globular was quite scraggly with a small, irregularly shaped core surrounded by a much fainter low surface brightness halo extending to 3'-3.5' diameter.  At least 15 to 20 stars are resolved with 3 or 4 fairly easy brighter stars but most are very faint, in the mag 15-16 range.  With extended viewing, several extremely faint stars pop in and out of visibility in the halo increasing the overall total to 25-30 stars, though a lower number were visible simultaneously.

 

17.5" (6/8/91): fairly bright, small, 3' diameter, mottled.  A few stars are resolved at the edges of the halo including a fairly prominent mag 14 star at the east edge of the halo and another mag 14 star at the west edge of the core.  The remaining resolved stars are mag 15 or fainter.  The core is elongated N-S.  The globular has an irregular scraggly halo due to unresolved star lanes.  Located within a triangle of three mag 12-13 stars.

 

WH discovered NGC 6235 = H II-584 = h3653 on 26 May 1786 (sweep 566) and recorded "pB, cL, gbM, easily resolvable.  No doubt that it consists of stars."  His position is accurate.  JH made the single observation "p comp; S; 2'; rather triangular than R; mbM; resolved into stars 14...16m."

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NGC 6236 = UGC 10546 = MCG +12-16-008 = CGCG 339-019 = Kaz 88 = PGC 58891

16 44 34.4 +70 46 52

V = 11.9;  Size 2.9'x1.7';  Surf Br = 13.5;  PA = 15d

 

17.5" (6/24/95): faint, moderately large, elongated 3:2 ~N-S, 2.0'x1.4', almost even surface brightness.  A mag 13 star is 3.0' WSW.

 

17.5" (7/9/88): fairly faint, fairly large, elongated 3:2 SSW-NNE, broad concentration.  Located 3.7' NW of a mag 10.5 star.  Brightest of three with NGC 6232 10.9' SW.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 6236 = Sw I-50, along with NGC 6232, on 28 Jun 1884 and recorded "F; pL; B * nr.  2nd of 4 [with NGC 6232, 6237 and 6245]."  His position is 2.5' due west (30 seconds of RA) of UGC 10546 and the identification is certain.  Bigourdan measured an accurate position on 30 Aug 1888 and it was repeated by Dreyer in the IC 2 Notes section.  See identification notes on NGC 6245, which may be a duplicate number.

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NGC 6237

16 44 06 +70 38

 

=Not found, Gottlieb and Thomson. =NGC 6232?, Corwin.  (R)NGC 6237 = NGC 6248.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 6237 = Sw I-49 on 28 Jun 1884 and recorded "vvF; E; pL; S.  3rd of 4 [with NGC 6232, 6236, 6245]."  There is nothing at his position, just 50 seconds of time due east of NGC 6232 = UGC 10537, which was discovered the same night. Harold Corwin comments that NGC 6237 might refer to a faint star(s), but perhaps Swift was confused and recorded NGC 6232 twice. Interestingly, his position for (nonexistent) NGC 6245 is similar amount off from NGC 6236, suggesting he might have recorded both objects twice.  As this is just a theory, Corwin classifies NGC 6237 as lost.

 

RNGC mislabels NGC 6248 = UGC 10564 as NGC 6237.  See my notes for NGC 6248 as well as Corwin's write-up for NGC 6237 for the complete story.

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NGC 6238 = UGC 10563 = MCG +10-24-057 = CGCG 299-031 = Holm 756a = PGC 58980

16 47 16.7 +62 08 50

V = 13.8;  Size 0.5'x0.3';  Surf Br = 11.6;  PA = 17d

 

17.5" (7/9/88): faint, very small, elongated SSW-NNE, very faint star involved.  Second of three with NGC 6244 6' NE and MCG +10-24-052 8.9' NW.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 6238 = Sw IV-41, along with NGC 6244, on 28 Jun 1886, and recorded "eeF; eS; eF * very close; e diff; sp of 2 [with NGC 6244]."  The faint star is at the north edge.

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NGC 6239 = UGC 10577 = MCG +07-35-001 = CGCG 225-002 = PGC 59083

16 50 05.6 +42 44 22

V = 12.4;  Size 2.6'x1.1';  Surf Br = 13.5;  PA = 118d

 

24" (7/2/16): at 375x; fairly bright, moderately large, elongated 5:3 WNW-ESE, 1.0'x0.6'.  The north edge has a sharper light cut-off apparently due to a dust lane and is slightly concave near the center.  A small, slightly brighter core is offset from center, just south of the dust lane.  The south edge gently bulges out, so overall the galaxy has a weak "banana" shape.  A small knot (blue HII region on the SDSS) is just distinguishable at the WNW end of the galaxy.

 

17.5": moderately bright, moderately large, oval NW-SE, bright core.

 

WH discovered NGC 6239 = H III-727 on 12 Apr 1788 (sweep 831) and recorded "cF, S, E in the parallel [E-W]."  His position was reduced exactly 1¡ too far south of UGC 10577 and copied by JH in the GC.  Stephan found the galaxy again on 27 Jun 1876 and reported it as new in his list VII-10.  Dreyer included Stephan's position in the GC Supplement as 5832. The two GC designations were combined in the NGC.

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NGC 6240 = UGC 10592 = MCG +00-43-004 = CGCG 025-011 = VV 617 = IC 4625 = PGC 59186

16 52 58.9 +02 24 04

V = 12.9;  Size 2.1'x1.1';  Surf Br = 13.7;  PA = 20d

 

48" (4/6/13): this disrupted galaxy appeared fairly bright, moderately large, elongated 3:2 SSW-NNE, ~1.2'x0.8', though the shape is irregular.  A prominent, thin extension or spike extends 4:1 or 5:1 to the NNE from the central region.  This wing is sharply defined and narrow.  A short, bright, broader extension juts out to the SSW, in the opposite direction of the NNE wing.  Finally, a faint, short wing (~15"x5") extends south from the central region on the east side (on the DSS, this branch curves at the south end).  A mag 13.5 star is 30" E, a mag 15.5-16 star is 0.8' SSE and a 12" pair of mag 13.5/15 stars lies 1.5' S.

 

24" (7/22/14): the Rumpled Starfish appeared fairly faint to moderately bright, moderately large, irregular but roughly elongated 3:2 SSW-NNE, ~60"x40", though increases in size with averted vision.  The surface brightness is irregular, with a mottled texture.  The brightest portion has an offset nucleus or knot on the east side.  On the northeast side, a faint narrow wing extends to the north.  A very short extension was also glimpsed on the southeast side.  A mag 13.5 star is 0.6' NE and a mag 15.7 star is 50" SSE of center.

 

24" (8/15/12): this irregular galaxy appeared fairly faint, moderately large, elongated 2:1 SSW-NNE, ~1.0'x0.5', broad concentration with a slightly brighter core.  The shape is unusual as the NNE end is narrow, like an edge-on, while the south-southwest end appears wider. With careful viewing, a very faint extension branches south from the central region, creating a forked appearance with the brighter portion trending SSW.  A mag 13.5 star is 0.6' NE and a mag 15.5 star is 0.8' SE of center.

 

18" (7/22/03): fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 2:1 SSW-NNE, 0.8'x0.4', weak concentration, appears slightly brighter along the major axis.  With extended viewing, there is an impression of an irregular shape with a very faint extension off the main bar near the center.

 

17.5" (6/8/91): fairly faint, small, elongated 2:1 SW-NE, even surface brightness.  A mag 13 star is at the NE edge 0.6' from center.

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 6240 = St II-4 = Big 80 on 26 Jul 1870.  His position is ~6' southeast of UGC 10592, an unusual error.  Guillaume Bigourdan independently found this galaxy on 2 Jul 1886 and measured an accurate position.  Dreyer realized the equivalence and added a note in the NGC that "Stephan's comparison star must have been LL 30519.  Adopting this star his observation agrees well with Bigourdan's."

 

E.E. Barnard independently found the galaxy again on 7 Jul 1888 and noted (from observing log) "Ran upon a nebula close sp a 10m star.  2 seconds p the star and 1/4' +/- south."  Assuming it was probably new, Dreyer recatalogued it as IC 4625 though added the note "? = 6240"  Barnard's position is 2' too far north, but NGC 6240 = IC 4625.

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NGC 6241 = MCG +08-31-007 = CGCG 252-005 = PGC 59085

16 50 11.0 +45 25 15

V = 13.8;  Size 0.8'x0.8';  Surf Br = 13.2

 

24" (7/19/12): fairly faint, fairly small, round, 30" diameter, gradually increases to a very small brighter nucleus.  UGC 10586 lies 6.7' ESE and Zwicky's Triplet = Arp 103 lies 8' WNW.  The UGC appeared faint or fairly faint, fairly small, round, 30" diameter, broad weak concentration (face-on spiral).

 

17.5" (8/22/98): fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 4:3 ~E-W, 50"x35".  Weak, even concentration to a slightly brighter core and very faint quasi-stellar nucleus.  Picked up while observing Zwicky's Triplet ~7' WNW.

 

17.5" (6/18/88): faint, fairly small, slightly elongated ~E-W, weak concentration.  In a group with UGC 10586 6.7' ESE and "Zwicky's Triplet" = Arp 103 6.6' WNW.

 

WH discovered NGC 6241 = H III-735 on 29 Apr 1788 (sweep 838) and recorded "eF, pS, 300 verified it and shows iF."  His position matches CGCG 252-005 = PGC 59085."  This is one of the fainter galaxies that WH discovered.

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NGC 6242 = Cr 317 = Mel 155 = Lund 732

16 55 33 -39 27 42

V = 6.4;  Size 9'

 

22" (6/28/06 - Hawaii): bright, rich group of ~100 stars in a 12' region with most of the stars to the north of a mag 7.3 orange luminary.  The group is elongated N-S and highlighted by a N-S string of 8 or 9 brighter mag 9-10 stars on the west side of the cluster.

 

11" (8/8/04 - Haleakala Crater): 80-100 stars in a 12' cluster including a mag 7.3 orange star (HD 152524) on the SE side.  There is an elongated group (N-S) of ten mag 10 stars to the NW of the bright star.  These brighter stars are set over a rich carpet of mag 13-14 stars.  A couple of curved chains of stars forms the southern boundary of the cluster.

 

17.5" (7/16/93): ~100 stars in a 10' region at 220x, rich in faint stars.  Includes red mag 7.3 SAO 101654 in the SE corner of cluster and 8 brighter mag 10-11 stars.  Includes several curving arcs of stars with a few dozen mag 13 stars and a rich background carpet of mag 14.5-15.5 stars.

 

8" (6/27/81): two dozen stars mag 8-11, fairly rich, compact, nice at low power.  Faint stars are visible with averted vision.

 

Nicolas-Louis de Lacaille discovered NGC 6242 = Lac I-10 = D 520 = h3654 in 1751-1752 with a 1/2" telescope at 8x, during his expedition to the Cape of Good Hope.  He simply noted an "elongated faint oval spot." James Dunlop observed the cluster on 13 May 1826 with his 9-inch f/12 reflector and recorded "a cluster or group of small stars, about 4' diameter, with branches extending S.p. and N.f., with considerable compression of the stars towards the centre of the group. This answers to the place of 155 Scorpii, but there is no nebula."  He made 3 observations and his position is 4'-5' west of center of the cluster.

 

JH first observed the cluster from the CGH on 5 June 1834 and logged "a p rich brilliant cluster of stars 10...12th mag, with one 7-8th mag near middle."  Later in month (28 Jun) he recorded "cluster VI class, B, L, rich, discrete, 12', irregular figure, vlbM, fine object; place of a red star 9th mag, rest 11th mag, white."  The next night he logged it as "a fine large rich cluster, class VII, stars 9..12th mag, fills field, place of a red star 8-9th mag in centre."

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NGC 6243 = UGC 10591 = MCG +04-40-004 = CGCG 139-013 = PGC 59161

16 52 26.4 +23 19 57

V = 14.1;  Size 1.0'x0.4';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 154d

 

17.5": very faint, small, elongated NW-SE, weak concentration.

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 6243 = St XI-52 on 10 Jun 1880.  His micrometric position is accurate.

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NGC 6244 = UGC 10568 = MCG +10-24-059 = CGCG 299-032 = Kaz 96 = PGC 59009

16 48 03.8 +62 12 01

V = 13.5;  Size 1.5'x0.3';  Surf Br = 12.7;  PA = 140d

 

17.5" (7/9/88): faint, fairly small, very elongated NW-SE.  A mag 12.5 star is 0.9' W.  Third of three with NGC 6238 6.4' SW and MCG +10-24-052 13' WNW.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 6244 = Sw IV-42, along with NGC 6238, on 28 Jun 1886, and recorded "vF; vS; R; bet 2 stars; nf of 2 [with NGC 6238]."

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NGC 6245

16 45 24 +70 48

 

=Not found, Gottlieb or Corwin.  =NGC 6236?, Corwin.  (R)NGC 6245 missed in 17.5" on 3 occasions (including 6/24/95 from Fiddletown and 7/27/95 from Sierra Buttes using GSC chart).

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 6245 = Sw I-51 on 28 Jun 1884 and recorded "vF; pL; R.  4th of 4 [with NGC 6232, 6236, 6237]."  There is nothing at his position, just 48 seconds of time east of NGC 6236 = UGC 10546, which was discovered the same night.  Harold Corwin comments that NGC 6245 might refer to a faint star(s), but perhaps Swift was confused and recorded NGC 6245 twice.  Perhaps coincidentally, his position for NGC 6237 is similar amount off from NGC 6232, suggesting he might have recorded both objects twice.  Without additional information, Corwin classifies NGC 6245 as lost.

 

RNGC and PGC misidentify PGC 58917 (at J16 45 19.2 +70 49 53) as NGC 6245.  HyperLeda still identifies this galaxy as NGC 6245, though with B magnitude of 18.0, it is clearly much too faint to have been seen by Swift.

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NGC 6246 = UGC 10580 = MCG +09-27-098 = CGCG 277-005 = CGCG 276-048 = PGC 59077

16 49 53.4 +55 32 34

V = 13.6;  Size 1.5'x0.6';  Surf Br = 13.4;  PA = 43d

 

17.5" (7/4/86): fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 2:1 SW-NE, broad concentration.  Forms a pair with UGC 10584 = NGC 6246A 10' SSE.  This galaxy is incorrectly identified as NGC 6246A in the RNGC.

 

17.5" (6/19/88): faint, fairly small, elongated WSW-ENE.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 6246 = Sw IV-43 on 28 Jun 1886 and recorded "eF; S; R."  His position is just 9 tsec of RA west of UGC 10580, so this identification is certain.

 

The RNGC has reversed the identifications of NGC 6246 and NGC 6246A = UGC 10584, which is located 10' south-southeast of NGC 6246.  Although these galaxies have similar magnitudes, NGC 6246 is more prominent visually due to a higher surface brightness.  NGC 6246 is correctly identified in UGC, MCG and RC3.  The error was mentioned in my RNGC Corrections #2.

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NGC 6247 = UGC 10572 = CGCG 320-044 = IC 1233 = PGC 59023

16 48 20.4 +62 58 34

V = 12.9;  Size 1.0'x0.3';  Surf Br = 11.4;  PA = 58d

 

17.5" (7/9/88): fairly faint, small, very elongated WSW-ENE, weak concentration.

 

Heinrich d'Arrest discovered NGC 6247 on 24 Sep 1862 with the 11-inch refractor at Copenhagen.  He noted the nearby mag 12 star, which he measured as 15.1 seconds east and 35" north.  His position for the galaxy is ~40" south of UGC 10572, the same offset as NGC 6226.

 

Harold Corwin notes that Lewis Swift found this galaxy again (on 24 Jul 1889) and recorded in list IX-70 (IC 1233) as "eF; vS; vE; bet. 2 stars."  His position is 10' north of UGC 10572, but his description is an exact match (Dreyer even questioned if IC 1233 = NGC 6247 in the IC description).

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NGC 6248 = UGC 10564 = MCG +12-16-009 = CGCG 339-020 = PGC 58946

16 46 22.8 +70 21 20

V = 13.1;  Size 3.2'x1.2';  Surf Br = 14.4;  PA = 150d

 

17.5" (7/9/88): very faint, fairly large, very diffuse, elongated 2:1 NNW-SSE, weak concentration.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 6248 = Sw II-44 on 11 Aug 1885 in a group with NGC 6232 and NGC 6236, discovered the previous year.  He reported "eeF; pL; R; bet a bright star and 3 stars in a line; v diff."  His position is less than 2' west of UGC 10564 and the description is a perfect match.  NGC 6248 is an irregular blue barred spiral.

 

Nevertheless, the RNGC misidentifies UGC 10564 as NGC 6237.  In addition, RNGC and CGCG mislabel CGCG 339-036 as NGC 6248.  UGC doesn't label 10564 as NGC 6248, but MCG (+12-16-009) has the correct identification.  The identifications of these galaxies is covered in my RNGC Correction list #3, Malcolm Thomson's article in the Webb Society Quarterly Journal, July 1989, and Harold Corwin's identification notes for NGC 6237.

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NGC 6249 = Cr 319 = ESO 277-SC019

16 57 41 -44 48 42

V = 8.2;  Size 6'

 

14" (4/5/16 - Coonabarabran, 142x and 184x): bright, moderately large cluster with ~50 stars mag 10 to 14 scattered over a 7' region.  Many of the stars are arranged roughly in a "C" or horseshoe shape open to the east.  The most prominent part includes 4 mag 10-11 stars in a small trapezoidal shape (parallel sides N-S).  Three additional mag 10-11 stars are spread out south of this trapezoid; the northern one is a 10" pair and several additional pairs caught my eye.  NGC 6259, a showpiece cluster, lies 33' NE.

 

JH discovered NGC 6249 = h3655 = D 455? on 1 Jun 1834 and recorded "cluster VIII class, coarse, p rich, stars 9...12m." On a second sweep (27 Jul 1834) he logged it as "VII class, p rich, loose irreg fig; large and small stars, 9...15m; 10' long, 7' broad." 

 

James Dunlop *may* have been the first to find this cluster on 31 Jul 1826 with his 9-inch homemade reflector from Parramatta NSW, and described D 455 as "an extremely faint ill-defined nebula, easily resolvable into stars; this is in the milky way."  His position, though is just over 40' WSW of the cluster, so the identification is very uncertain.

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NGC 6250 = Cr 320 = ESO 277-SC020

16 57 56 -45 56 12

V = 5.9;  Size 8'

 

22" (6/28/06 - Hawaii): small group of a dozen stars in a tight 2' cluster including mag 9.2 HD 152822.  Surrounding this knot is a larger, 14' scattered group of stars, elongated ~E-W, that appears to be a separate superimposed object.  Three mag 7.5-8.5 stars are in this larger group to the SW, SW and east of the central clump and a mag 9 star is among a small subgroup at the east edge.

 

11" (8/8/04 - Haleakala Crater): at 127x a dozen stars are packed into a tight 2' group.  Consists of a knot of 6 stars on the NE side and a looping curve of 5 or 6 stars on the SW side.  This "core" is surrounded by a scattered 10' group of perhaps three dozen stars including three mag 7.5-8.5 stars to the SW and SE by 3' and to the east by 6'.

 

13.1" (4/10/86): tight, rich group of 6-10 stars over an unresolved haze.  Set among a larger scattered group of bright stars.

 

JH discovered NGC 6250 = h3656 on 1 Jul 1834 and recorded a "cluster VIII class; loose and straggling; place that of a D * [HJ 4899 = 9.8/10.0 at 2"] in central more condensed group; has a * 8m sf, 5' dist, and another 7m more remote.  His position is on the close double star.

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NGC 6251 = UGC 10501 = MCG +14-08-010 = CGCG 367-013 = PGC 58472

16 32 31.8 +82 32 16

V = 12.6;  Size 1.8'x1.5';  Surf Br = 13.7

 

17.5" (8/1/86): fairly faint, fairly small, round.  Contains a sharp, bright core which rises to a bright stellar nucleus.  Pair with NGC 6252 2.4' NNE.

 

WH discovered NGC 6251 = H III-974, along with NGC 6252, on 1 Jan 1802 (late sweep 1106) and recorded "Two, the preceding [NGC 6251] cF, S, bM.  The following [NGC 6252] vF, vS.  The place is that of the first.  The 2nd is about 3' more north, and only a few seconds of time following, they being nearly in the same meridian."  His description is accurate, though his position is 2.8' too far north. This is the second most northerly galaxy that WH discovered.  It wasn't until the later sweeps that the large 20-ft was used to search for nebulae near the pole as it was mechanically difficult to observe and accurately record positions in that direction.

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NGC 6252 = MCG +14-08-011 = CGCG 367-014 = PGC 58456

16 32 40.2 +82 34 36

V = 14.2;  Size 0.7'x0.4';  Surf Br = 12.7;  PA = 60d

 

17.5" (8/1/86): fairly faint, round, weak concentration, can hold with direct vision.  NGC 6252 is slightly smaller and has a much smoother surface brightness than NGC 6251 2.4' S.

 

WH discovered NGC 6252 = H III-975, along with NGC 6251 on 1 Jan 1802 (sweep 1106) and recorded "Two, the preceding [NGC 6251] cF, S, bM.  The following [NGC 6252] vF, vS.  The place is that of the first.  The 2nd is about 3' more north, and only a few seconds of time following, they being nearly in the same meridian."  This is the most northerly galaxy that WH discovered.

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NGC 6253 = ESO 180-SC2 = Cr 321 = Mel 156

16 59 05 -52 42 30

V = 10.2;  Size 5'

 

14" (4/4/16 - Coonabarabran, 71x, 184x and 230x): fairly small 5' cluster, but quite rich with 60-70 stars mag 12-14.5 resolved at 230x.  Stands out as a bright, partially resolved glow at 71x.  Irregular shape but expands E-W on the south side and tapers on the north side.  Contains no bright stars but a mag 8.9 star is just off the southwest side.  Located 27' NNW of 4th magnitude Epsilon1 Arae.  This well-studied cluster is an old, very metal-rich with an age of ~4 billion years.

 

James Dunlop discovered NGC 6253 = D 374 = h3657 on 14 May 1826 and described "a very faint nebula, of an irregular round figure, about 2' diameter, slightly bright towards the centre, easily resolvable into very minute stars, slightly compressed to the centre; this also precedes Epsilon Arae."  His position was off by ~8' (too far southeast).  JH recorded it on 8 Jul 1834 as "a small triangular cl 2' diameter; stars = 13m."

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NGC 6254 = M10

16 57 08.9 -04 05 58

V = 6.6;  Size 15.1'

 

18" (7/14/07): large, gorgeous GC at 225x, extends ~15' in diameter and fills most of the field.  The cluster is sharply concentrated with an intense 5' core containing a huge number of resolved mag 13-15 stars over an unresolved background glow and beautiful strings of stars in the halo.  At 323x the core is slightly elongated SW-NE, ~5'x4' in size.  Strings of stars crisscross the core with a very small triangle of stars at the geometric center.  At 393x, one of the 3 stars in this central triangle is a very close double. The core is pretty uniformly rich and evenly resolved and does not compress towards the center. 

 

17.5" (7/15/99): beautifully resolved at 220x.  The halo appears to extend to nearly 14' although the star density is very low in the outer edge of the halo.  The inner halo is sharply concentrated with a very bright 5'x4' core which is elongated SW-NE.  The cluster is highly resolved into mag 12/13 stars from edge to edge (too numerous to count) with the stars very densely packed over the core.  A second layer of mag 13/14 stars is superimposed over the core.  The halo contains a number of strings including a long string to the south which curves east and a string to the north which curves west.  Also two parallel linear strings head north or NNE from the core.

 

13.1" (6/19/82): very bright, fairly large, intense core richly covered with fairly bright stars.  Scores of stars are resolved in the outer halo.

 

8": bright lively core highly resolved.  The outer halo is highly resolved with several long, distinct streamers.

 

Charles Messier discovered M10 = NGC 6254 = h1972 on 29 May 1764.  WH first observed the globular on 21 May 1783 with his 8-inch (10-ft focal length) and noted "With 227 I suspected it to consist of stars; with 460 I can see several of them, but they are too small to be counted." In 1784 and 1791 he observed M10 with his 18.7-inch and noted "A beautiful cluster of extremely compressed stars; it resembles the 53d [M53]; and the most compressed part is about 3 or 4 minutes in diameter."  JH recorded on 1 Jun 1831 "a superb cluster of very compressed stars, gbM.  The stars are 10...15m, and run up to a blaze in the centre, but I see no nucleus.  Diam about 6'; a noble object."

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NGC 6255 = UGC 10606 = MCG +06-37-014 = CGCG 197-018 = PGC 59244

16 54 47.1 +36 30 07

V = 12.7;  Size 3.6'x1.5';  Surf Br = 14.4;  PA = 85d

 

24" (6/12/15): at 375x; fairly faint, moderately large, very elongated 3:1 E-W, 1.5'x0.6', low but uneven surface brightness.  At the east end of the galaxy is either a blue dwarf companion (HS 1653+3634) or more likely an intensely active star forming complex.  At 375x it appeared as a very small, nearly stellar knot, just off the east end of the main glow.  The knot had a higher surface brightness than the main galaxy.

 

17.5" (7/1/89): very faint, moderately large, very diffuse, low even surface brightness, elongated 5:2 E-W.  A mag 14 star is off the south edge 1.8' from the center.

 

WH discovered NGC 6255 = H III-689 = h1973 on 16 May 1787 (sweep 739) and recorded "eF, cL, iE nearly in the parallel."  JH made the single observation "eF; vL; E in parallel; 2' l, 1' br."  On 6 May 1850, LdR (or observing assistant George Stoney) noted "Query is it a double streak with a nucleus or a * at f end."  The "star" at the following end is an HII complex seen in my observation.

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NGC 6256 = vdB-Ha 208 = Lund 1104

16 59 32.6 -37 07 17

V = 11.3;  Size 1.5'

 

18" (7/9/02 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): this is a small, faint globular with a small, brighter core.  A brighter mag 12 field star is attached at the south edge.  At 171x appears just 2' diameter with a few mag 15 stars resolved around the periphery and occasionally over the mottled core.

 

13" (5/30/87): very faint, small, round, requires averted but definite at 62x and 166x.  A faint star is visible at the SW end.

 

JH discovered NGC 6256 = h3658 on 28 Jun 1834 and recorded "globular cluster; eF; vL; vglbM; 4' diam; perceived with the upmost attention to be resolved into vS stars 20th magnitude."  The next night he logged "VI. class.  A vL neb, or rather vF, R, cl VI class; vF; irreg R; vglbM; 4'."  His position is fairly accurate.

 

Sky Catalogue 2000.0 misidentifies Terzan 12 as NGC 6256.

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NGC 6257 = CGCG 225-012 = PGC 59274

16 56 03.5 +39 38 44

V = 15.1;  Size 0.8'x0.3';  Surf Br = 13.4;  PA = 123d

 

17.5" (6/24/95): extremely faint, very small, round, 15" diameter (elongated NW-SE on the POSS).  Requires averted vision but sighting certain using GSC field chart.  A mag 13 star is 1.7' SW (part of collinear string of stars oriented NW-SE).  Uncertain RNGC identification.

 

17.5": not seen in fairly poor seeing and transparency.

 

JH discovered NGC 6257 = h1974 on 16 May 1831 and recorded "a suspicious object.  It is pointed to by a faint double star nf.  Doubtful whether a nebula or a vF double star, with perhaps a third star near (of course ill seen)."  He called it an uncertain nova ("Nova?") and there is nothing at his position.  It was looked for, but not found at Birr Castle.

 

RNGC, CGCG and PGC identify CGCG 225-012 as NGC 6257, though this galaxy is 70 seconds of RA east of Herschel's position (and 2' north) and there isn't a reasonably bright "F double* nf" as per his description.  Also, it may be too faint for JH to have picked up.  So, the standard identification is very unlikely.  Karl Reinmuth, in his 1926 photographic survey "Die Herschel-Nebel" was probably the first to equate CGCG 225-012 with NGC 6257, though his position is 2.5' too far southwest.  Harold Corwin, in response to an email I sent, took a look at the field and was unable to find a good alternate candidate (UGC 10599 doesn't match his description, either).

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NGC 6258 = UGC 10595 = MCG +10-24-073 = CGCG 299-035 = PGC 59165

16 52 29.9 +60 30 51

V = 13.4;  Size 0.9'x0.7';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 70d

 

17.5" (6/18/88): faint, very small, slightly elongated, small bright core.  A mag 15-15.5 star is in contact at the NW end.  Located 5' ENE of mag 8.4 SAO 17245.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 6258 = Sw IV-44 on 28 Jun 1886 and recorded "eF; vS; R; a bright star and a double star near preceding."  His position is 7 seconds west and 1' north of UGC 10595 and his comments apply.  The double star is Espin 1829 = 10.7/11.5 at 8.5".

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NGC 6259 = NGC 6222 = Cr 322 = Mel 158

17 00 45 -44 39 18

V = 8.0;  Size 10'

 

18" (7/9/02 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): at 128x this cluster appears as a beautifully rich cloud of stars.  A couple of hundred stars are resolved in an 8' diameter.  Fairly uniform in density and magnitude and roughly circular (similar to NGC 7789).  This very rich cluster would be a showpiece for U.S. observers if further north!  NGC 6249 lies 33' SW.

 

8" (7/16/82): 12 faint stars mag 11-12.5, over unresolved haze, elongated N-S.  Appears to be rich but observed at a very low altitude which diminished the view.

 

James Dunlop discovered NGC 6259 = D 456 = h3660 on 13 May 1826 and described "a very large patch of strong nebula, about 20' long, and 16' broad, rich in small and extremely minute stars."  His position (only to the nearest minute of time in RA) was 11' too far southeast.  On 1 Jun 1834, JH called it "a superb, vL, v rich cluster, which fills field; R, vglbM, stars 11..12th mag, thickly sown at intervals from each other from 10" to 20"." On a second sweep he described it as "vL, v rich, fills more than a field, has one or two straggling appendages p and s; stars 11 and 12th mag, nearly equal."  JH also found the cluster on 3 Jun 1834 but made a 10 minute transcription error in RA.  As a result, h3650 = NGC 6222 is a duplicate observation.

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NGC 6260 = MCG +11-20-029 = CGCG 320-046 = PGC 59142

16 51 50.6 +63 42 52

V = 13.8;  Size 0.8'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.0

 

17.5" (7/9/88): faint, small, round, even surface brightness.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 6260 = Sw IV-45 on 5 Aug 1886 and recorded "eF; pS; R; near south-following are 4 or 5 stars in form of a curve."  His position and description matches CGCG 320-046 = PGC 59142.  The closest star in the chain is mag 9.8 and 2.6' southeast. MCG doesn't label this galaxy as NGC 6260.

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NGC 6261 = UGC 10617 = MCG +05-40-006 = CGCG 169-013 = PGC 59286

16 56 30.5 +27 58 39

V = 14.0;  Size 1.2'x0.5';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 88d

 

17.5" (7/1/89): very faint, very small, slightly elongated E-W.  Bracketed by two mag 15 stars.  First of eight in the NGC 6269 group.

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 6261 = St XI-53 on 13 Jul 1880.  His position is just off the south side of UGC 10617.

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NGC 6262

16 53 36 +56 56

 

=Not found, RNGC and Corwin.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 6262 = Sw V-72 on 23 Oct 1886 and recorded "eeeF, pS, R, eee diff".  His position falls on a blank piece of sky and the number is not associated with a galaxy in any modern catalogue.  Harold Corwin suggests two possible (distant) candidates, but these are just guesses  as his description is unhelpful and the observation might also apply to a faint star or stars.

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NGC 6263 = UGC 10618 = MCG +05-40-008 = CGCG 169-014 = PGC 59292

16 56 43.1 +27 49 19

V = 13.7;  Size 0.9'x0.9';  Surf Br = 13.3

 

17.5" (7/1/89): very faint, extremely small, round.  A mag 13.5 star is just off the south edge 40" from center.  Located 2.6' S of a mag 9 star.  Second of 8 in the NGC 6269 group with NGC 6264 and NGC 6265 in the field 7.5' ENE and 10.2' ENE.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 6263 = m 319 = St II-5 on 28 Jun 1864, along with NGC 6264, 6265, 6269, 6270, and noted "eF, vS, R."  His position is accurate.  ƒdouard Stephan independently found this galaxy, along with the other four, on 22 Jul 1871, apparently unaware of Marth's earlier discoveries.

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NGC 6264 = MCG +05-40-009 = CGCG 169-015 = Holm 763a = PGC 59306

16 57 16.1 +27 50 59

V = 14.4;  Size 0.7'x0.4';  Surf Br = 13.0;  PA = 15d

 

17.5" (7/27/95): very faint, fairly small, elongated 2:1 SSW-NNE, 1.0'x0.5'.  Two mag 13.5 and 14.5 stars lie 1' SW and 1' S, respectively.  Forms a pair with NGC 6265 2.9' ESE in the NGC 6269 group.

 

17.5" (7/1/89): very faint, fairly small, elongated SW-NE, very low surface brightness.  Two faint stars off the south side; a mag 14 star 1.1' SW and a mag 15 star 1.0' S.  Third of eight in the NGC 6269 group with NGC 6265 2.9' ESE.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 6264 = m 320 = Sf 38 = St II-6 on 28 Jun 1864 and noted "eF, vS."  Truman Safford rediscovered this galaxy (along with NGC 6265 and 6269) on 11 Jul 1866 at the Dearborn Observatory.  ƒdouard Stephan found it again on 22 Jul 1871, apparently unaware of Marth's earlier discoveries, and measured a very accurate position.

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NGC 6265 = UGC 10624 = MCG +05-40-011 = CGCG 169-017 = PGC 59315

16 57 29.0 +27 50 39

V = 14.2;  Size 0.8'x0.5';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 35d

 

17.5" (7/27/95): faint, small, slightly elongated 4:3 SSW-NNE, 40"x30", very faint stellar nucleus.  A mag 11 star is 2.4' ENE.  Located 6.4' W of NGC 6269 in a group.  Forms a pair with NGC 6264 2.9' WNW.

 

17.5" (7/1/89): very faint, small, very low surface brightness, elongated SW-NE.  Fourth of 8 in NGC 6269 group with NGC 6264 2.9' WNW.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 6265 = m 321 = St II-7 on 28 Jun 1864 and noted "eF, vS."  Truman Safford rediscovered this galaxy (along with NGC 6264 and 6269) on 11 Jul 1866 at the Dearborn Observatory.  ƒdouard Stephan found it again on 22 Jul 1871.  All three positions are good.

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NGC 6266 = M62 = ESO 453-SC14

17 01 12.5 -30 06 44

V = 6.6;  Size 14.1'

 

18" (7/9/02 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): at 171x this is a very striking globular set in a fine star field.  The halo is very irregular and elongated due to a flattening along the SE side.  The halo is easily resolved into several dozen faint stars, many in strings and chains.  A long string of stars extends from a mag 10.5 star off the SE side along the east edge of the halo.  The center appears offset due to the flattening and is very compressed with a large, blazing core.

 

13.1" (6/19/82): very bright nucleus, asymmetric appearance with a flattened SE region.  The outer halo is very mottled and just resolved into many faint stars at 220x.

 

8": bright nucleus, nonsymmetrical appearance, fans out to the west from an off-center core.  A few very faint stars are resolved at the west edge.

 

Charles Messier discovered M62 = NGC 6266 = D 627 = h3661 on 7 June 1771 and described a "very beautiful nebula, discovered in Scorpio, it resembles a little Comet, the centre is brilliant & surrounded by a faint glow."

 

WH first observed the globular on 28 May 1783 with his 6-inch (10-foot telescope) and noted "With 250 power, a strong suspicion, amounting almost to a certainty, of its consisting of stars.  In observations with his 18.7-inch (20-foot telescope) in 1785 and 1786, he called the cluster "Extremely bright, round, very gradually brighter in the middle, about 4 or 5' in diameter; 240 power with strong attention showed the stars of it. The cluster is a miniature of the 3d of the Connoissance."

 

On 8 May 1834, JH was the first to note its off-center core: "globular, vB, L, R, pgvmbM, perfectly resolved with left eye, hardly with right. The most condensed part is a perfect blaze, but not quite in the centre. The southern part runs out further. A beautiful object (See figure 13, Plate VI).  [Semi] Diam = 13.5 seconds in RA."

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NGC 6267 = UGC 10628 = MCG +04-40-009 = CGCG 139-025 = PGC 59340

16 58 08.8 +22 59 05

V = 13.1;  Size 1.3'x1.0';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 35d

 

17.5" (8/1/89): faint, moderately large, almost round, low but irregular surface brightness, appears slightly brighter on the north side.  An extremely faint mag 15.5 star is involved on the south side.

 

WH discovered NGC 6267 = H III-123 on 15 May 1784 (sweep 217) and recorded "vF, pL, R, lbM.  Following and near a star; with several other stars in the field following."  CH's reduction is 2' northeast of UGC 10628.

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NGC 6268 = Cr 323 = ESO 332-SC017

17 02 10 -39 43 42

Size 6'

 

8" (6/27/81): 30-40 stars mag 10-12.5 in a 10' diameter.  A denser group of stars in the center is arranged in a line.

 

James Dunlop discovered NGC 6268 = D 521 = h3662 on 5 Jun 1826 and described "2 rows or lines of pretty bright small stars in the parallel of the equator, with a multitude of minute stars resembling a faint nebula, 5' diameter."  He made 2 observations and his published position is just 2.5' northwest of center of the cluster.  On 3 Jun 1834, JH recorded a "cluster, rich, pL, brilliant, 8', stars irregularly scattered 10..12th mag, place of a double star in the following angle of a triangular condensed group."

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NGC 6269 = UGC 10629 = MCG +05-40-012 = CGCG 169-019 = PGC 59332

16 57 58.0 +27 51 16

V = 12.2;  Size 2.0'x1.6';  Surf Br = 13.4;  PA = 80d

 

17.5" (7/27/95): fairly faint, fairly small, slightly elongated E-W, 1.5' diameter.  Even concentration to a bright core and stellar nucleus.  A mag 13.5-14 star with an extremely faint companion lies 1.3' S of center.  Brightest in a "poor" group of faint galaxies (AWM 5).

 

17.5"  (7/1/89): fifth and brightest in a string of 8 NGC galaxies with NGC 6264 6.5' W and NGC 6265 9.4' W.  Fairly faint, fairly small, slightly elongated E-W, gradually increases to a small bright core.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 6269 = m 322 = St II-8 on 28 Jun 1864 and noted "F, S, R."  Truman Safford rediscovered this galaxy (along with NGC 6264 and 6265) on 11 Jul 1866 at the Dearborn Observatory.   ƒdouard Stephan found it again on 22 Jul 1871 and his micrometric position is very accurate.

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NGC 6270 = PGC 95562

16 58 44.0 +27 51 33

Size 0.6'x0.4';  PA = 93d

 

17.5" (7/27/95): very faint, very small, slightly elongated E-W, 20" diameter.  Very weak concentration with an occasional very faint stellar nucleus.  Can hold steadily with averted vision although not included in the UGC, MCG or CGCG.  Located 10' E of NGC 6269 in the AWM 5 group (6th of 8).  Misidentified in the RNGC.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 6270 = m 323 = St II-9 on 28 Jun 1864 and noted "eF, S, R." His position is 5' north of PGC 95562.  ƒdouard Stephan independently found this galaxy on 22 Jul 1871 and reported an accurate position in discovery list II-9.

 

The RNGC and PGC misidentify MCG +05-40-015 = PGC 59362 as NGC 6269.  This galaxy is located 16' south of Stephan's position!   Because of this error, the NGC 6270 is not included in the original PGC but has a HyperLeda designation (and no NGC label) of 95562.  I mentioned this error in RNGC Corrections #4.

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NGC 6271 = MCG +05-40-016 = CGCG 169-021 = PGC 59365

16 58 50.8 +27 57 53

V = 14.0;  Size 1.0'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.5

 

17.5" (7/1/89): extremely faint, very small, round.  Seventh of 8 in the NGC 6269 group and forms a close pair with NGC 6272 3' SSE.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 6271 = m 32, along with NGC 6270 and 6272, on 28 Jun 1864 and noted "vF, R."  His position is accurate.

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NGC 6272 = CGCG 169-022 = PGC 59367

16 58 58.3 +27 55 51

V = 14.4;  Size 0.5'x0.2'

 

17.5" (7/1/89): extremely faint, very small, round.  Forms a pair with NGC 6271 3' NNW.  Located along a line of faint stars and last of 8 in the NGC 6269 group.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 6272 = m 325, along with NGC 6270 and NGC 6271, on 28 Jun 1864 and noted "vF".  His position is within 1' of CGCG 169-022 = PGC 59367.

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NGC 6273 = M19 = ESO 518-SC7S

17 02 37.6 -26 16 05

V = 6.8;  Size 13.5'

 

17.5" (6/3/00): bright, moderately large globular, unusual appearance with an extended halo ~6'x4.5' (elongated N-S) and a bright 3.5' core.  The cluster breaks up into several dozen stars at 220x and at 500x at least 50 stars are resolved over the entire face of the globular.  There are a couple of strings of stars on the SE side of the halo with a dark lane between the strings.  The brightest star is on the northeast side.

 

13" (7/27/84): bright, elongated N-S, very mottled, brighter core.  The outer edges barely resolves into one or two dozen stars at 220x.

 

13.1" (7/17/82): a number of faint stars just resolve at 280x, particularly around the south edge.

 

8": lively, two or three very faint stars are resolved at the north edge.

 

Charles Messier discovered M19 = NGC 6273 = h1975 = h3663 on 5 June 1764 and reported a "Nebula without stars, on the parallel of Antares between Scorpius and the right foot of Ophiuchus: this nebula is round; one can see it very well with an ordinary telescope of 3.5-foot focal length."

 

WH first resolved the cluster using his 6-inch (10-foot focal length) on 28 May 1783, before his sweeps began. "I can count 5 or 6; & all the rest of the light appears mottled like other nebulas when not sufficiently magnified and illuminated to shew the stars."  JH, observing from Slough on 16 Apr 1828, recorded "a fine globular cluster, stars vS, 12...18m, with one = 10m, and one 10-11m; nearly R; vgpmbM, but does not come up to a blaze.  Insulated; 3' diam.  It forms a link between I. 70 [NGC 5634] and M10 or M12."

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NGC 6274 = UGC 10654 = CGCG 169-027 = PGC 59414

17 00 35.2 +29 43 33

V = 14.4;  Size 0.9'x0.4';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 170d

 

24" (7/15/15): faint to fairly faint, small, slightly elongated N-S, 18"x12", small slightly brighter nucleus.  A mag 15 star is just off the southwest side [20" from center].  Forms a pair with NGC 6282 6.2' NNE.

 

UGC 10643, which is identified as NGC 6274 in the RNGC, PGC, NED and SIMBAD is located 21' NW.  At 225x and 375x it appeared faint to fairly faint, small, roundish, ~22"x18", small slightly brighter nucleus.  UGC 10643b = MCG +05-40-020 is a very challenging galaxy (B = 16.5) attached on the south end.  At 225x; UGC 10643b was occasionally visible as an extremely faint glow (too brief/faint for shape).  At 375x I could tell it was elongated to the southeast when it popped.

 

17.5" (7/1/89): faint, very small, slightly elongated N-S, weak concentration.  A mag 15 star is off the southwest edge 19" from the center.  Located 6' SSW of NGC 6282.

 

UGC 10643, which is identified as NGC 6274 in the RNGC and PGC, is located 21' NW.  It appeared  faint, small, possibly elongated E-W, brighter core.  Located 2' E of an isosceles triangle consisting of three mag 13-14 stars.  The nearest of these stars is a close double.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 6274 = m 326 on 28 Jun 1864 and noted "eF, vS."  There is nothing close to his position.

 

RNGC and PGC identify UGC 10643 as NGC 6274, though not the UGC, CGCG and MCG.  UGC 10643 is a double system (with PGC 59381) situated 11' north and 15 sec of RA west of Marth's position, so it's a pretty poor match.  Karl Reinmuth was the first to suggest this identification in his 1926 photographic survey "Die Herschel-Nebel".

 

UGC 10654 is a more likely candidate.  It is situated 1.0 minute of time east of Marth's position, so is only off in one direction and a digit error would account for the error.  Harold Corwin concurs with my suggestion that NGC 6274 = UGC 10654, particularly as NGC 6274 would be within 6' of NGC 6282, which Marth also discovered the same night.

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NGC 6275 = CGCG 321-007 = Mrk 503 = Mrk 890 = VII Zw  667 = PGC 59262

16 55 33.4 +63 14 32

V = 14.3;  Size 0.5'x0.3';  Surf Br = 12.1;  PA = 120d

 

17.5" (7/9/88): extremely faint, very small, round, small slightly brighter core.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 6275 = Sw IV-46 on 5 Aug 1886 and recorded "eeeF; S; lE; eee diff.; nearly in center of a large vacancy."  His position is 1' too far west (10 seconds of RA).

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NGC 6276 = IC 1239 = MCG +04-40-010 = CGCG 139-028 = PGC 59419

17 00 45.0 +23 02 39

V = 14.6;  Size 0.4'x0.3';  Surf Br = 12.2

 

17.5": very faint, small, round.  Forms a pair with NGC 6278 2.3' SE.  Two faint mag 14.5/15 stars are 2' E.  The northern of these two stars is NGC 6277.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 6276 = m 328 = St II-10 on 10 Jun 1864 and noted "vF, S."  His position is 1' northwest of CGCG 139-028 = PGC 59419.  ƒdouard Stephan independently discovered the galaxy again on 13 Jul 1871 and measured an accurate micrometric position.  Finally, Bigourdan found this galaxy again on 19 Jun 1887, reported it as a "nova" in Comptes Rendus list V-213, and Dreyer catalogued it again as IC 1239, though added the comment "= NGC 6247?" So, NGC 6276 = IC 1239.  In the NGC main table, Dreyer mistakenly equates NGC 6277 with m 328 and NGC 6176 with m 327.

 

The RNGC misidentifies UGC 10650 as NGC 6276.  In addition, CGCG and RNGC mislabel NGC 6276 as NGC 6277 and MCG and UGC refer to it as NGC 6276 = NGC 6277.   The identifications are sorted out in the Webb Society Quarterly Journal #87, Malcolm Thomson's unpublished Catalogue Corrections, my RNGC Corrections #4 (on the NGC/IC Project site) and Harold Corwin's identification notes.

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NGC 6277

17 00 48.8 +23 02 22

 

17.5": this number refers to a mag 14 star just under 1' ESE of NGC 6276.  It was noted in the observation of NGC 6276, along with a fainter mag 15 star about 15" south.

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 6277 = St II-11 on 6 Jun 1864, very close to NGC 6276.  Stephan's micrometric position matches a faint star (northern of a 16" pair).  In the main NGC table, Dreyer equated m 328 (from Albert Marth) with NGC 6277, but m 328 refers to NGC 6276 (corrected by Dreyer in his comments section of the NGC).

 

The RNGC and CGCG misidentify NGC 6276 as NGC 6277. The UGC and MCG incorrectly equate NGC 6276 = NGC 6277.  See Harold Corwin's notes for more.

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NGC 6278 = UGC 10656 = MCG +04-40-011 = CGCG 139-029 = Holm 765a = PGC 59426

17 00 50.3 +23 00 40

V = 12.4;  Size 2.0'x1.2';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 130d

 

17.5": fairly faint, small, dominated by a very small bright core with stellar nucleus, faint halo elongated NW-SE.  Close pair with NGC 6276 2.3' NW.

 

WH discovered NGC 6278 = H III-124 on 15 May 1784 (sweep 217) and logged "vF, stellar, 240 verified it."  His position (copied into the GC) is 25 sec of RA east of UGC 10656.  Stephan found the galaxy again on 13 July 1871 and reported St II-12 as new, along with NGC 6276 and NGC 6277.  Stephan's position (used in the NGC) is accurate.

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NGC 6279 = UGC 10645 = MCG +08-31-017 = CGCG 252-013 = PGC 59370

16 59 01.3 +47 14 14

V = 13.6;  Size 1.1'x1.0';  Surf Br = 13.6;  PA = 10d

 

17.5" (8/1/89): faint, small, round, gradually increases to a small bright core.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 6279 = Sw V-73 on 23 Oct 1886 and recorded "vF; pS; lE; wide double star near north-following."  His position and description (the two stars are mag 11-12) applies to UGC 10645.

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NGC 6280 = MCG +01-43-008 = CGCG 053-026 = PGC 59464

17 01 57.5 +06 39 58

V = 14.5;  Size 0.5'x0.2';  Surf Br = 11.8;  PA = 144d

 

17.5" (7/20/90): faint, small, slightly elongated WNW-ESE, small bright core.  Located 4.5' NE of mag 8.7 SAO 122019 in a rich star field.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 6280 = m 329 on 8 May 1864 and noted "pB, S, lE."  Although his position is within 1' of CGCG 053-026 = PGC 59464, I'm surprised he called this galaxy "pB" (it's small and faint), as most of his discoveries are called F, vF or eF.

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NGC 6281 = Cr 324 = Mel 161

17 04 41 -37 59 06

V = 5.4;  Size 8'

 

18" (6/12/10): bright, 10' cluster resolved in the 80mm finder at 25x.  Excellent in the 18" at 175x with roughly 50 stars to mag 14 including two dozen brighter mag 9-10.5 stars in a distinctive, well-defined outline.  Includes several double stars with h4915 = 9/10.8 at 11" on the NE side and a 10" pair of mag 10.5/11.5 stars in the center.  Several of the cluster's fainter stars are situated on the south side.  A number of the brighter stars are in two strings forming a right angle.  The northern line is oriented SW-NE and the southwest line is oriented NW-SE.  The vertex is at the west end of these strings.  Located 2.5 degrees east of Mu1/2 Sco.

 

8" (6/27/81): two dozen stars mag 9-11 in a distinct fairly bright, rectangular group of ~10' diameter.

 

James Dunlop discovered NGC 6281 = D 556 = h3664 on 5 Jun 1826 and described "a curiously curved line of pretty bright small stars, with many very small stars mixt."  Dunlop made 3 observations of the cluster and his position is 20' too far east.  JH made a single observation on 28 Jun 1834 and recorded "a p rich, L, pB, cluster VII class, of loose stars 9, 10, 11th mag, which fills 2/3 of field."  His position is on the double star HJ 4915 on the north side of the main group.

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NGC 6282 = CGCG 169-029 = PGC 59418

17 00 47.2 +29 49 15

V = 14.1;  Size 0.7'x0.5';  PA = 36d

 

24" (7/15/15): fairly faint to moderately bright, fairly small, roundish, 25" diameter, even surface brightness.  A mag 15 star is at the east edge [0.4' from center].  Forms a pair with UGC 10654 6.2' SSW.

 

17.5" (7/1/89): faint, very small, irregularly round, no concentration.  A mag 15 star is attached at the east end.  Forms a pair with UGC 10654 7' SSW.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 6282 = m 330 on 28 Jun 1864 and noted "vF, S, R."  His position is accurate.

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NGC 6283 = UGC 10652 = MCG +08-31-018 = CGCG 252-014 = PGC 59386

16 59 26.4 +49 55 18

V = 12.9;  Size 1.1'x1.1';  Surf Br = 13.0

 

17.5" (6/18/88): fairly faint, moderately large, broad concentration.  A double star lies 3.7' SW (mag 12/14 at 20").

 

WH discovered NGC 6283 = H III-728 on 13 Apr 1788 (sweep 832) and noted "vF, cS, iR."  CH's reduction is an excellent match with UGC 10652

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NGC 6284 = ESO 518-SC009

17 04 28.8 -24 45 53

V = 9.0;  Size 5.6'

 

18" (7/12/07): easily picked up at 25x in the 80mm finder with a very bright core and fainter halo.  At 220x, this globular is sharply concentrated with an intense core that increases to the center.  The 2' halo is very lively and several very faint stars are just visible.  Clouds then interrupted this observation and I wasn't able to use high power.

 

17.5" (6/3/00): moderately bright, small, round, 2' diameter, bright core, very small intense nucleus.  At 500x, ~12-15 stars are resolved, mostly in the outer halo, and the cluster is very clumpy as if on the verge of more extensive resolution.

 

13.1" (6/19/82): very small intense core, fainter halo with a few faint stars resolved over a mottled haze.

 

WH discovered NGC 6284 = H VI-11 = h1976 = h3665 on 22 May 1784 (sweep 223) and recorded "a cluster of stars, in respect of the size of the whole, as well as the distance and magnitude of the stars in it, a good miniature of the preceding.  The colour of the stars also preserve a faint red; about 1.5 or 2' in diam.  It may be called the next step to an easily resolvable nebula."  He later commented "It is a good miniature of the 19th of the Connoiss. not only with respect to the size of the cluster, but also with regard to the mutual distance the reduced magnitude of the stars of which it consists."  From the CGH, JH recorded "globular cluster; B; R: gbM; diam = 7.0s; resolved into stars 16m."

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NGC 6285 = Arp 293 NED1 = MCG +10-24-081 = CGCG 299-037 = PGC 59344

16 58 24.0 +58 57 22

V = 13.5;  Size 1.3'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 95d

 

24" (6/28/16): at 375x; fairly faint, fairly small, very elongated 3:1 E-W (central bar), ~30"x10", small bright core.  Occasionally, very low surface brightness haze (arms) can be glimpsed on the north side of the west end of the bar and the south side of the east end.  Forms an interacting pair (Arp 293) with NGC 6286 1.5' SE.

 

48" (5/15/12): moderately bright to fairly bright, moderately large, elongated 5:2 E-W, ~40"x12", well concentrated with a bright core, faint extensions.  Very low surface arm structure is just visible at the east and west ends of the bar.  Smaller and fainter of a pair (Arp 293) with NGC 6286.

 

18" (7/14/07): faint, fairly small, very elongated E-W, 0.6'x0.2, small brighter core.  Fainter member of an interacting pair (Arp 293) with NGC 6286 1.5' SE.

 

17.5" (6/18/88): faint, very small, oval WNW-ESE, weak concentration.  Forms a close pair with brighter NGC 6286 1.5' SE.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 6285 around 1886 and recorded "eeF, S, R, v diffic, np of 2".  The discovery was communicated directly to Dreyer and referenced as list VI in the NGC, but Swift never published the discovery.  His position is just 7 seconds west and 1' north of this galaxy.  Nearby NGC 6286 was discovered earlier on 13 Aug 1885.

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NGC 6286 = Arp 293 NED2 = UGC 10647 = MCG +10-24-084 = CGCG 299-040 = PRC C-51 = PGC 59352

16 58 31.8 +58 56 13

V = 13.3;  Size 1.3'x1.2';  Surf Br = 13.6

 

24" (6/28/16): NGC 6286 is the slightly brighter of an interacting pair (Arp 293) with NGC 6285 1.5' NW. At 375x it appeared moderately bright and large, edge-on 5:1 SW-NE, 1.2'x0.25', well concentrated with a bright core, the extensions taper at the ends.

 

UGC 10641, an extremely low surface brightness edge-on, lies 4.5' SW.  It appeared extremely faint and slender 8:1 E-W, ~40"x5".  A mag 13.7 star is 0.4' SW of center.  Based on the DSS image and low magnitude (mag 16.2-16.5B) I was surprised to pick up this superthin with certainty.  The SQM-L reading at the time was over 21.8.

 

48" (5/15/12): fairly bright, fairly large, very elongated 7:2 SW-NE, ~1.5'x0.4', well concentrated with a slightly bulging core and thin extensions.  The outer loop on the southeast side was not seen.  Brighter member of an interacting system (Arp 293) with NGC 6285 just 1.5' NW.

 

18" (7/14/07): fairly faint, moderately large, edge-on 9:2 SW-NE, ~1.5'x0.3', very weak concentration with a small slightly brighter core.  A 52" pair of mag 10/11 stars is in the field 7' NE.

 

17.5" (6/18/88): fairly faint, fairly small, very elongated 3:1 SW-NE, bright core.  Form a close pair with NGC 6285 1.5' NW.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 6286 = Sw I-45, along with NGC 6290 and 6291, on 13 Aug 1885 and recorded "eF; pS; R."  His position was just 5 seconds of time too small.  He missed nearby NGC 6285 on this observation, but discovered it on a later observation.

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NGC 6287 = ESO 518-SC010

17 05 09.3 -22 42 29

V = 9.3;  Size 5.1'

 

18" (7/24/06): this fairly faint 3' cluster was surprisingly partially resolved at 435x and 565x.  At 565x the cluster was very lively and mottled with roughly 20 stars barely resolved over the disc (some popping in and out of visibility). The core was only weakly compressed.  The cluster appeared on the verge of being well resolved with a number of extremely faint mag 16 stars sometimes momentarily sparkling and increasing the total to perhaps three dozen stars.

 

17.5" (6/8/91): fairly bright, irregular, 3' diameter, mottled but not resolved at 280x.  The core is elongated SW-NE.  Two very faint unresolved star lanes stream to the north and east from the core giving the appearance of a tail.

 

WH discovered NGC 6287 = H II-195 = h3666 on 21 May 1784 (sweep 222) and recorded "pB, cL, iR, r, lbM."  JH made the single observation "globular cluster; irreg R; gpm comp M; 3' diam; barely resolved into stars 16...18m." and measured an accurate position.

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NGC 6288 = MCG +11-21-006 = CGCG 321-008 = PGC 59312

16 57 24.5 +68 27 26

V = 14.5;  Size 0.8'x0.4';  Surf Br = 14.5;  PA = 105d

 

17.5" (7/9/88): very faint, very small, round, very small bright core.  Forms a pair with NGC 6289 4' NNE.

 

Edward Swift, Lewis' 13 year-old son, discovered NGC 6288 = Sw I-52 (along with NGC 6289) on 19 Aug 1884 and they recorded "vvF; vS; R; vF * nr; sp of 2 [with NGC 6289]."  The Swifts' RA is only 12 seconds too far east.

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NGC 6289 = MCG +11-21-007 = CGCG 320-056 = PGC 59322

16 57 44.9 +68 30 53

V = 14.5;  Size 0.8'x0.6';  PA = 13d

 

17.5" (7/9/88): very faint, very small, round.  A pair of stars is 1.5' NE and a mag 15.5 star is at the SW edge.  Forms a pair with NGC 6288 4' SSW.

 

Edward Swift, Lewis' 13 year-old son, discovered NGC 6289 = Sw I-53 (along with NGC 6288) on 19 Aug 1884 and recorded "eF; eE; pL; 2 B stars nr n; nf of 2 [with NGC 6288]."  The Swifts' RA is ~0.4 minutes too large (small distance at this declination) and the description matches CGCG 320-056 = PGC 59322.

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NGC 6290 = UGC 10665 = MCG +10-24-088 = CGCG 299-043 = PGC 59428

17 00 56.4 +58 58 13

V = 13.5;  Size 1.1'x1.0';  Surf Br = 13.4;  PA = 30d

 

17.5" (6/18/88): fairly faint, small, round, bright core, faint stellar nucleus.  Brightest of three in a compact group with NGC 6291 2.0' S and MCG +10-24-085 2' WSW.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 6290 = Sw II-46, along with NGC 6291 and 6286, on 13 Aug 1885 and recorded "eF; pS; R; * nr following; 2 bright stars nearly point to it; n of 2 [with NGC 6291]."  The note "2 bright stars nearly point to it" refer to 2 mag 10 stars to the northwest, but there is no star "nr following."

 

MCG misidentifies NGC 6290 as NGC 6291.

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NGC 6291 = MCG +10-24-086 = CGCG 299-042 = PGC 59433

17 00 55.9 +58 56 16

V = 13.9;  Size 1.1'x1.1';  Surf Br = 14.0

 

17.5" (6/18/88): faint, small, round, small bright core.  Forms a close pair with brighter NGC 6290 2.0' N.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 6291 = Sw II-47, along with NGC 6290 and 6286, on 13 Aug 1885 and recorded "eeF; eS; R; s of 2 [with NGC 6290]."  MCG fails to label this galaxy as NGC 6291, though the identification is certain.

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NGC 6292 = UGC 10684 = MCG +10-24-093 = CGCG 299-047 = PGC 59498

17 03 03.7 +61 02 37

V = 13.5;  Size 1.5'x0.8';  Surf Br = 13.6;  PA = 105d

 

17.5" (6/18/88): faint, very small, elongated ~E-W, weak concentration.  Located within a star group with a mag 15 star at the east end.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 6292 = Sw II-48 on 8 Jul 1885 and recorded "eF; E; several vF stars near; v diff."  His position is 30 seconds too far west, but the description confirms the identification with UGC 10684.  Bigourdan measured an accurate position on 10 Sep 1888, and Dreyer published the correction in the IC 2 Notes.

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NGC 6293 = ESO 519-SC005

17 10 10.4 -26 34 54

V = 8.2;  Size 7.9'

 

17.5" (6/6/86): small, compact, 10-20 stars resolved at 286x and on the verge of more extensive resolution.

 

13" (7/27/84): fairly bright, high surface brightness, compact core, much fainter mottled halo.  Between 6-12 very faint stars are resolved in the halo at 360x.

 

WH discovered NGC 6293 = H VI-12 = h1977 = h3667 on 24 May 1784 (sweep 224) and noted "a miniature cluster of stars of the former cluster [M19]; such as described sweep 223 [NGC 6284], but rather coarser."  From the CGH, JH recorded "globular cluster; B; R; psbM; diam 7.0s; resolved into stars 16m."

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NGC 6294 = ESO 519-**6

17 10 16.2 -26 34 29

 

=** off the following side of GC NGC 6293!, Dreyer.

 

JH discovered NGC 6294 = h1978 on 16 Apr 1828 and recorded "F; S; vsbM; is a companion to the globular cluster VI. 12 [NGC 6293, observed just previously in the sweep]." His position (corrected by a small offset for NGC 6293) corresponds with pair of mag 13 stars at 10" separation.  Herbert Howe, was the first to make this identification in 1898, observing with the 20-inch refractor in Denver.  He noted "This follows 6293 closely, and appears to be simply a very faint double star of mag 13 and 13.5, with an angle on 315¡, and distance of 8"."

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NGC 6295 = UGC 10682 = MCG +10-24-092 = PGC 59510

17 03 15.4 +60 20 16

V = 15.0;  Size 0.9'x0.4';  Surf Br = 13.7;  PA = 77d

 

17.5" (6/18/88): extremely faint, very small, elongated WSW-ENE.  A mag 14 star is 30" N.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 6295 = Sw IV-47 on 9 Jun 1886 and recorded "eF; S; cE; F * nr."  His position is 10 seconds east and 2.5' north of UGC 10682.  There are no other nearby candidates for this identification is secure.  His "F * nr" probably refers to the mag 13.8 star less than 1' north.

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NGC 6296 = UGC 10719 = MCG +01-44-002 = CGCG 054-003 = PGC 59690

17 08 44.6 +03 53 37

V = 13.4;  Size 1.0'x0.8';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 130d

 

17.5" (7/19/90): faint, small, slightly elongated NW-SE, broad concentration.  On line with mag 7.8 SAO 122127 8.9' SSE and a mag 9 star 4.9' SSE.  Pair with IC 1242 9.3' N.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 6296 = m 331 on 17 Jun 1863 and noted "pB".  His position is 2' too far north.

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NGC 6297 = NGC 6298 = UGC 10690 = CGCG 299-050 = PGC 59525

17 03 36.4 +62 01 32

V = 13.6;  Size 0.7'x0.5';  Surf Br = 12.3;  PA = 90d

 

17.5" (7/9/88): faint, very small, round, bright core.  Located between a mag 12 star 1.8' ESE and a mag 13 star 0.9' WNW.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 6297 = Sw II-49 on 8 Jul 1885 and recorded "pB; pS; R; bet 2 stars; np of 2 [with NGC 6298]."  His RA is 20 seconds too small, but the comment "bet 2 stars" clinches this identification.  NGC 6298, discovered by Swift three weeks later, he almost certainly a duplicate observation.  Bigourdan measured an accurate position on 1 Sep 1888.

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NGC 6298 = NGC 6297 = UGC 10690 = CGCG 299-050 = PGC 59525

17 03 36.4 +62 01 32

 

See observing notes for NGC 6298.  Incorrect identification (and RA typo) in the RNGC.

 

Lewis Swift found NGC 6298 = Sw II-50 on 1 Aug 1885 and recorded "vF; eS; R; between 2 stars, nf of 2 [with NGC 6297]."  This observation was made just 3 weeks after discovering NGC 6297 = Sw II-49.  His two positions are nearly identical and there is only 1 galaxy here "between 2 stars", though on the first observation he called it "pB".  Swift probably added the comments "sp of 2" and "nf of 2" later, assuming he had observed different nebulae on the two nights.  In any case, NGC 6297 = NGC 6298.  Bigourdan observed this galaxy and corrected the RA  but of course failed to find NGC 6298.

 

The RNGC misidentifies some "very flat" galaxy as NGC 6298 (possibly 2MASX J17042122+6202573, but the position has an obvious typo (RA listed as 11h) so it is difficult to interpret.  I reported this error in my RNGC Corrections #3 list.

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NGC 6299 = MCG +10-24-097 = CGCG 299-051 = PGC 59561

17 05 04.3 +62 27 28

V = 14.1;  Size 0.7'x0.5';  Surf Br = 12.8

 

17.5" (7/9/88): faint, very small, round, stellar nucleus or faint star superimposed.

 

Heinrich d'Arrest discovered NGC 6299 on 27 Oct 1861 (first official night of nebula hunting) with the 11-inch refractor at Copenhagen.

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NGC 6300 = ESO 101-025 = VV 734 = PGC 60001

17 16 59.4 -62 49 14

V = 10.2;  Size 4.5'x3.0';  Surf Br = 12.8;  PA = 118d

 

18" (7/11/05 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): very unusual galaxy at a low galactic latitude and the appearance was similar to a fairly large emission nebula in a rich star field!  Appears irregular but elongated 5:3 NW-SE, ~3.0'x1.8' with a weak concentration to a slightly brighter core.  Two brighter stars (mag 12.5) are superimposed on the core and another two mag 13.5 stars are superimposed near the north and south ends of the halo!  These stars confuse the observation of this strange looking galaxy (dusty barred spiral with ring).  Located 9.5' SW of mag 7.6 HD 155797.

 

JH discovered NGC 6300 = h3668 on 30 Jun 1826 and recorded "F; vL; R; vgvlbM; 3'; has several stars, one = 11m; involved but being on a rich ground, there appears no connection."  His position is accurate.

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NGC 6301 = UGC 10723 = MCG +07-35-034 = CGCG 225-049 = IC 4643 = PGC 59681

17 08 32.9 +42 20 19

V = 13.4;  Size 2.3'x1.4';  Surf Br = 14.5;  PA = 115d

 

17.5" (8/1/89): faint, moderately large, oval WNW-ESE.  A mag 13 star is embedded in the SW portion.  Forms a pair with CGCG 225-050 4' SE.  The companion was extremely faint and small, round, weak concentration.

 

WH discovered NGC 6301 = H IV-57 on 11 Jun 1787 (sweep 746) and recorded "suspected stellar; but too faint to be verified."  He confirmed the discovery on 12 Apr 1788 (sweep 831) and noted "F, stellar or a vS star involved in extremely F nebulosity.  Suspected in sweep 746."  His mean position (two observations) matches UGC 10723.  Johann Palisa apparently independently rediscovered this galaxy at Vienna.  It was announced in AN 3412 and later recatalogued as IC 4643.  As Palisa's position is the same as NGC 6301, it's surprising Dreyer did not notice the equivalence with NGC 6301.

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NGC 6302 = PK 349+1.1 = Bug Nebula = Sh 2-6 = Gum 60 = RCW 124 = Ced 139 = PN G349.5+01.0

17 13 44.6 -37 06 12

V = 9.7;  Size 83"x24"

 

18" (7/22/06): fascinating view unfiltered at 325x.  In the center is a very high surface brightness "core" of only 10"-12" in diameter that brightens slightly to the center and is encased in a larger, fainter envelope.  Extending from the central core are two remarkable wings oriented WSW-ENE.  The following wing is much shorter but slightly brighter and this extension abruptly shoots towards the southeast near the end.  The much longer preceding wing heads WSW and is cut by a darker lane that detaches the western tip.

 

17.5" (6/30/00): at 280x (unfiltered) the Bug Nebula is a remarkable, high surface brightness object, elongated 3:1 WSW-ENE, ~2.0x0.7'.  The intensely bright 10" core appears elongated SW-NE and is offset to the east of center. A quasi-stellar nucleus sharpens to a stellar point when the seeing steadies (this is not the central star, though).  The western wing is longer and is nearly split at the midpoint by a dark slash oriented N-S with a brighter condensation at the west end.  The shorter eastern wing is more pinched and just past its midpoint there is a kink and it angles towards the SE.

 

13.1" (7/27/84): structure highly suspected with the western extension cut by a dark lane.  The eastern extension bends north following the core.

 

13.1" (7/5/83): bright, fairly small, elongated E-W, very high surface brightness.  Subtle structure but the western extension is notably longer, brighter and possibly cut by a dark lane.

 

8" (6/27/81): fairly bright, small, elongated, bright core and brighter along the western extension.

 

E.E. Barnard discovered NGC 6302 in 1880 with his 5-inch refractor.  He described "A small flickering indefinite nebula slightly elongated (e and w) with 5-inch refractor." This was the first nebula that Barnard found, though the discovery was not published until 1884 (AN 108, 369 and Sidereal Messenger, Vol 2, p226).  He noted "Prof. Swift, with his 16 inch refractor finds it to be a triple and elongated; its major axis nearly perpendicular to the meridian; a smaller nebula at each end, one of which is exceedingly faint.  Its place is from one observation with the meridian circle."  In 1892 Barnard made a detailed observation and sketch with the 36-inch refractor at Lick Observatory (See http://articles.adsabs.harvard.edu/full/1906AN....173..123B).  As far as the popular nickname, Barnard comments "from its singular appearance, I have called it the "Bug Nebula".

 

Dreyer noted "seems to be Dunlop 567 [found on 5 Jun 1826]" in the IC 1 Notes.  Dunlop's description reads "a very faint small ill-defined nebula, with a small star in it, with two small stars south of it, but not involved."  If this description applies to NGC 6302, his position was particularly bad -- 1.1¡ NE of the planetary.  But Glen Cozens, in a 2010 article in the "Journal of Astronomical History and Heritage" states "D567 is an asterism, not the planetary nebula NGC 6302, as suggested by Hartung."  It's surprising the John Herschel missed this bright planetary during his sweeps.

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NGC 6303 = UGC 10711 = MCG +12-16-017 = CGCG 321-013 = PGC 59573

17 05 02.9 +68 49 40

V = 13.7;  Size 1.3'x0.8';  Surf Br = 13.8;  PA = 60d

 

17.5" (7/9/88): very faint, small, slightly elongated WSW-ENE, weak concentration.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 6303 = Sw I-54 on 14 Oct 1884 and noted "vvF; cE; pL; nearly bet. 2 stars."   There is nothing near his position.  Bigourdan's "corrected" position on 15 Sep 1890 (repeated in the IC 2 Notes) refers to a star.

 

Harold Corwin equates UGC 10711 with NGC 6303.  This galaxy is situated 28' north of Swift's position and 30 seconds of time east, but matches his comment "nearly between 2 stars."  Malcolm Thomson disagrees (in his CGCG Corrections) due to the discrepancy in RA and Dec.  All modern catalogues identify UGC 10711 as NGC 6303.

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NGC 6304 = ESO 454-SC002

17 14 32.5 -29 27 44

V = 8.4;  Size 6.8'

 

17.5" (8/27/92): fairly bright, moderately large, slightly elongated E-W.  The brightest portion is 2' diameter although a very faint halo increases the diameter to 3'-3.5'.  Appears flattened on the south side.  There was no significant central condensation although the central region was very mottled and a few faint mag 15-15.5 stars popped in and out of view.  Within the faint halo 10-20 very faint mag 15-16 stars are just resolved.

 

WH discovered NGC 6304 = H I-147 = h3670 on 30 Apr 1786 (sweep 559) and recorded "vB, R, gmbM, between 2 & 3' dia.  A very pretty object.  A miniature of M62."  His position is accurate.  JH made two observations from the Cape of Good Hope and described the cluster on sweep 478 as "B; R; at first s, the vgvlbM; brighter part 2' diam; but there is a much fainter portion which extends a good deal further; stars 16-17 mag."

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NGC 6305 = ESO 138-019 = PGC 60029

17 18 00.5 -59 10 18

V = 12.2;  Size 1.8'x1.1';  Surf Br = 12.8;  PA = 133d

 

14" (4/3/16 - Coonabarabran, 184x and 230x): moderately bright, small, slightly elongated, 20"x15" (probably the core region).  Two mag 13.5-14 stars just off the north side are collinear with the galaxy.  Located 32' NNW of mag 5.9 HD 156091 in a fairly rich star field.

 

The Stingray Nebula (He 3-1357), the youngest known planetary nebula, lies 23' SW.  It appeared ~13th magnitude and was stellar up to 230x.  It was easy to confirm by blinking with an NPB filter at 184x.  A mag 10.8 star is 35" W and provided an excellent comparison. This star is noticeably brighter unfiltered, but dimmer after inserting an NPB filter, so there was a very good filter response due to its strong OIII lines.

 

Up until around 1980, He 3-1357 was an ordinary B1 post-AGB star, but then it suddenly sprouted bright emission lines like a planetary nebula, and soon afterwards the HST discovered a small PN halo around the star, so apparently a star was caught in the act of ionizing a PN.

 

The brightening of the nebula likely stopped in the early 1990Õs with the turn-off of the fast stellar wind associated with the 1980s ionization event. The fading of the nebula started afterwards in the early 1990s. At this time, the central star underwent fast fading and its illumination of the nebula declined from V = ~10.5 to currently ~12.5.

 

JH discovered NGC 6305 = h3669 on 5 Jul 1836 and logged "vF; vS; R; glbM; 12"."  RNGC classifies this galaxies as an unverified southern object.

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NGC 6306 = UGC 10724 = MCG +10-24-098 = CGCG 299-053 = Holm 769b Kaz 5 = PGC 59654

17 07 37.1 +60 43 42

V = 13.7;  Size 1.0'x0.3';  Surf Br = 12.3;  PA = 166d

 

17.5" (6/18/88): fairly faint, fairly small, very elongated ~N-S, bright core.  Forms a close pair with NGC 6307 1.4' NE.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 6306 = Sw II-51 on 8 Jul 1885 and recorded "vF; vS; lE.  Close to 4278 [NGC 6310].  South-preceding of 2 [with NGC 6310].  Dreyer assumed the "North-following" of two" referred to NGC 6307, but his position and description of II-52 applies to NGC 6310.  If that's the case, then his comment "close to 4278", should be "close to 4277 [NGC 6307]."

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NGC 6307 = UGC 10727 = MCG +10-24-099 = CGCG 299-054 = Holm 769a = PGC 59655

17 07 40.6 +60 45 02

V = 12.9;  Size 1.3'x1.0';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 145d

 

17.5" (6/18/88): fairly faint, small, elongated NNW-SSE, bright core.  A mag 13.5 star is at the north end 0.5' from center.  Forms a close pair with NGC 6306 1.4' SW.

 

Heinrich d'Arrest discovered NGC 6307, along with NGC 6310, on 27 Oct 1861 with the 11-inch refractor at Copenhagen (first night he made discoveries with this telescope).  He noted the mag 13 star at the north end (measured at 20") and his position is accurate.

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NGC 6308 = UGC 10747 = MCG +04-40-021 = CGCG 139-043 = PGC 59807

17 11 59.8 +23 22 47

V = 13.4;  Size 1.2'x1.1';  Surf Br = 13.6;  PA = 150d

 

17.5": fairly faint, fairly small, slightly elongated ~N-S, diffuse.  A mag 15 star is at the north edge 0.7' from center.  First and largest of three with NGC 6314 11.2' SE.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 6308 = m 332, along with NGC 6314 and 6315, on 6 Jun 1863 and noted "vF, S, R, sbM."  These were the first three galaxies he discovered with William Lassell's 48-inch on Malta.

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NGC 6309 = PK 9+14.1 = Box Nebula = PN G009.6+14.8

17 14 04.2 -12 54 39

V = 11.5;  Size 52"

 

24" (8/13/15): this very bright, bipolar, compact planetary was viewed at 375x and 500x. The two lobes are extended at least 3:2 NNW-SSE with an overall size of ~27"x18" and create a pear shape.  A bright, roundish lobe is on the NNW side and a 12th magnitude star is off this side in the direction of the major axis [22" from center].  The smaller lobe on the SSE end is slightly fainter and separated by a small darker gap near the center.  A mag 15 star is just off the west edge [14" from center].  An extremely faint outer shell or extension was just visible, bulging out on the east side perhaps 10", and creating an asymmetric appearance.

 

24" (7/16/15): excellent view at 450x unfiltered.  The larger and brighter lobe on the north-northwest end appeared roughly circular and slightly brighter along the outer rim.  The smaller knot on the south-southeast end is slightly irregular and the nebulosity dims near the center.  A mag 12 star is just north of the north-northwest end.

 

18" (7/22/06): superb view at 807x!  This bipolar elongated planetary appears pear-shaped with the brighter, larger lobe on the north-northwest end and a smaller, slightly fainter nodule on the south-southeast end.  The nebulosity dims between the lobes but there appears to be a very small bridge of faint haze bridging the knots.

 

18" (7/20/06): at 325x this bi-lobed planetary is striking with a mag 12 star situated just off the northwest edge.  The PN is elongated 2:1 NNW-SSE in the direction of the neighboring star.  At the north-northwest end is the larger and brighter lobe with a smaller, fainter condensation forming the south-southeast end.  A very faint irregular halo encases the entire structure.  In moments of better seeing (overall the seeing was poor), the lobes were nearly resolved.

 

17.5" (6/30/00): at 280x using a UHC filter, this bright but compact PN was elongated 2:1 in the direction of a 12th magnitude star at the NNW edge, with dimensions of ~25"x12".  There is a large, bright lobe or condensation at the north end with a smaller, fainter knot at the SSE end.  At moments the lobes appear completely "resolved" with a darker gap in the center.  The view at 500x was excellent!  The fainter southern lobe appears elongated and slightly offset from the major axis of the PN.  The lobes are bisected by a darker lane oriented SW-NE and oblique to the minor axis.  The brighter knot at the north end has a mottled appearance and irregular shape.

 

13" (7/27/84): moderately bright, small, elongated NNW-SSE.  A mag 12 star is at the NNW edge 20" from the center.  Appears slightly brighter or a condensation is at the SSE end.

 

Wilhelm Tempel discovered NGC 6309 = T I-46 = T V-31 around 1876.  His position in list V is accurate.  Edward Pickering found the planetary on 15 Jul 1882 with the 15-inch refractor at Harvard College Observatory using a direct-vision spectroscope and noted "nebula found by Tempel (GC 4851). Tempel's description 'between 2 stars' does not seem applicable."  There is only one close star.  Herbert Howe described NGC 6309 as a close double nebula, using the 20-inch refractor in Denver.  NGC 6309 is the only planetary discovered by Tempel.

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NGC 6310 = UGC 10730 = MCG +10-24-100 = CGCG 299-055 = PGC 59662

17 07 57.6 +60 59 24

V = 13.1;  Size 2.0'x0.4';  Surf Br = 12.8;  PA = 69d

 

17.5" (6/18/88): fairly faint, fairly small, edge-on 5:1 WSW-ENE, 1.5'x0.3', small bright core.

 

Heinrich d'Arrest discovered NGC 6310, along with NGC 6307, on 27 Oct 1861 with the 11-inch refractor at Copenhagen (first night he made discoveries with this telescope).  Lewis Swift independently rediscovered this galaxy on 8 Jul 1885 and reported it as new in list II-52.  His description reads "pF; vE; 3 stars in line point to it.  nf of 2 [with NGC 6306]."  Dreyer assumed this observation referred to NGC 6307, and references Swift as an "Other Observer" for NGC 6307.  It's possible, though, that Swift's II-51 refers to NGC 6307.

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NGC 6311 = UGC 10741 = MCG +07-35-039 = CGCG 225-059 = PGC 59750

17 10 43.7 +41 39 04

V = 13.5;  Size 1.1'x1.1';  Surf Br = 13.7

 

17.5" (8/1/89): faint, small, irregularly round, weak concentration.  Forms a pair with CGCG 225-056 4.8' SW, which appeared extremely faint and small, round, substellar nucleus, very small halo.

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 6311 = St VII-11 on 30 Jun 1876.  His position is very accurate.

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NGC 6312 = MCG +07-35-040 = CGCG 225-060 = PGC 59751

17 10 48.1 +42 17 15

V = 14.2;  Size 0.7'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.3

 

17.5" (8/1/89): very faint, small, round, low even surface brightness.  A mag 14 star is 0.7' NW of center.

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 6312 = St X-31 on 25 Jul 1879.  His position is accurate.

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NGC 6313 = UGC 10742 = MCG +08-31-025 = CGCG 252-022 = PGC 59739

17 10 20.9 +48 19 53

V = 13.8;  Size 1.3'x0.4';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 156d

 

17.5" (8/1/89): faint, fairly small, edge-on NNW-SSE.  Bracketed between two mag 14 stars at the north tip and off the south end 0.8' from center.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 6313 = Sw IX-74 on 21 Apr 1887 and recorded "eeF; vS; F * on each side in meridian."  Both stars are mentioned in my observation.  The discovery was relayed directly to Dreyer as he was compiling the NGC and referenced as list VI in the NGC, though Swift published the discovery a couple of years later in list IX.

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NGC 6314 = UGC 10752 = MCG +04-40-022 = CGCG 139-044 = PGC 59838

17 12 38.7 +23 16 12

V = 12.9;  Size 1.4'x0.7';  Surf Br = 12.8;  PA = 175d

 

17.5": fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 2:1 N-S, small bright core, substellar nucleus.  Forms a pair with NGC 6315 3.3' SE.  NGC 6308 lies 11.2' NW.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 6314 = m 333, along with NGC 6308 and 6315, on 6 Jun 1863 and noted "F, vS, R, bM."  These were the first three galaxies he discovered with William Lassell's 48-inch on Malta and his position is accurate.

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NGC 6315 = MCG +04-40-023 = CGCG 139-045 = PGC 59843

17 12 46.1 +23 13 25

V = 13.2;  Size 1.0'x0.9';  Surf Br = 12.9

 

17.5": very faint, very small, 30" diameter, low surface brightness, slightly elongated.  A mag 14 star is off the NW edge 0.8' from center.  Last and faintest of three with NGC 6314 3.3' NW and NGC 6308 14' NW.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 6315 = m 334, along with NGC 6308 and 6314, on 6 Jun 1863 and noted "eF, S."  These were the first three galaxies he discovered with William Lassell's 48-inch on Malta and his position is fairly accurate.

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NGC 6316 = ESO 454-SC004

17 16 37.4 -28 08 24

V = 9.0;  Size 4.9'

 

17.5" (8/27/92): moderately bright, fairly small, round, 2' diameter, broad concentration with no distinct core.  This globular was mottled across the disc but only a marginal resolution into a few mag 16 stars was visible.  A brighter mag 12 field star is off the SE edge by 1'.  Also two mag 13 field stars are at the SW side and 2' W of center.

 

WH discovered NGC 6316 = H I-45 = h3671 on 24 May 1784 (sweep 224) and recorded "B, R, mbM, but the brightness decreasing very gradually. A faintish dusky red colour is still perceptible.  It is a perfect miniature of the former miniature [NGC 6293, which is itself a miniature cluster of the 19th of the Connoissance des Temps."  So he recognized NGC 6316 as a distant globular.

 

Dunlop probably observed the globular on 13 May 1826, recording "a very small faint round nebula, about 8" or 10" diameter, bright in the centre. There is a very small star south of the nebula, distant about 10" from it, but it is not involved or connected with the nebula."  Observed once, and his position is 36' too far east-southeast, so his identification is not certain.

 

JH made two observations from the Cape of Good Hope.  On 30 Jul 1834 he recorded "globular, B, R, gbM, resolvable, 90", has 2 small stars very near."  On a later sweep he logged "globular, pB, S, R, pgvmbM, 2', resolved into stars 16..17th mag."

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NGC 6317 = MCG +11-21-009 = PGC 59708

17 08 59.5 +62 53 53

V = 15.0;  Size 1.2'x0.4';  Surf Br = 14.1

 

17.5" (7/9/88): extremely faint, small, oval ~E-W, low even surface brightness.  A mag 15 star is off the north side 51" from center.  Pair with NGC 6319 6.8' NE.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 6317 = Sw I-55, along with NGC 6319, on 2 Jun 1883 and recorded "eeF; S; R; F * nr; sp of 2 [with NGC 6319]."  His position is 14 seconds of RA too large and the faint star is ~50" north.  Bigourdan measured an accurate position on 7 Sep 1888, which Dreyer repeated in the IC 2 Notes. MCG and UGC (notes section) fail to label this galaxy as NGC 6317.

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NGC 6318 = ESO 333-SC1 = Cr 325 = Mel 166 = Lund 742 = vdB-Ha 218

17 16 12 -39 25 30

Size 4'

 

13.1" (7/27/84): large, fairly rich group of stars mag 11 and fainter, fairly prominent, elongated N-S.  The NGC RA is 1.6 tmin too far east and this cluster is misplotted on U2000.

 

James Dunlop discovered NGC 6318 = D 522 = h3672 on 13 May 1826 and described "an exceedingly faint nebula, about 1.5' long and 1' broad, elliptical in the direction of the meridian, with two or three very small stars in it.".  Dunlop made 4 observations and his published position is 18' too far east.  JH observed the cluster on 5 Jun 1834 and wrote "cluster VII class. Rich, pL, R, gbM, stars 12...14th mag, not a globular."  He gave a very approximate position (nearest minute +/- in RA and arcmin of Dec).  In the GC, JH improved the position, but it is still 1.5 minutes of time too large.  Gšsta Lynga (open cluster catalogue) and NGC 2000.0 repeat the erroneous NGC position.

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NGC 6319 = UGC 10744 = MCG +11-21-010 = CGCG 321-015 = PGC 59717

17 09 44.1 +62 58 23

V = 13.5;  Size 0.4'x0.4';  Surf Br = 11.4

 

17.5" (7/9/88): faint, small, round, bright core, faint stellar nucleus.  Forms a pair with difficult NGC 6317 6.8' SW.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 6319 = Sw I-56, along with NGC 6317, on 14 May 1885 and noted "vS; vF; lbM; nf of 2 [with NGC 6317]."  His position is 25 seconds of time too small.  Bigourdan measured a fairly accurate position on 7 Sep 1888, which Dreyer repeated in the IC 2 Notes.  MCG fails to identify this galaxy as NGC 6319.

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NGC 6320 = UGC 10761 = MCG +07-35-044 = CGCG 225-067 = PGC 59852

17 12 55.8 +40 15 58

V = 13.8;  Size 1.2'x0.9';  Surf Br = 13.8;  PA = 85d

 

17.5" (8/1/89): very faint, slightly elongated E-W, 0.8'x0.6', low even surface brightness, very diffuse.  A mag 14 star is attached on the south side, 25" from the center.

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 6320 = St IV-1 on 27 Jul 1872.  His position is accurate.

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NGC 6321 = UGC 10768 = MCG +03-44-002 = CGCG 111-015 = PGC 59900

17 14 24.3 +20 18 50

V = 13.4;  Size 1.1'x1.0';  Surf Br = 13.4

 

17.5" (8/1/89): faint, moderately large, round, almost even surface brightness.  A mag 14 star is at the west edge 40" from center and a mag 13 star 1.0' SE of center.

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 6321 = St II-13 on 14 Jul 1871.  His micrometric position is very accurate.

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NGC 6322 = Cr 326 = ESO 278-SC006

17 18 26 -42 56 00

V = 6.0;  Size 10'

 

14" (4/5/16 - Coonabarabran, 71x and 184x): very distinctive, eye-catching cluster outlined by a very bright equilateral triangle (sides, 6', 6', 7') consisting of mag 7.6 HD 156189, mag 7.5 HD 156292 and mag 7.7 HD 156234.  In the interior is a 34" pair of mag 9/9.5 stars, along with a 16" pair of mag 10.5 stars (both oriented roughly N-S).  Another mag 9.2 star (HD 156271) is at the southeast side of the cluster.  Roughly 50 stars total are resolved within a 9' region, including a number of mag 12-14 stars in addition to the prominent ones mentioned.

 

8" (7/16/82): consists of a near equilateral triangle of mag 7.5, 7.6 and 7.8 stars (sides ~7') with roughly 12 faint stars scattered nearby, moderately large.

 

JH discovered NGC 6322 = h3673 on 1 Jun 1834 and recorded "vl cl VII. class, of loose st, on a v rich ground of S stars.  The chief *, 6m, at the nf edge taken.  The next sweep 2 nights later he logged "Coarse B cluster VII mainly included within an equilateral triangle formed by 3 B stars 5 and 6m.  The nf of these taken."

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NGC 6323 = UGC 10764 = MCG +07-35-048 = CGCG 225-071 = PGC 59868

17 13 18.1 +43 46 57

V = 13.9;  Size 1.1'x0.4';  Surf Br = 12.8;  PA = 172d

 

18" (7/27/03): faint, fairly small, very elongated 4:1 ~N-S, 0.6'x0.15'.  Contains a small brighter core.  A mag 13.5 star lies 1.9' NW.  Second of 8 in the NGC 6329/6332 group.  CGCG 225-070 lies 5.4' SSW.  Located 10' ENE of mag 7.2 SAO 46565.

 

17.5" (8/1/89): very faint, small, very elongated 3:1 NNW-SSE, weak concentration.  First of five in a group with NGC 6329 12' ESE and NGC 6327 11' SE.

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 6323 = St VII-12 on 12 Jul 1876.  His position is very accurate.

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NGC 6324 = UGC 10725 = MCG +13-12-016 = CGCG 355-025 = PGC 59583

17 05 25.1 +75 24 26

V = 12.8;  Size 0.9'x0.5';  Surf Br = 11.9;  PA = 78d

 

17.5" (5/14/88): fairly faint, very small, slightly elongated, diffuse, small brighter core.

 

WH discovered NGC 6324 = H III-945 on 12 Dec 1797 (sweep 1071) and logged "vF, S, E.  I saw it also with 320x.  A small star is south of it; a 2nd is preceding and a 3rd following."  His description is a perfect match with UGC 10725.  Bigourdan measured an accurate position on 22 Jul 1884 (repeated in the IC 2 notes).

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NGC 6325 = ESO 519-SC11

17 17 59.2 -23 45 58

V = 10.7;  Size 4.3'

 

17.5" (5/30/92): fairly faint, small, 2' diameter, slightly mottled but no resolution, weak central concentration.  At 412x appears very granular with a brighter core that is offset to the west.  A faint star visible off the WSW edge of the halo may be a field star.  Located 30' N of the double star 39 (Omicron) Ophiuchi (5.4/6.9 at 10").

 

8" (6/27/81): very faint, weak concentration, small, no resolution.

 

JH discovered NGC 6325 = h3676 on 24 May 1835 and logged "pF; R; gbM; r; 60".  No doubt it is a globular cluster."  His single position is good.

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NGC 6326 = PK 338-8.1 = PN G338.1-08.3 = ESO 228-PN1

17 20 46.3 -51 45 16

V = 11.1;  Size 16"x11"

 

18" (7/8/02 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): very bright, small, round compact PN in a dense field of stars.  A couple of mag 13-14 stars are just off the north and east sides. At 171x and UHC filter, the crisply defined periphery is slightly elongated and evenly illuminated with no hint of a central star. The diameter appears to be ~15" with a V mag of approximately 10.5.  Located 3.5¡ NE of gc NGC 6397 and a similar distance SSW of gc NGC 6352.

 

James Dunlop possibly discovered NGC 6326 = D 381 = h3675 on 26 Aug 1826 and described "an extremely faint small nebula, about 12" diameter, with a bright point in the centre."  The size certainly fits, though his position was off by 24' (too far east) and this identification is uncertain.

 

JH gave two very detailed observations.  On 19 Jun 1835 he logged "planetary nebula, delicate, F, vS, diam = 6 or 7 arcseconds, exactly round, perfectly uniform (as respects the graduation of the light from the centre to the edges), but the light a very little curdled. Not the slightest haziness, but like a star out of focus.  320x shows rather more fur at the edges than I think it would to a planet of equal size and light. Its light is = a star 10-11th mag. It would be quite useless to look for this object under less favourable circumstances -- of instrument and sky. A night of gloriously perfect definition! It is in a very rich place. There are 40 or 50 small stars in field. Measures of the two companions; 1st pos = 351 degrees, dist = 1 diam from edge, star = 14th mag; 2nd pos = 91.4, dist = 2/3 diam, star = 13th mag. Showed it to my attendant, J Stone, who saw it well".  His sketch in on Plate VI, figure 6.

 

In a later sweep (6 Jun 1837) the comment was added "Referring to the description of D 381, I see no ground to suppose that this can by possibility have been the object intended by that place and description.  At all events the remarkable planetary character has escaped notice by the author of that description."

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NGC 6327 = CGCG 225-074 = PGC 59889

17 14 02.3 +43 38 57

V = 15.0;  Size 0.2'x0.2';  Surf Br = 11.4

 

18" (7/27/03): very faint, small sliver oriented ~NNW-SSE, 0.5'x0.15'.  Squeezed between two mag 13/14 stars 0.8' N and 0.6' S with a 3rd mag 13 star 1.6' E.  Third of 8 galaxies in a group and situated 3.2' SW of NGC 6329.

 

17.5" (8/1/89): extremely faint and small, round.  Located between a mag 14.5 star at the southern tip 0.6' from center and a mag 13 star 0.8' N of center.  Located 3.2' SW of NGC 6329 and the second of five in a group.

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 6327 = St VII-13 on 18 Jul 1876.  His position is very accurate.

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NGC 6328 = ESO 102-003 = AM 1718-645 = PGC 60198

17 23 41.0 -65 00 37

V = 12.3;  Size 2.4'x1.4';  Surf Br = 13.4;  PA = 157d

 

14" (4/5/16 - Coonabarabran, 184x): fairly faint, fairly small oval NNW-SSE, 0.8'x0.5', broad weak concentration to a slightly brighter core.  Mag 8.9 HD 156534 lies 7' NW and a mag 12 star is 1.3' NNW.  The latter has a 14.5 companion at 11" separation.  Situated within a rich Ara star field with numerous mag 12-14 stars.

 

JH discovered NGC 6328 = h3674 on 2 May 1835 and recorded "vF; R; gbM; 15".  He logged it again on 20 Jun 1835 and noted, "vF; vS; lE; lbM; 15" l, 12" br."  His position matches ESO 102-003 = PGC 60198, nevertheless RNGC classifies this number as a non-existent cluster.  The RNGC was probably misled by DeLisle Stewart's comment (based on a Harvard plate) in the IC 2 Notes: "eF pair of stars only, one star hazy".  Because of the RNGC classification, Brent Archinal includes this object in his monograph on the RNGC nonexistent clusters.

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NGC 6329 = UGC 10771 = MCG +07-35-051 = CGCG 225-077 = PGC 59894

17 14 15.0 +43 41 05

V = 12.8;  Size 1.8'x1.8';  Surf Br = 14.1

 

18" (7/27/03): fairly faint, fairly small, irregularly round, 0.7' diameter.  Contains a small bright core that increases to a distinct stellar nucleus.  Fourth of 8 galaxies and second brightest in the NGC 6332/6339 group (located roughly 50' NW of M92!) with NGC 6327 3.2' SW and NGC 6332 8.1' ESE.

 

17.5" (8/1/89): fairly faint, small, round, bright core, stellar nucleus.  Third of five in a group with NGC 6327 3.2' SW and NGC 6332 8.1' ESE.

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 6329 = St VII-14 on 11 Jul 1876.  His position is accurate.  A week later he discovered NGC 6327 to the southwest.

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NGC 6330 = UGC 10776 = MCG +05-41-005 = CGCG 170-007 = PGC 59961

17 15 44.6 +29 24 13

V = 14.0;  Size 1.4'x0.5';  Surf Br = 13.6;  PA = 160d

 

17.5" (8/1/89): very faint, fairly small, edge-on N-S.  A mag 15 star is just off the NE end 35" from center.  Located 4.8' SSE of mag 8.5 SAO 84956.

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 6330 = St XI-54 on 12 Jun 1880.  His position is on the east side of the galaxy.

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NGC 6331 = MCG +13-12-015 = CGCG 355-024 = PGC 59513

17 03 34.1 +78 37 48

V = 14.2;  Size 0.5'x0.4';  Surf Br = 12.7;  PA = 126d

 

24" (8/7/13): brightest member of Abell Galaxy Cluster 2256 and first in a 6' string to the east containing a total of 6 galaxies.  At 375x appeared fairly faint, fairly small, oval 5:3 NW-SE, ~30"x18", broad concentration, brighter core.  This is a very close double system (two nuclei on the SDSS) with a companion on the NW side.  A mag 13 star lies 1.8' E and this star is attached on the southwest side of CGCG 355-026.  PGC 84834, an extremely faint and small galaxy lies 1.1' E, on line with the mag 13 star.  Also in the string is UGC 10726 2.7' ENE, MCG +13-12-019 3.7' ENE, PGC 59471 4.4' SW and MCG +13-12-020 6' E.  In addition, PGC 59495 lies 2.4' SW.

 

UGC 10726: faint to fairly faint, irregularly round, ~35" diameter, broad weak concentration.  This galaxy and NGC 6331 are the two largest in the cluster.

MCG +13-12-019: faint, fairly small, round, 18" diameter.

PGC 59471: extremely faint and small, only 6" diameter.

MCG +13-12-020: very faint, small, round, 18" diameter, low even surface brightness.  A mag 11.3 star is 1.4' E.

PGC 59495: very faint, extremely small, round, 10" diameter.

 

18" (7/5/08): at 280x, appeared fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 2:1 WNW-ESE (a very faint companion at the WNW end may contribute to the impression of elongation), 40"x20", even surface brightness.  Brightest in the core of distant AGC 2256 (~800 million light years) with 6 faint companions picked up within 6'.  NGC 6331 is the first in a 3.7' curving chain of 5 galaxies extending to the east.  A mag 13.9 star lies within this chain 1.7' E.

 

17.5" (5/14/88): faint, small, elongated NW-SE.  A mag 13.5 star is 1.8' E.  UGC 10726 lies 2.7' E.  This is the brightest galaxy in AGC 2256 galaxy cluster and a triple system in a common halo.

 

WH discovered NGC 6331 = H III-951 on 20 Dec 1797 (sweep 1075) and noted "eF, S, better with 320 power."  The NGC position is ~3' southwest of CGCG 355-024 = PGC 59513.  Bigourdan measured an accurate position on 22 Jul 1884.

 

This galaxy is certainly one of the most distant in the NGC at 800 million light years (z = .059), although it is relatively easy to view, so must be intrinsically extremely bright.

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NGC 6332 = UGC 10773 = MCG +07-35-054 = CGCG 225-082 = PGC 59927

17 15 02.9 +43 39 36

V = 13.6;  Size 1.2'x0.8';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 42d

 

18" (7/27/03): fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 3:2 or 4:3 SW-NE, 0.9'x0.7', broad concentration to a slightly brighter core.  Two mag 14 stars are 1.3' and 1.7' NW.  Appears slightly more prominent than NGC 6329 8.7' WNW and these two galaxies are the brightest in a group of 8 galaxies ~50' NW of M92.  Located 6' SW of mag 9.4 SAO 46585.

 

17.5" (8/1/89): very faint, fairly small, elongated SW-NE, even surface brightness.  NGC 6329 lies 8.7' WNW.  Fourth of five in a group.

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 6332 = St VII-15 on 11 Jul 1876.  His declination is slightly off, but Emmanuel Esmiol correction the position in his 1916 re-reduction ("RŽduction des Observations de NŽbuleuses DŽcouvertes par M. Stephan").

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NGC 6333 = M9 = ESO 587-SC5

17 19 11.7 -18 30 59

V = 7.6;  Size 9.3'

 

17.5" (8/1/92): at 220x, bright, fairly large, 4' diameter.  The bright core is elongated N-S somewhat like M4.  The outliers or unrelated field stars appear to extend the halo E-W.  The halo is fairly well resolved into two dozen mag 13.5-14.5 stars.  The core is very mottled and lively and just breaks up into numerous, densely packed mag 14-15 stars.  At 420x, the core is easily well-resolved and two very close double stars are at the west and east edges of the halo.  The dark nebula B64 lies close SW.

 

13.1" (6/19/82): the central region is very bright and mottled.  A number of faint stars are resolved in the outer region of the core at 150x as well as a number of stragglers.

 

8": very mottled, few stars resolved at edges at high power especially on the east side.  Dark nebula B64 is close SW.  NGC 6356 lies 75' NE and NGC 6342 75' SSE.

 

Charles Messier discovered M9 = NGC 6333 = h1979 on 28 May 1764 and recorded a "Nebula, without star, in the right leg of Ophiuchus; it is round and its light is faint. Diam. 3 arc-minutes".

 

WH's first observed this globular on 3 May 1783 with an 8-inch (10-foot focal length) and noted "With a power of 250, I see several stars in it, and make no doubt a higher power, and more light, will resolve it all into stars. This seems to be a good nebula for the purpose of establishing the connection between nebulae and clusters of stars in general.  Using his 18.7-inch on 18 June 1784 (sweep 230) at 157x, he recorded "A vL and vB cluster of excessively compressed stars. The stars are but just visible, and are of unequal magnitudes: the large stars are red; and the cluster is a miniature of [M53].  Again on 28 May 1786, he reported "a cluster of extremely compressed, excessively small stars, with a very few scattered one chiefly to the north of it."

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NGC 6334 = "Cat's Paw" Nebula = ESO 392-EN9 = RCW 127 = Sh 2-8 = Gum 61/62/63/64 = Ced 140

17 20 53 -36 04 21

Size 40'x30'

 

18" (7/17/07): The "Cat's Paw Nebula" is a fascinating HII complex and molecular cloud (RCW 17) with several distinct sections. At 73x and OIII or UHC filter, the brightest section or toe is on the southeast side (NGC 6334 = Gum 62) and consists of a 4'-5' glow extending mostly north of a mag 8.5 star (HD 156738) at 17 20.9 -36 04 (2000).  The nebulosity appears weaker on the SW side of the star and slightly brighter wrapping around the eastern side of the star.  John Herschel only described this section of the entire RCW 127 complex.

 

A second large section or toe forming the southwest component (VdBH 86 = Gum 61) lies 13' to the west and consists of a faint, 5' glow involving a 17" pair (HD 319703 at 17 19.8 -36 06).  This piece is asymmetric and appears as a broad fan sweeping north to SE from the central stars and is very weak or nonexistent to the SW of the stars.

 

A group of smaller pieces forming the northeast toe (Gum 64b) is 12'-15' N of the brighter SE section.  First is an obvious 2' glow surrounding a mag 10 star (HD 319702 at 17 20.8 -35 52.  A small, faint knot of nebulosity lies 3' W, no more than 1' in diameter.  This knot is also situated 2' SSE of a mag 9.5 star that is free from nebulosity.  But to the NW of this star another few arc minutes is a third detached piece of nebulosity (brightest part of Gum 64c), ~2' in diameter.  Very weak nebulosity appears to connect the NE section (Gum 64b) with the SE section (Gum 62).

 

Finally, midway between Gum 64b and Gum 61 a small extremely faint detached glow (Gum 64a) was glimpsed close SE of a mag 11 star at 17 20.1 -35 57.

 

13.1" (7/5/83): fairly easy nebulosity surrounds mag 8 star with UHC filter and extends 30' N.  This is an unusually large nebulosity, mostly visible surrounding stars and includes a close faint triple star.

 

JH discovered NGC 6334 = h3678 on 7 Jun 1837 and recorded "pB; vL, v irr oval, in which, though eccentric is a *8, whose place is that taken.  One side of the neb is brighter than the other."  The next night he called this nebula "vF; vL; vglbM; 5'x4', out of M is a *8.9 or 9 mag, whose place is taken.  The densest part of the nebula follows this star 4.5 sec on the same parallel."

 

Massive HII region/molecular cloud complex with five distinct centers of massive star formation.

 

The nickname "Cat's Paw" apparently is from astrophotographer Jerry Lodriguss.  He writes "I believe that I was also the one who actually gave the "Cat's Paw" nebula its popular name. I started calling it that because of its resemblance to, of all things, a cat's paw (!), and because of its proximity to the "Cat's Eyes", Lambda and Upsilon Scorpii. I think the name was first published in an article I wrote in Sky and Telescope magazine in August of 1998, and documented in Hartmut Frommert's "A Collection of Some Common Names for Deep Sky Objects" on the SEDS web site."

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NGC 6335 = ESO 454-**10 = Ced 141

17 19 32 -30 09 54

 

24" (7/7/13): at 125x this Milky Way field (roughly 15') includes a mix of faint and moderately bright stars overlaying a bright Milky Way background glow.  Includes a 6' string, oriented NW to SE, of mag 11-12 stars as well as a group of a half-dozen stars mag 9.5-12 stars (brightest is HD 156543) about 9' SW.  Only some faint stars are visible between these groups over the glowing background, so it is not eye-catching.  South of this group the background glow dims due to dust clouds. 

 

JH discovered NGC 6335 = h3679 on 27 Jun 1837 and recorded "The whole lower end of the zone is strongly affected with nebulous patches."  There is no distinguishable cluster or nebula at his position, though Harold Corwin notes "the Southern Sky Survey films show a patchy field of star clouds, defined by the dust of dark nebulae. It is apparently these star clouds that JH saw in the summer of 1837, giving him the impression of patchy nebulosity all through his field."  Herbert Howe was unable to find NGC 6335, searching on a good night with both the 20-inch refractor and its 5-inch finder in Denver.

 

JH's original Cape position is 4¡ too far south, but he made a correction to the declination on his errata page at the end of the CGH.  The corrected position was used in his GC and copied by Dreyer from there into the NGC. 

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NGC 6336 = UGC 10786 = MCG +07-35-057 = CGCG 225-089 = PGC 59976

17 16 16.6 +43 49 14

V = 13.6;  Size 1.0'x0.7';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 170d

 

18" (7/27/03): faint, small, slightly elongated ~N-S or NNW-SSE, 0.7'x0.5'.  The outer halo is ill-defined but contains a slightly brighter, rounder core ~15" diameter.  Located 2.5' N of mag 10 SAO 46594.  Last of 8 galaxies in the NGC 6329/6332 group (5 NGCs).

 

17.5" (8/1/89): faint, fairly small, elongated ~N-S, small bright core.  Last in a group of five NGC galaxies located roughly 50' NW of M92.  Located 2.5' N of mag 10 SAO 46594.

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 6336 = St VII-16.  His position is accurate.

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NGC 6337 = PK 349-1.1 = ESO 333-PN5 = Cheerio Nebula = PN G349.3-01.1

17 22 15.6 -38 29 01

V = 12.0;  Size 49"x45"

 

18" (7/16/07): at 220x and UHC filter the "Cheerio Nebula" is a gorgeous annular planetary, ~45" diameter with a large, dark circular hole of 25"-30" diameter.  The rim is uneven in surface brightness and perhaps brighter on the northeast side.  A mag 12.5 star is inside the northeast rim and a similar mag star is off the southwest side, along with a mag 13.5 companion.  An extremely faint star is on the SSW edge of rim.  At 323x, the striking rim appears brighter in a 50-60¡ arc centered on the brighter star on the NE side.  The amount of structure was surprising given the low altitude at -38.4¡ declination.

 

17.5" (6/30/00): very pretty annular planetary at 280x, ~45" and set in a rich star field.  A mag 12 star is superimposed on the inner edge of the NE rim and an extremely faint star is symmetrically placed at the SW edge.  The darker hole is 20"-25" diameter and perfectly circular.  The outer rim appears irregularly lit.

 

13.1" (5/30/87): at 166x with a UHC filter appears fairly faint, fairly small, roundish.  Slightly darker center (annular) with averted vision although the contrast with the rim is low due to the elevation.  No central star seen.

 

13.1" (7/5/83): at 144x-166x appears fairly small, faint but fairly easy, darker center (annular), somewhat like a smaller and dimmer version of M57.

 

JH discovered NGC 6337 = h3680 on 28 Jun 1834 and recorded an "Annular Nebula.  A delicate, eF, but perfectly well defined annulus 15-20" diameter.  The field crowded with stars, two of which are on the nebula (see figure 3, Plate VI."  A later observation records "A beautiful delicate ring, of a faint ghost-like appearance, about 40" diameter; in a field of about 150 stars, 11 and 12 mag and under.  In it is one *12 mag very conspicuous, and one 15 mag much less so.  Near it are two stars 14 and 15 mag, and south of it at distance 60" is another."

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NGC 6338 = UGC 10784 = MCG +10-24-116 = CGCG 299-066 = WBL 636-002 = PGC 59947

17 15 23.0 +57 24 40

V = 12.3;  Size 1.5'x1.0';  Surf Br = 12.7;  PA = 15d

 

18" (7/12/07): brightest in a compact group of 7 galaxies (WBL 636) viewed within a 10' circle.  At 262x, appears fairly faint, fairly small, oval 3:2 SSW-NNE, 0.6'x0.4', broad weak concentration.  A 22" pair of mag 13 stars lies 2' N.  Forms a close pair with MCG +10-24-117 just 1.2' N (sandwiched between NGC 6338 and the pair of stars).  The companion is very faint, small, round, 20" diameter.  Other members include NGC 6345 3.6' S, NGC 6346 5.3' S and IC 1252 4.5' SE.

 

17.5" (6/18/88): fairly faint, fairly small, oval SW-NE, broad concentration.  Brightest in a group with NGC 6345 4' S and NGC 6346 6' S in field.

 

WH discovered NGC 6338 = H II-812 on 24 Apr 1789 (last object in sweep 928) and noted "F, S, R, vglbM.  The increase at a distance from the center."  His position (CH's reduction) is 30 sec of RA west of UGC 10784.  Bigourdan measured an accurate RA and noted the NGC RA was 16 seconds too small in the 18 Jan 1897 Comptes Rendus paper.

 

MCG misidentifies CGCG 299-067 (just north) as NGC 6338 and labels NGC 6338 as NGC 6345.  Error noted by Malcolm Thomson.

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NGC 6339 = UGC 10790 = MCG +07-35-059 = CGCG 225-092 = PGC 60003

17 17 06.5 +40 50 41

V = 12.7;  Size 2.9'x1.7';  Surf Br = 14.3;  PA = 10d

 

24" (7/16/15): fairly faint to moderately bright, large, overall low surface brightness but contains an easily visible "bar" 3:1 or 4:1 WNW-ESE, ~25"x7".  The large, roundish halo is slightly elongated N-S and contained a hint of (spiral) structure.

 

MCG +07-35-062 = PGC 60007 lies 3' NE.  This challenging edge-on (B = 15.9) appeared extremely faint and thin, ~25"x5".  It required averted vision and was only occasionally glimpsed.  CGCG 225-097 (polar-ring galaxy) lies 10' SE and appeared faint, small, elongated 3:2 WNW-ESE, 18"x12".

 

13.1" (6/18/85): large, slightly elongated.  Very diffuse appearance with a broad concentration.  NGC 6343 lies 13' NNE.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 6339 = Sw IX-78, along with NGC 6343, on 21 Apr 1887 and recorded "vF; pL; iR; sp of 2 [with NGC 6343]."  His position is 6 seconds of time too large and 1.8' north of UGC 10790, a low surface brightness SBd galaxy.  The discovery was relayed directly to Dreyer as he was compiling the NGC and referenced as list VI, though Swift published the discovery a couple of years later in list IX.

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NGC 6340 = UGC 10762 = MCG +12-16-023 = CGCG 339-031 = PGC 59742

17 10 25.1 +72 18 17

V = 11.0;  Size 3.2'x3.0';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 120d

 

17.5" (7/16/93): fairly bright, moderately large, slightly elongated WNW-ESE, 2.2'x1.8', prominent bright core, stellar nucleus with direct vision.  A double star mag 11.5/12.5 is off the NW edge 1.7' from core.  Forms a trio with IC 1251 6.4' N and IC 1254 6.8' NE.

 

IC 1251 was recorded as "faint, fairly small, slightly elongated 4:3 ~E-W, fairly low almost even surface brightness.  Located in a string of stars which ends at the double star adjacent to NGC 6340 6' SSE."  IC 1254 was described as "faint, fairly small, elongated 2:1 SW-NE, even surface brightness.  Slightly fainter than IC 1251 6' W."

 

17.5" (7/9/88): fairly bright, moderately large, round, very small bright core.  A wide mag 11/12 double star is 2' NW.  Brightest of three with IC 1251 and IC 1254 in field.

 

WH discovered NGC 6340 = H II-767 = h1980 on 6 Jun 1788 (sweep 847) and recorded "pB, pL, vgmbM, R."  JH made the single observation "vF; R; gbM; 25" sf a small double star 2' dist."

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NGC 6341 = M92

17 17 07.2 +43 08 11

V = 6.5;  Size 11.2'

 

18" (7/24/06): at 435x the cluster overfilled the 9' field with several hundred stars resolved stars.  The 3' to 4' core itself was highly resolved into roughly 100 densely packed stars (including a very compact knot of stars) with long streams of stars appearing to spiral out from the core.

 

17.5": very bright, large, very high resolution of 150-200 stars many in curving lanes.  A tight knot of stars in the core is resolved.

 

13" (6/29/84): highly resolution over entire disc, dozens of stars resolved in bright core.  A bright knot in the core is partially resolved at 416x.

 

8" (7/9/80): very bright, moderately large.  Well resolved into many long streamers from the small bright nucleus and some core resolution.

 

Johann Bode discovered M92 = NGC 6341 on 27 Dec 1777.  Charles Messier independently rediscovered M92 on 18 Mar 1781.  WH's earliest observation was on 25 Aug 1783 using his 12-inch, calling it "A most beautiful sight.  I can count 50 or 60 stars besides numberless that only distinguish themselves by twinkling..."  JH has no observations listed in his Slough Catalogue.  Christian Peters reported finding it around 1850, while at Capodimonte Observatory in Naples and claimed it did not appear in any of the books.

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NGC 6342 = ESO 587-SC6

17 21 10.1 -19 35 15

V = 9.9;  Size 3.0'

 

18" (7/26/06): at 325x this small 2' globular was well concentrated to a fairly bright 40" core.  A mag 12.5 star is off the SW side of the halo, ~1.5' from the center.  Perhaps a half dozen stars are resolved in the halo including three close stars on the NE side.  Additional stars are sometimes visible in the WSW side and the north side of the halo.  The core is very mottled and there is a strong impression of a couple of star lanes below the threshold of visibility.  Located 70' SE of M9.  B259, a large dark nebula, is located ~20' NE.

 

17.5" (7/27/92): moderately bright, fairly small, 2' diameter with an irregular outline, increases to fairly well-defined bright core, mottled.  A mag 12 is just off the south tip and a very faint extension or lane extends towards this star.  One or two very faint stars mag 14.5-15 are at the NE edge.  A less well-defined extension to the SW includes one or two threshold stars.  The cluster has a lively appearance but there was no additional resolution.

 

WH discovered NGC 6342 = H I-149 on 28 May 1786 (sweep 569) and recorded "cB, lE, pS, easily resolvable."  His position is at the northwest edge of the globular.

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NGC 6343 = MCG +07-35-060 = CGCG 225-095 = PGC 60010

17 17 16.3 +41 03 10

V = 13.5;  Size 1.1'x1.1';  Surf Br = 13.6

 

13.1" (6/18/85): faint, small, round, compact.  Located 12.5' NNE of brighter NGC 6339.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 6343 = Sw IX-79, along with NGC 6339, on 21 Apr 1887 and recorded "vF; S; lE; nf of 2 [with NGC 6339]."  His position is 10 seconds of time too large and 1.4' north of CGCG 225-095 = PGC 60010 (similar offset as NGC 6339).  The discovery was relayed directly to Dreyer as he was compiling the NGC and referenced as list VI, though Swift published the discovery a couple of years later in list IX.  Kobold later measured an accurate position in 1898 at Strasbourg.

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NGC 6344

17 17 18.2 +42 26 03

 

17.5" (8/1/89): this is a pair of mag 12/13 stars just 1' S of PGC 60004 (misidentified as NGC 6344 in the RNGC).  PGC 60004 appeared extremely faint and small, round.  Located 2.1' SW of mag 8 SAO 046612!

 

Gerhard Lohse discovered NGC 6344 around 1886 with the 15.5-inch refractor at the private Wigglesworth Observatory in England and communicated directly to Dreyer.  The NGC description states "F, S, R, *12 nf, nr."  At his position is a wide mag 13.5/12.5 pair at 23" that Harold Corwin identifies as NGC 6344.  From his description "*12 nf", though, it appears the fainter southwest star is NGC 6344.  In any case, considering Lohse's poor record of logging double stars as nebulous, this identification is fairly certain.

 

RNGC and PGC misidentify PGC 60004 as NGC 6344.  This galaxy is only 1' north of Lohse's micrometric position, but Harold Corwin feels it is too faint to have been picked up by Lohse - and there is no nearby mag 12 star north-following.  HyperLeda now classifies NGC 6344 as a double star.

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NGC 6345 = MCG +10-24-115 = CGCG 299-065 = WBL 636-005 = PGC 59945

17 15 24.3 +57 21 01

V = 14.4;  Size 0.8'x0.3';  Surf Br = 12.8;  PA = 33d

 

18" (7/12/07): faint, small, very elongated 3:1 SW-NE, 0.6'x0.2', weak concentration with a slightly brighter core.  Located 3.6' S of NGC 6338 in a compact group.  Forms a close pair with NGC 6346 1.7' S and IC 1252 lies 3.6' E.

 

17.5" (6/18/88): faint, very small, elongated SW-NE, small bright core.  Member of a close trio with NGC 6346 2' S and NGC 6338 4' N.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 6345 = Sw VI-91, along with NGC 6346, on 13 May 1887 and recorded "eeeF; vS; R; eee diff; middle of 3, one being [GC] 4291 [= NGC 6338]."  His position is 2' north of CGCG 299-065 = PGC 59945, and falls closer to NGC 6338.   The third galaxy is NGC 6346.

 

MCG mislabels NGC 6345 as NGC 6346 (error noted by Malcolm Thomson).  Swift's position for NGC 6346, given as 2' south of NGC 6345, happens to fall on NGC 6345, causing the confusion.

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NGC 6346 = MCG +10-24-114 = CGCG 299-064 = WBL 636-004 = PGC 59946

17 15 24.5 +57 19 21

V = 14.3;  Size 0.7'x0.5';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 90d

 

18" (7/12/07): faint, small, oval, 0.5'x0.35', broad weak concentration. Forms a close pair with NGC 6345 1.7' N.  Located 5' S of NGC 6338 in a group.

 

17.5" (6/18/88): faint, very small, slightly elongated ~E-W, gradually brighter halo.  Forms a close pair with NGC 6345 2' N in a NGC 6338 group.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 6346 = Sw VI-91, along with NGC 6345, on 13 May 1887.  Swift must have communicated the position (2' south of NGC 6345) directly to Dreyer and his entry in list VI-91 is for NGC 6345 and only mentions a third galaxy (no position) along with NGC 6338.

 

Malcolm Thomson notes that MCG mislabels NGC 6345 as NGC 6346.  Then it misidentifies NGC 6346 as IC 4650.

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NGC 6347 = UGC 10807 = MCG +03-44-004 = CGCG 111-021 = IC 1253 = PGC 60086

17 19 54.7 +16 39 39

V = 13.7;  Size 1.2'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 100d

 

17.5" (8/1/89): faint, fairly small, elongated NW-SE, low even surface brightness.  Three mag 14 stars in a line SW-NE are just off the NW edge and a mag 15.5 star is involved at the NW end 23" from center.

 

Truman Safford discovered NGC 6347 = Sf 29 = St X-55 on 6 Jun 1866.  His position is accurate. ƒdouard Stephan independently rediscovered the galaxy on 6 Jul 1880 and also measured a good position.  Stephan is credited in the NGC as Safford's discovery was not published until 1887, too late to be incorporated into the main NGC table.

 

Harold Corwin notes that Dreyer made an error of 2¡ in declination when he precessed Safford's (correct) position and so missed the equivalence with Stephan's object and recatalogued the galaxy as IC 1253 with credit to Safford.  So, NGC 6347 = IC 1253.

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NGC 6348 = MCG +07-35-063 = CGCG 225-098 = PGC 60036

17 18 21.2 +41 38 51

V = 14.5;  Size 0.7'x0.6';  Surf Br = 13.4

 

17.5" (8/1/89): very faint, very small, slightly elongated.  A mag 15 star is 30" SW.  Pair with NGC 6350 located 4.9' NE.

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 6348 = St XI-56, along with NGC 6350, on 29 Jun 1880.  His position is accurate.

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NGC 6349 = MCG +06-38-016 = CGCG 198-036 = PGC 60060

17 19 06.5 +36 03 39

V = 14.9;  Size 0.8'x0.2';  Surf Br = 12.2;  PA = 81d

 

17.5" (8/1/89): faint, very small, round, weak concentration.  Forms a close pair with NGC 6351 0.9' E and CGCG 198-034 lies 7' SW.  Located 16' ESE of mag 7.6 SAO 65925.

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 6349 = St X-32, along with NGC 6351, on 15 Jul 1879.  His position is just off the southeast side.

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NGC 6350 = UGC 10800 = MCG +07-35-064 = CGCG 226-001 = PGC 60046

17 18 42.3 +41 41 39

V = 13.2;  Size 1.0'x1.0';  Surf Br = 13.0

 

17.5" (8/1/89): fairly faint, small, round, bright core, faint stellar nucleus.  Forms a pair with NGC 6348 4.9' SW.  Located 10' S of TX Herculis.

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 6350 = St XI-57, along with NGC 6348, on 29 Jun 1880.  His position is accurate.

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NGC 6351 = MCG +06-38-017 = PGC 60063

17 19 11.1 +36 03 37

V = 15.0;  Size 0.6'x0.4'

 

17.5" (8/1/89): very faint, very small, slightly elongated ~N-S.  Two very faint mag 15.5 stars are off the south edge.  Forms a close pair with NGC 6349 0.9' W.

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 6351 = St X-33, along with NGC 6349, on 15 Jul 1879. 

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NGC 6352 = ESO 228-SC003

17 25 29.1 -48 25 22

V = 8.2;  Size 7.1'

 

11" (8/8/04 - Haleakala Crater): at 127x appears fairly bright, moderately large, ~5' diameter, broadly concentrated to a 2' core.  Fairly well-resolved into ~30 stars, particularly along the south and SW side of the halo.  A few faint stars are just resolved directly over the core.

 

18" (7/10/02 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): fairly bright, fairly large.  Even at 128x, fairly well-resolved into ~75 stars.  Rather loose concentration class with a broad concentration to a moderately bright 3' core.  The irregular halo extends to nearly 8' diameter.  Set in a rich Milky Way field.

 

8" (7/13/91 - Southern Baja): moderately bright, fairly large, 5' diameter, fairly low surface brightness, not condensed, brighter core but no sharp nucleus.  Partially resolved into 5-10 faint stars mostly on the SW side.

 

13" (7/12/86): faint, small, diffuse, low surface brightness spot.  A few faint stars are off the SW edge but there is no resolution.  This is the farthest southern globular observed from Northern California (Digger Pines).

 

James Dunlop discovered NGC 6352 = D 411 on 14 May 1826 and recorded "A rather faint nebula, of an irregular round figure, 4' diameter, slightly branched; easily resolvable into stars, with slight compression of the stars to the centre."  His position is ~15' too far east (typical error). JH didn't observe this globular from the Cape, so it doesn't have a GC number.  E.E. Barnard independently found it on 7 Jul 1885 and announced the discovery in Sidereal Messenger 4, p223 though he mentions Lewis Swift informed him of Dunlop's prior discovery.

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NGC 6353

17 21 12.5 +15 41 19

 

18" (6/7/08): at 63x visible as a small, hazy knot probably less than 15" in diameter.  Increasing the magnification to 260x resolved the clump into a trio of mag 14.5 stars packed into a tight 10". A 4th member is just off the south side.  Located 0.9' SSW of a mag 9.8 star.

 

Gerhard Lohse discovered NGC 6353 around 1886 with the 15.5-inch refractor at the private Wigglesworth Observatory in Scarborough, England.  His position (communicated directly to Dreyer) and description "pB, pS, 3 S st inv, * 10 nf 1'." applies to a small clump of stars.  RNGC classifies the number nonexistent (Type 7).

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NGC 6354 = ESO 333-**8

17 24 34 -38 32 30

 

=4*, DC.

 

E.E. Barnard discovered NGC 6354 in 1884 with the 6-inch refractor at Vanderbilt University.  His description, published in Sidereal Messenger, Vol 3, p184, reads "small, faint object in a 6-inch telescope, the light being of an even tint.  There is a faint star a little south, which confuse the light of the nebula".  At his position there are three mag 12 and 13 stars in a tight knot, with a 4th fainter star.  Both Dorothy Carlson, in her 1940 NGC Correction paper, and ESO identify NGC 6354 with this group of stars.

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NGC 6355 = ESO 519-SC15

17 23 58.6 -26 21 12

V = 9.6;  Size 5.0'

 

17.5" (7/27/92): fairly faint, fairly small, 2' diameter, slightly elongated N-S, gradually increases to a 1' core.  At 280x, appears granular and three or four very faint mag 15 stars are just visible.  The brightest two stars are on north side of core. 

 

8" (5/21/82): faint, small, round, diffuse, no resolution.

 

WH discovered NGC 6355 = H I-46 = h3681 on 24 May 1784 (sweep 224) and recorded, cL, rather B, R, r, brighter in the middle and colourless.  It was preceded by many vacant fields and I had just been saying that I was upon nebulous ground."  From the CGH, JH made the single observation "vF; L; R; gbM; 2' diam; resolved into stars 18m."  In early catalogues NGC 6355 was described as an open cluster, with designations Cr 330 and OCl-1036 (Alter et al. 1970).

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NGC 6356 = ESO 588-SC1

17 23 34.9 -17 48 47

V = 8.3;  Size 7.2'

 

17.5" (7/10/99): this fairly bright globular is ~3.5' in diameter and sharply concentrated with a prominent 1.5' core.  The core appears slightly elongated N-S, although the halo is circular or slightly elongated WSW-ENE.  At 220x the globular appears lively and mottled but there is no obvious resolution.  At 280x and especially 380x, the edge of the halo is very ragged and the surface extensively mottled.  Around the periphery some threshold stars pop in and out of view, particularly on the south side.

 

13.1" (7/5/83): bright core surrounded by a round, even glow.  No resolution evident in poor seeing.

 

WH discovered NGC 6356 = H I-48 = h3683 on 18 Jun 1784 (sweep 230) and recorded "a large, bright, round, easily resolvable nebula, bM and the brightness diminishing gradually.  It is a miniature of the last [M9, which itself a miniature of M53] and I suppose if I had looked enough I might have perceived some of the stars that compose it."  From the Cape of Good Hope, JH recorded "globular, vB; R; vgvmbM; 90" resolved into stars barely resolvable with left eye.  A beautiful softly shaded object."

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NGC 6357 = Gum 66 = RCW 131 = ESO 392-SC10 = Sh 2-11 = Ced 14 = War and Peace Nebula = Lobster Nebula

17 24 44 -34 12 06

Size 50'x40'

 

18" (7/16/07): at 115x a faint elongated hazy glow was visible just north of a nice 15" pair of mag 11/12 stars.  Adding an OIII filter dramatically improves this HII region and shows a bright, elongated nebulosity oriented WSW-ENE, ~5'x2'.  Appears brighter in the middle just north of the double star.  A faint star is off the north side, oppositely placed from the double.  At 174x the nebula is slightly brighter and clumpy in the middle on the south side and a couple of very small slightly brighter knots are occasionally visible.  The group of stars to the south (including the double) is catalogued as Pismis 24.  Only the brightest portion of this huge HII complex was noticed.  NGC 6357 is located 8' WNW of mag 7 HD 157528 and this star is the northernmost of a 27' line of four mag 6-7 stars that extends to the south (nicknamed "Las Cuatro Juanitas" in Chile).  NGC 6334, the Cat's Paw Nebula, lies two degrees southwest..

 

17.5" (5/30/92): at 82x using an OIII filter, this emission nebula is a bright, distinctive object, elongated 3:1 E-W, 4.0'x1.5'.  A close mag 11/12 double star is at the south edge.  The whole field appears weakly nebulous and the nebulosity is just very faintly visible without a filter at 220x.  Excellent contrast gain with the OIII filter!  A group of a dozen faint stars is just south (= Pismis 24) including a double star.  This nebula is associated with the Wolf-Rayet star HD 157504 = WR 93, which is located east of the bright section.

 

JH discovered NGC 6357 = h3682 on 8 Jun 1837 and recorded "F; L; E; vglbM; milky nebulosity; 2' l; 1 1/2' br; close to and almost involves a double star."  His position is on the double star mentioned in my observation.

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NGC 6358 = UGC 10810 = MCG +09-28-033 = CGCG 277-034 = PGC 60054

17 18 53.0 +52 36 55

V = 14.1;  Size 0.9'x0.4';  Surf Br = 12.8;  PA = 110d

 

17.5" (6/18/88): faint, small, elongated ~E-W, even surface brightness. A double star is 1.8' WNW consisting of two mag 12 stars at 18" separation E-W.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 6358 = Sw VI-92 on 2 May 1887 and recorded "eF; S; R; double star near north-preceding."  There is nothing at his position but 2.0 minutes of RA east is UGC 10810, and the double star is less than 2' northwest.  The RA in the NGC is correct, so Swift's position that he sent directly to Dreyer before publication of the NGC was correct.

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NGC 6359 = UGC 10804 = MCG +10-25-001 = CGCG 299-072 = CGCG 300-005 = PGC 60025

17 17 53.0 +61 46 50

V = 12.6;  Size 1.2'x0.9';  Surf Br = 12.6;  PA = 145d

 

24" (6/28/16): moderately bright, fairly small, slightly elongated NNW-SSE, 40"x30", strong concentration, high surface brightness.  A mag 10 star is 2.8' N.  Located 9' WNW of mag 7.7 HD 157425.

 

17.5" (6/18/88): fairly faint, fairly small, very bright core, stellar nucleus, faint oval halo NNW-SSE.  Located 2.8' S of mag 9.3 SAO 17423.  Forms a pair with UGC 10796 11' NW.

 

Heinrich d'Arrest discovered NGC 6359 on 27 Oct 1861 with the 11-inch refractor at Copenhagen (first night he made discoveries with this telescope).  He measured the mag 10 star to the north as 3.4 seconds east and 168.4" north and computed an accurate position. Lewis Swift rediscovered the galaxy on 1 Aug 1885, and reported Sw II-53 as "vF; vS; R; forms arc of a circle with 2 stars; nebula between."

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NGC 6360 = ESO 454-**20 = Ced 143

17 24 28 -29 52 18

 

17.5" (8/2/97): I'm not certain of the identification but the most noticeable object near Herschel's position in the 100x field is an elongated group of a dozen stars in a 8' string oriented NW-SE, which is just north of mag 7.5 SAO 185358 and ~15' NW of the NGC position.  There is a second mag 7.5 star 6' further NW and perhaps the two bright stars draw attention to this weak grouping but the patchy Milky Way background is also locally brighter here and immediate east of the group.  There was nothing of note at JH's position.  This object is just a Milky Way region as noted in ESO.

 

JH discovered NGC 6360 = h3685 on 3 Aug 1834 and recorded "A portion of the milky way which is decidedly nebulous, and by no means rich in L stars."  There is no distinguishable cluster at his position and ESO says "stars only.  In a crowded region of the milky way."  Harold Corwin notes the "nebulous" appearance is due to dust in the Milky Way and affects a large region.  The brightest patches of stars is about a tmin W of JH's position and ~7'-8' N.  This corresponds with the ESO position.

 

Herbert Howe reported "on one good night nothing definite was discernible here.  However, the general background of the sky in this region was noted as being not so dark as would be expected if no nebulous matter were present."

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NGC 6361 = Arp 124 = UGC 10815 = MCG +10-25-004 = CGCG 300-009 = PGC 60045

17 18 41.1 +60 36 29

V = 13.1;  Size 2.2'x0.6';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 54d

 

48" (5/15/12): fairly bright, fairly large, nearly edge-on 4:1 SW-NE, 1.8'x0.45', sharply concentrated with a bright elongated core.  The center bulges slightly and the tips taper.  The SW arm has a very faint extension (partial bridge) in the direction of the companion MCG +10-25-003, increasing the total length to 2.0'. MCG +10-25-003, situated 1.8' SW of center, appeared fairly faint, very small, oval 3:2 ~N-S, ~15"x10", very small bright core, stellar nucleus.  A mag 15.9 star lies 24" NW. 

 

17.5" (6/18/88): fairly faint, moderately large, very elongated 4:1 SW-NE, brighter core.  A mag 14.5 star is 1.5' SE and a pair of mag 14 stars at 22" separation lie 1.5' NW.  Forms a pair (Arp 124) with extremely faint MCG +10-25-003 1.8' SW.  The companion is extremely faint and small, round.  A mag 15 star lies 25" NW. 

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 6361 = Sw IV-48 on 18 Aug 1886 and recorded "vF; pS; eE; spindle, nearly bet 2 pB distant stars, nearer the preceding."  His position is 1' northwest of the center UGC 10815 and his description "eE, spindle" applies to this edge-on.

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NGC 6362 = ESO 102-SC008

17 31 54.8 -67 02 52

V = 7.5;  Size 10.7'

 

18" (7/11/05 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): fairly impressive, bright, large, scraggly globular with roughly 60 stars resolved over a 7'-8' diameter.  A distinctive string of resolved stars passes through the entire cluster in a NNW to SSE orientation.  A mag 10 star is near the edge of the halo on the south side 3.5' from center.

 

12" (6/29/02 - Bargo, Australia): at 186x, this fairly loose globular is moderately bright and large and broadly concentrated.  It was resolved into 25-30 stars, several arranged in a line bisecting the cluster.  The ragged halo is roughly 8' diameter.  Located 1.2 degrees NE of mag 4.7 Zeta Apodis.

 

James Dunlop discovered NGC 6362 = D 225 = h3684 on 25 Jun 1826 and described a " pretty large rather bright round nebula, 3' or 4' in diameter, very moderately condensed to the centre, resolvable into extremely minute stars; the stars are more scattered on the south side."

 

On 22 Jul 1835, JH recorded "globular cluster, B; L R; vgmbM; diam. in RA = 50 second; diam 7' or 8'; stars all seen, 12..16th mag with outliers extending a good way."

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NGC 6363 = NGC 6138 =UGC 10827 = MCG +07-36-005 = CGCG 226-008 = PGC 60164

17 22 40.0 +41 06 06

V = 13.3;  Size 1.1'x0.9';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 140d

 

17.5" (8/1/89): fairly faint, fairly small, slightly elongated, gradually increases to a small bright core.

 

ƒdouard Stephan found NGC 6363 = St X-34 on 24 Jul 1879.  His position matches UGC 10827.  This galaxy was discovered nearly 7 years earlier by Stephan in 1872 and catalogued as NGC 6138 = St II-2, though he transposed the digits of the offset star, so his published position (and the NGC) are in error.  Emmanuel Esmiol corrected the position when he re-reduced all of Stephan's discoveries at the Marseille Observatory (published in 1916).  So, NGC 6138 = NGC 6363.  Nevertheless, modern sources such as the RNGC misidentify NGC 6138, using the erroneous NGC position.

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NGC 6364 = UGC 10835 = MCG +05-41-013 = CGCG 170-027 = PGC 60228

17 24 27.4 +29 23 23

V = 12.9;  Size 1.5'x1.2';  Surf Br = 13.4;  PA = 5d

 

17.5" (8/1/89): fairly faint, very small, round, small bright core, 0.6' diameter.  A mag 13.5 star is just off the north edge 0.5' from the center.

 

Auguste Voigt discovered NGC 6364 = Sf 49 = St X-35 = Sw II-54 around June 1865 with the 31-inch Silver-on-glass Marseille reflector. Truman Safford found this galaxy again on 5 Sep 1866.  Next, ƒdouard Stephan rediscovered the galaxy on 21 Jul 1879 at Marseille again and measured an accurate position.  Finally, Lewis Swift found the galaxy again on 11 Sep 1885 and reported "pF; vS; R; F * close; stellar."  His RA was 20 seconds too small.  So, this galaxy was independently "discovered" 4 times before the NGC was published, and is tied for the most independent discoveries, along with NGC 1360 and NGC 7422, according to Wolfgang Steinicke.

 

Voigt's discovery was never published (his log was published in 1987) and Safford's discovery list was not published until 1887, so Dreyer credited Stephan in the NGC.

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NGC 6365 = Arp 30 = VV 232a/b = UGC 10832/10833 = MCG +10-25-018+019 = CGCG 300-020 = PGC 60171/60174

17 22 43.7 +62 10 12

V = 14.0;  Size 1.3'x1.1'+1.1'x0.2'

 

24" (6/28/16): at 375x; NGC 6365A is the southern and brighter member of Arp 30.  At 375x it appeared faint to fairly faint, fairly small, slightly elongated, 40"x35", weak concentration.  NGC 6365B (perhaps Arp's "heavy arm"), attached at the northwest edge, appeared extremely faint to very faint, edge-on ~3:1 SSW-NNE, ~30"x10", very low surface brightness so difficult to judge size.  A distracting mag 10.2 star is ~1.5' NE and a 6" pair of mag 14-15 stars is 1' NE.

 

48" (5/15/12): NGC 6365A is fairly faint, moderately large, round, ~50" diameter, broad concentration with a brighter core.  NGC 6365B is attached at the NW edge and appears faint, edge-on 4:1 NNW-SSE, 0.6'x0.15', low surface brightness, very weak concentration. .  The pair is 1.6' SW of a mag 10.2 star that detracts somewhat from viewing.  A mag 14-15 pair at 6" separation lies just 1' NNE.

 

17.5" (7/16/88): this is a double galaxy (Arp 30) with a separation of 30" oriented NNW-SSE with the brighter component at the SSE end.  NGC 6365A is very faint, small, weak concentration, very diffuse.  Bracketed by two mag 14 stars off the SW and NE ends.  NGC 6365B is attached at the NW end of NGC 6365A and appears extremely faint, small, very elongated SW-NE [1.1x0.2], requires averted vision.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 6365 = Sw IV-49 on 15 Aug 1884 and recorded "eeeF; pL; iR; sev eF stars involved; B * nr south-following."  There is nothing at his position, though 1.1 minutes of time due east is Arp 30 = UGC 10832/10833 (double system).  The bright star in his description is actually north-following.  MCG does not label Not identified as N6365 in the MCG.

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NGC 6366

17 27 44.3 -05 04 36

V = 9.0;  Size 8.3'

 

18" (7/26/06): at 325x, 30-35 stars can be resolved with careful viewing in a 4' region with roughly two dozen of these generally visible and another dozen sparkling in and out of visibility.  The resolved stars seem spread out over the entire disc, which is only weakly concentrated.  The outline of the halo is quite irregular and ill-defined and may reach to a larger extent than 4'.  Several brighter stars, which are clearly not part of the cluster, are around the border.  Located just 17' E of mag 4.5 47 Ophiuchi.  Faintly visible in 15x50 IS binoculars.

 

17.5" (7/20/98): at 220x appears as a diffuse irregular glow, ~4' diameter, with only a weak concentration.  Two mag 9 and 10 stars are off the west side, the nearest is less than 4' from center and a closer pair of mag 11.5-12 stars [45" separation] is at the south edge. There are perhaps a half dozen faint but obvious stars visible over the ill-defined glow including a couple of mag 14 stars 2' S of center, one a similar distance east of center and an addition pair on the SE side.  About a dozen stars are visible with careful viewing.  At 280x, the cluster is pretty clumpy and starting to really break up into numerous very faint stars.  Roughly two dozen stars can be glimpsed with averted vision, many near the threshold of visibility.  The full extent of the cluster is difficult to trace but extends beyond the central 4' region.

 

13.1" (7/5/83): large, diffuse, very weak concentration. About a dozen faint stars are resolved over a hazy background.  Located 17' E of 47 Ophiuchi (V = 4.5).

 

13.1" (6/19/82): few faint stars resolved over a large, hazy region.

 

8" (6/27/81 and 5/21/82): large, very diffuse, unresolved.  Located 15' E of a mag 4.5 star that detracts from viewing.

 

August Winnecke discovered NGC 6366 = Au 36 on 12 Apr 1860 with a 3-inch comet-seeker at the Pulkovo observatory and noted "faint, 2 to 3' diam, no significant central brightening."  Auwers included it in his 1862 catalogue of new nebulae.

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NGC 6367 = MCG +06-38-020 = CGCG 198-041 = PGC 60251

17 25 08.9 +37 45 35

V = 13.9;  Size 0.9'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 161d

 

17.5" (8/1/89): very faint, very small, round, weak concentration, very faint stellar nucleus or star superimposed.  Located 4.3' WSW of mag 7.9 SAO 66035!

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 6367 = St XI-58 on 5 Jul 1880.  His micrometric position is very accurate.

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NGC 6368 = UGC 10856 = MCG +02-44-004 = CGCG 082-032 = PGC 60315

17 27 11.6 +11 32 33

V = 12.3;  Size 3.8'x1.0';  Surf Br = 13.6;  PA = 42d

 

17.5" (6/22/90): fairly faint, moderately large, very elongated 4:1 SW-NE, broadly concentrated halo.  A mag 14 star is at the SW end 0.9' from center and a mag 15 star is at the NE end 1.5' from center.  The bright double star ·2166 = 7.1/8.9 at 27" lies 14' SE.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 6368 = m 335 on 9 Jul 1863 and noted "F, S, E."  His position and description matches UGC 10856.

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NGC 6369 = PK 2+5.1 = Little Ghost Nebula = PN G002.4+05.8

17 29 20.4 -23 45 35

V = 11.5;  Size 30"

 

18" (7/14/07): striking view of this annular planetary at 280x.  The 30" halo is punctured by a relatively large 18" hole.  The rim is noticeably uneven in surface brightness with a brighter arc along the northern side.  Spectacular at 700x and the brighter northern rim has a couple of very small brighter knots or stellar points.

 

18" (7/22/06): beautiful view at 435x.  The 30" annular ring is brightest along a "C" shaped section from NE moving clockwise to the SW and locally brighter at the NW end.  The central hole is round, well-defined and relatively large compared to the rim.

 

17.5" (6/30/00): at 500x this planetary has a beautiful annular appearance with a 25-30" halo perforated by a 12" dark hole.  The northern rim is noticeably brighter with a nearly stellar spot near its center.  Located 31' NW of mag 4.8 51 Ophiuchi.

 

17.5" (6/5/99): bright, beautiful annular planetary at 380x with a well-defined dark central hole.  The rim is clearly brighter along the north edge and slightly weaker on the following edge.

 

17.5" (7/4/86): bright, fairly small, about 30" diameter, green-blue color.  Appears as a perfect annular ring at 286x with a 15" central "hole".  No central star visible.

 

13.1" (8/5/83): use at least 220x to clearly resolve the annularity.

 

13.1" (7/16/82): beautiful ring at 214x and UHC filter, small, slightly elongated.  Visible with direct vision as annular.  The north edge of the rim appears brighter at 312x.

 

WH discovered NGC 6369 = H IV-11 = h1981 = h3686 on 21 May 1784 (sweep 222) and recorded "a curious round, tolerably defined pB nebula 30 or 40" in diameter."  On 26 May 1786 (sweep 566), he called it "pB, R, S, of equal brightness throughout."  From the Cape of Good Hope, JH gave a detailed description: "Annular Nebula.  Exactly round; pF; 12" diameter; well terminated; but a very little cottony at the edge, and with a decided darkness in the middle; = a * 10m at the most.  Few stars in the field [situated in the bowl of the Pipe Nebula!]; a beautiful specimen of the planetary annular class of nebulae."  Sketch on Plate VI, figure 4.

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NGC 6370 = UGC 10836 = MCG +10-25-020 = CGCG 300-021 = PGC 60192

17 23 25.4 +56 58 26

V = 12.9;  Size 1.4'x1.4';  Surf Br = 13.6

 

24" (6/30/16): at 324x; moderately bright, fairly small, round, 25"-30" diameter, bright core.  Situated just 2.2' SSE of mag 6.5 HD 158013.  The extremely low surface brightness outer halo was not seen.

 

NGC 6370 is the brightest member of a cluster (SDSS-C4-DR3 3375).  The Ring Galaxy CGCG 277-42 lies 10' SE.  At 324x; fairly faint, small, round, 12" diameter, faint stellar nucleus.  The detached outer ring was not seen although the halo occasionally increased in size with averted vision.  Forms the northwest vertex of a triangle with a mag 11 star 3.6' S and a mag 11.5 star 3.1' ESE.  FGC 2132 is 15' SE.  This superthin appeared extremely faint, small, elongated 2:1 SSW-NNE, ~15"x7" (brighter core region).  A mag 11.5 star is 3.2' WNW and a mag 13 star is 0.9' NE.

 

17.5" (6/18/88): fairly faint, small, round, weak concentration.  Located 2.2' S of mag 6.6 SAO 30366!

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 6370 = Sw I-57 on 19 Apr 1885 and recorded "vF; vS; R; B * nr n."  His position is just off the west side of UGC 10836 with the mag 6.5 star 2.3' north.

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NGC 6371 = MCG +04-41-012 = CGCG 140-027 = PGC 60322

17 27 20.6 +26 30 18

V = 14.2;  Size 0.8'x0.4';  Surf Br = 12.8;  PA = 162d

 

17.5" (8/1/89): very faint, small, oval 3:2 N-S, low even surface brightness.  Located 3.1' NW of brighter NGC 6372.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 6371 = m 336 on 24 Jun 1864 and noted "vF, S, R."  His position is accurate.  Dreyer added the comment "np of 2 [with NGC 6372]" in the NGC. Truman Safford independently rediscovered this galaxy on 1 Aug 1866 with the 18.5-inch Clark refractor at the Dearborn Observatory and listed it as Sf 45 in the 1887 publication.

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NGC 6372 = UGC 10861 = MCG +04-41-013 = CGCG 140-028 = PGC 60330

17 27 32.0 +26 28 29

V = 12.9;  Size 1.7'x1.1';  Surf Br = 13.5;  PA = 90d

 

17.5" (8/1/89): faint, moderately large, diffuse halo elongated E-W, small brighter core.  Forms a pair with NGC 6371 3' NW.

 

WH discovered NGC 6372 = H III-137 on 19 May 1784 (sweep 220) and recorded "vF, not vS, irregular long."  CH's reduction is 2' northwest of UGC 10861.  He noted "daylight very strong" just previously in the sweep, so I'm surprised he could pick up this galaxy.

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NGC 6373 = UGC 10850 = MCG +10-25-023 = CGCG 300-022 = PGC 60220

17 24 08.2 +58 59 42

V = 13.6;  Size 1.3'x1.0';  Surf Br = 13.8;  PA = 90d

 

17.5" (6/18/88): extremely faint, fairly small, very diffuse.  Appears very faint for V = 13.6.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 6373 = Sw I-58 on 13 Jun 1885 and recorded "eeeF; pL; vv diff.; forms a right angle triangle with two stars, preceding star in the same parallel 30 seconds distant."  His position is matches UGC 10850, a face-on SBc galaxy with low surface brightness arms.  The star that Swift mentions "in the same parallel" is 32 seconds following, not preceding.

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NGC 6374 = NGC 6383 = ESO 393-SC007

17 34 43 -32 35 00

 

See observing notes for NGC 6383.

 

JH discovered NGC 6374 = h3687 on 27 Jun 1837 and recorded "Cluster VIII class, 3' or 4' in extent, a bright * (= B 6125) taken."  But there is no bright star near his single position, and ESO classifies the number as uncertain.

 

Jenni Kay suggested this number is identical to NGC 6383 with a 2.5 minute error in time.  Brian Skiff confirmed that B 6125 (Brisbane Catalogue) is identical to the mag 5.7 star SAO 208977 = HD 159176 which is the central star of NGC 6383.  See Harold Corwin's identification notes for more.

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NGC 6375 = UGC 10875 = MCG +03-44-009 = CGCG 111-042 = PGC 60384

17 29 21.8 +16 12 24

V = 13.9;  Size 1.6'x1.6';  Surf Br = 14.9

 

17.5" (8/1/89): fairly faint, moderately large, even concentration to a small bright core, substellar nucleus.  Surrounded by several mag 14-15 stars including a mag 14 star 0.6' NE and a mag 15 star 0.9' E.  Forms a pair with UGC 10873 2.8' SW.  The companion appeared extremely faint, fairly small, thin edge-on N-S. NGC 6379 lies 18' ENE.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 6375 = m 337, along with NGC 6379, on 15 May 1864 and noted "F, vS, R."  His position is less than 1' too far north.  Brightest in a group, though he missed nearby UGC 10873.

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NGC 6376 = UGC 10855w = MCG +10-25-025 = CGCG 300-024 = VII Zw 712 = PGC 60258

17 25 19.2 +58 49 01

V = 15.5;  Size 0.6'x0.3';  Surf Br = 13.5;  PA = 142d

 

17.5" (6/18/88): very faint, very small, slightly elongated, weak concentration.  Forms an interacting pair with NGC 6377 35" NE of center.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 6376 = Sw V-50, along with NGC 6377, on 1 Sep 1886, and recorded "eeF; eS; R; e diff; sf of 2 [with NGC 6377]."  His position is fairly close and the relative offsets for the pair are accurate.

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NGC 6377 = UGC 10855e = MCG +10-25-026 = VII Zw 712 = PGC 60264

17 25 23.2 +58 49 21

V = 14.5;  Size 0.7'x0.3';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 58d

 

17.5" (6/18/88): faint, very small, round, small bright core, faint halo.  Forms a contact pair with NGC 6376 35" SW of center.  Located 12' NNW of mag 6.5 SAO 30387.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 6377 = Sw V-51, along with NGC 6376, on 1 Sep 1886, and recorded "eF; eS; R; lbM; in center of equilateral triangle; np of 2 [with NGC 6376]; verified both with 200x."  His position is fairly close and the relative offsets for the pair are accurate.  His note "np of 2" should read "nf of 2".

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NGC 6378 = UGC 10884 = MCG +01-44-009 = CGCG 055-001 = PGC 60418

17 30 42.1 +06 16 55

V = 13.4;  Size 1.3'x0.9';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 5d

 

17.5" (7/20/90): faint, fairly small, oval 3:1 N-S, almost even surface brightness.  Forms the vertex of a right angle with two mag 11 stars 1.5' W and 1.0' S.  Located in a rich star field.

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 6378 = St VII-17 on 13 Jul 1876.  His position is accurate.

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NGC 6379 = UGC 10886 = MCG +03-44-010 = CGCG 111-044 = CGCG 112-002 = PGC 60421

17 30 35.0 +16 17 19

V = 12.9;  Size 1.1'x1.0';  Surf Br = 12.9

 

17.5" (8/1/89): faint, fairly small, round, very diffuse, broad mild concentration, no distinct core.  Located 4.8' E of a mag 10 star.  Member of the NGC 6375 group with NGC 6375 18' WSW.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 6379 = m 338, along with NGC 6375, on 15 May 1864 and noted "vF, pL."  His position is 1' too far north.

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NGC 6380 = ESO 333-SC014 = Ton 1 = Pismis 25

17 34 28.2 -39 04 10

V = 11.1;  Size 3.9'

 

12" (6/29/02 - Bargo, Australia): faint but not difficult.  Appears as a 2' diffuse glow with no concentration.  A mag 10 star at the south-southwest edge hampered the observation.  Ton 2 is located 37' NE.

 

13" (5/30/87): extremely faint, small, very low surface brightness, visible only 20% of time with averted.  Mag 9.7 HD 159073 is attached 40" SSW of center.  Located 36' ESE of Howe 87 = 7.5/8.8 at 3".  Failed to find on several previous attempts.  This globular, along with NGC 6749, are the two most difficult NGC globulars.

 

JH discovered NGC 6380 = h3688 on 29 Jun 1834 and recorded "A star 9m, with a very evident eF nebulous wisp 90" l, 30" br."  A note was added "The wisp by the diagram is fan-shaped and extends in the np direction from the star.  See figure 18, Plate VI."

 

Although his position is excellent, the RA is 1.0 minute too far east in Hartung's 1968 "Astronomical Objects for Southern Telescopes", Sulentic and Tifft's 1974 "Revised New General Catalogue", Sinnott's 1988 NGC 2000.0, the first edition of the Sky Atlas 2000.0, the first edition of the Uranometria 2000.0 atlas, Sky Catalogue 2000.0, etc.

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NGC 6381 = UGC 10871 = MCG +10-25-038 = CGCG 300-034 = Kaz 460 = WBL 641-002 = PGC 60321

17 27 16.7 +60 00 50

V = 12.9;  Size 1.3'x1.0';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 25d

 

24" (7/2/16): at 225x and 375x; moderately bright and large, elongated 4:3 SSW-NNE, 1.0'x0.75', irregular surface brightness.  A mag 15-15.5 star is at the southwest edge.  Forms a close pair with UGC 10870 1.2' SW.  The companion appeared faint, small, elongated 3:2 E-W, 0.3'x0.2', low even surface brightness.

 

24" (7/15/15): moderately bright to fairly bright, slightly elongated SSW-NNE, 1.0'x0.8', broad concentration.  A mag 15 star is at the southwest edge [30" from center].  Located 12' ESE of mag 5.7 SAO 17472 = HD 158460.

 

Brightest in a group (WBL 641) with UGC 10870 1.3' NW.  UGC 10870 appeared faint to fairly faint, elongated 2:1 E-W, 0.4'x0.2', fairly low even surface brightness.  NGC 6390 (and two companions in an east-west string) lies 10' NE.

 

17.5" (6/18/88): fairly faint, fairly large, diffuse oval SW-NE, even surface brightness.  A mag 15 star is at the WSW edge 30" from center.  Located 12' ESE of mag 5.7 HD 158460.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 6381 = Sw I-59, along with NGC 6390, on 7 Jul 1885 and recorded "vF; pL; E; DM +60¡1754 much interferes with visibility.  His position and description matches UGC 10871, though the bright star is 12' distant

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NGC 6382 = MCG +09-29-001 = CGCG 277-044 = PGC 60342

17 27 55.2 +56 52 08

V = 14.0;  Size 0.9'x0.9';  Surf Br = 13.6

 

17.5" (6/18/88): faint, very small, round.  A mag 11.5 star is 1.2' SSE of center.

 

Edward Swift, Lewis' 12 year-old son, discovered NGC 6382 = Sw I-60 on 2 Jun 1883 with the 16-inch refractor at the Warner Observatory.  Their description reads "pF; pS; R; * near."  This was Edward's first of 25 objects in the NGC (two of these are lost -- NGC 5309 and NGC 6666). An additional 23 discoveries are in the IC.  Lewis credited him with the discovery in the errata to list VI.

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NGC 6383 = NGC 6374 = ESO 393-SC7 = Cr 335 = Gum 67 = Ced 147 = RCW 132

17 34 43 -32 35 00

V = 5.5;  Size 5

 

17.5" (8/27/92): 20 stars mag 12-14 surrounds mag 5.7 SAO 208977.  Elongated WNW-ESE in a 5' string.  The bright star has 4 or 5 faint companions within 1' (h4962 = 5.7/10.5/10.5 at 5"/13").  Also just west is 20' scattered string of 20 stars including 8 mag 10-11 stars visible in the 80mm finder.  This is a striking cluster.

 

8" (6/27/81): Includes a mag 5.8 star and 12 faint stars, excellent with averted, brightest star appears triple.  Surrounded by very large, very faint nebulosity.

 

JH discovered NGC 6383 = h3689 on 3 Aug 1834 and recorded "a curious cluster consisting of one L * 6-7m, and some 15 or 20 small ones 13m clustering close to it."  His position is on the bright star.  On a second sweep he reported "a star 7m with a cl of st 12m assembled about it.  The great * occupies the centre.  A very remarkable object."  NGC 6374 is a duplicate observation, verified by his mention of the bright star.

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NGC 6384 = UGC 10891 = MCG +01-45-001 = CGCG 055-007 = PGC 60459

17 32 24.4 +07 03 37

V = 10.4;  Size 6.2'x4.1';  Surf Br = 13.8;  PA = 30d

 

24" (8/14/15): at 260x; fairly bright, fairly large, elongated 3:2 SSW-NNE.  There are three distinct zones.  Towards the center is a sharply concentrated, bright, elongated 2:1 nucleus.  The nucleus is surrounded by an oval central region, roughly 1.5'x1.0'.  The central region is surrounded by a large, very low surface brightness halo, extending ~4.0'x2.5'.  Although spiral structure was not seen, the outer regions were noted as irregular.  A mag 12.5 star is on the northeast side of the halo, 1.8' from center, and a mag 13.3 star is 1.3' SE of center.

 

17.5" (7/20/90): moderately bright with a large core slightly elongated SSW-NNE, broad moderate concentration, large faint halo.  Two mag 12 stars are at the SE and NE ends 1.3' and 1.7' from center, respectively.

 

8" (6/22/81): faint, diffuse, slightly elongated, brighter core.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 6384 = m 339 = St II-14 on 10 Jun 1863 and noted "pB, S, vlE."  This is the brightest galaxy that Marth discovered, although his position is 4' too far north. Heinrich d'Arrest independently rediscovered NGC 6384 on 8 Apr 1866 with the 11-inch refractor at Copenhagen.  In addition, ƒdouard Stephan found it again on 19 Jul 1870 and reported it new in list II-14.

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NGC 6385 = UGC 10877 = MCG +10-25-044 = CGCG 300-035 = PGC 60343

17 28 01.5 +57 31 19

V = 13.1;  Size 1.3'x1.3';  Surf Br = 13.5

 

17.5" (6/18/88): faint, small, round, brightens gradually.  Located 2.9' ENE of mag 8 SAO 30401, which detracts from viewing.  Pair with NGC 6387 3.3' ENE.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 6385 = Sw IV-52, along with NGC 6387, on 22 Jul 1886, and logged "eF; S; R; B star nr s[outh]; sp of 2 [with NGC 6387]. His position is fairly accurate, though the bright star is 2.9' WSW.

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NGC 6386 = MCG +09-29-004 = CGCG 277-045 = PGC 60367

17 28 51.7 +52 43 24

V = 13.8;  Size 1.0'x1.0';  Surf Br = 13.7

 

17.5" (6/18/88): faint, small, round, weak concentration, low surface brightness.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 6386 = Sw I-61 on 8 Jun 1883 and logged "vF; pS; R; be 2 st."  His position is just 10 seconds east of CGCG 277-045 = PGC 60367.

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NGC 6387 = CGCG 300-037 = I Zw 189 = PGC 60355

17 28 23.8 +57 32 44

V = 14.2;  Size 0.3'x0.2';  Surf Br = 11.0

 

17.5" (6/18/88): faint, very small, round, weak concentration.  Close pair with brighter NGC 6385 3.3' WSW.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 6387 = Sw IV-53, along with NGC 6385, on 22 Jul 1886 and logged "eF; S; R; nf of 2 [with NGC 6385]; this and the preceding point to the bright star about 8th magnitude."  His position and description matches CGCG 300-037.  This is a compact double system (not resolved in my observation) O.30'x0.22' and 0.25'x0.18'.

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NGC 6388 = ESO 279-SC002

17 36 17.0 -44 44 06

V = 6.8;  Size 8.7'

 

18" (7/8/02 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): at 171x, this bright globular appears moderately large, round and granular but with no definite resolution.  The appearance was very symmetric and strongly concentrated with a blazing core that ranks as one of the highest surface brightness gc cores.

 

13" (7/12/86): bright at 214x, moderately large, increases to a small very bright core.  Has a grainy, lively appearance but no resolution.

 

8" (6/19/82): bright, moderately large, intense core, fainter halo, no resolution.

 

James Dunlop discovered NGC 6388 = D 457 = h3690 on 13 May 1826 and described "a beautiful round nebula, about 5' diameter, with a bright round well-defined disk or nucleus, about 15" diameter, exactly in the centre; this has the appearance of a planet surrounded by an extremely faint diluted atmosphere; there is a small star involved in the faint atmosphere: the atmosphere is at least 6' diameter."  His position is just 1.5' south of center.

 

JH, observing on 5 Jun 1834, recorded "globular, vB, R, at first pg, then psvmbM to an intense almost nuclear light. The right eye does not resolve or barely makes it resolvable; the left resolves it completely into stars 17...20m. A superb object on a rich ground of milky way."  On 1 Jul 1834 he logged "globular, vB, R, first p g, then psvmbM, 4' diam, easily resolved with left eye into stars 17m, more difficulty with right eye into 18m, excessively close and comp; shading off insensibly in borders into the general ground of the heavens."

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NGC 6389 = UGC 10893 = MCG +03-45-001 = CGCG 112-005 = PGC 60466

17 32 39.8 +16 24 06

V = 12.1;  Size 2.8'x1.9';  Surf Br = 13.7;  PA = 130d

 

17.5" (8/1/89): moderately bright, moderately large, oval NW-SE, sharp small bright core.  A mag 16 star is superimposed on the south side.  Several mag 11.5-12 stars are near, the closest 2.3' SE.  Located 15' WNW of mag 5.7 SAO 102917.

 

WH discovered NGC 6389 = H II-901 on 29 Jun 1799 (sweep 1090) and recorded "F, S, iF, er, about 2' long."  CH's reduced position is 20 seconds west of UGC 10893.  Christian Peters independently found this galaxy on 7 Jul 1878 while observing comet 1878a.  His position is a very good match with UGC 10893.

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NGC 6390 = UGC 10881 = MCG +10-25-047 = CGCG 300-040 = WBL 641-004 = PGC 60356

17 28 28.1 +60 05 39

V = 13.8;  Size 1.6'x0.3';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 8d

 

24" (7/2/16): at 225x and 375x; fairly faint to moderately bright, moderately large, edge-on 4:1 N-S, 0.8'x0.2', broad weak concentration, no distinct core.  Brightest in a linear triplet with CGCG 300-036 4.4' W and CGCG 300-042 4.2' E.  Located 20' ENE of mag 5.7 HD 158460.

 

NGC 6381 is 10' SW (close pair with UGC 10870) and UGC 10888 is 19' NE.  At 375x, the latter galaxy appeared fairly faint, slightly elongated NW-SE, contains a small bright nucleus.  The halo, initially 0.4' diameter, increases with averted vision to ~40"x30".

 

24" (7/15/15): fairly faint to moderately bright, moderately large, very elongated 3:1 or 7:2 N-S, 0.9'x0.3', broad concentration but no sharp zones.  Brightest and middle of three in an east-west line with CGCG 300-036 4.5' W and CGCG 300-042 4.2' E.  NGC 6381 lies 10' SW.

 

CGCG 300-036 (V = 14.4) was fairly faint, fairly small, round, 20" diameter, gradually increases to the center.  CGCG 300-042 (V = 15.2) appeared faint to fairly faint, fairly small, round, 18" diameter, low even surface brightness.

 

17.5" (6/18/88): faint, moderately large, edge-on N-S, low even surface brightness.  Second of three in a string with CGCG 300-036 4' W and CGCG 300-042 (not seen) 4' E.  CGCG 300-036 appeared very faint, extremely small, round, faint stellar nucleus. 

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 6390 = Sw I-62, along with NGC 6381, on 7 Jul 1885 and recorded "eeeF; cE; ee diff; one of my minima visible."  There is nothing at his position, but 6' south is UGC 10881, a faint edge-on that fits his description.  Father Hagen classified this as a "dubious object" (probably meaning he failed to find it) and it was called "doubtful" on Mount Wilson plates.  MCG gives the NGC designation as uncertain although Swift's comment "considerably elongated" applies to this edge-on.

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NGC 6391 = MCG +10-25-049 = CGCG 300-041 = PGC 60358

17 28 49.0 +58 51 03

V = 14.0;  Size 0.7'x0.5';  PA = 85d

 

17.5" (6/18/88): very faint, very small, round, bright core, very faint stellar nucleus.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 6391 = Sw IV-57 on 1 Sep 1886 and logged "eF; vS; R; nearly bet 2 stars."  His position is 13 seconds of time too far west. The two stars he mentions are 3.2' south and 3.0' northwest.

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NGC 6392 = ESO 070-012 = PGC 60753

17 43 30.3 -69 47 06

V = 11.6;  Size 1.3'x1.3';  Surf Br = 12.0

 

25" (4/5/16 - Coonabarabran, 318x): fairly bright, fairly small, round, 45" diameter, the surface brightness is fairly high and irregular (probably due to a superimposed mag 15.5 star on the southeast side).  A mag 13 star is 50" WSW of center and a mag 15 star is at the southwest edge [20" from center].  Situated in a rich Apus star field with a mag 8.8 star 7' ESE.

 

JH discovered NGC 6392 = h3691 on 17 Jun 1835 and logged "pF; S; R; glbM; 20"; 50 stars in field."  His position (measured on two nights) matches ESO 070-012 = PGC 60753.  RNGC classifies the number as an unverified southern object, though the identification is certain.

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NGC 6393 = MCG +10-25-054 = PGC 60405

17 30 08.5 +59 31 55

V = 15.7;  Size 0.4'x0.4';  Surf Br = 13.6

 

18" (7/30/08): extremely faint, very small, round, 15" diameter, low even surface brightness.  I could just barely hold this galaxy continuously with averted vision once it was identified but it took knowing the exact position to initially pick up.  This galaxy is generally identified as NGC 6394. Although Swift's description for NGC 6393 is a better match with this galaxy it's possible that it is too faint for Swift to have picked up.

 

17.5" (6/18/88): not found

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 6393 = Sw I-64, along with NGC 6394 and 6399, on 7 Jul 1885.  His description for NGC 6393 reads "vvF, pS, R, 2 B st nr north; south of 2" and for NGC 6394, "vvF, pS, R, 2 st point to it, the nearest is D[ouble]; the other and the nebula are equally distant from D star; north of 2."  The description of NGC 6394 is a perfect match UGC 10889 and NGC 6393 is possibly MCG +10-25-054.  The (unequal) double star is HD 159266, located 3.9' NW of NGC 6393.  This star is midway between NGC 6393 and a mag 11 star further NW.  Swift found the northern galaxy (NGC 6394) again on 15 Jun 1890 and included it in list IX-81, this time at the correct position.  The identification NGC 6393 = MCG +10-25-054 is uncertain as the separation in declination between the pair is 6.5', while Swift's gives just 3.5' and MCG +10-25-054 is perhaps too faint for Swift to have picked up with his 16-inch (see my visual description).

 

Swift's poor declination for NGC 6393 coincidentally matches UGC 10889.  As a result, all modern galaxy catalogues misidentify UGC 10889 as NGC 6393.  RNGC and PGC reverse the identifications of NGC 6393 and NGC 6394, labeling the fainter southern galaxy as NGC 6394.  MCG does not attach a NGC label to MCG +10-25-054.  See Harold Corwin's notes for NGC 6394.

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NGC 6394 = UGC 10889 = MCG +10-25-055 = PGC 60410

17 30 21.4 +59 38 23

V = 14.5;  Size 1.3'x0.4';  Surf Br = 13.6;  PA = 42d

 

18" (7/30/08): faint, fairly small, very elongated 3:1 SSW-NNE, 0.6'x0.2', very weak concentration.  An extremely faint star is off the NNE tip.  Located 3.9' SE of mag 8.0 HD 159266, which detracts from viewing.  NGC 6393 = MCG +10-25-054 (identified as NGC 6394 in RNGC, MCG and PGC) is located 6.6' SSW. NGC 6399 lies 11' ESE.

 

17.5" (6/18/88): very faint, fairly small, very elongated SW-NE.  Three mag 14/15 stars are near the north end.  Located 3.8' SE of mag 8 SAO 30431.  Pair with NGC 6399 11.3' ESE.

 

Note: This galaxy is misidentified as NGC 6393 in all modern catalogues.

 

See identification notes for NGC 6393.

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NGC 6395 = UGC 10876 = MCG +12-16-039 = CGCG 339-044 = PGC 60291

17 26 31.1 +71 05 43

V = 12.3;  Size 2.4'x0.7';  Surf Br = 12.8;  PA = 15d

 

24" (6/28/16): moderately bright, moderately large, elongated ~5:2 SSW-NNE, ~1.5'x0.6'.  The surface brightness is low but irregular on the northern end and brighter on the southern half.  The galaxy is somewhat mottled or knotty, though one knot is probably the core.  A mag 15 star is just east of the northern end.  IC 1261 (double system) lies 18' NW.

 

17.5" (6/11/88): fairly faint, fairly small, elongated SSW-NNE.  Two mag 12 stars are at the north end 1.5' and 2.5' NNE of center and a mag 14.5 star is off the south end 2.3' from center.

 

Edward Swift, Lewis' 13 year-old son, discovered NGC 6395 = Sw I-63 on 18 Sep 1884.  The description reads "vF; pL; lE; double star north; 2 stars near point to it." His position is 30 seconds of time too large.  Bigourdan's measured an accurate position on 8 Aug 1888 (repeated in the IC 2 Notes).

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NGC 6396 = Cr 339 = ESO 393-SC010

17 37 36 -35 01 36

V = 8.5;  Size 3'

 

17.5" (6/8/91): consists of a dozen mag 9-13 stars in a small group of 4' diameter.  Includes four stars in a distinctive 2' string oriented NNW-SSE and continuing north a pretty double star (h4966 = 9.8/10.8 at 12") which is oriented E-W.  The brightest star mag 9 SAO 209043 is just off the WSW edge 4' from the center.  Not rich or impressive but stands out well.  Also a large scattered group of fairly bright stars is roughly 20' to the north.

 

JH discovered NGC 6396 = h3693 on 7 Jul 1836 and recorded "Cluster VIII; small, 5', place of chief D star".  His position is 35 seconds east of the double star at the northwest side of the cluster, and well outside the confines of the cluster.  Herschel's poor RA is used in the RNGC, NGC 2000.0 and the Sky Catalogue 2000.0.  The ESO and Uranometria 2000.0 Atlas position is correct.

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NGC 6397 = ESO 181-SC004

17 40 41.3 -53 40 25

V = 5.8;  Size 25.7'

 

18" (7/8/02 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): amazing view of this bright globular at nearly 70¡ elevation at 171x.  It extended across 2/3 of the field - perhaps 20' in diameter.  Very highly resolved into hundreds of stars, many surprisingly bright at mag 10-11 and overall noticeably brighter than most globulars (1st in ranking of brightest stars).  The globular appears fully resolved in the halo and even the blazing core is covered wall-to-wall with stars.  Many stars are in small groups, chains, curves, etc.  The concentrated core is ~3.5' diameter and at 228x has a 3-dimensional effect with the mag 10.5-11.5 stars layered over a dense, uneven background mat.  Visible naked-eye.

 

20" (7/8/02 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): I also had a fantastic view in the 20" f/5 at 212x - the stars seemed to radiate out from the core in spiral curves and completely filled the 23' field!

 

8" (7/13/91 - Southern Baja): very bright, very large, 10' diameter, irregularly round.  At least 50 stars mag 10-12 are resolved at 63x.  Bright intense core 3' diameter with dozens of stars superimposed and at edges of core.  Contains a large halo with many faint and brighter stars superimposed over a mottled background.  Beautiful globular although observed at only 13¡ elevation from Baja.  This is the nearest globular and first in ranking by brightest stars.

 

10x30 (8/8/04 - Haleakala Crater): picked up while sweeping in IS binoculars close to the SSW horizon from Haleakala.  Once the position was pinpointed, this mag 5.8 globular was just visible naked-eye less than 1 degree NNE of mag 5.3 Pi Arae.

 

Nicolas-Louis de Lacaille discovered NGC 6397 = Lac III-11 = D 366 = h3692 in 1751-1752 with a 1/2" telescope at 8x, during his expedition to the Cape of Good Hope.  He simply noted "faint star in nebulosity."  James Dunlop independently found this globular on 28 Jun 1826 with his 9-inch reflector and described "a pretty large nebula, extended nearly in the parallel of the equator, brightest and broadest in the middle; a group of very small stars in the middle give it the appearance of a nucleus, but they are not connected with the nebula, but are similar to other small stars in this place which are arranged in groups. The nebula is resolvable into stars."  Dunlop made 4 observations and his position was 5' east of center.

 

On JH's first observation (8 Jul 1834), he recorded "globular cluster; fine; large; bright; round; gradually brighter to the middle; not very compressed; 5' diameter, but stragglers extend a great way. In the middle is a more compact group of much smaller stars. The stars at circumference are larger than in the middle; at N.f. border is a double star."

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NGC 6398 = ESO 139-018 = AM 1738-614 = PGC 60735

17 42 43.9 -61 41 39

V = 12.5;  Size 2.0'x1.7';  Surf Br = 13.7;  PA = 6d

 

25" (4/5/16 - Coonabarabran, 318x): moderately bright and large, slightly elongated N-S, 45"x35", strongly concentrated with a bright core surrounded by a faint halo.  A mag 14.5 star is at the west edge and a mag 15.5 star is at the northeast edge.  A mag 12.5 star (close double) is 1.3' NW.  Situated in a rich Pavo star field.  Forms a pair with NGC 6403 4.7' ENE.

 

JH discovered NGC 6398 = h3694, along with NGC 6403, on 7 Jul 1836 and recorded "eF; S; R; almost certain it is not small double star.  Definition much improved.  It is certainly a nebula, and with long attention, I see another [NGC 6403], still fainter, exactly on parallel, and 30 seconds following."  His position is accurate.

 

Nevertheless, the RNGC classified both galaxies as nonexistent (Type 7) probably because DeLisle Stewart reported "eF, hazy * only" based on plates taken at Harvard's Boyden Station, in Arequipa, Peru.

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NGC 6399 = UGC 10896 = MCG +10-25-059 = CGCG 300-047 = PGC 60442

17 31 50.4 +59 36 55

V = 13.7;  Size 1.1'x0.6';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 5d

 

18" (7/30/08): faint, very small, slightly elongated N-S, 25"x20", sharply concentrated with a very small bright nucleus.  NGC 6394 (generally listed as NGC 6393) lies 11' WNW.  An extremely faint mag 16.7B companion was glimpsed a couple of times 54" NNE.

 

17.5" (6/18/88): faint, small, slightly elongated, bright core, very faint halo SSW-NNE.  Forms a pair with NGC 6393 11.3' WNW.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 6399 = Sw I-66, along with NGC 6393 and 6394, on 7 Jul 1885 and recorded "vvF; vS; R."  His position is 1' too far southwest.

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NGC 6400 = Cr 342 = Mel 177 = Lund 767

17 40 13 -36 56 54

Size 8'

 

17.5" (6/30/00): ~50 stars are resolved in an 8'x5' region at 220x.  The stars are fairly uniform in brightness though irregular in outline.  The cluster is elongated N-S with a nice string extending through the cluster to the SSE and NNE with a slight bend near the center.  At the kink in the string is a denser clump of stars.  There are circular voids on the NW and SW ends.  The two brighter strings (on the following side) and two less distinct rows of stars create a vague "X" shape through the cluster with a close loop on the north end.

 

8" (6/27/81): faint, fairly small, fairly rich.  Many stars are aligned in rows.

 

James Dunlop discovered = D 568 = h3696 on 13 May 1826 and described "a very faint cluster of very small stars, resembling faint nebula; the stars are considerably congregated to the centre, irregular round figure."  Dunlop observed the cluster 3 times and his position is only a couple of arc minutes too far south.  JH observed the cluster on 28 Jun 1834 and recorded "Cluster class VII, p rich; pL, irr R, 8', stars 9..10m."  His position is 0.6 minutes of time too small.  The RNGC position is 0.6 minutes too far east.

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NGC 6401 = ESO 520-SC11

17 38 36.9 -23 54 32

V = 9.5;  Size 5.6'

 

17.5" (7/27/92): fairly faint, small, round, 1.5'-2.0' diameter.  Unusual appearance as a mag 12 field star is embedded SE of the core within the halo.  No other resolution was seen and the globular has a very weak concentration. 

 

8" (6/27/81): faint, small, round, compact, diffuse.  A single bright mag 12-13 star is involved.

 

WH discovered NGC 6401 = H I-44 = h1982 = h3697 on 21 May 1784 (sweep 222) and recorded "cB, pL, having a king of nucleus towards the following side."  On 26 May 1786 (sweep 566), he called it "pB, gbM, L, r, some of the stars visible."  From the Cape of Good Hope, JH logged "pB; R; vgbM; 25"; a * 13m involved, following the centre."

 

Sven Cederblad catalogued this globular as the nebula Ced 149.

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NGC 6402 = M14

17 37 36.1 -03 14 45

V = 7.6;  Size 11.7'

 

24" (7/30/16): at 432x; very bright, large, nearly fills the 10' field.  The outer halo is resolved into dozens of star, perhaps 50 or 60 total.  The relatively large core is plastered with tiny resolved stars; roughly 50 additional stars were resolved over a lively background, so overall at least a 100 total though difficult to count due to density and the bright background glow.  The outer halo is slightly elongated E-W as well as the core, but the overall appearance is symmetrical.  The core only exhibits a broad, weak concentration.

 

17.5" (7/1/00): this bright, large, fairly symmetric globular appears elongated ~E-W and ~7'x5' in size at 220x.  The bright core is relatively large at 4', very lively and granular with a layer of very faint stars.  At 280x, ~30 stars are resolved in the small halo and at the edge of the intense core.  A rich, even sprinkling of faint stars cover the core.  It was difficult to count the resolved stars as numerous dim stars pop out with averted vision over the bright background haze, but perhaps 60-70 stars in total were glimpsed.

 

17.5" (7/16/88): bright, large, 25-30 very faint stars are resolved mostly at the edges which have a ragged appearance.

 

13" (7/5/83): fairly large, broad concentration.  About a dozen very faint stars are resolved across the disk.  The outer halo fades out smoothly.

 

Charles Messier discovered M14 = NGC 6402= h1983 on 1 June 1764 and noted a "Nebula without star, discovered in the garb which dresses the right arm of Ophiuchus, and situated on the parallel of Zeta Serpentis: This nebula is not large, its light is faint, one can see it nevertheless in an ordinary telescope of 3.5-foot [FL]; it is round, near it is a small star of 9th magnitude."

 

WH, observing with his 12-inch (small 20-foot) on 23 Jul 1783 noted "With a power of 200, I see it consists of stars. They are better visible with 300. With 600, they are too obscure to be distinguished, though the appearance of stars is still preserved. This seems to be one of the most difficult objects to be resolved. With me, there is not a doubt remaining; but another person, in order to form a judgment, ought previously to go through all the several gradations of nebulae which I have resolved into stars." On 25 May 1791 (sweep 1010), he recorded with his 18.7-inch "eB, R, easily resolvable.  With a power of 300 I can see the stars.  Resembles the 10th of the Connoiss. which probably would put on the same appearance as this, if it were off half as far again as it is."

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NGC 6403 = ESO 139-019 = PGC 60750

17 43 23.7 -61 40 56

V = 13.3;  Size 1.1'x0.9';  Surf Br = 13.1

 

25" (4/5/16 - Coonabarabran, 318x): moderately bright, fairly small, irregularly round, 30" diameter, broad concentration with a slightly bright nucleus. Situated in a rich Pavo star field with a mag 11.2 star 1.1' SSE.   Forms a pair with NGC 6403 4.7' WSW.

 

JH discovered NGC 6403 = h3695, along with NGC 6398, on 7 Jul 1836 and simply noted "eeF.  The following of 2."  His position, though 10 seconds too small, clearly applies to ESO 139-019 = PGC 60750.  DeLisle Stewart recorded NGC 6403 "extremely faint, hazy star only", based on plates taken at Harvard's Arequipa station.

 

RNGC misclassifies the number as nonexistent. See notes for NGC 6398.

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NGC 6404 = Cr 340 = ESO 393-SC013

17 39 37 -33 14 48

Size 5'

 

13.1" (7/5/83): 20 stars mag 12-14 over unresolved haze.  The three brightest stars form a small triangle on the west edge, most other stars are very faint.  Located one degree south of M6.

 

JH discovered NGC 6404 = h4020 on 27 Jun 1837 and recorded "a p rich, L, F, cluster; class VII; nearly fills field; composed of concave flakes; no m comp; stars 13 or 15m." The observation was included in a list of "omitted observations of nebulae and supplementary nebulae" at the end of the Cape Catalogue.  Dreyer identified these objects as "h o n" ([John] Herschel Omitted Object) in the NGC.  His position is accurate.

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NGC 6405 = M6 = Butterfly Cluster = Cr 341

17 40 21 -32 15 18

V = 4.2;  Size 25'

 

18" (7/21/04): at 92x roughly 200 stars are visible in this beautiful naked-eye cluster.  There are four bright mag 6-7 stars in the main group which form a perfect parallelogram with longer sides of 7' oriented WSW-ENE and shorter sides of 4' oriented NW-SE.  A string of stars connects the two stars on the long southern side of the parallelogram (the star at the SE vertex is orange tinged BM Sco) with a nice double star embedded in the string.  The NW vertex is part of a bright isosceles triangle with two mag 8-9 stars and ~7' further NW of this star is a small, nice asterism consisting of a trio and a double.  Also a wedge-shaped group of 7 stars extends between this NW vertex (which also has two additional fainter companions) and the SW vertex (short side of parallelogram) Another distinctive string of stars runs through the center of the parallelogram roughly parallel to the two long sides.  A nice mag 9/10 double resides along the long northern side of the parallelogram.  An additional mag 7 star is the SW of the parallelogram.  Around the main group there are numerous scattered stars and the cluster does not have a distinct border.  Over 70 stars in the cluster are brighter than 11th magnitude.

 

13.1" (7/5/83): very bright, fairly large.  Includes a curving rows of stars and a close group of 7 stars near the center.  The brightest star BM Scorpii is on the east side.  Smaller than M7 but richer.  Fairly easy naked-eye cluster.

 

Giovanni Hodierna discovered M6 = NGC 6405 = Lac III-12 = h3699 before 1654 and recorded 18 stars.  De ChŽseaux independently found the cluster in 1745-46.  Nicolas-Louis de Lacaille found the cluster again in 1752 with a 1/2" telescope at 8x, during his expedition to the Cape of Good Hope, and found a "remarkable group of faint stars in parallel lines making a diamond 20-25 minutes diameter filled with nebulosity."  Lacaille is credited with the discovery in the NGC. James Dunlop may have catalogued M6 in 1826 as his position for D 612 falls on the east side of the cluster, though his observation could apply to NGC 6416, given his often poor positions.  Although a naked-eye cluster, it apparently was not included in any earlier list.

 

In his Messier survey, WH logged on 30 Jul 1783 "I counted about 50 stars; it contains the greatest variety of magnitudes of any nebula I recollect. The compound eye-piece shows more of them variously and intermixed."

 

According to Sue French, the popular nickname "Butterfly Cluster" may come from "Splendour of the Heavens" (1923), as M6 is described as "somewhat irregular in shape, with central rib of stars, and resembles a butterfly with open wings."

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NGC 6406

17 38 19.1 +18 49 58

 

=**?, Gottlieb.  =NF, RNGC.

 

Guillaume Bigourdan discovered NGC 6406 = Big. 81 on 10 Jun 1885 and noted "mag 13.3, 7" or 8" diameter, stellar appearance." Two mag 14 stars with a similar separation are very close to his Comptes Rendus position, so this identification is certain.

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NGC 6407 = ESO 139-022 = LGG 411-004 = PGC 60796

17 44 57.6 -60 44 22

V = 12.3;  Size 2.1'x1.6';  Surf Br = 13.5;  PA = 60d

 

25" (4/5/16 - Coonabarabran, 318x): bright, moderately large, slightly elongated WSW-ENE, 50"x40", sharply concentrated with a very bright, relatively large core and a much fainter halo.  Mag 9.4 HD 160674 is 1.7' SE, a mag 12 star is 1.2' SE, a mag 13 star is 0.7' NE and a mag 14.5 star is 0.7' SSE.  Situated in a fairly rich star field.

 

JH discovered NGC 6407 = h3700 on 7 Aug 1834 and recorded "eF; S; R: lbM; 15"; near 3 stars."  His position is accurate.

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NGC 6408 = UGC 10930 = MCG +03-45-007 = PGC 60637

17 38 47.3 +18 52 40

V = 12.7;  Size 1.6'x1.4';  Surf Br = 13.4

 

17.5" (8/1/89): fairly faint, fairly small, slightly elongated ~E-W, weak concentration, fairly low surface brightness.  Located in a rich star field between a mag 13.5 star 1.8' W and a mag 14 star 1.1' SE.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 6408 = m 340 = St II-15 on 2 Jun 1864 and noted "F, S, R, gbM." His position is 1' too far north.  ƒdouard Stephan independently rediscovered the galaxy on 16 Jul 1871.  His micrometric position is very accurate.

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NGC 6409 = CGCG 253-020 = PGC 60565

17 36 35.4 +50 45 57

V = 13.8;  Size 0.8'x0.6';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 60d

 

17.5" (7/19/90): faint, small, round, broad concentration.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 6409 = Sw I-67 on 18 Jun 1885 and noted "vF; S; R."  His position is 30 seconds of RA too far west. Bigourdan measured an accurate position on 7 Aug 1888 (repeated in the IC 2 Notes).

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NGC 6410

17 35 20.5 +60 47 32

 

=**?, Gottlieb.  =*, RNGC.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 6410 = Sw VI-93 on 2 May 1887 and recorded "eeF, S, R, nearly between 2 stars, GC 4320 [NGC 6411] nr nf".  His position is 3' west of NGC 6411.  A close pair of mag 14.7/15.3 stars at 8" separation, located 2' southwest of NGC 6411, matches Swift's description. RNGC identifies NGC 6410 as a star and Harold Corwin specifically tags this double star.

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NGC 6411 = UGC 10916 = MCG +10-25-068 = CGCG 300-052 = PGC 60536

17 35 32.5 +60 48 48

V = 11.8;  Size 2.3'x1.8';  Surf Br = 13.4;  PA = 70d

 

17.5" (6/22/90): fairly faint, fairly small, oval 3:2 SW-NE, 1.1'x0.8', gradually increases to a very small bright core.  A mag 13.5 star is 20" off the SW edge and 57" from the center.

 

Heinrich d'Arrest discovered NGC 6411 on 27 Oct 1861 with the 11-inch refractor at Copenhagen.  His position (measured on 4 nights) is accurate and noted the mag 12 star 6 seconds preceding and 30" south. The MCG declination is 30' too far south, and NGC 6411 is not referenced.

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NGC 6412 = Arp 38 = UGC 10897 = VV 444 = MCG +13-12-026 = CGCG 355-034 = CGCG 356-004 = KAZ 146 = PGC 60393

17 29 37.0 +75 42 15

V = 11.8;  Size 2.5'x2.2';  Surf Br = 13.4

 

48" (10/22/11): at 375x appeared bright, large, round, 2' diameter.  Broad concentration with a large, brighter 30" core, hint of spiral structure in the halo though it was difficult to trace the arms.  An HII knot or companion was easily seen superimposed at the edge of the halo on the north side (37" from center) and appeared faint, small, oval, ~12"x8".  A mag 13.5 star lies 1' SW and a mag 16 star is 1.8' SW; both stars are collinear with the core.  A bright mag 11.3 star lies 2' SE.  Listed by Arp as a spiral with a "low surface brightness companion on arms", but the "companion" may be an HII region.

 

17.5" (7/9/88): moderately bright, irregularly round, 2.0' diameter, diffuse halo, weak even concentration to a brighter core.  A mag 13.5 star is at the SW edge 1.1' from center.  A string of three equally spaced stars begins with a mag 11 star 2' SE and includes two bright stars; mag 8.3 SAO 8824 4.1' S and mag 9.3 SAO 8821 7.6' SSW.

 

8" (8/5/83): very faint, small, diffuse.  Located north of two mag 8 stars in field.

 

WH discovered NGC 6412 = H VI-41 on 12 Dec 1797 (sweep 1071) and surprisingly described this galaxy as a cluster of class VI (very condensed and rich clusters of stars) -- "round, resolvable, about 3' diameter, vgbM. I suppose it to be a cluster of stars compressed extremely. 320 power confirms the supposition, and shews a few of the stars; it must be immensely rich."  CH's reduced position is 30 tsec west (only 1.8' at this dec) of Arp 38 = UGC 10897.  Bigourdan measured an accurate position on 24 Jul 1884.

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NGC 6413

17 40 40.7 +12 37 26

 

=***, Gottlieb. =NF, RNGC.

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 6413 = Sw II-16 on 20 Jul 1870.  At his exact position is a group of three or four close stars with the brightest two a 3" double.  The RNGC classifies the number as nonexistent.

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NGC 6414 = UGC 10906 = MCG +12-16-041 = CGCG 339-047 = CGCG 340-005 = PGC 60416

17 30 36.7 +74 22 34

V = 14.4;  Size 1.1'x0.6';  Surf Br = 13.8;  PA = 145d

 

17.5" (7/9/88): very faint, extremely small, round, very small bright core.  Bracketed by two faint mag 14.5/15 stars.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 6414 = Sw III-94 on 30 May 1886 and recorded "eeeF; pS; R; ee diff.; bet 2 stars; 4 F stars near preceding in form of arc of circle".  His position is just 1' south of UGC 10906 and his description fits this galaxy. UGC 10906 is the furthest north of any Swift discovery.

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NGC 6415 = ESO 393-?18

17 44 20 -35 04 18

 

=Not found, RNGC and ESO.

 

JH discovered NGC 6415 = h3701' on 26 Aug 1826 and recorded "a great Nebulous projection of the milky way." His RA is given roughly to the nearest minute of time.  In the Cape Catalogue, JH did not assign a number, but placed it (in RA order) after h3701, so Dreyer called it h3701' in the NGC.  This is likely just a rich section of the Milky Way and RNGC and ESO list the number as "Not found".  Harold Corwin places the center about 1 minute of time larger than JH's position and 3'-4' south.

 

Wolfgang Steinicke lists James Dunlop with the discovery (numbers D 595 and D 596), but Glen Cozens associates these number with Ruprecht 128. Dunlop described a much smaller object than JH's h3701' -- D 595 is only 1' diameter and D 596 is 5' x 30".

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NGC 6416 = Cr 344 = ESO 455-SC032

17 44 20 -32 21 42

V = 5.7;  Size 18'

 

17.5" (8/2/97): best view at 100x as it fills the 220x (9mm Nagler) field.  The most detached portion consists of a large cloud of at least 15' diameter and containing roughly 75 stars.  There are four brighter stars (including mag 8.6 SAO 209208) but most of the stars are pretty uniform in brightness and fairly evenly distributed at 100x.  The cluster may extend further north than the region described above but the star density quickly decreases to the general Milky Way appearance.

 

8" (6/19/82): almost two dozen faint stars, large, scattered, not impressive as fairly coarse.

 

JH discovered NGC 6416 = h3702 = D612? on 3 Aug 1834 and recorded "Cl class VIII of stars 11m; fills field; not rich; stars in zig-zag lines."  His position is accurate.  James Dunlop possibly discovered the cluster earlier on 13 May 1826 and described "a cluster of small stars of mixt magnitudes, about 15' diameter, irregular figure."   His position, though, is nearly 40' west of the cluster and actually falls on the east side of M6, 13' from the center.  So, his identification is uncertain though seems to describe NGC 6416 better.

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NGC 6417 = UGC 10945 = MCG +04-42-001 = CGCG 141-004 = PGC 60709

17 41 47.9 +23 40 19

V = 13.1;  Size 1.4'x1.2';  Surf Br = 13.6

 

17.5" (8/1/89): faint, fairly small, slightly elongated, almost even surface brightness.  Located 4.9' S of mag 7.8 SAO 85328!

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 6417 = m 341 on 2 Jul 1864 and noted "pF, S, vlbM."  His position is accurate.

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NGC 6418 = MCG +10-25-074 = CGCG 300-054 = PGC 60610

17 38 09.3 +58 42 54

V = 14.4;  Size 0.5'x0.4';  Surf Br = 12.3

 

17.5" (7/19/90): faint, very small, slightly elongated.  A mag 15 star is at the east edge 17" from the center.  Contains a very faint stellar nucleus or a mag 15 star involved.

 

Edward Swift, Lewis' 14 year-old son, discovered NGC 6418 = Sw I-68 on 4 May 1885 and recorded "eF: pS; R; forms a right angle triangle with 2 stars, one mB."  Their position is just 1' north of CGCG 300-054 = PGC 60610 and the two stars might be 1.6' southeast and 2.6' northeast.

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NGC 6419 = UGC 10924 = MCG +11-21-012 = PGC 60543

17 36 06.2 +68 09 20

V = 14.6;  Size 1.0'x0.3';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 134d

 

17.5" (6/11/88): very faint, very small, elongated NW-SE, bright core.  Two mag 15 stars are close north (one is 43" NNW of center).  In a group of 6 galaxies with NGC 6423 4.5' ENE, NGC 6420 6.3' S, NGC 6422 6.2' SSE and CGCG 321-023 = PGC 60529 5.4' SW (see description under NGC 6422).

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 6419 = Sw II-55, along with NGC 6420, on 17 Aug 1883 and recorded "eeF; eS; R; e diff.  n of 2."  His position is 14 seconds of RA west of UGC 10924 (distance = 1.4').  Bigourdan measured an accurate position on 6 Sep 1888 (reported in the IC 2 Notes).

 

Harold Corwin notes it is very possible that NGC 6423 (discovered by Swift 16 days earlier) is an earlier observation of this galaxy and NGC 6422 is an earlier observation of NGC 6420.  But Guillaume Bigourdan assigned the numbers to the four brightest galaxies in the field, which are a good match with Swift's declinations (the RAs are 14 to 24 seconds too small).  Bigourdan's corrected positions for all 4 galaxies (measured in Sept 1888), were published in the IC 2 Notes.

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NGC 6420 = MCG +11-21-013 = CGCG 321-025 = PGC 60553

17 36 16.2 +68 03 08

V = 14.5;  Size 0.65'x0.2';  PA = 54d

 

17.5" (6/11/88): very faint, very small, round, bright core.  In a compact trio with NGC 6422 1.3' ENE and MCG +11-21-014 1.3' NNE.  Located 6.3' S of NGC 6419.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 6420 = Sw II-56, along with NGC 6419, on 17 Aug 1883 and recorded "eeF; eS; R; ee diff.  s[outh] of 2 [with NGC 6419].  His description is not of any real help, but his position is 23 seconds of RA west of CGCG 321-025 (off by 2.2').  Bigourdan measured an accurate position (matching the CGCG) on 6 Sep 1888.  See notes for NGC 6419.

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NGC 6421 = ESO 393-?22

17 45 44 -33 41 36

 

24" (7/7/13): large, bright Milky Way cloud at 125x (50' field).  Sharply defined by dust clouds on the west edge and along the east side up to the north end.  Includes a nice string of a half-dozen stars (mag 9.5-11.5) on the southeast side and a couple of 1' pairs (oriented N-S) of mag 10.5-11.5 stars are at the east end of the cloud.

 

JH discovered NGC 6421 = h3702' on 3 Aug 1834 and recorded "A most remarkable, well insulated, semi-nebulous milky way patch of a branching rounded figure, within the limits of the field, quite insulated on the p, n and f side, and only connected on the south side by a narrow isthmus with a branch of the milky way, which runs meridionally to a great extent.  It forms a VI. class cluster of the utmost tenuity, barely resolvable, no resolved.  See [sketch] fig 1, plate V."   JH listed this observation (and coordinates) after h3702, but didn't assign it a unique h-designation (it's called 3702 1/2 in his list of sketched nebulae), indicating it was just an interesting field and not a discrete object.  He included it, though, in the GC as h3702', but Dreyer dropped the prime in the NGC.  As a result there are NGC listings for h3702 (NGC 6416 and NGC 6421).

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NGC 6422 = MCG +11-21-015 = CGCG 321-026 = PGC 60558

17 36 29.9 +68 03 31

V = 14.1;  Size 0.6'x0.6'

 

17.5" (6/11/88): faint, very small, round, bright core.  In a compact trio with similar NGC 6420 1.3' WSW and MCG +11-21-014 1' NW.  The MCG was the faintest of the trio and appeared extremely faint, very small, round, even surface brightness.  Located in a group with NGC 6419 6.3' NNW and CGCG 321-023 = PGC 60529 7' WNW.  The CGCG appeared very faint, extremely small, round.  A mag 15 star is off the south edge.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 6422 = Sw II-57, along with NGC 6423, on 1 Aug 1883 and recorded "eF; pS; R; nearly between a F and a B *."   His position is 16 seconds west of CGCG 321-025 = PGC 60553, the brightest of four galaxies in a 3' circle.  The "B *" in the description probably refers to the mag 8.9 star 3' east.  Bigourdan measured an accurate position on 6 Sep 1888 (repeated in the IC 2 Notes).  MCG does not label this galaxy as NGC 6422.  See notes for NGC 6419.

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NGC 6423 = MCG +11-21-016 = CGCG 321-027 = PGC 60576

17 36 53.3 +68 10 17

V = 14.8;  Size 0.3'x0.2';  Surf Br = 11.6;  PA = 165d

 

17.5" (6/11/88): very faint, very small, round, weak concentration.  Forms a pair with NGC 6419 4.5' W.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 6423 = Sw II-58, along with NGC 6422 = Sw II-57, on 1 Aug 1885, and recorded "eeF; vS; R; * nr east; v diff."  His position is 12 seconds west and 0.8' south of CGCG 321-027 = PGC 60576.  Bigourdan's position, measured on 7 Sep 1888, matches PGC 60756.  There is no star "nr east", though a mag 12 star is 1.5' north.  MCG does not label this galaxy as NGC 6423.  See notes for NGC 6419.

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NGC 6424 = UGC 10932 = MCG +12-17-001 = CGCG 340-011 = PGC 60552

17 36 11.9 +69 59 20

V = 13.4;  Size 0.7'x0.7';  Surf Br = 12.5

 

17.5" (6/11/88): very faint, extremely small, round.  Appears as a stellar nucleus with a small, round halo.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 6424 = Sw II-59 on 5 Aug 1885 and logged "vF; pS; R."  His position is less than 1' from UGC 10932, so the identity is certain.

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NGC 6425 = Cr 348 = ESO 455-SC038

17 47 02 -31 31 48

V = 7.2;  Size 8'

 

17.5" (8/2/97): roughly three dozen stars in a 16'x7' detached region about 20 of which are mag 11 and the remainder mag 12-13.5.  The group stands out well using a 14mm UltraWide, although the stars are fairly scattered with no dense regions.  Near the center is a nice 30" equilateral triangle (brightest of the trio is at the SE vertex) of mag 10.5-11.5 stars.  Following this triangle is a large "hole" in the cluster devoid of any stars. The brighter stars form an irregular border although there are two noticeable strings of stars in the cluster. Located 1.5 degrees NE of M6.

 

8" (6/27/81): 15 stars mag 11-13 in a triangular outline.

 

JH discovered NGC 6425 = h3703 on 3 Aug 1834 and recorded "Small cl VIII class; 8' dia; has 20 or 30 st 10...12, nearly insulated."  His position is good.

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NGC 6426

17 44 54.7 +03 10 13

V = 11.2;  Size 3.2'

 

24" (7/30/16): at 260x and 432x; fairly faint, round, moderately large,  2.5' diameter.  Contains a very small, slightly brighter core that is elongated N-S and lively.  A few faint stars are resolved around at the edges of the halo and several additional stars occasionally sparkle within the halo.  A 15-15.5 magnitude star is at the north edge of core. In addition, five slightly brighter stars are arranged N-S along the west side of the halo; a single mag 14 star near the NW side, two mag 14.5-15 stars on the west side, and two mag 15/15.5 stars on the SW side.

 

18" (8/23/03): at 160x, appears fairly faint with an irregular triangular outline, 2.5' diameter.  There is only a weak concentration though the surface has a patchy, irregular appearance with a few faint stars superimposed.  At 435x, the brightest resolved star is at the northwest edge.  A few others are collinear in the halo along the western side.  The slightly brighter core is offset east of the geometric center and just resolved into several extremely faint stars at moments.  A total of up to 10 mag 15/16 stars are barely resolved.

 

17.5" (5/30/92): fairly faint, 3' diameter, slightly elongated, only a weak central condensation, slightly granular.  Two or three faint stars are resolved at the edge of the halo.  At 286x, a few additional very faint stars are resolved over the core for a total resolution of just six stars.  A striking double ·2202 = 6.2/6.6 at 21" lies 36' S.

 

8" (6/22/81): faint, small, round, diffuse.

 

WH discovered NGC 6426 = H II-587 = St VII-18 on 3 Jun 1786 (sweep 572) and recorded "F, cL, iF."  His position is reasonably accurate.  Stephan found the cluster 90 years later on 13 Jul 1876 and included it in his 7th list.  As a result, Dreyer catalogued it again as GCS 5870, but he combined both GC entries in the NGC.

 

The position given in Sky Catalogue 2000.0, Deep Sky Field Guide (first version) and NGC 2000.0 is 10' too far south!

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NGC 6427 = NGC 6431 = UGC 10957 = MCG +04-42-003 = CGCG 141-006 = PGC 60758

17 43 38.7 +25 29 38

V = 13.3;  Size 1.5'x0.6';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 36d

 

17.5" (8/1/89): fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 5:2 SW-NE, small bright core, faint extensions.  A mag 15 star is just off the SW end 26" from the center and a mag 14.5 star is 36" S of center.  Forms a pair with NGC 6429 10.4' SE.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 6427 = m 342 on 2 Jul 1864 and noted "vF, vS, stellar."  His position is 1' north of UGC 10957 = PGC 60758.  Truman Safford independently found this galaxy on 28 Aug 1866 and recorded "pB, pL, vmbM."  His position is 20' too far north, but matches in RA (he noted "position not certain" in a footnote).  ƒdouard Stephan rediscovered this galaxy again on 23 Jun 1870 and reported it in list I-7 (later NGC 6431), but he misidentified his reference star and his position is erroneous.  So, NGC 6427 = NGC 6431.  E.E. Barnard found NGC 6427 and 6429 on 29 Jan 1889 and made a field sketch, though was able to later correctly identify the galaxies, though he labeled NGC 6429 as NGC 6428.

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NGC 6428

17 43 52.9 +25 33 23

 

=*, Corwin. =NF, RNGC.  =**?, Gottlieb.

 

Guillaume Bigourdan discovered NGC 6428 = Big. 82 on 7 Jul 1885.   A 13" double star is near his Comptes Rendus position, though Harold Corwin notes that Bigourdan references the northern star as the intended "object". RNGC classifies the number as nonexistent.

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NGC 6429 = UGC 10960 = MCG +04-42-004 = CGCG 141-007 = PGC 60770

17 44 05.4 +25 21 01

V = 13.1;  Size 1.9'x0.8';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 23d

 

17.5" (8/1/89): fairly faint, small, elongated SSW-NNE, small bright core, stellar nucleus.  A very close faint double star mag 14.5/15.5 is off the south side 33" S of center.  Forms a pair with NGC 6427 10' NW.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 6429 = m 343 on 2 Jul 1864 and noted "F, S, stellar."  His position is 1' too far north.

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NGC 6430 = UGC 10966 = MCG +03-45-019 = CGCG 112-035 = LGG 414-005 = PGC 60805

17 45 14.3 +18 08 18

V = 13.5;  Size 1.9'x0.6';  Surf Br = 13.4;  PA = 97d

 

17.5" (8/7/02): at 220x appeared as a faint, moderately large edge-on oriented E-W, 1.2'x0.3' with a low even surface brightness.  A mag 13.7 star is at the following end 50" from the center and the galaxy extends nearly due west.

 

Albert Marth's position for NGC 6430  was off by 38 tsec in RA and although his description matches, modern catalogues and the U2000 (second edition) identify this galaxy as UGC 10966.  Karl Reinmuth identified NGC 6430 as a chain of 4 stars and the RNGC followed suit classifying NGC 6430 as nonexistent.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 6430 = m 344 on 2 Jun 1864 and noted "vF, S, mE."  There is nothing at his position, but 38 seconds of time east is UGC 10966, and Marth's description is appropriate for this galaxy.

 

Karl Reinmuth failed to find NGC 6430 in his photographic survey using Heidelberg plates and wrote "no mE neb seen; a chain of 4 st 14-15, 150¡, in 17h 38.9m (1860)".  Based on Reinmuth, RNGC misclassifies the number as nonexistent with the note "4 stars".

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NGC 6431 = NGC 6427 = UGC 10957 = MCG +04-42-003 = CGCG 141-006 = PGC 60758

17 43 38.7 +25 29 38

V = 13.3;  Size 1.5'x0.6';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 36d

 

See observing notes for NGC 6427.

 

ƒdouard Stephan found NGC 6431 = St I-7 on 23 Jun 1870.  This was his first "discovery" but Bigourdan (visually) and Reinmuth (on Heidelberg plates) found nothing at his position.  However, Harold Corwin found that Stephan misidentified his comparison star and once corrected his position matches NGC 6427 = UGC 10957, which Albert Marth had discovered earlier on 2 Jul 1864.  So, NGC 6431 = NGC 6427.  This is one of Stephan's few errors that were not caught by Emmanuel Esmiol during his re-reduction of Stephan's positions ("RŽduction des Observations de NŽbuleuses DŽcouvertes par M. Stephan", 1916).

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NGC 6432 = ESO 520-**25

17 47 23 -24 53 12

 

=4*12-13, Howe.

 

JH discovered NGC 6432 = h1984 on 1 Jul 1826 and noted "a cl of vs stars.  Twilight."  A group of 4 stars within 40" is just 1' north of his position.  Herbert Howe was the first to make this identification in 1899.  Using the 20-inch refractor in Denver, he reported "This 'cluster' contains only four stars, two of mag 12 and two of mag 13."

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NGC 6433 = UGC 10962 = MCG +06-39-015 = CGCG 199-013 = PGC 60766

17 43 56.3 +36 48 01

V = 13.3;  Size 2.0'x0.5';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 163d

 

17.5" (8/1/89): fairly faint, fairly small, very elongated NNW-SSE, small bright core.  Pair with CGCG 199-014 4.3' N.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 6433 = m 345 on 9 Jul 1864 and noted "vF, S, pmE, bM."  His position is accurate.

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NGC 6434 = UGC 10934 = MCG +12-17-002 = CGCG 339-053 = CGCG 340-013 = PGC 60573

17 36 49.0 +72 05 20

V = 12.4;  Size 2.3'x1.0';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 100d

 

17.5" (6/11/88): moderately bright, fairly small, very elongated WNW-ESE, bright core.  Located 2.0' N of mag 7.3 SAO 8860, which detracts from viewing.

 

WH discovered NGC 6434 = H III-741 = h1987 on 6 Jun 1788 (sweep 847) and recorded "eF, stellar.  A few minutes north of a considerable B star, verified by 300, which showed it lE in the parallel [E-W]."  JH made the single observation "vF; vS; R; bM; 6"; 90" n of a * 8m."

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NGC 6435 = UGC 10947 = MCG +10-25-080 = CGCG 300-058 = PGC 60667

17 40 11.1 +62 38 29

V = 13.7;  Size 1.0'x0.6';  Surf Br = 13.0;  PA = 5d

 

17.5" (7/21/90): faint, very small, slightly elongated, small bright core, stellar nucleus.  Forms a pair with CGCG 300-059 5.2' ESE.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 6435 = Sw IX-86 on 15 Jun 1887 and recorded "eeF; vS; R; vF double star near following."  His position is 2' too far northeast, but the double star, which is 2.8' northeast, clinches the identification.  Swift relayed the discovery directly to Dreyer, who assigned it to list VI in the NGC, but the discovery was not published until a couple of years later in list IX (along with others he didn't include in list VI).

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NGC 6436 = UGC 10951 = MCG +10-25-082 = CGCG 300-060 = PGC 60695

17 41 13.2 +60 26 59

V = 14.0;  Size 1.5'x0.9';  Surf Br = 13.9;  PA = 177d

 

17.5" (7/19/90): faint, elongated 2:1 N-S, even surface brightness.  An extremely faint 16th magnitude star is just west of the core.  Almost collinear with three mag 13 stars off the south edge which are aligned E-W.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 6436 = Sw V-74 on 25 Sep 1884 and recorded "eeF; pS; lE; v close n of the s * of 3 in a line."  His position is just 50" north of UGC 10951 and the three stars are close southwest as in my visual description.

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NGC 6437 = ESO 393-?28

17 48 45 -35 26 00

Size 20'x5'

 

18" (8/19/09): at 73x (31mm Nagler) appeared as a very large group or star cloud of over 100 stars, mostly mag 10-13, in a 30'x15' region elongated NW to SE.  The mass of stars is just west of mag 7.3 HD 161855 and is fairly well detached in the Milky Way field except on the NW side where a stream of stars extends to the north and the spreads out into another rich star cloud.  The brightest star within NGC 6437 is mag 7.6 HD 161561 on the NW side with a faint companion 25" N.  The background glow of the Milky Way surrounding the group is bright, patch and overall very striking in the entire 67' field.

 

JH discovered NGC 6437 = h3704 on 7 Jun 1837 and recorded "A very decided, tolerably defined semi-nebulous mass in milky way, with abundance of vS st, forming altogether a telescopic magellanic cloud.  It fills about a field, and has branches and sinuses and is altogether a remarkable object".  On the DSS, this is a rich Milky Way field (JH's position is at the southeast side), which is detached on the east end by dust.  ESO did not include it as a cluster and RNGC also classifies the number as nonexistent.

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NGC 6438 = ESO 010-001 = VV 682 = LGG 417-002 = AM 1806-852 NW =   KTS 56B = PGC 61787

18 22 17.7 -85 24 07

V = 11.1;  Size 1.6'x1.3';  Surf Br = 11.8;  PA = 156d

 

24" (4/11/08 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): at 260x, the appearance of this interacting pair was very strange!  NGC 6438 appeared moderately bright, small, round, 0.4' diameter.  NGC 6438A (a disrupted peculiar galaxy), is attached on the east side and appeared as a faint, diffuse glow, elongated SW-NE, ~0.8'x0.5'.  This system is the second closest NGC galaxy to the south celestial pole.  Located 4' NE of a mag 9.5 star (an uncatalogued double star) and 16' NE of mag 8 HD 160820.

 

NGC 6438A appears highly disrupted on the DSS, with two extensions or arms (this may be two different interacting galaxies).

 

JH discovered NGC 6438 = h3701 on 2 Jun 1835 and logged "pB; R; vgbM.  RA rudely taken, and may be very erroneous."  His RA is 3 minutes too large, though this only corresponds with 3.6' in the sky at this declination.

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NGC 6439 = PK 11+5.1 = PN G011.0+05.8

17 48 19.8 -16 28 44

V = 12.7;  Size 6"x5"

 

18" (7/25/06): easily picked up at 115x as a quasi-stellar light-blue mag 12.5 "star" just 1' S of a mag 10.4 star.  Very good response to the OIII filter.  A very small disc was visible at 225x, perhaps 3" in size.  Adding a UHC filter this compact planetary was similar in brightness to the mag 10.4 star and appeared to increase slightly in diameter.  At 435x a small oval, ~4"x3" was resolved of uniform surface brightness except it seemed to fade around the periphery, hinting at a thin faint envelope.  Located in the NW corner of Sgr near the border of Ophiuchus and Serpens Cauda.

 

13.1" (7/12/86): fairly bright stellar planetary at 79x, verified with OIII blinking.  At 166x a mag 10.5 star just 1.2' N is perfectly placed for blinking comparison!  Appears stellar at 214x.  Estimate V = 12.0-12.5.

 

Edward Pickering discovered NGC 6439 on 18 Aug 1882 with the 15-inch refractor at Harvard College Observatory using a direct-vision spectroscope. He reported the discovery in AN 2459 and Sidereal Messenger, Oct 1882 and noted "mag 13. A star, mag 11, north 1' and follows 1 second."  His position and description is accurate.  Megastar (and probably other sources) misidentify the mag 13 star that is 1' north as NGC 6439.

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NGC 6440 = ESO 589-SC008

17 48 52.6 -20 21 35

V = 9.1;  Size 5.4'

 

24" (8/14/15): at 375x; bright, relatively small globular, sharply concentrated with a very bright core and a much fainter, well-defined circular halo, roughly 2' across.  The core is mottled and very granular but unresolved.  NGC 6440 is collinear with an 11' string of four mag 11-12 stars extending from NW to SE, barely fitting in the field, with the closest star 1.7' NNW of center.  At 500x, a few extremely faint stars were resolved in the halo.  The bright core contains a handful of resolved stars (mag 16.5 or fainter) that pop in and out of view over the extremely granular background.

 

NGC 6440 is a highly obscured, metal-rich globular at a low galactic latitude, so resolution is quite difficult.

 

17.5" (7/14/99): this globular forms an unusual pair with planetary NGC 6445 just 21' NNE and is situated within a string of four mag 11-12 stars oriented NW-SE.  It appears fairly faint, round, at least 2' diameter.  At 280x the diffuse halo increases to a moderately bright, round core.  Although the globular appears granular, there was no resolution is good seeing except for a very faint star that was intermittently visible off the north edge of the core.

 

13" (6/29/84): moderately bright, small, broadly concentrated to a brighter core, no resolution.  Forms a striking pair with planetary NGC 6445 20' NNE.  Brightest member stars are only V =17.

 

WH discovered NGC 6440 = H I-150 = h1985 on 28 May 1786 (sweep 569) and recorded "cB, R, vgmbM, about 1 1/2' diameter."

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NGC 6441 = ESO 393-SC034

17 50 12.8 -37 03 04

V = 7.4;  Size 7.8'

 

17.5" (7/14/99): at 220x appears moderately bright, round, ~2.7' diameter, fairly sharp concentration with a prominent 1' core.  A mag 11 foreground star is at the southwest edge of the halo (1.3' SW of center), a mag 13.5 star is just inside the west edge of the halo (1.2' from center), and a mag 12.5-13 star is just off the northwest side.  No definite resolution was visible although the globular has a granular appearance.  Located just 4.5' following G Scorpii (V = 3.2).  H 1-36, a symbiotic star (mimics a stellar planetary), is located just 1.3' NW of the mag 3.2 star!

 

13" (6/18/85): very bright core, mottled halo but no certain resolution.  Located just 4.5' E of G Scorpii (V = 3.2), which hampers viewing.

 

8" (5/21/82): bright, intense core.

 

80mm finder (7/14/99): the globular is easily visible at 21x in the finder.

 

James Dunlop discovered NGC 6441 = D 557 = h3705 on 13 May 1826 with his 9-inch f/12 reflector at Paramatta.  He described "a small well-defined rather bright nebula, about 20 arcseconds diameter, a very small star precedes it, but it is not involved; following gamma Telescopii."  He observed this globular on 5 nights and his position is just 2' south of center (unusually accurate for him).

 

JH first recorded on 28 Jun 1834, "globular cluster, B, R, 90", vgbM, resolvable (barely so), a very regularly graduating neb or cluster; in field with gamma Telescopii."  The next night he logged "globular, B, R, vgbM, up to a blaze. In field with Gamma Telescopii, and nearly on the same parallel; with left eye I barely see it resolved into stars 18 or 20m. The whole ground of the heavens, for an immense extent, is thickly sown with such stars. A beautiful object."  Christian Peters claimed he discovered it around 1850, while at the Capodimonte Observatory in Naples (AJ 2, 1856).

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NGC 6442 = UGC 10978 = MCG +03-45-021 = CGCG 112-038 = PGC 60844

17 46 51.3 +20 45 40

V = 12.6;  Size 1.9'x1.6';  Surf Br = 13.8

 

17.5" (8/1/89): fairly faint, fairly small, slightly elongated NNW-SSE, small well-defined core, faint halo.  Pair with UGC 10979 7' NE within the NGC 6460 group.  UGC 10979 appeared faint, small, round, diffuse, even surface brightness.  A mag 10.5 star is at the SW edge.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 6442 = m 346 on 2 Jun 1864 and noted "pF, S, irr R, gbM."  His position is 1' too far north.

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NGC 6443 = UGC 10967 = MCG +08-32-018 = CGCG 253-033 = PGC 60783

17 44 33.9 +48 06 50

V = 13.8;  Size 1.2'x0.5';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 128d

 

17.5" (8/1/89): faint, fairly small, very elongated NW-SE, almost even surface brightness.  Located along one side of a thin isosceles triangle of three mag 14 stars (two lie 1.6' N and 1.5' S).  A mag 11 star is 3.3' E.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 6443 = Sw V-75 on 22 Oct 1886 and recorded "eeF; pS; lE; e diff."  His position is less than 1' north of UGC 10967.

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NGC 6444 = ESO 393-SC030 = Ru 132 = OCl-1023 = Dunlop 597?

17 49 35 -34 49 12

Size 12'

 

17.5" (7/8/94): about 50 stars in a 10' string oriented due E-W.  Stands out reasonably well in the field at 100x.  Very uniform in mag 12-13 stars over some unresolved haze.  A more ill defined branch of stars begins at the west end and trails NE.  An arc of stars begins at the east end and curls back west on the south side.  Located in the same low power field with globular NGC 6453 20' NE and 53' due west of the center of M7.

 

JH discovered NGC 6444 = h3706 = D 597? on 7 Jun 1837 and recorded "A very fine L, rich sc cl of st 12...13m."  His position is 40 seconds of RA too large, but marked the coordinates with a +/-, indicating uncertainty.

 

James Dunlop possibly discovered the cluster earlier on 28 Jun 1826 and logged a "pretty large faint nebula, easily resolvable.  This precedes a cluster of stars."  Dunlop made a single observation and his position is 26' too far east-southeast, but this cluster is due west of M7 by 52', so this identification is certainly reasonable.  RNGC misclassifies the number as nonexistent.

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NGC 6445 = Box Nebula = PK 8+3.1 = ESO 589-PN9 = PN G008.0+03.9

17 49 15.3 -20 00 34

V = 10.9;  Size 38"x29";  Surf Br = 9.9

 

24" (8/14/15): this highly structured planetary was observed using 500x.  NGC 6445 has an unusual rectangular shape, elongated 3:2 NW-SE, with dimensions ~45"x30".  The planetary is brighter in fairly narrow strips along the four sides, creating an annular appearance.  The short northwest facing side is slightly brighter and contains a bright knot or section near the middle.  In addition, a faint knot is at the north vertex.  Another bright knot is at the east vertex and either a faint knot or star is at the south vertex.  The short southeast facing side is sharply defined and quite straight. A very low surface brightness glow can be seen outside (east) of the eastern vertex.  In addition, with careful viewing an extremely faint outer shell or loop is outside the long southwest facing side, connected at the two vertices along this side.  A mag ~15.5 star is just outside the midpoint of the loop.  The outer shell or loop on the northeast side was not seen.

 

18" (7/22/06): this fascinating planetary was viewed at 435x.  The overall shape is rectangular with the longer sides oriented NW to SE.  Both ends are noticeably brighter giving an annular appearance.  The NW end is slightly brighter and irregular in surface brightness with a brighter spot or two.  The rim at the northwest end is slightly bowed out and has a well-defined boundary edge in the interior.  The rim at the southeast end of the planetary is unusually straight and well-defined.  With averted vision it appeared to extend slightly beyond the main body of the planetary.  The bright lobe at this end is bar-shaped and extended SW to NE in the direction of the minor axis.

 

17.5" (7/14/99): this bright PN is striking at 280x with a great deal of structure evident.  It has a boxy appearance, elongated NW-SE with dimensions ~45"x30".  The ends of the major axis are clearly brighter with a bright, shallow arc or crescent-shaped curve on the NW end.  This lobe has an irregular surface brightness with a couple of brighter spots.  The SE lobe is brighter but has an oddly flat edge.  At 380x, the eastern end of the southeast lobe is brighter and has a small extension or nodule that bulges out beyond the rectangular outline to the east.  The center is clearly darker and with careful viewing appears as a dark band running SW-NE.  A mag 12 star lies ~45" NW of center and the planetary precedes a wide uneven mag 8/10.5 pair by 5'.  The planetary forms an unusual pair with GC NGC 6440 20' SSW.

 

13" (8/5/83): bright, fairly small, elongated NW-SE, brighter along the NW side.  A darker center visible at 288x appears to cut through the minor axis. The NW edge is slightly curved while the other sides and corners are "boxy" giving an irregular rectangular outline.  The ends of the minor axis are fainter.  A wide double star h2810 = 7.7/10.5 at 41" lies 5.3' E.  A mag 12 star is just off the NW end about 40" from the center.  Forms a striking pair with globular cluster NGC 6440 20' SSW in the same low power field.

 

13.1" (7/16/82): dark center at 280x appears to bisect the planetary ~E-W.

 

8" (6/27/81): fairly bright, elongated, uniform.  Located within string of four mag 11/12 stars.

 

WH discovered NGC 6445 = H II-586 = h1986 on 28 May 1786 (sweep 569) and recorded "pB, S, iF." He placed it in his class II of "Faint Nebulae". JH called this planetary "pB; pL; R; r; 40"."  On 11 Mar 1848, LdR (or assistant William Rambaut) described NGC 6445 as "curious circular-shaped neb with large dark spot at one side [f side in a diagram], around which is a close cluster of well defined vS stars."  Edward Pickering apparently found NGC 6445 while searching with a direct-vision spectroscope at Harvard College Observatory (Sidereal Messenger, Oct 1882).  In 1887, Frank Muller reported with the 26-inch refractor at the Leander McCormick Observatory, "Two nuclei forming an elliptical nebula, elongated 150¡, largest diameter 26", northern nucleus brighter.  A sketch shows each nucleus to be elongated in the direction 90¡ +/-, the center being almost devoid of nebulosity.  The nuclei are entirely separated from each other except by very faint nebulosity, and are of the 12.5 magnitude."

 

The Sky Catalogue 2000, Volume 2 and the Deep Sky Name Index 2000 incorrectly refer to NGC 6445 as the "Little Gem".  The nickname applies to NGC 6818 (from John Mallas).

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NGC 6446 = MCG +06-39-018 = CGCG 199-018 = PGC 60825

17 46 07.5 +35 34 10

V = 14.6;  Size 0.3'x0.3'

 

17.5" (8/1/89): very faint, very small, round, weak concentration.  A pair of mag 14 and 15 stars is 0.9' NNE and 1.2' N of center, respectively.  Forms a close pair with NGC 6447 1.9' E.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 6446 = m 347, along with NGC 6447, on 9 Jul 1864 and noted "eF, vS, irr R."  His position is accurate.  Rudolph Spitaler rediscovered both galaxies on 26 May 1884 while observing Comet 1858 III (AN 2446).

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NGC 6447 = UGC 10975 = MCG +06-39-019 = CGCG 199-019 = PGC 60829

17 46 17.2 +35 34 20

V = 12.7;  Size 1.6'x0.9';  Surf Br = 13.0;  PA = 145d

 

17.5" (8/1/89): fairly faint, fairly small, elongated N-S, brighter middle with faint extensions.  Forms a close pair with NGC 6446 1.9' W.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 6447 = m 348, along with NGC 6446, on 9 Jul 1864 and noted "vF, S, R."  His position is accurate.   Rudolph Spitaler rediscovered both galaxies on 26 May 1884 while observing Comet 1858 III (AN 2601).

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NGC 6448

17 43 42.8 +53 32 44

 

18" (8/27/11): At 175x I identified a mag 11.6 star that possibly appeared to have one or more faint companions as there was a slightly hazy glow very near extended E-W.  At 393x, three close, very faint companions were resolved; two following and one preceding, with all 4 stars roughly collinear.  The two companions to the east are at 17" and 30" from the brighter star, while the companion to the west is at a separation of 19".  The brightest of the three faint stars is at the east end, though all three are near V = 15.5.  Located 15' S of 5.8-magnitude HD 161693.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 6448 = Sw II-60 on 16 July 1885 and logged "vF, pS, R, lbM".  There are no galaxies near his position, but about 30 seconds of RA preceding is a east-west string of 3 very faint stars and one brighter star that may be Swift's object.  According to Harold Corwin's identification notes, Jeff Corder suggested this possible identification. RNGC classifies the number as nonexistent.

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NGC 6449 = UGC 10965 = MCG +09-29-020 = CGCG 278-020 = PGC 60762

17 43 46.3 +56 48 14

V = 13.8;  Size 1.0'x0.8';  Surf Br = 13.5;  PA = 135d

 

17.5" (7/19/90): faint, fairly small, slightly elongated NW-SE.  Three faint stars very near; a mag 15.5 star is at the south edge, a mag 15 star is just west of the core and a mag 14 star is off the north edge.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 6449 = Sw I-69 on 19 Apr 1885 and recorded "vF; pS; R; bM."  His position is at the northeast edge of the galaxy.

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NGC 6450

17 47 30 +18 35

 

=Not found, Dreyer.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 6450 = Sw II-61 on 1 Jul 1884 and logged "vF; vS; B * f 8 seconds; bet 2 sts."  There are only faint stars near his position and the nearest faint galaxies in the CGCG have no nearby bright star, so clearly there is an error in his position.  Both Bigourdan and Herbert Howe were unsuccessful in finding NGC 6450.  Father Hagen notes in the Vatican Zone Catalogue that there no "B*" in this place.

 

No modern catalogue has an entry for NGC 6450 and Harold Corwin was also unable to recover this object despite the specific description.

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NGC 6451 = Cr 352 = Mel 181 = Lund 783

17 50 42 -30 12 30

Size 8'

 

13.1" (6/18/85): about three dozen stars in a 8' diameter.  The brighter stars around the edges form the outline.  Includes many very faint stars inside the bright border but unconcentrated towards the center.

 

8" (6/27/81): faint but rich group.

 

WH discovered NGC 6451 = H VI-13 = h3707 on 24 Jun 1784 (sweep 232) and recorded "a cluster of small and pretty compressed stars of several magnitudes; about 5 or 6' in diam, not very rich."  On 3 Aug 1834 (sweep 478), JH logged "a remarkable cluster; divided into two by a broad, vacant, straight band; irreg R; 8' diam; st 12...15m.  See fig 5, Pl V."  His sketch shows two elongated groups of stars separated by a starless lane.

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NGC 6452 = CGCG 112-043 = PGC 60876

17 47 58.5 +20 50 16

V = 14.4;  Size 0.5'x0.5';  Surf Br = 12.7

 

17.5" (7/1/89): very faint, very small, round, low surface brightness.  Situated almost between two mag 14/15 stars aligned E-W.  Located about 12' WNW of NGC 6458 in the NGC 6460 group.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 6452 = m 349, along with NGC 6458 and 6460, on 2 Jul 1864 and noted "eeF, S."  His position is less than 2' north of CGCG 112-043.  Karl Reinmuth correctly identified NGC 6452 in his 1926 photographic survey "Die Herschel-Nebel" and stated "eF, be 2 F st; identification doubtful."  The two faint stars are mentioned in my observation.

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NGC 6453 = ESO 393-SC036

17 50 52 -34 36 00

V = 9.9;  Size 3.5'

 

17.5" (7/4/86): at 220x appears very faint, small, very mottled.  A few stars are resolved at the edges (possibly foreground stars).  Located beyond the NW edge of M7 about 40' from the center.  Open cluster NGC 6444 lies 20' SW.

 

8": faint, small, diffuse.  Located NW of M7 in the field.

 

JH discovered NGC 6453 = h3708 on 8 Jun 1837 and recorded "a highly condensed nebulous mass, 3' diam, or an irreg R neb; pmbM; resolvable."  His position is 27 seconds of time too large, but his RA is rounded to the nearest minute (marked as +/-) and the description fits.

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NGC 6454 = MCG +09-29-026 = CGCG 278-024 = PGC 60795

17 44 56.6 +55 42 17

V = 13.5;  Size 1.0'x0.8';  Surf Br = 13.1

 

17.5" (7/19/90): faint, very small, round, small bright core.  A mag 14 star is superimposed or contains a fairly bright stellar nucleus.  Located 5.9' SE of mag 8.7 SAO 30546.  This is the brighter of a pair with NGC 6459 8' NE.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 6454 = Sw I-70 on 19 Apr 1885 and noted "vF; pS; R; lbM."   His position is 18 seconds of RA too small.  Bigourdan remeasured an accurate RA on 4 Oct 1890 (repeated in the IC 2 Notes).

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NGC 6455 = ESO 394-?3

17 51 08 -35 20 18

 

24" (7/7/13): at 125x (50' field), this position corresponds with a very large, bright Milky Way field just southwest of M7.  The field includes a nice mix of mag 7 and fainter stars centered near a bright, very wide pair (mag 7 HD 162145 and mag 8.5 HD 320780).  The Milky Way background here is glowing, but the field itself is not special considering the region, and it certainly does not appear cluster-like.

 

JH discovered NGC 6455 = h3709 on 7 Jun 1837 and recorded "a very extensive nebulous clustering mass of the milky way.  The stars of excessive smallness, and infinite in number."  His position is marked uncertain, possibly due to the large size of the field but falls close to mag 7.3 HD 162287.  Harold Corwin notes this is probably just a random clumping of Milky Way stars near SAO 209348.

 

RNGC classifies the number as nonexistent and ESO has only a placeholder for the NGC designation.

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NGC 6456 = CGCG 321-034 = CGCG 322-004 = WBL 645-002 = PGC 60729

17 42 31.7 +67 35 33

V = 14.6;  Size 0.6'x0.5';  Surf Br = 13.5;  PA = 45d

 

24" (8/23/14): at 375x appeared fairly faint, fairly small, irregularly round, 20"-24" diameter, slightly brighter middle.  A mag 16.6 star is 0.4' N of center.

 

17.5" (6/11/88): very faint, very small, round, weak concentration.  First of 7 and in a trio with NGC 6463 6.0' E and PGC 2701716 6' SE.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 6456 = Sw V-76, along with NGC 6471, 6472 and 6477, on 25 Sep 1886 and recorded "eeeF; eS; R; ee diff; between 2 stars; 1st of 6."  His position is 11 sec of RA west and 1' north of  PGC 60729, the brightest of several faint galaxies near his position.  MCG misidentifies CGCG 321-032 = PGC 60721 as NGC 6456.

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NGC 6457 = UGC 10964 = MCG +11-21-021 = CGCG 321-035 = CGCG 322-005 = PGC 60738

17 42 53.0 +66 28 33

V = 14.2;  Size 1.2'x0.9';  Surf Br = 14.2;  PA = 140d

 

17.5" (6/11/88): fairly faint, very small, slightly elongated, gradually increases to a small bright core.

 

Edward Swift, Lewis' 14 year-old son, discovered NGC 6457 = Sw I-71 on 8 Jun 1885 and recorded "F; vS; R; bM."  The position matches UGC 10964.  Lewis noted his son discovered this object in the errata to list VI (1887).

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NGC 6458 = UGC 10994 = MCG +03-45-029 = CGCG 112-051 = PGC 60911

17 49 10.9 +20 48 15

V = 13.4;  Size 1.3'x0.9';  Surf Br = 13.4;  PA = 155d

 

17.5" (7/1/89): faint, very small, almost round, weak concentration.  Located in a N-S string of three mag 14 stars.  Pair with NGC 6460 5.2' ESE in a group.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 6458 = m 350, along with NGC 6460, on 2 Jul 1864 and noted "eF, vS, stellar."  His position is within 1' of UGC 10994.  MCG misidentifies NGC 6460 (5' southeast) as NGC 6458.

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NGC 6459 = MCG +09-29-029 = CGCG 278-025 = PGC 60817

17 45 47.1 +55 46 36

V = 14.3;  Size 0.7'x0.3';  Surf Br = 12.5;  PA = 78d

 

17.5" (7/19/90): faint, very small, round.  Located 1.6' NNE of a mag 9.5 star.  Forms a pair with NGC 6454 8' SW.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 6459 = Sw I-72 on 19 Apr 1885 and recorded "eF; vvS; R; vv diff.; stellar.  May be a few eF stars."  His position is accurate, despite his uncertainty. MCG mislabels this galaxy as NGC 6460.

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NGC 6460 = UGC 10997 = MCG +03-45-031 = CGCG 112-055 = PGC 60925

17 49 30.3 +20 45 49

V = 13.1;  Size 1.9'x1.1';  Surf Br = 13.8;  PA = 157d

 

17.5" (7/1/89): fairly faint, moderately large, elongated 5:2 NNW-SSE, weak concentration.  Located between mag 7.6 SAO 85445 7.6' S and mag 7.7 SAO 85452 10' NNE.  Brightest in a group with NGC 6458 5' WNW.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 6460 = m 351, along with NGC 6458, on 2 Jun 1864 and noted "vF, pL, iR."  His position matches UGC 10997 = PGC 60925.  CGCG misidentifies this galaxy as NGC 6459 and MCG misidentifies it as NGC 6458.

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NGC 6461 = UGC 10954 = MCG +12-17-004 = CGCG 339-055 = CGCG 340-017 = PGC 60659

17 39 56.7 +74 02 03

Size 1.0'x0.5';  PA = 20d

 

18" (8/12/07): faint, small, slightly elongated SSW-NNE, ~20"x16".  Located 1.4' NW of a mag 10.5 star.  NGC 6461 is incorrectly identified as CGCG 340-015 in the CGCG and PGC.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 6461 = Sw V-77 on 18 Sep 1884 and recorded "eF; pS; R; nr terminal * of 5 forming semi-circle."  There is nothing near his position.  The nearest galaxy is CGCG 339-054 = PGC 60631, which is 1.6 minutes of RA west and 7' north of his position (10' separation).  But this galaxy doesn't fit the description of the star field.  Bigourdan's position for NGC 6461 measured on 13 Aug 1888 applies to a double star. The CGCG, RNGC and PGC (and secondary sources such as Megastar) misidentify PGC 60631 as NGC 6461.

 

Harold Corwin identifies UGC 10954 as NGC 6461.  This galaxy is situated the northeast end of a loop of 5 stars forming a semi-circle, matching his description.  This galaxy is located 38' north of Swift's position (and 12 seconds of RA west).

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NGC 6462 = MCG +10-25-085 = CGCG 300-063 = VII Zw 740 = PGC 60790

17 44 48.8 +61 54 38

V = 13.9;  Size 0.4'x0.4';  Surf Br = 11.8

 

17.5" (6/11/88): faint, extremely small, round, weak concentration.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 6462 = Sw I-73 on 5 Jun 1885 and noted "F; vvS; R; planetary."  His position is 15 seconds of RA too large.

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NGC 6463 = MCG +11-21-022 = CGCG 321-037 = CGCG 322-007 = WBL 645-003 = PGC 60755

17 43 34.2 +67 36 13

V = 14.1;  Size 0.6'x0.6';  Surf Br = 13.0

 

24" (8/23/14): fairly faint, round, 24" diameter, very weak concentration.  Near the center of a group of faint galaxies with NGC 6472, 6470, 6471, 6477 and PGC 2701716 all within 5'!

 

17.5" (6/11/88): very faint, very small, round, diffuse.  Third of seven in NGC 6456 group with NGC 6472 3.2' ENE, NGC 6470 4.0' E and NGC 6471 3.7' ESE.  Located 6.0' E of NGC 6456.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 6463 = Sw IV-55, along with NGC 6470, on 9 June 1886, and logged "eeF; S; R; v diff; p of 2 [with NGC 6470]."  His position is less than 1' south of CGCG 321-037 = PGC 60755.  Swift also found 4 additional nearby galaxies on 25 Sep 1886 - NGC 6456, 6470, 6471 and 6477.  Due to the compact size of the group, there is confusion on several of these identifications.

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NGC 6464 = MCG +10-25-087 = CGCG 300-065 = PGC 60818

17 45 47.6 +60 53 51

V = 14.3;  Size 0.6'x0.6';  Surf Br = 13.0

 

17.5" (7/27/92): very faint, very small, round, low even surface brightness.  Preceded by an elongated group of 10 stars mag 14-15.  A distinctive trapezoid of four mag 11 stars with bases oriented N-S lies between 2' and 6' N.  The galaxy is collinear with the shorter east base and is located 3' further south.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 6464 = Sw I-74 on 18 Sep 1884 and recorded "eeeF; R; pS; ee diff.; south of 4 stars in form of a square."  His position is 1.2' too far north and his description of the four stars to the north matches the sky.

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NGC 6465 = ESO 521-**2

17 52 55 -25 23 54

 

=2 double stars, Howe.

 

JH discovered NGC 6465 = h1988 on 1 Jul 1826 and noted "suspected; small; twilight."  At his position is a small group of 5 stars, including two double stars (an additional star is to the southeast).  Herbert Howe, observing in 1888-1889 with a 20-inch refractor, reported "search was made for this on two nights.  On the first no nebula could be found.  On the second, it was discovered that, instead of a nebula, there are simply two doubles of mag 12.  In each pair the distance is 4", and the two pairs are 15" apart."  Harold Corwin concurs with this identification.

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NGC 6466 = CGCG 278-030 = MCG +09-29-032 = PGC 60883

17 48 08.1 +51 23 57

V = 14.1;  Size 0.7'x0.4';  Surf Br = 12.6;  PA = 111d

 

24" (7/15/15): fairly faint, small, slightly elongated, 0.4'x0.3', brighter stellar nucleus.  Nearby are CGCG 278-028 5' NW, UGC 10984 15' SW and NGC 6478 15' SSE.  CGCG 278-028 (V = 15.3) appeared faint, small, round, 15" diameter.  UGC 10984 is fairly faint, moderately large, oval 4:3 NNW-SSE, ~40"x30", broad concentration with a brighter core.  A mag 11.6 star is 2.8' SSW.

 

17.5" (6/22/90): faint, very small, slightly elongated, very small bright core.  NGC 6478 lies 16' SSE.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 6466 = Sw I-75 on 18 Sep 1884 and recorded "eF; vS; R; bet 2 stars which with 2 others forms a cross like cross in Cygnus.  Neb placed as in Gamma Cygni."  His position is 27 seconds of RA west of CGCG 278-030 = PGC 60883, though his description is a perfect match with this galaxy.  Hermann Kobold measured an accurate position on 27 Oct 1897 with the 18-inch refractor at Strassburg.

 

Dorothy Carlson (in her 1940 NGC Correction paper) equated NGC 6466 with NGC 6478 (based on Mt Wilson photographs).  RC 1, RC 2 and Sky Catalogue 2000 (first edition) all repeat this misidentification.  RNGC and CGCG correctly identify NGC 6478.  Both Harold Corwin and Malcolm Thomson (in his unpublished "Catalogue Corrections") report this error.

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NGC 6467 = NGC 6468: = UGC 11004 = MCG +03-45-035 = CGCG 112-058 = Holm 772a = LGG 414-001 = PGC 60972

17 50 40.1 +17 32 16

V = 12.5;  Size 2.6'x1.7';  Surf Br = 13.9;  PA = 77d

 

17.5" (7/1/89): faint, fairly small, round, low even surface brightness.  Located in a rich star field among a group of stars.  Unusual appearance as appears similar to an unresolved clump in an open cluster.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 6467 = m 352, along with NGC 6468, on 2 Jun 1864 and noted "vF, vS, lE."  His position matches UGC 11004 = PGC 60972, though the position for NGC 6468 is just 1 second east and also fits this galaxy.  See notes for NGC 6468.

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NGC 6468 = NGC 6467: = UGC 11004 = MCG +03-45-035 = CGCG 112-058 = Holm 772a = LGG 414-001 = PGC 60972

17 50 40.1 +17 32 16

V = 12.5;  Size 2.6'x1.7';  Surf Br = 13.9;  PA = 77d

 

See observing notes for NGC 6467.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 6468 = m 353, along with NGC 6467, on 2 Jun 1864 and noted "vF, S, R."  His position is just 1 second of time east of NGC 6467, but there is only a single galaxy here.

 

Karl Reinmuth identifies NGC 6468 with three mag 13-14.5 stars east of NGC 6467 (separations of 17", 19" and 24"), but these are wide enough to easily resolve and follow by 10 seconds.  Alternatively, a single mag 14.5 star is 49" southeast of NGC 6468.

 

As the descriptions for NGC 6467 and 6468 are similar, perhaps Marth accidentally recorded this galaxy twice.  RNGC equates the two NGC designations and Corwin tentatively agrees as there is no other compelling nearby candidate.

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NGC 6469 = Cr 353 = Mel 182 = Lund 788

17 53 12 -22 16 30

Size 12'

 

17.5" (8/27/92): 75 stars in a 15'x10' scattered region.  Bordered by two brighter rows of stars oriented SSW-NNE and WNW-ESE that intersect at a mag 10 star in the west corner of the cluster.  A close faint double star is just east.  At the end of the ESE string is a wide double star (h4990 = 9.5/11 at 23").  Between the two strings the cluster extends north forming a triangular outline and consists mainly of mag 13 stars except for three mag 10-11 stars at the east boundary.  The planetary nebula M1-31 is located near the west edge of NGC 6469!

 

At 105x with an OIII filter, M 1-31 appeared as a faint but easy stellar object, estimate V = 14.5-14.8.  It was just visible unfiltered and the filter provided an excellent contrast gain.

 

JH discovered NGC 6469 = h3711 on 27 Jun 1837 and recorded "a pretty rich insulated milky way cluster; place of a coarse double star in it.  The milky way hereabouts is very poor."

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NGC 6470 = UGC 10974 = MCG +11-21-025 = CGCG 321-039 = CGCG 322-009 = Kaz 159 = WBL 645-005 = PGC 60778

17 44 14.8 +67 37 10

V = 14.2;  Size 1.1'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.8;  PA = 159d

 

24" (8/23/14): at 375x appeared faint, fairly small, slightly elongated N-S, 24"x18", small bright core.  A mag 14 star is 0.7' NE.  Brightest in a rich knot of galaxies with NGC 6471 = UGC 10973 1.6' SSW and NGC 6472 = PGC 2703230 1.3' NW and NGC 6477 = PGC 2702901 1.5' SE.

 

17.5" (6/11/88): very faint, very small, slightly elongated, small bright core.  A mag 14 star is off the NE edge 0.7' from center.  Member of the NGC 6456 group with NGC 6472 1.3' NW, NGC 6471 1.6' S, NGC 6477 1.5' SE and NGC 6463 4.0' W.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 6470 = Sw IV-56, along with NGC 6456, on 9 Jun 1886 and logged "eeeF; vS; R; ee dif; f of 2 [with NGC 6456].  His position is 4 tsec W and 0.4' south (41" southwest) of UGC 10974.  Although several other galaxies are very nearby, including UGC 10973 just 1' south of his position, UGC 10974 is the brightest one and the mostly likely to have picked up by Swift.  On 25 Sep he went through the cluster again and picked up several fainter galaxies, whose identities are not well determined.

 

RNGC, UGC, CGCG and MCG misidentify UGC 10973 as NGC 6470.  See Harold Corwin's identification notes for NGC 6456.

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NGC 6471 = (R)NGC 6470 = UGC 10973a = MCG +11-21-023 = CGCG 321-038w = CGCG 322-008w = WBL 645-004 = PGC 60773

17 44 13.0 +67 35 35

V = 14.6;  Size 1.3'x0.2';  Surf Br = 13.0;  PA = 173d

 

24" (8/23/14): extremely faint or very faint, small, very elongated 3:1 N-S, 20"x6".  Located 1.6' S of brighter NGC 6470 and 3.7' ESE of NGC 6463.

 

17.5" (6/11/88): extremely faint and small, round.  Forms a double system with UGC 10973b 30" ESE (possibly seen as a faint mag 15 "star") in the NGC 6456 group. In a tight quartet with NGC 6470 1.6' N and NGC 6472 2.4' NNW.  Also nearby is NGC 6463 3.7' W.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 6471 = Sw V-78, along with NGC 6456, 6472 and 6477, on 25 Sep 1886.  His description simply mentions how faint and difficult the observation was and that NGC 6471 was the "4th of 6".  His position is very close southeast of UGC 10973, a thin edge-on.

 

UGC 10973 is misidentified as NGC 6470 in RNGC, UGC, CGCG, MCG.  PGC labels it NGC 6470 = NGC 6471, but NGC 6470 is a separate brighter galaxy 1.6' north.  The RNGC and CGCG misidentify MCG +11-21-024, a compact galaxy just off the east edge of NGC 6471, as NGC 6471.  See Corwin's identification notes for NGC 6456.

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NGC 6472 = (R)NGC 6477 = PGC 2703230

17 44 03.0 +67 37 49

V = 15.0;  Size 0.6'x0.35';  PA = 10d

 

24" (8/23/14): very faint, very small, round, 12" diameter.  A mag 17.0 star (based on SDSS photometry) was occasionally glimpsed 30" E.  Located 1.3' NW of NGC 6470.

 

17.5" (6/11/88): extremely faint and small, round.  In a crowded region of NGC 6456 group with NGC 6470 1.3' ESE, NGC 6471 2.4' SSE and NGC 6463 3.2' SW.  Misidentified as NGC 6477 in the RNGC.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 6472 = Sw V-79, along with NGC 6456, 6471 and 6477, on 25 Sept 1886.  His description simply comments on how faint and small this galaxy appeared.  He notes this is the "5th of 6" in the group, and the declination is the furthest north.  His position is 7 sec of RA east and 1' north of PGC 2703230 (the furthest north), though this galaxy precedes both the candidates for NGC 6470 and 6471. Still, the most reasonable assignment is NGC 6472 = PGC 2703230.

 

NGC 6472 is mislabeled as NGC 6477 in the RNGC.  Furthermore, NGC 6470 = UGC 10974 (discovered by Swift earlier on 9 Jun 1886) is misidentified as NGC 6472 in RNGC, UGC, CGCG and MCG.  See Corwin's notes to NGC 6456 for more.

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NGC 6473

17 46 54 +57 18.5

 

=NF, Gottlieb.  Possibly = UGC 10980, HC.

 

Lewis Swift found NGC 6473 = Sw IV-57, along with NGC 6474 = Sw IV-58, on 22 Jul 1886 and recorded "eeF; S; R; s of 2."  UGC 10989 is the only galaxy close to his two nearly identical positions.  A mag 16.5 star is close north of this galaxy and a mag 17.5 star a bit further south, but these are probably too faint for Swift to have picked up.  His very detailed description for NGC 6474 clearly establishes its identity with UGC 10989.

 

Unless he somehow recorded NGC 6474 twice that evening, Harold Corwin mentions UGC 10980 as a possibility (suggested by Jeff Corder).  This galaxy is bright enough to be picked up by Swift, though is located nearly 10' west-southwest.  I'm skeptical, though, because of the discrepancy in position and because there is no reference to a mag 13.5 star at its west edge.  So, I've listed NGC 6473 as "Not Found" here.

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NGC 6474 = UGC 10989 = MCG +10-25-092 = CGCG 300-068 = PGC 60850

17 47 05.5 +57 18 04

V = 14.2;  Size 0.9'x0.5';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 75d

 

17.5" (7/19/90): very faint, small, slightly elongated 3:2 WSW-ENE, small bright core.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 6474 = Sw IV-58 on 22 Jun 1886 and recorded "eF; pS; R; 3 st. in a line nr and 3 others in a line point to it; e diff; n of 2."  His position is 12 seconds of RA west of UGC 10989 = PGC 60850 and his description applies.  The "3 st. in a line nr" are probably the three equally spaced stars to the southwest in a 3.7' string.  The "3 others in a line point to it" refer to three stars to the northeast.  See NGC 6473, recorded the same night as the "s of 2", has a nearly identical position.  But, there is only a single galaxy here, so Swift made some error.  See that number for more.

 

UGC identifies UGC 10989 as NGC 6473, MCG labels it NGC 6474, and CGCG labels it NGC 6473 = NGC 6474.  Since the description of NGC 6474 is more complete and unambiguous, it makes sense to use it as the primary designation.

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NGC 6475 = M7 = ESO 394-SC9 = Cr 354 = Ptolemy's Cluster

17 53 51 -34 47 36

V = 3.3;  Size 80'

 

18" (7/21/04): at 92x at least 300 stars are visible in the cluster, though very difficult to count due to the very large size (overfills the 42' field).  The more concentrated part of the cluster spans perhaps 30' and includes a dozen stars of mag 7.5 or brighter in the main body.  This cluster is much larger and brighter (very prominent naked-eye), but it is much more scattered than M6 and so is less impressive.  There are several bright, distinctive strings in the cluster including a N-S string of ~8 stars on the east side of the central region.  An equilateral triangle of mag 6, 7 and 8 stars with sides of 3' is on the NW side of the core of the cluster.  A clump of 5 stars is near the center including two mag 6 and 7 stars.  On the south side of the center of the cluster is an 11' string of 5 mag 5.6 to 7.8 stars oriented SW-NE with the bright mag 5.6 star (HD 16258) on the SW end a distinctive yellow color.

 

13.1": very bright, very large, impressive but scattered, overfills 52' field.  Open cluster H18 lies 45' SE and globular cluster NGC 6453 40' WNW of center.  Prominent naked-eye cluster in dark sky.  Includes several blue-white and yellowish stars.

 

8": overfills 40' field, not many faint stars, scattered.

 

Ptolemy included M7 = NGC 6475 = Lac II-14 = h3710 in the Almagest as "nebulous" (found ~138 BC).  But David Frew mentions that G Scorpii is the object described as nebulous, though Ptolemy may have accidentally precessed the position of G Scorpii in Hipparchus' catalogue.  Giovanni Hodierna made the first telescopic observation before 1654 and resolved M7 into at least 30 stars.  Edmund Halley independently discovered the cluster in 1678 from St. Helena and Nicolas-Louis de Lacaille "discovered" it again on 15 Jun 1752 from the Cape of Good Hope, as he unaware of Hodierna's earlier observations.  At a declination of -34.7¡, M7 culminates only 7¡ above the horizon from Paris, so Messier's confirmation on 23 May 1764 is impressive.  Halley is credited with the discovery in the NGC.

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NGC 6476 = ESO 456-?8

17 54 02 -29 08 39

 

18" (8/19/09): at 73x appeared as a very large, bright Milky Way patch that was very elongated N-S, ~20'x6'.  A number of faint stars are superimposed, but the unresolved glow really caught my eye first.  Near the NE side is mag 9.4 HD 185916 with a faint companion 28" N.  The 1.2 degree field is stunning with a very large, elongated dark lane (B259) roughly 25' to the east.  A very prominent stream of Milky Way extends through the field in a N-S direction on the east side of B259.

 

JH discovered NGC 6476 = h3712 on 15 Jul 1836 and simply noted "Nebula.  No description.  It is probably only nebulous portion of the Milky Way."  His RA and Dec are both given as approximate but correspond with a 10th magnitude star at the west edge of a very rich Milky Way field.  RNGC classify the number as nonexistent (Type 7) in the RNGC and ESO only includes a placeholder for the NGC number.

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NGC 6477 = 2MASX J17443006+6736380 = PGC 2702901

17 44 30.1 +67 36 38

Size 0.5'x0.2'

 

24" (8/23/14): at 375x, extremely faint and small, round, 6" diameter.  At moments it appeared essentially stellar (perhaps only the nucleus seen).  Located 1.6' SE of NGC 6470 and 1.9' NE of NGC 6471.

 

17.5" (8/25/95): extremely difficult, perhaps 10" diameter, round.  Only detected for moments using averted vision and knowing the exact location.  Located 1.6' SE of NGC 6470 = UGC 10974 (misidentified as NGC 6472 in modern catalogues).  A mag 14.5 star is just 30" due north.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 6477 = Sw V-80, along with NGC 6456, 6471 and 6472, on 25 Sept 1886.  His description simply comments on how faint and small this galaxy appeared and notes it is the "6th of 6".  There is nothing close to his position, except for a mag 16.5 star, perhaps too faint to have been picked up.

 

Corwin proposes that NGC 6477 may be PGC 2702901.  This galaxy is 15 tsec of RA west and 1.5' south of Swift's position.  But is it too faint?  I found this galaxy was very marginal object in my 17.5" and even challenging in my 24".  So, I'm not convinced at all of this identification and would more likely consider it lost.  In any case, the RNGC misidentifies NGC 6472 as NGC 6477.  This error was included in my RNGC Corrections #3.

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NGC 6478 = UGC 10998 = MCG +09-29-032 = CGCG 278-033 = PGC 60896

17 48 38.4 +51 09 25

V = 13.3;  Size 1.9'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.5;  PA = 37d

 

24" (7/15/15): moderately bright and large, very elongated 4:1 SW-NE, 1.2'x0.3', brighter core.  Appears mottled (perhaps dust) along the major axis.  NGC 6466 lies 15' NNW.

 

17.5" (6/22/90): fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 3:1 SW-NE.  Appears brighter along the major axis with a bright core.  NGC 6466 is 16' NNW.  Located 23' N of 30 Draconis (V = 5.0).

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 6478 = Sw III-95 on 30 May 1886 and recorded "pB; S; eE; spindle."  His position is 10 seconds west and 1.5' south of UGC 10998 (off by 2.2') and his description applies so the identification is certain.  See notes on NGC 6466, which is not identical to this galaxy.

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NGC 6479 = UGC 10996 = CGCG 278-032 = PGC 60890

17 48 21.7 +54 08 56

V = 13.7;  Size 1.0'x0.9';  Surf Br = 13.4

 

17.5" (5/10/91): faint, fairly small, round, fairly low almost even surface brightness with a very weak concentration.  Observation hampered by mag 6.6 SAO 30593 6.5' NE.  Collinear with three stars to NNW including two mag 12 stars at 2.9' and 4.3' and a mag 10 star at 7.7'.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 6479 = Sw I-76 on 20 Apr 1885 and recorded "pS; eF; R; 3 stars north point to it, the north one the brighter."  His position is less than 1' northeast of UGC 10996 and his description applies.  I'm surprised, though, he made no mention of the mag 6.6 star 6.5' northeast.

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NGC 6480 = ESO 456-?13

17 54 26 -30 27 07

 

18" (7/2/11): NGC 6480 is a bright, rich, glowing section of the Milky Way that is sharply cut off by LDN 1795 to the east.  The dust cloud creates a distinctive "V" shaped wedge to the Milky Way glow pointing east with the vertex in the middle of the dark cloud.  There is no termination to the Milky Way star cloud on the west side and no indication of a true cluster.  On the south side of the "V", LDN 1795 cuts off the Milky Way to the south (not as dramatic) creating a "zig-zag" border to the Milky Way.  The view may be more impressive in the 80mm finder at 25x as the much larger field displays the full dark cloud (roughly 30') as well as dark "finders" and "pools" of dust that intrude into the Milky Way on the north side.

 

JH discovered NGC 6480 = h3713' on 27 Jun 1837 and recorded "An extraordinary B nebulous portion of the Milky Way, on a black ground vL; an angle taken where there is a *12m".  His position corresponds with a mag 12 star at the east edge of a rich Milky Way field outlined on the east side by dark cloud LDN 1795.  His sketch (plate V, figure 2) captures the appearance of this object very well.

 

NGC 6480 follows h3713 in the CGH catalogue, but was not given a separate designation, though JH used the designation h3713' in the GC and h3713 1/2 in his list of figured nebulae.  Dreyer dropped the prime in the NGC, leaving two objects (NGC 6480 and 6483) equivalent to h3713.

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NGC 6481

17 52 48.9 +04 10 04

 

=****, HC.  =**, DC

 

Christian Peters discovered NGC 6481 around 1881 with the 13.5-inch refractor at Hamilton College Observatory.  Close to his micrometric position is a line of four stars oriented east-west.  Dorothy Carlson classifies this object as a double star and Harold Corwin calls it four stars.

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NGC 6482 = UGC 11009 = MCG +04-42-008 = CGCG 141-017 = PGC 61009

17 51 48.9 +23 04 19

V = 11.4;  Size 2.0'x1.7';  Surf Br = 12.8;  PA = 70d

 

17.5" (7/1/89): fairly bright, small, very bright stellar nucleus, small halo WSW-ENE.  Forms the southern vertex of an isosceles triangle with two mag 10 stars 2.4' NW and 2.5' NE.

 

13.1" (7/5/83): fairly bright, very small, compact, substellar or stellar nucleus, surrounded by a faint halo with averted.  Unusually bright nucleus for a small galaxy.  Located in a rich star field.

 

NGC 6482 is the nearest "Fossil Group" -- the end-product of extensive merging of a once normal group, leaving a massive central galaxy that dominates the luminosity of a X-ray luminous group (delta Rmag ³ 2.0 with next brightest group member).

 

JH discovered NGC 6482 = h1989 on 12 Jul 1830 and recorded "a S, R, very perceptible disc 1" or 1.5" dia, with a vF nebula surrounding it – among many stars 12 and 14m, none of which are so affect.  A curious object."  His position is accurate and his description reflects the sharp stellar or quasi-stellar nucleus.

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NGC 6483 = ESO 102-020 = AM 1754-634 = LGG 415-002 = PGC 61233

17 59 30.7 -63 40 07

V = 11.9;  Size 1.5'x0.9';  Surf Br = 12.3;  PA = 122d

 

25" (4/5/16 - Coonabarabran, 318x): fairly bright, moderately large, elongated 2:1 NW-SE, 1.0'x0.5'.  Contains a bright, roundish core that increases to the center.  Situated in a striking star field with a number of bright stars and on a line between a mag 10.0 star 2.3' SW and a mag 9.7 star 1.5' NE.  A mag 9.7 star is 6' S and a similar star is 7' N.  A mag 8-9 variable star (OW Pavonis) lies 10' WNW.

 

NGC 6483 forms a close (physical) pair with ESO 102-02A 2.0' SE.  The companion is fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 3:2 SW-NE, 30"x20" (core), broad concentration with no well-defined nucleus.  A mag 10 star is 2.7' W (same one as above).  PGC 61288, found 14' SE, appeared fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 3:2 NNW-SSE, 24"x16", broad weak concentration, no distinct zones.

 

JH discovered NGC 6483 = h3713 on 8 Jun 1836 and recorded "F; S; E; bM; between 2 stars 10m 45¡ sp and nf (diagram)."  His position and description matches ESO 102-020.  He missed fainter ESO 102-020A, just 2' SE.

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NGC 6484 = UGC 11010 = MCG +04-42-007 = CGCG 141-019 = Mrk 1118 = KTG 67A = LGG 413-001 = PGC 61008

17 51 47.0 +24 29 00

V = 12.3;  Size 1.9'x1.9';  Surf Br = 13.5

 

24" (7/9/13): at 375x appeared bright, fairly large, slightly elongated E-W.  Sharply concentrated with a relatively large, intense oval core ~30"x20", that gradually increases to the center.  The core is embedded in a fairly large, low surface brightness halo that increases in size with averted to 1.5'x1.2'.  MCG +04-42-010 and -011, a 30" pair of faint galaxies, are situated 5.8' NE.  MCG +04-42-010 appeared faint, small, elongated 2:1 NNW-SSE, 24"x12", low even surface brightness. MCG +04-42-011, just 30" SE, was extremely to very faint, elongated 2:1 WSW-ENE, just 10"x5".

 

24" (6/8/13): at 282x appeared  moderately bright to fairly bright, sharply concentrated with a fairly oval core of high surface brightness, ~24"x18", oriented SW-NE.  The core is centered within a very low surface brightness halo, ~1.4'x1.0' E-W.  Pou 3316, a mag 11.3/12.5 pair at 14", lies 4.2' SW.  MCG +04-42-010 and -011, a close pair of faint edge-ons, lies 5.8' ENE; MCG +04-42-010 appeared very faint, small, elongated 5:2 NNW-SSE, 18"x8" and the companion -011 is very faint, very small, elongated 2:1 WSW-ENE, 12"x6".  NGC 6484 is the brightest member of KTG 67 with UGC 11027 at 21' NE and UGC 11029 at 28' E.

 

17.5" (7/1/89): fairly faint, fairly small, slightly elongated WSW-ENE, small bright core, fairly faint stellar nucleus.

 

Truman Safford discovered NGC 6484 = Sf 41 = St VII-19 on 11 Jul 1866 with the 18.5-inch refractor at the Dearborn Observatory. ƒdouard Stephan independently discovered the galaxy on 27 Jun 1876.  His micrometric position is accurate.  As Safford's discovery list wasn't published until 1887 as the NGC was being prepared to go to press, Stephan is credited with the discovery in the GC Supplement and the NGC.

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NGC 6485 = UGC 11014 = MCG +05-42-004 = CGCG 171-009 = PGC 61013

17 51 52.7 +31 27 45

V = 12.9;  Size 1.5'x1.4';  Surf Br = 13.6

 

17.5" (8/1/89): fairly faint, fairly small, round, bright core, diffuse halo.  Situated in a rich star field.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 6485 = m 354 = St II-17 on 27 Jul 1864 and noted "vF, vS, R."  ƒdouard Stephan rediscovered the galaxy on 15 Jul 1871. His micrometric position is very accurate. Both observers are recognized in the NGC.

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NGC 6486 = MCG +05-42-006 = CGCG 171-012 = PGC 61033

17 52 35.2 +29 49 05

V = 13.8;  Size 0.8'x0.8'

 

17.5" (8/1/89): faint, small, round, weak concentration.  Two mag 14 stars are 0.7' S and 2.1' SE.  Forms a pair with NGC 6487 1.9' NE.

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 6486 = St XI-59, along with NGC 6487, on 28 Jul 1880.  His micrometric position is accurate.

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NGC 6487 = UGC 11022 = MCG +05-42-008 = CGCG 171-014 = PGC 61039

17 52 41.9 +29 50 20

V = 11.9;  Size 1.9'x1.7';  Surf Br = 13.1

 

17.5" (8/1/89): fairly faint, fairly small, round, bright core, stellar nucleus.  Forms a pair with NGC 6486 1.9' SW.

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 6487 = St XI-60, along with NGC 6486, on 28 Jul 1880.  His position is accurate.

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NGC 6488 = MCG +10-25-098 = CGCG 300-076 = PGC 60918

17 49 20.8 +62 13 22

V = 13.8;  Size 0.6'x0.5';  Surf Br = 12.3

 

17.5" (6/11/88): fairly faint, very small, round, weak concentration.  Located within a curving lane of 8 mag 11-14 stars oriented NW-SE including three mag 11 stars roughly 2' NW.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 6488 = Sw IV-59 = Sw V-81 on 1 Sep 1886 and recorded "pF; pS; E; between a pair of stars and a trio of stars in form of a semi-circle."  His position is 21 seconds of RA west of CGCG 300-076 = PGC 60918 and his description applies.  He found this galaxy again four weeks later, assumed it was new, and included it in list V-81.  His second position was quite similar (16 seconds too far west).  Dreyer combined the two entries in the NGC.  This is one of several cases where Swift included the same object on two lists or even the same list.  Kobold measured an accurate position in 1899, though it wasn't published until 1907.

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NGC 6489 = MCG +10-25-099 = CGCG 300-079 = PGC 60928

17 50 01.3 +60 05 32

V = 14.2;  Size 0.6'x0.4';  Surf Br = 12.5;  PA = 24d

 

17.5" (7/27/92): very faint, very small, round, even surface brightness.  Located between two mag 10-11 stars oriented WNW-ESE with separation of 2.5'.  Also two mag 13.5 stars are 1' WSW.  About 5' SE is a faint double star and the eastern component appears nebulous.  CGCG 300-078 lies 17' NNW.  On the POSS, the eastern component of the double star has a mag 16 companion very close north.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 6489 = Sw I-77 on 5 Jun 1885 and recorded "eeeF; pL; lE; between 2 stars; ee diff.; coarse double star south."  His position is 30 seconds of RA west and 1' south of CGCG 300-079 = PGC 60928 but the description applies, so the identification is certain.

 

MCG and PGC misidentify PGC 2597969 as NGC 6489.  RNGC and CGCG have the correct identification.

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NGC 6490 = UGC 11033 = MCG +03-45-038 = CGCG 112-068 = CGCG 113-002 = PGC 61079

17 54 30.4 +18 22 33

V = 13.5;  Size 1.0'x0.8';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 115d

 

17.5" (7/1/89): faint, very small, slightly elongated, bright core.  Forms a small triangle with a mag 14 star 40" S and a mag 13 star 52" SE of center.  Forms a pair with NGC 6495 5.6' SE.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 6490 = m 355 = St II-18 on 11 May 1864 and noted "vF, vS, stellar."  His position is within 1' of UGC 11033.  ƒdouard Stephan rediscovered both galaxies in July 1871.  Stephan's micrometric position is very accurate, though Esmiol has a typo of 6 minutes in RA in his re-reduction published in 1916.

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NGC 6491 = UGC 11008 = MCG +10-25-103 = CGCG 300-080 = PGC 60949

17 50 00.6 +61 31 54

V = 13.6;  Size 1.2'x0.5';  Surf Br = 13.0;  PA = 39d

 

18" (7/27/03): fairly faint, small, round, sharply concentrated with a very small bright core and stellar nucleus.  The outer halo has a very low surface brightness and core may be offset within the halo.  Brightest of a close trio with NGC 6493 3.1' NE and UGC 11007 4.6' NNW.

 

17.5" (8/4/94): fairly faint, fairly small, round, even concentration to a small bright core, stellar nucleus.  Forms a pair with NGC 6493 3.1' ENE.  The identifications of NGC 6491 and NGC 6493 are reversed in the RNGC.

 

17.5" (6/11/88): very faint, very small, slightly elongated.  NGC 6493 3.1' NE not visible.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 6491 = Sw I-78 on 13 Jun 1885 and recorded "pF; vvS; vF* in or just in contact with it, np of 2 [with NGC 6493]."  The other galaxy mentioned is NGC 6493 = Sw I-79, discovered a week earlier (June 5th) and logged "F; vvS; R; planetary; F* v nr; sf of 2".  Swift perhaps observed both galaxies on the 13th and tacked on the comments "np of 2" and "sf of 2".  His position for NGC 6491 is just 10 seconds of time preceding UGC 11008, though there is no "vF * in or just in contact with it".  I'm guessing he saw the sharp stellar nucleus mentioned in my observing notes.

 

NGC 6493 = Sw 1-79 is assumed to refer to UGC 11011, a round, face-on Sc situated 3' northeast of NGC 6491.  A mag 14 star less than 1' north may be the "F* v nr".  But Swift's position (and description) for NGC 6493 places it southeast of NGC 6491, contradicting the orientation in the sky.  As a result of this error, the RNGC reversed the identifications of NGC 6491 and NGC 6493, labeling the southwestern of the pair as NGC 6493.  This error is mentioned in my RNGC Corrections #3 and Malcolm Thomson's "Corrections of Some Errors Resulting From Conflicting Catalogue Data".

 

Another possibility, though, is that Swift observed UGC 11008 on both nights and never saw UGC 11011.  Perhaps he later assumed his observations referred to different objects and added the comments "np of 2" and "sf of 2" when he submitted his list for publication.  In support of this idea, it's reasonable to assume he picked up the brighter, more obvious galaxy on the first night -- that is UGC 110081, certainly not the low surface brightness face-on UGC 11011 to its northeast, which I found "extremely faint" in my 18".  Also, his descriptions are similar enough they could easily apply to the same object.

 

With two NGC numbers and two galaxies it seems reasonable to assign the NGC numbers to the two galaxies in order or RA, but I think it's more likely that NGC 6491 = NGC 6493 = UGC 11008.

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NGC 6492 = ESO 102-022 = AM 1757-662 = PGC 61315

18 02 48.4 -66 25 50

V = 11.5;  Size 2.5'x1.2';  Surf Br = 12.6;  PA = 75d

 

25" (4/5/16 - Coonabarabran, 318x): fairly bright, fairly large, elongated 2:1 WSW-ENE, ~1.8'x0.9', brighter along the major axis.  Situated in a bright star field, along numerous faint stars.  A mag 11.2 star is at the east edge, 50" from center, a mag 13.5 star is 1.2' SW and a mag 14.5 star is 40" SE of center.  A mag 6.8 yellow-orange star (HD 163880) lies 8' SE, mag 8.4 HD 163544 is 6.8' SW, and two additional mag 10/11 stars are 5' NW.

 

JH discovered NGC 6492 = h3714 on 22 Jul 1835 and recorded "pF; S; pmE; in direction of the parallel; precedes a * 12m, which is all but involved."  His position is accurate.

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NGC 6493 = UGC 11011 = MCG +10-25-105 = CGCG 300-084 = PGC 60961

17 50 22.7 +61 33 34

V = 14.4;  Size 1.1'x1.1';  Surf Br = 14.5

 

18" (7/27/03): extremely faint, fairly small.  Appears as a very low surface brightness glow with averted vision.  Two mag 14 stars 1' N and 1.3' NE.  Located 3' NE of NGC 6491 in a trio with extremely faint UGC 11007 5' NW.

 

17.5" (8/4/94): extremely faint, fairly small, round, 0.8' diameter, very low even surface brightness.  A mag 14 star is about 30" off the north edge.  Located 3.0' ENE of NGC 6491.  Not found on previous observation 6/11/88.

 

See notes for N6491.

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NGC 6494 = M23 = ESO 589-SC22 = Cr 356

17 57 05 -18 59 06

V = 5.5;  Size 27'

 

18" (8/12/10): stunning bright, rich cluster at 175x with several hundred stars visible in the 35' field with a large number of mag 9-11 stars sprinkled throughout the cluster.  Many of the stars are arranged in long chains and loops with a distinctive chain of 5 stars curving NNW to SSE near the center and a longer curve of stars to the southwest.  A string of stars heads NW out of the cluster to mag 6.5 HD 163245 outside the field.  The stars are fairly evenly distributed with the density gradually thinning towards the edges.  Two catalogued double stars are ARA 718 (10.9/12.3 at 5") near the center and ARA 719 (9.8/13.0 at 15") on the SE side.  The Milky Way has a bright background glow just west of the cluster.

 

13.1" (6/29/84): bright, large, rich, appears fully resolved.  Very pretty open cluster. 

 

8": bright, fairly large with long star lanes to the edge of the field.

 

Charles Messier discovered M23 = NGC 6494 = h1990 on 20 June 1764.  On 18 Jun 1784 (sweep 230), WH recorded "a cluster of beautifully scattered large stars, nearly of equal magnitudes; (visible in my finder) it extends much farther from the field of the telescope will take in, and in the finder seems to be a nebula of a lengthened form extending to about half a degree."  JH made 3 observations, logging on sweep 269 ( 15 July 1830) "A star 10m in the centre of a beautiful discrete cluster of 60 or 70 stars 10 and 11m and one of 9-10. They run in lines and arches. It is loose and straggling, and the sky around it has a dotted appearance."

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NGC 6495 = UGC 11034 = MCG +03-45-039 = CGCG 112-070 = CGCG 113-004 = PGC 61091

17 54 50.7 +18 19 37

V = 12.2;  Size 2.0'x1.8';  Surf Br = 13.6

 

17.5" (7/1/89): fairly faint, fairly small, round, increases to a small very bright core, substellar nucleus.  Pair with NGC 6490 5.6' NW.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 6495 = m 356 = St II-19, along with NGC 6490, on 11 May 1864 and noted "F, S, R."  His position is fairly accurate.  ƒdouard Stephan rediscovered both galaxies in July 1871.  Stephan's micrometric position is very accurate.

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NGC 6496 = ESO 279-SC013

17 59 03.2 -44 16 02

V = 9.0;  Size 6.9'

 

18" (7/10/02 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): moderately bright, low surface brightness globular of 4'-5' diameter.  Loose concentration class with little central condensation.  About a dozen stars are resolved over the face although some of these may be foreground stars as it is set in a very dense Milky Way star field.  Three of the stars are 12th magnitude with the remainder mag 14-15.  Situated on the Scorpius/Corona Australis border ~25' following mag 4.8 yellow HD 163145.

 

8" (6/19/82): faint, diffuse, two faint stars at edge.  Located 24' ENE of mag 4.9 SAO 228562 on the Scorpius-Corona Australis border.  Very far south for viewing from northern California.

 

James Dunlop discovered NGC 6496 = D 460 = h3715 on 28 Jun 1826 and described "a very faint nebula, extended about 2 1/4' in length, oblique to the equator, with a bright point in each extremity; the northern, I think, is a very small star; but the southern of the two, or the one at the southern extremity, is a small nucleus or condensation of the nebulous matter.  This follows 16 Telescopii."  His position is 12.5' northwest of the cluster -- a typical error.  Dunlop's position for D 461 is exactly 4 tmin of RA further east with the same declination, so this could be a clerical error.

 

JH noted a possible equivalence with D 460 and D 461 and observed the cluster on two sweeps.  On 1 Jun 1834 he logged "Cluster very rich, irregularly round, including to triangular; vglbM, 4' or 5' diam, with many large and small stars in it. Nebulous."  Then 2 nights later he swept the area again and reported "a distinctly nebulous insulted group, mE, 2' long, 1.5' broad, many stars of considerable size, mixed." 

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NGC 6497 = NGC 6498: = UGC 11020 = MCG +10-25-109 = CGCG 300-087 = PGC 60999

17 51 18.2 +59 28 14

V = 13.5;  Size 1.4'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 113d

 

17.5" (7/19/90): faint, fairly small, elongated 2:1 NW-SE, bright core.  A mag 14 star is 37" N of center.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 6497 = Sw I-80 on 16 Sep 1884 and recorded "vvF; pS; lE; diff.; close s of middle * of 3 in a line, middle * the fainter; np of 2."  His position is 15 seconds of RA west and 1.3' north (or 2.4' northwest)  of UGC 11020.  This galaxy is just south of a mag 14 star so the identification is certain.  NGC 6498 is apparently a duplicate observation just 10 days later (see that number).  So, NGC 6497 = NGC 6498 with historical precedence to NGC 6497.

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NGC 6498 = NGC 6497: = UGC 11020 = MCG +10-25-109 = CGCG 300-087 = PGC 60999

17 51 18.2 +59 28 14

 

See observing notes for NGC 6497.

 

Lewis Swift found NGC 6498 = Sw I-81 on 26 Sep 1884 and recorded "pF; pS; R; B * nr; F * v[ery] nr; sf of 2."  His position is just 14 seconds of RA west of NGC 6497 = Sw I-80, discovered by Swift just 10 days earlier.  UGC 11020 is the only galaxy near his position and his description applies (the "B * nr" is probably the mag 11 star 2.3' east and the "F * v nr" is the 14th mag star off the north side).  Swift perhaps thought these were different nebulae as NGC 6497 was logged as "vvF", compared to "pF" for NGC 6498.  He later added the qualifiers "np of 2" and "sf of 2" as he prepared his first discovery list.  By prior discovery, NGC 6497 should be the primary designation.  Harold Corwin suggested the equivalence of these numbers.  See NGC 6491 and 6493, which may be another situation where he recorded the same galaxy on different nights and later assumed they were different.

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NGC 6499

17 55 20.0 +18 21 35

 

=**, Carlson.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 6499 = m 357 on 11 May 1864 and noted "small D* in neb."  Close to his position is close 4" pair of stars, with a third star 25" west.  Karl Reinmuth, using a Heidelberg plate identified NGC 6499 as a "**14 and 15 pf, ? inv in F vs neb?"  Dorothy Carlson, in her 1940 list of NGC corrections, identifies NGC 6499 as a double star and Harold Corwin concurs.

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NGC 6500 = UGC 11048 = MCG +03-46-003 = CGCG 113-008 = LGG 414-003 = PGC 61123

17 55 59.8 +18 20 18

V = 12.2;  Size 2.2'x1.6';  Surf Br = 13.4;  PA = 50d

 

17.5" (7/1/89): moderately bright, fairly small, round, small bright core, stellar nucleus.  Forms a pair with similar NGC 6501 2.3' NNE.  Located 6.1' WNW of mag 6.6 SAO 103227!

 

WH discovered NGC 6500 = H III-957 = St XII-85, along with NGC 6501, on 29 Jun 1799 (sweep 1090) and recorded "Two, both vF, vS.  The place is that of the following one [NGC 6501], the preceding one is about 4' more south and about 5 or 6 sec of time preceding."  His position is about 25 sec of time too far west and 3' too far south.  ƒdouard Stephan independently found the pair a century later (15 Jul 1880) and noted his object was probably identical to GC 4348 [NGC 6500], but he was not certain as WH's position was poor.

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NGC 6501 = UGC 11049 = MCG +03-46-004 = CGCG 113-009 = PGC 61128

17 56 03.7 +18 22 23

V = 12.0;  Size 2.0'x1.8';  Surf Br = 13.3

 

17.5" (7/1/89): moderately bright, fairly small, round, small bright core, stellar nucleus.  Twin of NGC 6500 2.3' SSW.  Located 5.6' NW of mag 6.6 SAO 103227.

 

WH discovered NGC 6501 = H III-958 = St XII-86, along with NGC 6500, on 29 Jun 1799 (sweep 1090).  See comments on NGC 6500.

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NGC 6502 = ESO 103-002 = AM 1759-652 = PGC 61352

18 04 13.7 -65 24 35

V = 12.6;  Size 1.3'x1.1';  Surf Br = 12.8;  PA = 42d

 

25" (4/5/16 - Coonabarabran, 318x): moderately bright and large, slightly elongated, roughly 1.0'x0.8', gradually increases to a small brighter core and a faint stellar nucleus.  A mag 13.7 star is at the west edge [24" from center] and a small string of very faint stars is just off the southeast edge.  Floats in a rich star field with a mag 9.5 star 7' SE and a mag 10 star 9' SE.

 

JH discovered NGC 6502 = h3716 on 20 Jun 1835 and noted "the following star (14m) of a vF double * 11m is nebulous.  The nebula is excessively faint, but I am sure of its existence.  The preceding star is free."  On a second observation he logged "vF; 30"; involves 2 or 3 stars."  His mean position is on the east side of the halo.

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NGC 6503 = UGC 11012 = MCG +12-17-009 = CGCG 340-019 = PGC 60921

17 49 26.3 +70 08 42

V = 10.2;  Size 7.1'x2.4';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 123d

 

17.5" (6/11/88): very bright, large, very elongated 3:1 NW-SE, large brighter core.  The surface has a mottled appearance.  A mag 13.5 star lies 2.2' NNE of center.  Located 3.9' W of mag 9 SAO 8937.

 

8" (6/27/81): moderately bright, very elongated, high surface brightness.  A mag 9 star is 4' E.

 

Arthur Auwers discovered NGC 6503 = Au 37 on 22 Jul 1854 with his 2.6" Fraunhofer refractor while a 15-year old student at Gottingen University.  He showed the new nebula to his friend Friedrich Winnecke, who was also a student there at the time.  Winnecke, using a 9.6-inch Fraunhofer refractor in 1856 in Berlin, described "..a beautiful object; very bright, slightly brighter in the middle and extraordinarily extended from north preceding to south following, 3-4' long, 50" wide."  Auwers observed NGC 6503 again on 19 Feb 1862 with the Konigsberg heliometer and wrote "bright 3'-4' long, at most 1' wide; gradually brighter in the middle.  There appears to be a faint star in the northern part, which makes the nebula nearly look like a double nebula." Auwers' description was published in his 1862 list of 50 new nebulae.

 

WH missed NGC 6503, mainly because of the high northern declination which he only searched in his later sweeps, though he did discover NGC 6434, which is about 3¡ from NGC 6503. 

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NGC 6504 = UGC 11053 = MCG +06-39-027 = CGCG 199-029 = PGC 61129

17 56 05.7 +33 12 31

V = 12.5;  Size 2.2'x0.5';  Surf Br = 12.4;  PA = 94d

 

17.5" (8/1/89): moderately bright, edge-on E-W, sharp concentration, almost stellar nucleus.  Situated between a mag 11 star 1.9' N and a mag 10.5 star 2.1' SE of center.

 

13.1" (6/18/85): fairly faint, small, pretty edge-on WNW-ESE, bright core, thin faint extensions.  Located 22' SW of a mag 7 star.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 6504 = m 358 on 27 Jul 1864 and noted "F, vmE, sbM, 2' l."  His position is accurate.

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NGC 6505 = UGC 11026 = MCG +11-22-007 = CGCG 322-018 = PGC 60995

17 51 07.3 +65 31 51

V = 14.0;  Size 1.0'x0.9';  Surf Br = 13.7

 

17.5" (6/11/88): very faint, small, round, weakly concentrated, very diffuse halo.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 6505 = Sw IV-60 on 27 Jun 1885 and recorded "eeF; vS; R; bet. 2 pairs of coarse D[ouble] st."  His position is 14 seconds of RA east and 1' north of UGC 11026 (1.6' separation).  Bigourdan measured an accurate position on 8 Oct 1890.

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NGC 6506 = ESO 521-SC6

17 59 53 -24 41 00

 

17.5" (8/3/97): at 100x appears as a weak, circular Milky Way enhancement of approximately two dozen mag 13-14.5 stars over an unresolved glow situated in a rich portion of the Milky Way. At 220x, this group is ~6' diameter, although it is not very well detached so the borders are somewhat arbitrary. As many as 50 stars are now visible as a number of mag 15 and fainter stars are resolved.  Some unresolved background haze is still evident. Also noticed at 100x was Ru 136, a smaller circular glowing spot ~8' WSW of NGC 6506.  At 220x, Ru 136 appeared ~2.5' diameter with about 10 extremely faint stars are resolved over the background glow.  It is situated just NW of two mag 10-11 stars.

 

John Herschel's description for NGC 6506 probably applies to the entire low power Milky Way field and this object is listed as nonexistent in the RNGC.

 

17.5" (7/20/96): at 220x, the most noticeable grouping is a small cloud of roughly two dozen mag 13-15 stars in a 5' diameter over unresolved background haze.  Situated in a fairly rich Milky Way field of mixed stars, so does not stand out.

 

JH discovered NGC 6506 = h3717 on 29 Jul 1834 and recorded "A very loose but rich cluster, which fills many fields. Stars small."  This is a rich region of the Milky Way, though probably not a true cluster.

 

The position is given here is from Harold Corwin's NGC positions file and is 2' southeast of JH's position.  Skiff & Luginbuhl recorded 30 stars 11-14 in a 7-8' area although JH's description refers to several fields.  ESO (521-SC60) classifies this as a questionable cluster and RNGC as nonexistent.

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NGC 6507 = Cr 358 = Lund 797 = OCL-32

17 59 50 -17 27 00

Size 7'

 

17.5" (6/8/91): about 30 stars mag 13-14 in a 7' diameter elongated N-S.  Loose appearance with no dense spots.  Stars are fairly uniform in brightness.  The brightest member is variable WX Sagittarii (9.6-11.3) just west of center.

 

WH discovered NGC 6507 = H VIII-53 on 27 Jun 1786 (sweep 576) and recorded "a cluster of scattered small stars; about 8' diam; not very rich.  His position is ~3' too far north.  The position in the Gosta Lynga catalogue (and other modern sources such as the RNGC) is ~5' too far northwest.

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NGC 6508 = UGC 11023 = MCG +12-17-010 = CGCG 340-021 = PGC 60938

17 49 46.3 +72 01 16

V = 12.8;  Size 1.3'x1.3';  Surf Br = 13.3

 

17.5" (6/11/88): fairly faint, small, round, even concentration to a small bright core.

 

Ernst Hartwig discovered NGC 6508 = Sw I-82 on 19 Sep 1883 with the 18-inch refractor at the Strasbourg Observatory, while searching for comet Swift.  Hartwig's position in AN 2544 is accurate.  Lewis Swift independently found this galaxy on 17 Jun 1884 and recorded "vF; S; forms with 3 stars a square."  Swift's position is 39 seconds of RA too far east, but the description of the nearby stars, which lie to the north, clinches the identification.

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NGC 6509 = UGC 11075 = MCG +01-46-002 = CGCG 056-006 = LGG 416-003 = PGC 61230

17 59 25.5 +06 17 12

V = 12.5;  Size 1.6'x1.2';  Surf Br = 13.0;  PA = 105d

 

17.5" (7/9/90): fairly faint, fairly small, slightly elongated 3:2 E-W, weak concentration.  A mag 14.5 star is at the east edge 41" from the center.  Located 7.9' S of mag 7.1 SAO 122988.

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 6509 = St X-36 on 20 Jul 1879 and recorded "eF, pL, irr R, lbM."  His micrometric position is accurate.

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NGC 6510 = NGC 6511 = UGC 11051 = MCG +10-25-114 = CGCG 300-092

17 54 39.4 +60 49 05

V = 13.6;  Size 0.9'x0.6';  Surf Br = 12.8;  PA = 30d

 

See observing notes for NGC 6511.

 

Lewis Swift found NGC 6510 = Sw IV-61 on 30 May 1886 and recorded "eeF; pS; lE; e diff.; in vacancy except  one vF * nr."  His position is 21 seconds of RA west of NGC 6511 = UGC 11051, the only reasonably bright galaxy near his position and his description applies.  Swift discovered this galaxy earlier on 9 Oct 1884.  His first position was 19 seconds of RA too large, so perhaps he felt these were different objects.  In any case, NGC 6510 = NGC 6511 with NGC 6511 the primary designation (due to earlier discovery).  Dreyer himself added the query "? = last one" in the summary description for NGC 6511.  Bigourdan measured a position for NGC 6510 on 6 Oct 1890 (repeated in the IC 2 Notes), but his position is well off and probably refers to a faint star.  . 

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NGC 6511 = NGC 6510 = UGC 11051 = MCG +10-25-114 = CGCG 300-092 = PGC 61086

17 54 39.4 +60 49 05

V = 13.6;  Size 0.9'x0.6';  Surf Br = 12.8;  PA = 30d

 

17.5" (7/27/92): at 140x appears faint, small, slightly elongated, broad mild concentration with no well-defined nucleus, overall diffuse.  Located between mag 8.8 SAO 17685 10.8' SE and mag 8.0 SAO 17673 15.5' NNW.

 

17.5" (6/11/88): faint, small, slightly elongated, slightly brighter core, diffuse.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 6511 = Sw I-83 on 9 Oct 1884 and recorded "F; pL; BM; 2 nearest of 3 st in a curve point to it."  His position is 19 seconds of RA east of UGC 11051 and his description applies to three stars to the south.  Swift probably found this galaxy again on 30 May 1886, entered it in list IV-60 and it acquired the designation NGC 6510.  His position in list IV is 21 seconds of RA too far west.  So, NGC 6510 = NGC 6511.  Bigourdan measured an accurate RA on 6 Oct 1890 (repeated in the IC 2 Notes).

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NGC 6512 = MCG +10-25-115 = CGCG 300-093 = PGC 61089

17 54 50.2 +62 38 42

V = 13.9;  Size 0.7'x0.5'

 

17.5" (6/11/88): very faint, very small, round, weak concentration.  A mag 15 star is at the south edge just 21" from the center.  First of three with NGC 6516 3.4' NE and NGC 6521 6.9' ESE.

 

Heinrich d'Arrest discovered NGC 6512, along with NGC 6516 and 6521, on 27 Oct 1861 with the 11-inch refractor at Copenhagen.  His single position is accurate.  Lewis Swift independently discovered all three of these galaxies on 28 May 1886 and recorded "eF; pS; vE; np of 2".  Swift's position is 24 seconds too far west and the description should read "sp of 2 [with NGC 6516]."

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NGC 6513 = UGC 11078 = MCG +04-42-018 = CGCG 141-038 = PGC 61235

17 59 34.3 +24 53 14

V = 13.3;  Size 1.2'x0.9';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 40d

 

17.5" (7/1/89): faint, very small, round, small bright core.  Several bright mag 9-11 stars are in the field including a mag 9 star 4.3' NW.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 6513 = m 359 = St I-8 on 7 Aug 1864 and noted "vF, vS, stellar."  ƒdouard Stephan independently rediscovered this galaxy on 22 Jun 1870.  Dreyer credited both in the NGC.

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NGC 6514 = M20 = Trifid Nebula = B85 = LBN 27 = Cr 360 = Sh 2-30 = Ced 151 = Gum 76 = RCW 147

18 02 42 -22 58 18

V = 6.3;  Size 29'x27'

 

18" (8/12/10): the emission component of M20 was sketched and observed carefully at 175x.  At the intersection of the dark lanes is the multiple central star HN 40 with a mag 7.6/10.4 pair at 6" and a tight mag 8.7/10.5 pair at 2.3", with the two pairs are separated by 11".  Four lanes (B85) emanate from the bright central hub.  A narrow lane starts NW of the multiple star and heads 2.5' due N, where it stops at a mag 10 star.  Near the base of this lane another branch heads west to the edge of the nebula.  Another lane heads SSE for ~2.5', tapering at the end.  A prominent lane shoots 3.5' NE and has a few short branches, including one just NE of the central stars.  This lane is bordered by a couple of mag 10.5-11 stars on its south edge.  There is an extension at the NE end that bends to the north and exits the main nebulosity and merging with a dusty region just SE the reflection component to the north.  A mag 9.4 star is at the north edge of the main emission component.  The blue reflection component surrounds mag 7.3 HD 164514 and extends ~6' with an irregular structure.

 

13.1" (7/16/82): bright, fairly large, contains three inky black dark lanes (B85) with sharp edges.  Structure is visible along the dark lanes and in the center.  The prominent central star is a quadruple (4th star difficult) consisting of a mag 7.6/10.4 pair at 6" and a mag 8.7/10.5 pair at 2.3", the brighter stars separated by 11".  The NW lane is wider and fainter than the other two lanes.  A round, bluish reflection nebula is separated, but very close north.  The view improves using a UHC filter.

 

8": the famous rift structure is fairly prominent with a triple star at the center.  The NW rift is more subdued.  An easily visible reflection nebula is close north.

 

15x50 IS binoculars: visible as a small, faint glow surrounding a the central "star".

 

Charles Messier discovered M20 = NGC 6514 = H IV-41 = H V-10/11/12 = h1991 = h3718 on 5 June 1764 and noted a cluster of stars.  WH first observed M20 on 12 Jul 1784 (sweep 236) and record it "Three nebulae, but they seem to join faintly together, forming a kind of triangle; in the middle of which is less nebulous, or perhaps free from nebulosity is a double star of the 2nd or 3rd class.  As I intended to revisit this place very soon I passed on, but think more very faint nebulosities are following."  He assigned it three catalogue numbers, V 10, V 11 and V 12.  His reference star was misidentified, though (4 Sgr = SAO 186061 instead of 5 Sgr = SAO 186074), so his position is incorrect.  WH also reobserved the Trifid on 26 May 1786 (sweep 566) and recorded IV-41 using a different reference star as "a double star with extensive nebulosity, of different intensity; about the double star is a black opening, resembling the nebula in Orion, on a small scale."  So WH essentially catalogued the Trifid 4 times.  JH combined these numbers into a single GC entry (4355).  Harold Corwin notes he made the same error with NGC 6533.

 

JH first used the name "Trifid" to describe M20 in the Slough Catalogue (sweep 30): "vL; trifid, three nebulae with a vacuity in the midst, in which is centrally situated the double star Sh 379, neb = 7' in extent.  A most remarkable object." Interestingly neither William or John referred to this object as M20, possibly because of positional confusion or that Messier described it as a "star cluster".  The equivalence was given in the GC 4355.

 

In JH's Cape Observations (1847) and in Outlines of Astronomy (1849) he described "One of the them [several nebulae in Sagittarius] is singularly trifid, consisting of three bright and irregularly formed nebulous masses, graduating away insensibly externally, but coming up to a great intensity of light at their interior edges, where they enclose and surround a sort of three-forked rift, or vacant area, abruptly and uncouthly crooked, and quite void of nebulous light.  A bright triple star is situated precisely on the edge of one of these nebulous masses just where the interior vacancy forks out two channels.  A fourth nebulous mass spreads like a fan or downy plume from a star at a little distance from the triple nebula."

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NGC 6515 = UGC 11071 = MCG +08-33-003 = CGCG 254-004 = PGC 61167

17 57 25.3 +50 43 40

V = 13.0;  Size 1.6'x1.0';  Surf Br = 13.5;  PA = 10d

 

17.5" (6/22/90): fairly faint, small, slightly elongated, broad concentration, stellar nucleus.  Several mag 10-11 stars in field and mag 9.0 SAO 30650 9' W.  Located 45' S of Etamin = Gamma Draconis (V = 2.2).

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 6515 = Sw III-99 on 25 Oct 1885 and recorded "vF; vS; R; 2 B stars near; in finder field with Gamma Draconis."  His position is 4 seconds of RA east and 1' N of UGC 11071 (1.1' separation).  The "2 B stars near" are two mag 10-10.5 stars 2' and 3' west.

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NGC 6516 = MCG +10-25-118 = CGCG 300-094 = CGCG 301-001 = PGC 61109

17 55 16.8 +62 40 11

V = 14.8;  Size 0.6'x0.2';  Surf Br = 12.3;  PA = 147d

 

17.5" (6/11/88): very faint, extremely small.  A mag 15.5 star is at the north edge.  Second of three in the NGC 6521 group with NGC 6512 3.4' SW and NGC 6521 5.0' SE.

 

Heinrich d'Arrest discovered NGC 6516, along with NGC 6512 and 6521, on 27 Oct 1861 with the 11-inch refractor at Copenhagen.  Lewis Swift independently discovered all three of these galaxies on 28 May 1886 and recorded Sw III-97 as "eeF; vS; R; pB * nr; sf of 2".  Swift's position is 30 seconds of RA too far west and the description should read "nf of 2 [with NGC 6512]."

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NGC 6517

18 01 50.5 -08 57 32

V = 10.3;  Size 4.3'

 

24" (7/30/16): at 260x, moderately bright, round, 2.5'-3' diameter, well concentrated with a brighter, round core that increases to the center.  A little lively but no definite resolution.  The cluster appeared clumpy at 432x but only a couple of star were at the edge of visibility.  At 500x, the nucleus was very clumply several extremely faint stars started to resolve (V tip magnitude = 16.0).

 

17.5" (6/8/91): fairly faint, small, irregularly round, 2' diameter.  The faint halo is slightly elongated SSW-NNE and increases to a small bright core.  No resolution at 280x.

 

8" (5/21/82): faint, small, brighter core, no resolution.

 

WH discovered NGC 6517 = H II-199 = h3719 on 16 Jun 1784 (sweep 228) and logged "pB, pL, R, bM, r and the brightness diminishing gradually."  JH made two observations, first recording it (sweep 591) as "globular cluster; F; R; psbM; 90"; r; with left eye I discern the stars in it."

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NGC 6518 = MCG +05-42-024 = CGCG 171-041 = PGC 61238

17 59 43.7 +28 52 00

V = 14.2;  Size 0.5'x0.5';  Surf Br = 12.5

 

17.5" (8/1/89): very faint, extremely small, round.  A mag 14 star is just at the west edge.  Appears like a close double star with one component "fuzzy".  In a rich star field with UGC 11086 and UGC 11090.

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 6518 = St XIII-87 on 18 Jun 1884 and recorded "2 vF similar stars in vF and vS nebulosity."  His position is accurate.

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NGC 6519 = ESO 456-?41

18 03 20.1 -29 48 15

 

=**.  =NF, RNGC and ESO.

 

Julius Schmidt discovered NGC 6519 in Oct 1860 with the 6.2" refractor at Athens Observatory.  The discovery was announced in 1865 and his micrometric position (northwest of NGC 6522) matches a double star.

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NGC 6520 = Cr 361 = Mel 187 = Lund 805

18 03 24 -27 53 12

Size 6'

 

17.5" (7/8/94): striking cluster following the remarkable dark nebula B86.  Roughly 75 stars are visible in a 6' diameter.  The "Inky" black dark nebula B86 to the east wraps around the cluster like a tentacle along the south side and also appears to wind through a large portion of the cluster.  In the cluster's core is a very dense perfectly circular group of about two dozen stars in a 1.5' diameter punctuated with the brightest star at the exact center!  Enveloping this core is a dark void except for a few stars that break through to the north.  Surrounding this irregular dark annulus is a 6' incomplete oval ring formed by six brighter and several fainter stars.  Located in a rich star field.  Globular clusters Djorgovski 2 lies 21' WNW and NGC 6540 is 37' ENE!

 

WH discovered NGC 6520 = H VII-7 = h3721 on 24 May 1784 (sweep 224) and recorded "a cluster of stars, chiefly large ones; considerably rich, but rather coarsely scattered; a little more compressed towards the middle.  It is visible in the finder."  Nearly 5 minutes earlier, he noted "Daylight very strong", though observed a couple more objects.

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NGC 6521 = UGC 11061 = MCG +10-25-119 = CGCG 300-095 = PGC 61121

17 55 48.5 +62 36 44

V = 12.9;  Size 1.6'x1.3';  Surf Br = 13.7;  PA = 160d

 

17.5" (6/11/88): fairly faint, fairly small, large brighter core.  Bright wide pair O·· = 7.2/7.7 at 55" is 4' E and detracts from viewing.  Brightest in a group and third of three with NGC 6516 5.0' NW and NGC 6512 6.9' WNW.

 

Heinrich d'Arrest discovered NGC 6521, along with NGC 6512 and 6516, on 27 Oct 1861 with the 11-inch refractor at Copenhagen.  His position (measured on 2 nights) is fairly accurate and he measured the bright wide pair of stars are 32.5 and 37.7 seconds following.  Lewis Swift independently discovered all three of these galaxies on 28 May 1886 and recorded Sw III-98 as "eF; 2 B st nr foll.".  Swift's position is 30 seconds of RA too far west (same offset as NGC 6516).

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NGC 6522 = ESO 456-SC043

18 03 34.0 -30 02 02

V = 8.5;  Size 5.6'

 

17.5" (7/11/99): this globular is the larger and brighter of a fairly faint pair with NGC 6528 in the same field just 16' E.  At 220x the halo is ~2' diameter with a very small bright core.  A mag 12.5-13 star is embedded in the NE side.  At 280x, the 25" core appears offset east of center and the halo is slightly elongated E-W.  Passing through the core is apparently an unresolved string or bar of stars oriented WNW-ENE (just slightly fainter than the core).  The globular is lively but without resolution.  With averted vision the outer haze increases in size to ~3'.

 

13" (6/29/84): moderately bright, mottled.  A single brighter 13th mag star is on the ENE side.  This is the larger and brighter of a pair with globular NGC 6528 15' E in Baade's Window.

 

WH discovered NGC 6522 = H I-49 = h3720, along with NGC 6528, on 24 Jun 1784 (sweep 232) and recorded "B, pL, bM, r."  JH logged this cluster twice, first recording on 3 Aug 1834, "Globular cluster; pB; S; R; 80: resolved into stars 16m."  On a later sweep ne recorded "GC; B; R; gvmbM; in a nebuloid portion of the milky way; resolved; stars 16...17m."

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NGC 6523 = M8 = Lagoon Nebula = NGC 6526 = NGC 6533 = IC 1271 = LBN 25 = Sh 2-25 = Gum 72 = RCW 146 = Ced 152a

18 03 41 -24 22 48

V = 5.8;  Size 90'x40'

 

17.5" (6/6/86): extremely bright, detailed nebulosity that nearly fills a 50' field.  Extensive fainter nebulosity fills the region to the north and a thin extension is to the east.  Cut by a large high contrast dark lane ("Lagoon") oriented SW-NE.  The brightest luminary within the nebula is 9 Sagittarii (V = 6.0), situated to the west of the dark lane with a mag 7 companion 3' NNE.  A very bright 30" nebulous knot ("Hourglass Nebula", ionized by O7 star Herschel 36) is situated 3' SW of 9 Sagittarii.  NGC 6530, a bright open cluster, is on the east side of the dark lane.  Barnard 89 is a fairly well-defined roundish dark nebula ~6' following NGC 6530.  The Lagoon is a prominent naked-eye object in dark sky.  See observing notes for NGC 6530 and IC 1271.  The Trifid Nebula (M20) lies 85' NNW.

 

Guillaume Le Gentil was perhaps the first to recognize the nebulosity in M8 = Lac III-13 = h3722 around 1747.  Using a small 18- to 20-foot focal length refractor, he noted "a small nebulosity like the tail of a comet with numerous stars."  His position was off, though, by more the one degree.  The associated cluster NGC 6530 was discovered by Giovanni Hodierna and reported in his 1654 catalog "De Admirandis Coeli Caracteribus".

 

Earlier observers appear to have thought the naked-eye glow resolved into stars in a telescope, though Flamsteed was possibly the first to observe nebulosity around 1680.  Flamsteed described the object simply as "nebula", though when Philippe de Cheseaux reviewed Flamsteed's observation in 1745-46 he concluded the object appeared as a "truly nebulous" star naked-eye but as a star cluster through a telescope.  Nicolas-Louis de Lacaille catalogued M8 as a nebulous star, based on his observation at the Cape in 1751-52, though with a 1/2-inch telescope he couldn't resolve the object.  Messier's 1764 observation mentioned "a cluster of stars that appears to be a nebula when observed with a simple three-foot refractor; with an excellent instrument, however, one sees only a large number of faint stars.  Near this cluster there is a fairly bright star [9 Sgr], which is surrounded by a very faint glow."

 

WH observed M8 on 22 May 1784 (sweep 223) and logged "large, extended, pretty bright, broad. The nebulosity of the milky kind, there are some pB stars in it, but they seem to have no connection with it, being of very different sizes [magnitudes] and colours and resembling the other stars that are everywhere scattered about in this neighborhood. This is probably the star surrounded with nebulosity mentioned by Messier. There is indeed one of the stars which are in the nebula that is somewhat larger [brighter] than the rest and may be the only one he saw."  John Herschel produced a beautiful drawing of the nebula with carefully positioned stars (Plate I, fig 1), though Wilhelm Tempel questioned it as differing significantly from his own.

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NGC 6524 = UGC 11079 = MCG +08-33-005 = CGCG 254-006 = PGC 61221

17 59 14.9 +45 53 13

V = 12.8;  Size 1.3'x1.0';  Surf Br = 13.0;  PA = 155d

 

17.5" (8/1/89): fairly faint, very small, round, small bright core, fairly high surface brightness.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 6524 = Sw V-82 on 22 Oct 1886 and noted "pF; pS; lE."  His position is 1.3' too far north.

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NGC 6525

18 02 04.7 +11 02 17

Size 10'

 

17.5" (7/24/95): bright, large, very scattered group.  On the west side is the prominent subgroup highlighted by a pair of mag 9.5/10 stars at 32" separation with three other mag 12/13 stars within 1'.  There are about two dozen stars total in a 5' rectangular group with the brighter stars scattered around the outline but no dense spots or core.  Appears to be an asterism with no distinct borders.

 

JH discovered NGC 6525 = h1992 on 29 Jul 1829 and recorded "A coarse and poor cluster of L stars."  At his position is a small group of stars.  Based on a Heidelberg plate, Karl Reinmuth reported "a very loose Cl of pB st, not well defined."  RNGC misclassifies the number as nonexistent (Type 7), though the status as a true cluster is uncertain.

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NGC 6526 = M8 = NGC 6523 = Lagoon Nebula = Sh 2-28 = LBN 25 = Gum 74

18 04 06 -24 26 30

 

See observing notes for NGC 6523.  This is the southeast portion of M8 = Lagoon Nebula.

 

WH discovered NGC 6526 = H V-9 on 22 May 1784 (sweep 223) and recorded "large, extended, broad; its nebulosity is of the milky kind, but fainter and more uniform, than the preceding [M8]; otherwise in situation and shape, it resembles it pretty much.  It may be taken into the field with the preceding [M8]."  Dreyer comments, in his 1912 "Scientific Papers of William Herschel" that the "NPD in GC and NGC is 1 degree too small; the error dates from C.H.'s Zone Catalogue.  The nebulosity is just following M8 and is = IC 1271 (Swift, VIII)."  The "corrected" NGC position is then 18 04 15 -24 27.5 (2000) and places it within the main M8 complex.

 

Corwin suggests (e-mail on 6/1/96) that NGC 6526 applies to the part of the Lagoon following the dust lane which swings up to include the star cluster NGC 6530.  Swift's IC 1271 (VIII) apparently applies to a nebulous knot near the end of the "branch" heading east of the main complex, so is not equal to NGC 6526 as Dreyer stated.

 

RNGC places NGC 6526 at 18 04.8 -23 40 (2000) which corresponds with the center of the large, irregular nebulosity plotted on the Uranometria 2000 about 45' NNE of M8.  Sky Catalogue 2000 gives a position of 18 02.6 -23 35, repeated in Sinnott's NGC 2000.0.

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NGC 6527 = UGC 11094 = MCG +03-46-009 = CGCG 113-014 = PGC 61297

18 01 46.3 +19 43 43

V = 13.4;  Size 1.4'x1.0';  Surf Br = 13.7;  PA = 150d

 

17.5" (7/1/89): faint, fairly small, elongated NW-SE, weak concentration, faint stellar nucleus.

 

Truman Safford discovered NGC 6527 = Sf 46 = Sw IV-64 on 1 Aug 1866 with the 18.5-inch refractor at the Dearborn Observatory. and noted "pB, pS, vmbM."  His position is 2' north of UGC 11094.  Lewis Swift independently rediscovered this galaxy on 6 Jun 1886 and recorded "eeF; vS; R."  Swift's position was 1.8' too far south.  Swift was credited with the discovery in the NGC as Safford's discovery was not announced until 1887, too late to be included in the main NGC table.

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NGC 6528 = ESO 456-SC048

18 04 49.5 -30 03 21

V = 9.5;  Size 3.7'

 

17.5" (7/11/99): this is the smaller and fainter of an unusual double pair of globulars with NGC 6522 just 16' W.  At 220x, it appears round, ~1.5' in diameter.  The brightness gradually increasing towards the center but with no distinct core.  The surface brightness is fairly smooth overall and the outer halo is fairly well defined.  A mag 13.5 field star is at the SW edge.  The surrounding field is noticeably more vacant than around NGC 6522.  Both clusters can be placed at the edges of the 14' field of the 7mm Pentax XL.  Situated within "Baade's Window" (absorption hole in the Milky Way).

 

13" (6/29/84): fairly faint, small, 2' diameter, not resolved.  This is a smaller and fainter version of globular cluster NGC 6522 15' W.

 

8" (6/19/82): fairly faint, small, easily visible but no resolution.

 

WH discovered NGC 6528 = H II-200 = h3723, along with NGC 6522, on 24 Jun 1784 (sweep 232) and logged "F, pL, unequally bright, r."  On 3 Aug 1834, JH recorded "globular cluster, B; R; R; glbM; resolved into stars 16m.  Both this and I. 49 [NGC 6522] occur on a ground so astonishing rich and stippled over with stars 17m individually discernible, as hardly to admit a pin's point between the stars, and this fills more than the whole field or many fields."

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NGC 6529 = ESO 394-?28

18 05 29 -36 17 48

 

=NF, Corwin.  =Concentration of stars, ESO.  =No cluster, JS.

 

James Dunlop discovered NGC 6529 = D 569 = h3724 on 3 Sep 1826 and recorded "A pretty large faint nebula, round figure, 5' or 6' diameter, resolvable into very minute stars, with nebula remaining."  He lists 2 observations. JH made a single observation on 8 Jun 1837 and recorded "A large milky way patch, much compressed, one portion much more so."  His position (to the nearest min of RA and arcmin in Dec) is marked as approximate and falls ~6' southwest of Dunlop's.  But, there is no recognizable cluster or group of stars that stands out near either position.

 

ESO classifies this object as a concentration of stars and RNGC calls it nonexistent.  Harold Corwin was unable to find a candidate for NGC 6529 (either at the published position or JH's re-reduced position), so it is classified here as "Not Found".

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NGC 6530 = Cr 362 = ESO 521-SC021

18 04 31 -24 21 36

V = 4.6;  Size 15'

 

17.5" (7/8/94): bright scattered group of 40-50 stars at the east edge of M8 just following the edge of the dark "Lagoon" lane which runs SW-NE.  The group forms a rough triangular outline 10'x6' oriented N-S with the longest base along the east side running N-S.  The cluster is encased in the fairly bright eastern portion of the M8 nebulosity that passes directly through most of the cluster.

 

8": 30 stars mag 7-13 in a 10' diameter.  Bright, moderately large.  Located on the east edge of M8!

 

Giovanni Hodierna discovered NGC 6530 = h3725, the cluster within M8, around 1654 and reported it in his catalog "De Admirandis Coeli Caracteribus".  Messier described "a cluster of stars that appears to be a nebula when observed with a simple three-foot refractor; with an excellent instrument, however, one sees only a large number of faint stars.  Near this cluster there is a fairly bright star [9 Sgr], which is surrounded by a very faint glow."  John Herschel recorded (sweep 474) "a B, p Rich, irreg R cl; place that of a double * in the following part of the cluster, which is itself involved in the great nebula M8."

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NGC 6531 = M21 = ESO 521-SC19 = Cr 363

18 04 13 -22 29 24

V = 5.9;  Size 13'

 

18" (8/12/10): In the center of the cluster is the brightest member; mag 7.2 HD 164863.  This star forms a 30" pair (South 698) with mag 8.7 HD 313693. A third bright star, mag 8.8 HD 164883 lies 1.2' NE of the brightest star and extending in a short line NE are two additional mag 10 and 11 stars.  Just north of this central clump is a beautiful ring of a dozen stars mag 9.5-12 stars.  ARA 1841, a pair of 12.4/12.7 stars at 8" lies 1.5' WNW of South 698.  An incomplete larger ring of stars surrounds the entire group and includes ARA 1841.  A total of roughly 50 stars are within 7'.

 

17.5" (8/10/91): M21 consists of roughly 50 stars in a 5' diameter.  Very bright, fairly small although outliers greatly increase the diameter.  Includes a wide double star south 698 = 7.9/8.8 at 30".  Just north of these stars is a remarkably symmetric ring consisting of a mag 9.5 star and ten mag 12-13 stars.  A close mag 14/14 double star is on the west side of the bright double star.  Just west is a 10' string of mag 8/9 stars oriented NW-SE including two double stars.  M20 lies 45' SW.  Easily visible in 15x50 IS binoculars as a small knot.

 

Charles Messier discovered M21 = NGC 6531 = h1993 on 5 Jun 1764.  On 26 May 1786 (sweep 556), WH noted "a rich cluster of large stars."  On 28 Jul 1830, JH recorded "A tolerably rich, sc, coarse cl; one star 9m, the rest 10....12."  His single position was 6' too far east.

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NGC 6532 = UGC 11085 = MCG +09-29-045 = CGCG 278-042 = PGC 61220

17 59 14.1 +56 13 54

V = 13.9;  Size 1.8'x0.9';  Surf Br = 14.2;  PA = 123d

 

17.5" (7/19/90): very faint, fairly small, elongated 3:1 WNW-ESE, low even surface brightness.  Located 1¡ SW of Xi Draconis (V = 3.8).

 

Edward Swift, the 15 year-old son of Lewis, discovered NGC 6532 = Sw V-83 on 19 Sep 1886.  Lewis recorded "eeF; pS; R; e diff.; in a small vacancy; 3 F stars in line point to it."  The position is 25 sec of RA preceding UGC 11085, the only nearby galaxy.  His comment "3 F stars in line point to it" probably applies to a string of stars to the west. Bigourdan measured an accurate position on 6 Sep 1888 (repeated in the IC 2 Notes).

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NGC 6533 = NGC 6523 = M8 = Lagoon Nebula = LBN 25 = NGC 6526 = IC 1271

18 03 41 -24 22 48

 

See observing notes for NGC 6523 = M8.

 

WH discovered NGC 6533 = H V-13 on 12 Jul 1784 (sweep 236) and recorded "extensive milky nebulosity divided into two parts, the most northern part is the strongest and of more than 15' extent; the southern one is followed by a parcel of stars."  This description appears to describe M8, but using the reference star 5 Sgr, WH's position falls on a empty portion of the sky ~30' south-southeast of M8.

 

Harold Corwin found (personal email on 1 Jun 1996) that the same reference star was used by WH in his observation of V10, V11, V12  = M20.  His offset again points 30' SSE of M20 indicating an error in the offset star which should be 4 Sgr = SAO 186061.  Once this correction is made, his position points to the center of M8.  See Harold Corwin's identification notes for the full story.

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NGC 6534 = MCG +11-22-013 = CGCG 322-022 = PGC 61126

17 56 08.6 +64 17 01

V = 14.4;  Size 0.8'x0.5';  Surf Br = 13.3

 

17.5" (8/4/94): very faint, extremely small, round.  Located 50" S of a mag 10 star.  With direct vision appears stellar, about mag 15.  With averted vision a very small halo is visible, perhaps 15" diameter.  Located 22' NW of mag 7.7 SAO 17717.  On the POSS this galaxy is almost stellar with a very faint ring.

 

Note: based on Swift's description, NGC 6534 is very unlikely to be this galaxy.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 6534 = Sw IV-63 on 28 Jun 1886 and recorded "eeF; pS; R; in center of a semi-circle of 4 stars."  There is nothing at his position, but 70 seconds of RA west and 1.2' south is CGCG 322-022 = PGC 61126.  But this galaxy does not fit Swift's description since there no semi-circle of 4 stars surrounds the galaxy.  Furthermore, a mag 10 star is less than 1' north and Swift would have likely mentioned it.  RNGC and CGCG identify CGCG 322-022 as NGC 6534, though not the MCG.  The RNGC and CGCG declination is 2' too far north.  Harold Corwin agrees this identification is very uncertain due to the discrepancy with the description and mentions CGCG 322-020 as another candidate.  It fits Swift's description (the semicircle is immediately east), but the positional match is poor.

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NGC 6535

18 03 50.6 -00 17 49

V = 10.6;  Size 3.6'

 

24" (7/30/16): at 500x; moderately bright and large, roundish, ~3' diameter, fairly weak concentration with a slightly brighter core. A mag 13 star is on the southwest side of the halo, two mag 13.5 stars on the west side and another near the northwest edge.  A half-dozen stars additional stars are resolved in the halo with a few additional around the edges of the halo.  A number more scintillate in and out of view, emerging for brief moments in better seeing, ~20-25 total seen in the halo.  The core region includes another half-dozen stars with one standing out more prominently.

 

18" (8/23/03): at 435x, appears fairly faint, ~3' diameter with an irregular outline, and just a weak concentration.  A trio of mag 13-13.5 stars is easily resolved on the west edge and the middle star has two close, mag 14.5 and 15.5 companions.  With careful viewing about a dozen extremely faint stars sparkle over the central glow, often popping in out of averted vision.  At 538x, the cluster barely breaks up into a swarm of extremely faint stars in steady moments.

 

17.5" (8/10/91): moderately bright, roughly circular, 3' diameter.  Three mag 13 stars and a mag 14 star are almost on a line oriented N-S on the west edge.  Very mottled and granular appearance with an irregular outline.  Can just steadily resolve a few very faint stars and another half a dozen extremely faint stars pop in and out of view over the core.  Located within a rich star field.

 

WH discovered NGC 6535 = H  on 26 Apr 1852 (sweep 478) WH discovered NGC 6535 = Au 38 on 24 Aug 1780 with his 6.2-inch reflector (used to discover Uranus) during his initial inspection of Flamsteed stars.  According to Wolfgang Steinicke, who uncovered this observation ("a nebula with stars") in his Herschel research, this was the first nebula he discovered!  As a result NGC 7009 = Saturn Nebula, found on 7 Sep 1782 with the same reflector, was his second discovery.  The same night he also observed M8 ("a Nebula not marked in the map full of stars in via Lactea"), before being aware of Messier's catalogue.

 

John Russell Hind independently discovered NGC 6535 on 26 Apr 1852 (MN, 12, 208) with a 7-inch Dolland refractor at George Bishop's private observatory in London and recorded "a nebulous object which does not occur in any of the Catalogues of Nebulae hitherto consulted.  It is very small and rather faint, perhaps 1' in diameter and is preceded a few seconds by a very minute hazy-looking star."  Hind is credited with the discovery in the NGC. Auwers observed it with the 6-inch Heliometer at Kšnigsberg Observatory and reported "pF, round, 2' diameter, gradually very slightly bM."

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NGC 6536 = UGC 11077 = MCG +11-22-016 = CGCG 322-025 = PGC 61166

17 57 16.5 +64 56 16

V = 13.4;  Size 1.2'x1.1';  Surf Br = 13.5

 

17.5" (6/11/88): faint, small, slightly elongated WNW-ESE, unconcentrated.

 

Edward Swift, Lewis' 13 year-old son, discovered NGC 6536 = Sw I-84 on 18 Aug 1884 and recorded "vF; R; pL; 3 stars in form of a triangle near."  Their position is 10 sec of RA east and less than 1' south of UGC 11077 = PGC 61166.  The triangle probably refers to 3 mag 11 stars to the north.

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NGC 6537 = Red Spider Nebula = PK 10+0.1 = PN G010.1+00.7 = ESO 590-PN1

18 05 13.0 -19 50 35

V = 11.9;  Size 5"

 

17.5" (8/17/01): picked up at 220x as a fuzzy mag 12 "star" forming the eastern vertex of an obtuse, isosceles triangle with two similar stars 1.5' W and 2.4' NW.  Excellent view at 380x and 500x.  Clearly nonstellar at the higher powers, ~5" diameter with a bluish color and occasionally a slightly brighter center.

 

13" (8/17/85): appears mag 12.0 or fainter with OIII filter at 79x.  In the field SW of a mag 7 star forming the southern "star" of an arc of three stars.

 

13" (8/11/85): stellar at 166x, estimate mag V =12.5.  Just non-stellar at 220x and clearly nebulous at 360x, about 4" diameter.  Appears fainter than computed V magnitude.  Located 7' SW of mag 6.8 SAO 161056 and forms the east vertex of an obtuse triangle with two mag 12 stars 1.5' WNW and 2.4' NW.

 

Edward Pickering discovered NGC 6537 on 15 Jul 1882 with the 15-inch refractor at the Harvard College Observatory.  NGC 6565 was the 5th of 17 planetaries he found using a direct-vision spectroscope attached to the large refractor.  He announced the discovery of the first dozen in Sidereal Messenger, Oct 1882 (no descriptions) and in Astronomische Nachrichten 2454, he noted it as "small and bright".  His position in Sidereal Messenger was accurate.

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NGC 6538 = UGC 11062 = MCG +12-17-012 = CGCG 340-025 = PGC 61072

17 54 17.1 +73 25 27

V = 13.5;  Size 1.1'x0.6';  Surf Br = 12.8;  PA = 48d

 

17.5" (7/9/88): faint, very small, elongated SW-NE, small bright core.  Located directly between a mag 14 star 1.2' NW and a mag 15 star 1.0' SE.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 6538 = Sw IV-62 on 30 May 1886 and recorded "eF; vS; lE; between 2 eF stars."  His position is 25 seconds of RA west and 44" south of UGC 11062 (2' separation) and his description applies (the stars are northwest and southeast).  Bigourdan measured an accurate position on 10 Oct 1890.

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NGC 6539

18 04 49.7 -07 35 09

V = 9.8;  Size 6.9'

 

24" (7/30/16): at 260x; fairly faint, moderately large, round, ~3' diameter, very weak concentration.  A brighter mag 12.8 star is just off the northwest edge and a mag 13.5 star is off the southwest edge. The cluster was very lively at 432x and several faint to extremely faint stars are resolved around the edges of the halo including a few easy ones just off the west side.  Several very faint to extremely faint stars scintillate over the core and main portion of the halo, popping in and out of view with the seeing, though only a couple of these are consistently visible.

 

18" (7/19/04): at 225x appears fairly faint, moderately large, round, weakly concentration.  The diameter is ~3.5' diameter with averted vision.  A few mag 15-15.5 stars are along the west edge of the halo with some brighter mag 13 stars off to the west and NW.  At 435x, 3 or 4 mag 15 stars are grouped near the west edge of the halo and a single mag 15.5-16 star is near the center.  The edges appear ragged at this magnification.

 

18" (8/23/03): at 323x appears fairly faint, round, pretty diffuse with only a broad, fairly weak concentration.  A mag 12.5 star is off the NW side and a few mag 13 stars are off the SW edge and further off the SE side.  A couple of mag 15 stars are resolved between the two brighter stars on the west side. At 435x, the surface brightness is quite mottled and seems on the verge of resolution but only one or two extremely faint stellar sparkles are intermittently visible.

 

17.5" (8/10/91): fairly faint, moderately large, 3' diameter, round, diffuse, broad weak concentration.  A number of stars are very near including a mag 12.5 star off the NW edge and a fainter mag 13.5 star off the SE edge.  In addition, an extremely faint 15th mag star is resolved near the NW edge and a mag 15 star is visible near the center but no other resolution was evident. 

 

8" (6/22/81): faint, moderately large, very diffuse, no resolution.

 

Theodor Johann Christian Brorsen discovered NGC 6539 = Au 39 in Sep 1856 at the Senftenberg Observatory in the present-day Czech Republic, probably using a 9.4-cm comet-seeker.  Arthur Auwers observed this globular on 10 Oct 1860 with the Konigsberg 6-inch refractor and reported (in the notes to his 1862 list of new nebulae) it "looked faint, but pretty well at 65x; it appears to be a faint star group of about 3' diameter, centrally surrounded by numerous stars 12m." (translation by Wolfgang Steinicke).  NGC 6539 is one of the brighter southern objects missed by JH.

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NGC 6540 = ESO 456-SC053 = Cr 364 = Djorgovski 3

18 06 08.5 -27 45 55

V = 10.4;  Size 1'

 

18" (7/11/07): this very unusual globular is buried within a small asterism and requires careful viewing.  At 325x a very distinctive 1.5' string or shallow arc of stars is oriented E-W and contains 6 stars (these are possible cluster members).  Within this shallow arc is a 20" knot just east of the midpoint and this knot is probably the core of the globular.  The entire string is superimposed on a rich Milky Way background so it was very difficult to determine a diameter for the outer halo.

 

17.5" (7/10/99): this interesting globular is located nearly midway along a short 1.5' E-W arc of a half dozen or so mag 13-14 stars that are bowed out to the north.  The globular is a faint, round, 40" glow, embedded just inside the center of this string which extends beyond the globular to the west and east.  At 100x, this string, along with the haze of the cluster creates the impression the globular is quite elongated.

 

13" (9/3/83): very faint, small, rich spot, slightly elongated E-W, mottled but no resolved.  Also a group of six faint stars in an arc to the SE.  Dark nebula B86 lies 41' W.

 

Originally listed as an open cluster, this object was reclassified as a globular in 1987 by Djorgovski.

 

WH discovered NGC 6540 = H II-198 on 24 May 1784 (end of sweep 224) and recorded "pF, crookedly extended easily resolvable nebula; or rather a cluster of very close stars; not large." 

 

Guillaume Bigourdan's description mentions a size of 1.5' x 25", elongated E-W, stars mag 13 and fainter containing possible "nebulous material".  So, Bigourdan was clearly describing the entire string of stars.

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NGC 6541 = ESO 280-SC004

18 08 02 -43 43 00

V = 6.1;  Size 13.1'

 

22" (6/28/06 - Hawaii): spectacular view at 200x as the globular is well concentrated with a blazing core and a large halo extending to at least 8'.  Roughly 200 stars are resolved, mostly in the halo but even close to the center of the core.  Includes a few brighter stars in the halo on the NE side and towards the south and SSE.

 

11" (8/8/04 - Haleakala Crater): excellent view at 127x!  Well concentrated to a small, intense 1.5' core.  The halo extends to roughly 8' and is well-resolved into perhaps a 100 stars.  A brighter star is at the NE side of the halo and a couple of brighter stars are at the south and SW edge of the cluster.  Prominent in 10x30 IS binoculars.

 

18" (7/9/02 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): this beautiful globular is set in a rich star field and is strongly compressed with a blazing core.  At 171x, the halo is ~8' and highly resolved into a couple of hundred stars mag 12 and fainter.  A few brighter stars (field?) are mixed in including mag 11 stars on the east and SW side of the halo.  The stars are densely packed towards the core - another southern showpiece globular!

 

8" (7/16/82): bright, fairly small, well concentrated to bright core.  Mottled halo but no resolution.  Located 20' SE of a mag 5 star (h 5014 = 5.8/5.8 at 1.8").  Very far south for viewing from Northern California.

 

Niccolo Cacciatore, an assistant to Giuseppe Piazzi, discovered NGC 6541 = D 473 = h 3726 on 19 Mar 1826, probably using the 3-inch refractor in Palermo.  James Dunlop independently discovered this globular a few months later on 3 Jul 1826 and described "a very bright round highly condensed nebula, about 3' diameter. I can resolve a considerable portion round the margin, but the compression is so great near the centre, that it would require a very high power, as well as light, to separate the stars; the stars are rather dusky."  He notes 5 observations were made and his position is 6' northwest of the center.  John Herschel's first observation was on 1 Jun 1834 (h3726) and he reported "globular, B, R, e comp, v Fine; diameter of most comp part = 11 seconds of time in RA; stars 15..16m. The scattered stars extend to three times the diameter and die away very gradually."  He references D 473 in the Cape catalogue but wasn't aware of Cacciatore's earlier observation.

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NGC 6542 = UGC 11092 = MCG +10-25-126 = CGCG 300-103 = CGCG 301-009 = PGC 61239

17 59 38.9 +61 21 33

V = 13.3;  Size 1.3'x0.4';  Surf Br = 12.3;  PA = 98d

 

17.5" (6/11/88): faint, small, very elongated WNW-ESE, brighter core, faint stellar nucleus.  Located 3.9' SE of a mag 10.5 star.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 6542 = Sw IV-66 on 27 May 1886 and recorded "eF; S; eE; coarse D[ouble] * sp points to it."  His position matches UGC 11092 and his description applies.  The coarse double star is 8' southwest.

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NGC 6543 = Cat's Eye Nebula = PK 96+29.1 = Helical Nebula = PN G096.4+29.9

17 58 33.2 +66 37 59

V = 8.1;  Size 22"x19"

 

48" (4/1/11): the extremely bright inner section (22"x19") of the Cat's Eye was a vivid green color at 375x. But besides the bright central star I didn't take notes on the interior structure.  A fairly faint (middle) halo was easily visible, extending ~1.4' diameter and dramatically increased the generally observed size.  This halo had a well-defined periphery and was slightly elongated N-S or the border on the east and west sides were very slightly flattened.  A very faint star is near the west edge.

 

Surrounding the middle shell is a much larger and fainter outer halo that extends ~5' in diameter.  IC 4677 appeared as a prominent, triangular or wedge-shaped knot with the vertex pointing east, situated 1.8' due west of center near the edge of this outer halo. It appeared much larger than previously seen, ~50"x30", and brighter along a well-defined, straight southern edge.  The north side is brightest near the east end at the vertex.  A 15th magnitude star lies 45" NE and a mag 9.8 star is 1.2' NW.  A second fainter knot in the outer halo is located 2.6' ESE of center, just 30" N of a mag 14.5 star.  This knot was only 15"-20" in size and had a low surface brightness.

 

18" (7/21/04): at 435x, it was fairly clear that there were two shells in the main body of different sizes and orientations creating a complex overlapping appearance. Surrounding the high surface brightness main body was a thin, very faint outer envelope (inner portion of the outer envelope). The central star was visible continuously.

 

IC 4677 was easily visible at 160x using a UHC filter as a slightly elongated, low surface brightness glow 1.7' W of center of NGC 6543 and 1.5' SE of a mag 11 star which lies 2.7' WNW of NGC 6543.  This shock-excited knot in the outer halo was elongated 3:2 SW-NE, roughly 20"x13".  At 225x it was barely visible unfiltered, but could be held continuously at this power adding a UHC filter.

 

18" (6/21/03): remarkable view at 538x.  The central star shone steadily in the center of what appeared to be two superimposed shells, offset in orientation by ~90 degrees.  Interior filamentary or arc-like structure was highly suspected.

 

17.5" (6/11/88): viewed at 280x and 412x; the Cat's Eye nebula appears very bright, fairly small, oval SW-NE, blue-green color.  Appears darker (annular) surrounding the mag 11 central star.  The prominent visual portion is surrounded by a very faint oval outer envelope (386") which was not seen but includes the bright irregular knot IC 4677 1.7' W of center.  NGC 6552 is located 10' following.

 

IC 4677 was suspected at 220x without filtration close to a mag 15 star located 1' W of the planetary.  Using a UHC filter, IC 4677 was clearly visible with averted vision as a very faint elongated patch, ~25"x15" oriented SW-NE.  Requires averted for a good view but could hold steadily almost continuously.  It was also visible at 140x with an OIII filter and 280x with the UHC, but 220x provided the best view.

 

13" (7/27/84): at 400x appears very bright, oval N-S, blue color, central star visible with averted. 

 

8": bright, elongated, blue, high surface brightness.

 

WH discovered NGC 6543 = H IV-37 on 15 Feb 1786 (sweep 523) and recorded "vB, about 35" diameter. A planetary disk, but very ill defined edge; the center of it is rather more luminous than the rest. With long attention a very bright, well defined, round center becomes visible.  This seems to be a nebula that connects my former planetary ones with two other sorts; viz with those that are very bright in the middle and suddenly grow more diluted; and with those that have a bright central star, or nucleus and a milky chevelure."

 

In 1790, Lalande included this object as a 9th magnitude "star" (LL 38303 in his major star catalogue.  Giuseppe Bianchi independently rediscovered it on 16 Jun 1839 and announced the discovery an Astronomische Nachrichten letter, apparently unaware of WH's prior discovery (there were many similar cases).  NGC 6543 does not appear in JH's Slough catalogue, which was more accessible and easier to check than WH's catalogues.

 

Sir William Huggins examined NGC 6543 with a spectroscope on 29 Aug 1864 (the same night he viewed NGC 6572, 6828, 6818, 7009, 6720, 7662, 6853).  He wrote "On the evening of the 29th of August, 1864, I directed the telescope for the first time to a planetary nebula in Draco [NGC 6543]. The reader may now be able to picture to himself to some extent the feeling of excited suspense, mingled with a degree of awe, with which, after a few moments of hesitation, I put my eye to the spectroscope. Was I not about to look into a secret place of creation? I looked into the spectroscope. No spectrum such as I expected ! A single bright line only!"  At first, I suspected some displacement of the prism, and that I was looking at a reflection of the illuminated slit from one of its faces. This thought was scarcely more than momentary; then the true interpretation flashed upon me. The light of the nebula was monochromatic, and so, unlike any other light I had as yet subjected to prismatic examination, could not be extended out to form a complete spectrum." Based on subsequent observations, Huggins showed nebulae had bright [OIII] emission lines, unlike the broad spectrum expected of unresolved stars.  He concluded these objects were enormous masses of hot luminous gas or vapour which would never be resolved into stars.

 

E.E. Barnard discovered IC 4677, a shock-excited knot in the outer halo of NGC 6543, on 24 Apr 1900 with the 40-inch Yerkes refractor.  See Harold Corwin's notes.  In 1918, Heber Curtis referred to NGC 6543 as a "helical" form (along with NGC 7293).

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NGC 6544 = ESO 521-SC028

18 07 20.6 -24 59 50

V = 8.2;  Size 7'

 

24" (7/30/16): at 260x; bright, moderately large, irregular scraggly halo, ~4'x3' roughly E-W.  Well concentrated with a bright irregular core with resolved stars.  A mag 11.2 is at the southwest side of the halo, 1.5' from center.  Roughly 15-20 stars are resolved in the halo (horizontal branch magnitude Å 15.2), though some of these are likely field stars.  At least a half-dozen stars are resolved in the central core including a pair of close brighter stars and a third nearly in line.  At 375x at least a dozen stars were resolved over an irregular core region.

 

17.5" (5/10/91): bright, 4'x3', elongated NW-SE, irregular and scraggly outline, mottled.  Located in a rich star field.  About six stars are superimposed including two or three mag 13 stars in a tight knot near the center.  In addition, several faint stars are resolved at the edges (or nearby field stars).  A double star with components mag 11.5/13.5 lies 2' SW. 

 

8" (8/23/84): at 200x, appears moderately bright with two stars are visible at the center and two or three stars are resolved at edges.  The appearance is grainy with a brighter core.

 

8" (7/31/81): fairly faint, small, brighter core, easy but no resolution.

 

WH discovered NGC 6544 = H II-197 = h1994 on 22 May 1784 (sweep 223) and recorded "pB, pL, iR, r."  JH made the single observation "F; L; lE; bM; resolved."

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NGC 6545 = ESO 103-006 = PGC 61551

18 12 14.8 -63 46 34

V = 13.2;  Size 1.0'x0.9';  Surf Br = 13.0;  PA = 151d

 

25" (4/5/16 - Coonabarabran, 318x): fairly faint or moderately bright, small, round, 24" diameter, contains a small brighter nucleus.  The field is rich in faint stars with four mag 13-15 stars in a small quadrilateral close east (sides 30"-50") and a mag 15 star is at the southwest edge.  In the field is a mag 9.7 star 4' S and a mag 10 star 6.7' NE.  NGC 6545 resides 14' SW of mag 6.5 HD 166251.

 

JH discovered NGC 6545 = h3727 on 20 Jun 1835 and recorded "eeeF, vvvS, R, 4".  This is the smallest nebula I recollect to have seen.  Its light is not greater than that of a *14m. A diagram made for security of finding it again.  See figure 16, Plate VI."  His position is a perfect match with ESO 103-006, though this galaxy is not especially small on the DSS.  Perhaps JH only noticed a very small brighter nucleus.    RNGC misclassifies this object as nonexistent; "not found, Sulentic".

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NGC 6546 = Cr 365 = ESO 521-SC029

18 07 23 -23 17 48

V = 8.0;  Size 13'

 

17.5" (8/27/92): bright, large, scattered, 10' diameter.  Including three mag 9 stars on the east side, 10 mag 11-12 stars mag and roughly 70 stars total.  Between the three mag 9 stars is a very faint, rich group of 15-20 stars.  Near the west edge is a faint, very close double.  The majority of the cluster stars are fairly evenly distributed with no other dense regions.  Situated in a rich Milky Way field.

 

8" (8/23/84): scattered group of about 40 stars with 20 stars easily visible and three brighter mag 9 stars on the east side, elongated ~E-W.  A mag 8 star is in the field to the NE.

 

JH discovered NGC 6546 = h3729 on 27 Jun 1837 and noted "the middle of a great and rich cluster in the milky way."  The ESO position is about 5' further south.

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NGC 6547 = UGC 11110 = MCG +04-43-001 = CGCG 141-048 = CGCG 142-001 = PGC 61378

18 05 10.0 +25 13 58

V = 13.6;  Size 1.3'x0.4';  Surf Br = 12.6;  PA = 136d

 

17.5" (7/1/89): fairly faint, fairly small, very elongated NW-SE, very small bright core.  A well-matched double star is 2' S (12.5/12.5 at 16").

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 6547 = m 360 on 7 Aug 1864 and noted "F, vS, E, mbM."  His position matches UGC 11110.

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NGC 6548 = UGC 11115 = MCG +03-46-013 = CGCG 113-020 = PGC 61404

18 05 59.1 +18 35 14

V = 11.7;  Size 3.0'x2.8';  Surf Br = 13.9

 

17.5" (7/1/89): moderately bright, fairly small, elongated NNW-SSE, sharp concentration with a very bright core dominating a faint halo.  Forms a pair with NGC 6549 3.7' SW.

 

WH discovered NGC 6548 = H III-555 on 22 Jun 1786 (sweep 574) and noted "cF, S, iF, lE, r."  His re-reduced position, with respect to 101 Her, is within 1' of UGC 11115.  But CH's reduced position (used in the GC and NGC) was 3.5' southwest of UGC 11115 and close northwest of NGC 6549 = UGC 11114.  E.E. Barnard swept up NGC 6548 on 29 Jan 1889, and also nearby NGC 6549 on 3 Feb 1889 with the 12-inch refractor at Lick Observatory.  He correctly identified the pair.

 

The MCG (+03-46-013) misidentifies NGC 6548 as NGC 6550 and the UGC and CGCG mislabel it as NGC 6548 = NGC 6550.  NGC 6550 is a duplicate of NGC 6549 instead (see that number).

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NGC 6549 = NGC 6550 = UGC 11114 = MCG +03-46-012 = CGCG 113-019 = PGC 61399

18 05 49.5 +18 32 16

V = 13.7;  Size 1.4'x0.4';  Surf Br = 13.0;  PA = 53d

 

17.5" (7/1/89): faint, fairly small, very elongated 3:1 SW-NE, low even surface brightness.  A very faint mag 16 star is involved.  Forms a pair with NGC 6548 3.7' NE.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 6549 = m 361 on 27 Jul 1864 and noted "vF, pL, iR (near III. 555 [= NGC 6548])."  His position matches UGC 11114, a fainter companion to NGC 6548.  ƒdouard Stephan independently found this galaxy on 19 Jul 1882 and measured an accurate micrometric position.  But Stephan, in the notes to list XII, incorrectly mentioned that XII-87 = NGC 6550 is distinct from GC 4377 [NGC 6548] and GCS 5892 [NGC 6549].  There are only two galaxies here, so NGC 6549 = NGC 6550, with discovery priority to Marth.  E.E. Barnard swept up NGC 6548 on 29 Jan 1889 and also noted NGC 6549 on 3 Feb, using the 12-inch Lick refractor.  MCG incorrectly equates NGC 6548 = NGC 6549.

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NGC 6550 = NGC 6549 = UGC 11114 = MCG +03-46-012 = CGCG 113-019 = PGC 61404

18 05 49.5 +18 32 16

 

See observing notes for NGC 6549.

 

ƒdouard Stephan found NGC 6550 = St XII-87 on 19 Jul 1882.  His micrometric position is a perfect match with UGC 1111.  Albert Marth discovered this galaxy earlier on 27 Jul 1864 and it was catalogued as m 361 = GC 5892 = NGC 6549. Stephan, though, in the notes to list XII, incorrectly stated that XII-87 was distinct from NGC 6548 and 6549.  Whatever Stephan felt was NGC 6549, it is clear that NGC 6550 = NGC 6549.

 

Lewis Swift must have examined the field and realized there were only two galaxies here.  In his notes to his large discovery list XI, he mentions "NGC 6550 = H III 555 [NGC 6548].  6550 must be struck out."  In the IC 2 notes, Dreyer repeated that NGC 6550 is identical to NGC 6548 (from Swift), instead of NGC 6549.  This error is repeated in UGC, CGCG, NGC 2000.0 and Deep Sky Field Guide (to the Uranometria Sky Atlas).  This error is mentioned in Malcolm Thomson's unpublished "Catalogue Corrections".  See Harold Corwin's notes for more.

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NGC 6551 = ESO 456-**60?

18 08 45 -29 34 06

 

=NGC 6528 or NGC 6522?, Corwin.  =concentration of stars in Milky Way, ESO.

 

Frances Leavenworth discovered NGC 6551= LM I-230 on 7 Jul 1885 and noted "vF, vS, R, rr."  His rough position (nearest minute of RA) is just 17 seconds west of ESO 456-**60, an asterism of a half-dozen stars within 4'.  Herbert Howe, probably found this asterism with his 20-inch at Denver around the turn of the century and remarked "simply a few stars of mag 13."  ESO (Lauberts) calls it a "Concentration of stars in Milky Way."

 

But Harold Corwin, who examined Leavenworth's sketch, notes that it shows a globular cluster-like object between two stars and does not match this asterism.  So, the group of scattered stars near his position seen by Howe is very unlikely.  Corwin suggests NGC 6528 or perhaps NGC 6522 as candidates, though the nearby stars are not a good match with the sketch.

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NGC 6552 = UGC 11096 = MCG +11-22-018 = CGCG 322-026 = PGC 61252

18 00 07.2 +66 36 54

V = 13.6;  Size 1.0'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 105d

 

17.5" (6/11/88): fairly faint, fairly small, very elongated ~E-W, bright core.  Located just 10' E of NGC 6543, the Cat's Eye Nebula!  Position is nearly coincident with the North Ecliptic Pole so the RA and Dec are virtually constant over time!

 

Heinrich d'Arrest discovered NGC 6552 on 6 Oct 1866 with the 11-inch refractor at Copenhagen while observing H IV 37 [NGC 6543].  Lewis Swift independently found this galaxy on 27 May 1886 and recorded Sw IV-66 as "vF; S; cE; [NGC 6543] in field."

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NGC 6553 = ESO 521-SC036

18 09 15.6 -25 54 28

V = 8.3;  Size 6'

 

24" (7/30/16): at 260x, moderately bright and large, ~3' diameter, weak concentration with no well defined core.  A mag 11.8 star is on the northwest side of the halo and fainter stars are on the northeast side (pair) and southwest side, bounding the cluster into a somewhat rectangular appearance.  At 432, the cluster was very lively or mottled with a couple of additional resolved stars and others just on the verge of resolution.  A few additional stars were resolved around the edges of the halo.

 

17.5" (6/6/86): grainy, mottled globular with a single bright star at the north edge and four or five additional stars at the edges may also be resolved members.  Located in a rich field.  Brightest member star V =14.7.

 

8" (7/31/81): fairly bright, moderately large.  A single star is at the north edge, elongated or fan-shaped N-S, no resolution.

 

WH discovered NGC 6553 = H IV-12 = h3730 on 22 May 1784 (sweep 223) and recorded "pB, L, difficulty resolving; the nebulosity inclining to milkiness.  It is unequally bright."  JH called this cluster "globular; vF; a little oval; vglbM; barely r; stars 20m; one * 14m; diam in RA = 7.5 sec."  Christian Peters independently found the cluster around 1849 at the Capodimonte Observatory in Naples and claimed it did not appear in any catalogue.

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NGC 6554 = ESO 590-?003

18 08 59 -18 26 06

 

18" (9/3/05): at 115x appears as a large, scattered group of ~100 stars in a 25' x10' region.  Most of the brighter stars form a triangular outline with a 15' string of stars oriented NW to SE forming the western leg of the triangle being most evident.  A number of faint stars pepper the interior at 225x, though at this power the group filled the field and was not recognizable at all.  This appears to be a random Milky Way asterism although the triangular outline is somewhat detached in the field at low power.  Contains a number of mag 10.5-11.5 star although there is no single brighter star.  A fairly small triangle of stars including a mag 11 pair at 27" is off the west side.

 

17.5" (8/12/01): large, very scattered, elongated group at 100x.  Roughly three dozen stars are visible in an arbitrary 20'x6' region, extended NW-SE.  A close quadruple is at the west side of the NW end.  There are no rich concentrations and the group looks just like an random asterism.  At 220x, ~50 stars are seen with some faint clumps visible but as the group now fills the field I would not have noticed it at all at this power.  The outline is easier to trace along the western flank and around the NW end.  An evenly matched mag 12 pair is off the west side but is not within the main group.  Listed as a nonexistent cluster in the RNGC.

 

JH discovered NGC 6554 = h1995 on 14 Jul 1830 and recorded "A v coarse and scattered but p rich cluster of L and S stars.  Has several double stars in it." A 24" pair of mag 10/12 stars just 1' north of JH's position in a Milky Way field.  Karl Reinmuth reported "many st in milky way, no distinct Cl" and RNGC classifies the number as nonexistent (Type 7).  Harold Corwin notes that although this is likely not a true cluster, JH's position and description matches this field.

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NGC 6555 = UGC 11121 = MCG +03-46-015 = CGCG 113-022 = Holm 774a = PGC 61432

18 07 49.3 +17 36 17

V = 12.4;  Size 2.0'x1.5';  Surf Br = 13.5;  PA = 110d

 

17.5" (7/1/89): moderately bright, moderately large, almost round, mild concentration but no sharp core.

 

WH discovered NGC 6555 = H II-902 on 29 Jun 1799 (sweep 1090) and recorded "F, pL, R, vgbM, about 3 1/2' dia."  A few minutes earlier he noted that twilight was very strong.  His time is 20 seconds too small and declination 1' too far south.  Herman Schultz measured a micrometric position at Uppsala (used in the NGC), but it was 40 seconds of time too small, so he probably either made a copying error or misidentified the comparison star.  Bigourdan measured an accurate position on 16 Jun 1884 (repeated in the IC 2 Notes).

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NGC 6556 = ESO 456-?61

18 09 57 -27 31 30

 

24" (7/7/13): very bright but patchy Milky Way field, rich in faint stars at 125x (21mm Ethos).  Excellent region to scan, although no distinct boundaries or dark clouds to isolate the object, so does not stand out conspicuously.  The position, though, was easy to identify as an as a large triangle (sides ~12') with four mag 7-8 stars (including HD 165873, 165708, 165787) is off the southwest side.

 

JH discovered NGC 6556 = h3732 on 15 Jul 1836 and recorded "Cl VI. An oval patch comprised within limits of the field, barely resolvable into infinitely minute points, but which, without attention, appears as a great nebula 15' l; 12' br; hardly bM."  In his survey of NGC objects with the 20-inch refractor at Denver, Herbert Howe wrote "I see nothing in the entire region except thousands of the minutest stars."  Dreyer noted "No nebulosity (Howe)" in the IC 2 Notes.

 

Although there is no cluster per se, Harold Corwin writes that JH's position falls in a "complex region of star clouds and obscuring dust clouds near the Galactic Center."

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NGC 6557 = ESO 045-001 = AM 1814-763 = PGC 61770

18 21 24.8 -76 34 59

V = 13.0;  Size 1.6'x1.1';  Surf Br = 13.4;  PA = 77d

 

24" (4/11/08 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): at 260x appeared moderately bright, elongated 3:2 WSW-ENE, 1.0'x0.7', brighter core.  Located 14' E of mag 7.1 HD 15844 and 8.6' W of a 25" pair of mag 10.4/12.5 stars.

 

JH discovered NGC 6557 = h3728 on 30 Jun 1835 and logged "vF; R; glbM; 15"."  His position in the Cape Catalogue and GC is accurate, but Dreyer made a typo in the NGC and placed this object 50¡ too far north.  The error was caught and corrected in the IC 1 Notes.

 

RNGC classifies this as an "Unverified Southern Object" (Type 0).  it is missing from the ESO-LV, Deep Sky Field Guide and the first edition of the Uranometria 2000.0 Sky Atlas.

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NGC 6558 = ESO 456-SC062

18 10 18.3 -31 45 49

V = 9.8;  Size 3.7'

 

17.5" (7/29/92): moderately bright, small, 1.5'-2.0' diameter, irregular outline.  Has a fairly smooth halo with a small bright core offset to the north side with a stellar nucleus sometimes visible.  Five or six very faint mag 14.5-15 stars are embedded within the halo.  Located in a rich star field. 

 

8" (7/31/86): faint, small, round, six faint stars lie to the south.

 

JH discovered NGC 6558 = h3731 on 3 Aug 1834 and recorded "globular cluster; not vB; R; glbM; 2'; resolved.  The stars barely discernible."  On sweep 794 (June 1837) he logged "globular; pB; irreg R; gmbM; composed of st 16m, on a milky way ground of mixed L and vS stars."  This object may be a compact open cluster.

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NGC 6559 = ESO 521-*N40 = LBN 28 =Ced 154f = Gum 75

18 09 58 -24 06 36

Size 8'x5'

 

17.5" (7/20/96): at 140x an irregular glow is easily visible surrounding a group of 5 stars and brightest around a 30" pair of mag 9.5/10.5 stars.  The 4'x3' nebulosity extends mainly to the west and NW of this pair.  Best view probably unfiltered at 140x (nebulosity dims with OIII and similar with UHC), but with a UHC filter a very large hazy nebulosity ~10' diameter stands out to the northwest involving a number of brighter stars.

 

17.5" (7/17/93): observation made at 100x using an OIII filter: Brightest portion of extensive nebulous complex, most prominent along two converging rows of stars oriented SW-NE and NW-SE.  A mag 10 star is located in the second chain.  This description appears to describe the large region of nebulosity to the NW of NGC 6559 mentioned in the July '96 observation.

 

17.5" (6/20/87): 88x with UHC filter: fairly bright, fairly large nebulosity about 5' diameter.  Surrounds two mag 11 stars and extending to four or five fainter mag 12/13 stars.

 

13" (7/16/82): fairly faint, curved strip of nebulosity, includes five stars.

 

JH discovered NGC 6559 = h1996 = h3733 on 1 Jul 1826 and recorded "several stars affected with nebulosity; the brightest taken."  His position corresponds with a mag 8.8 star (brighter of pair) clearly involved with nebulosity.  The CGH catalogue lists a similar position and notes "vF; L; oblong; 5' long; 3' broad; place of a D* involved; 6 other st near.  Query, if involved."

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NGC 6560 = UGC 11117 = MCG +08-33-019 = CGCG 254-015 = PGC 61381

18 05 14.0 +46 52 53

V = 13.6;  Size 1.2'x0.8';  Surf Br = 13.4;  PA = 55d

 

17.5" (8/1/89): faint, small, slightly elongated SW-NE, low almost even surface brightness.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 6560 = Sw V-84 on 22 Oct 1886 and recorded "eeF; pS; iR; 5 stars near sf in a line, middle one double."  His position is 1' too far northeast and the distinctive string of stars is 4'-5' east-southeast.

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NGC 6561

18 10 30 -16 43 30

 

17.5" (7/27/95): very large, fairly rich Milky Way field, roughly 15'x10' elongated ~N-S.  Along the eastern border are four mag 9 stars with a 28" pair at the midpoint of the other two bright stars which are oriented SW-NE at 7' separation.  The stars are fairly evenly distributed and includes a large number of mag 12-13 stars with a background of very faint stars at 220x.  Unable to determine any specific borders or count the large number of stars but the group stands out reasonably well at 80x.

 

WH discovered NGC 6561 = H VIII-54 = h1997 on 27 Jun 1786 (sweep 576) and recorded "a coarsely scattered cluster of considerably L stars.  The place is that of a small triangle or treble star."  JH observed this group of stars twice, first noting on 2 Aug 1826, "very coarsely straggling and loose, hardly entitled to be called a cluster.  The place (roughly taken) is that of 2 or 3 bright stars."  RNGC classifies this object as a nonexistent cluster.

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NGC 6562 = MCG +09-29-051 = CGCG 278-046 = CGCG 279-001 = PGC 61376

18 05 00.9 +56 15 47

V = 13.7;  Size 0.7'x0.7';  Surf Br = 12.8

 

17.5" (7/19/90): faint, very small, round, 0.5' diameter, small bright core.  A mag 14 star is about 30" off the SW edge and 51" from center.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 6562 = Sw I-85 on 8 Jun 1885 and logged "F; pS; BM; R; bet 2 st."  His position is 10 seconds of RA too large.  Howe measured an accurate micrometric position in 1899-00.

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NGC 6563 = PK 358-7.1 = ESO 394-PN33 = PN G358.5-07.3

18 12 02.5 -33 52 06

V = 10.8;  Size 50"x37"

 

18" (7/16/07): at 323x appears as a fairly bright, sharply defined disc, slightly elongated SW-NE and perhaps 48"x42".  The disc exhibits a subtle irregularity in surface brightness but there was no evident annularity.  A couple of extremely faint stars occasionally sparkled over the disc, though it was difficult to tell if one was situated right at the center.

 

17.5" (6/28/00): at 280x this moderately bright PN appears elongated 5:4 SW-NE, ~50"x40".  The surface brightness is pretty smooth and no central star was visible.  A UHC filter provides a moderate contrast gain.  Set is a rich star field.

 

13" (8/17/85): observation at 166x and 220x: fairly faint, moderately large, slightly elongated ~N-S, no annularity.  Prominent using UHC filter, moderate surface brightness.  Located in a rich star field 15' ESE of mag 6.2 SAO 209817.

 

8" (7/16/82): faint, elongated N-S, fairly small.

 

JH discovered NGC 6563 = h3734 = D 606? on 7 Jun 1837 and recorded "a L, F, oval, planetary nebula, about 60" long, 50" broad, or 55"; considerably hazy, or rather indistinctly terminated at the borders, but not bM; a star 6-7m precedes it, just 1 diameter of the field and nearly in the parallel."

 

James Dunlop possibly discovered this planetary on 3 Sep 1826 and reported a "faint nebula, about 1 1/4' long and 30" or 40" broad, with a considerable brightness near each end and faint in the middle, resembling two small nebulae joined." His position (single observation) is 36' northeast of NGC 6563, a fairly large error even for Dunlop, but the size is reasonably close.

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NGC 6564

18 09 02.4 +17 23 40

 

=**?, Gottlieb.  =***?, Corwin.  =NF, RNGC.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 6564 = m 362 on 15 May 1864 and noted "eF, vS."  There is nothing near his position and no galaxy catalogue has a listing for NGC 6564.  RNGC classifies the number as nonexistent.

 

Harold Corwin suggests NGC 6564 may be a triple star at the position given here, though this is very uncertain as his description is of no help.

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NGC 6565 = PK 3-4.5 = PN G003.5-04.6 = ESO 456-PN70

18 11 52.4 -28 10 43

V = 11.4;  Size 10"x8"

 

17.5" (8/17/01): picked up at 100x as fuzzy mag 12 star. At 500x in good seeing, I had an excellent view of a crisp, slightly elongated 10" disc with an irregular surface brightness.  In steadier moments, annularity was evident and there appeared to be a tiny darker hole in the center with a brighter rim but no hint of a central star.  Situated within a rich Sagittarius star field with a few faint stars within 1' and several brighter stars in the field.

 

13.1" (8/17/85): at 166x and UHC filter; moderately bright, small, round, clearly non-stellar, 10" diameter, high surface brightness.  Easy at 360x without filter, appears slightly elongated NW-SE, no central star visible.  Similar view on 8/11/85.

 

Edward Pickering discovered NGC 6565 = HN 42 on 14 Jul 1880 with the 15-inch refractor at Harvard College Observatory.  NGC 6565 was the second of 17 planetaries he found using a direct-vision spectroscope attached to the large refractor.  He announced the discovery of the first dozen in Sidereal Messenger, Oct 1882.  Compared to NGC 6644, which was discovered the next night, NGC 6565 was "somewhat fainter, but with a larger disk" (The Observatory, 1881).

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NGC 6566 = MCG +09-30-001 = CGCG 279-002 = PGC 61418

18 07 00.6 +52 15 37

V = 14.4;  Size 0.8'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.6

 

17.5" (7/19/90): very faint, extremely small, round.  A mag 15 star is 0.6' W of center and an extremely faint mag 16 star is at the NW edge.

 

Heinrich d'Arrest discovered NGC 6566 on 27 Oct 1861 with the 11-inch refractor at Copenhagen.  His single position is 1.4' too far north.  He mentions a mag 16 star is near.  This may be either of the stars mentioned in my observation.

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NGC 6567 = PK 11-0.2 = ESO 590-PN8 = PN G011.7-00.6

18 13 45.2 -19 04 33

V = 10.9;  Size 11"x7"

 

18" (8/14/07): picked up at 94x as a "bloated" blue star of 11th magnitude.  Easy to verify with a UHC blink though only a moderate contrast gain.  Situated in a beautiful star field on the southwest side of the Small Sgr Star Cloud.  A very long dark lane (part of Barnard 304) crosses the low power field from SW to NE, passing to the north of the planetary.  In the 80mm finder at 25x this lane extends NE and is attached to the prominent dark cloud B92 on its southwest side.  At 260x this high surface brightness planetary displays a 10" disc with a 13th magnitude star barely off the east edge.

 

17.5" (7/8/94): bright very compact planetary at 220x with a mag 13 star at the east edge.  Excellent contrast gain with OIII filter.  A high surface brightness small disc is visible at 280x that is cleanly resolved from the following star.  Has a brighter center but no central star seen.  Located in a very rich Milky Way field on the SW side of the Small Sagittarius Star Cloud (M24).

 

8" (8/15/82): appears as a mag 11 "star" at 100x.  Slightly non-stellar at 200x.  A slightly elongated disc N-S is visible at 400x.  Forms a close pair with a mag 12 star just east.  Situated in a rich star field.

 

Edward Pickering discovered NGC 6567 on 18 Aug 1882 using a direct-vision spectroscope with the 15-inch refractor at the Harvard College Observatory.  NGC 6567 was the 9th of 17 planetaries he found using this technique.  His RA, though, was 1.5 minutes too small.  The discovery was announced in AN 2459 and Sidereal Messenger, Oct 1882.

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NGC 6568 = Cr 369 = ESO 590-SC006

18 12 44 -21 37 42

Size 13'

 

17.5" (8/1/92): at 82x, 75 stars mag 11-14 in 15'x10' region elongated N-S.  Appears as a large enhancement of the Milky Way with no sharp edges.  Most stars are at the periphery and the central region is devoid of stars.  Irregular outline is formed by winding arcs of stars in a "S" pattern with most stars 13th magnitude.  The densest region is a very winding lane along the NW edge. 

 

8" (6/27/81): faint, rich dusting of mag 11-13 stars, forms a nice arc.  A mag 5.5 star is 30' SE.

 

WH discovered NGC 6568 = H VII-30 = h1998 = h3735 on 26 May 1786 (sweep 566) and recorded "a cluster of pS, scattered stars; above 15' diameter."  His position is good.  From the Cape of Good Hope, JH called this object a "cluster VIII class; loose; scattered; fills field; is decidedly richer than any part of the milky way that has occurred tonight."

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NGC 6569 = ESO 456-SC077

18 13 38.8 -31 49 35

V = 8.7;  Size 5.8'

 

17.5" (5/10/91): fairly bright, fairly small, round, 2.5' diameter, weakly concentrated but no distinct core.  Irregular surface brightness and mottled with darker areas on the east side but there was no definite resolution into stars.  Four stars cradle the globular to the SW and SE and mag 6.6 SAO 209873 is 9' S. 

 

8" (7/31/81): faint, small, round, no resolution.  A mag 7 star is 9' S.

 

WH discovered NGC 6569 = H II-201 = D 619 = h3736 on 13 Jul 1784 (sweep 237) and recorded "F, pL, lbM, r."  His position (CH's reduction) is 9' too far northeast.  This globular was the second most southerly object WH discovered.  James Dunlop observed NGC 6569 on 2 Jun 1826 and recorded "a pretty well-defined round nebula, about 2' diameter, slight condensation to the centre."  He made 2 observations and his position was 14' too far east.

 

On 3 Aug 1834, JH described the cluster as "globular; pB; L; R; glbM; 4' diam, resolved into stars 15m."  He also noted that on 16 Jul 1836, the cluster was "Found in equatorial [5-inch refractor] in a zone review for double stars, where it appeared as a F, R neb 1' diam."

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NGC 6570 = UGC 11137 = MCG +02-46-008 = CGCG 084-022 = VV 537 = LGG 419-001 = PGC 61512

18 11 07.3 +14 05 34

V = 12.7;  Size 1.8'x1.1';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 30d

 

17.5" (7/1/89): fairly faint, oval SSW-NNE, fairly small, very weak concentration, rich star field.  Bracketed by four mag 13-14 stars.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 6570 = m 363, d'A on 2 Jun 1864 and noted "pF, pL, R."  His position and description matches UGC 11137. Heinrich d'Arrest independently found NGC 6570 on 23 Aug 1865 with the 11-inch refractor at Copenhagen and observed the galaxy on 3 consecutive nights.

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NGC 6571 = MCG +04-43-006 = CGCG 142-010 = PGC 61504

18 10 49.4 +21 14 19

V = 14.3;  Size 0.3'x0.3'

 

17.5" (7/16/88): very faint, small, slightly elongated, broad concentration.  First in the large NGC 6579/NGC 6580 group.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 6571 = m 364 on 27 Jul 1864 and noted "eF, vS, stell."  His position is less than 1' due south of CGCG 142-010 = PGC 61504.

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NGC 6572 = PK 34+11.1 = PN G034.6+11.8 = ·6 = Emerald Nebula = The Blue Racquetball

18 12 06.3 +06 51 13

V = 8.0;  Size 16"x13"

 

48" (4/4/11): I only took a quick look at this colorful planetary in the 48-inch at the end of the last night when the seeing the poor, but I could tell the very high surface brightness blue/green component was surrounded by much fainter outer halo that appeared pinkish!

 

18" (8/2/05): at 225x I noticed an interesting color effect; although the color was a quite prominent bluish-green, while staring at the center the planetary decreased in size and the color changed to a deep emerald green.

 

18" (8/14/04): at 225x, strikingly bright emerald green oval, slightly elongated ~N-S, ~15"x12".  Increasing to 435x this compact planetary appears elongated 3:2, ~16"x11" and brightens towards the center with direct vision, although the color becomes bluish and washed out.  The surface brightness is too high to pick out a central star.  There appears to be small, faint envelope encasing the planetary.

 

18" (7/19/04): at 225x this small planetary is very bright, with an obvious blue-green color.  Generally, the color appeared a vivid emerald green and other times there was bluish tint to the color.  The main body is only ~8" in size with a thin halo elongated ~SW-NE increasing the size to roughly 15"x11".  It appears to have a much larger, very low surface brightness halo, though perhaps this is scattered light as the planetary has such as a high surface brightness.  This halo is still evident at 322x, roughly 30" in diameter.

 

17.5" (6/3/00): at 220x appears as a very bright, small, intense blue oval, ~15"x12".  At 280x-500x, a thin outer envelope is obvious with the inner oval a uniform high surface brightness.  No central star visible.

 

13" (8/24/84): very bright, small, about 15" diameter, slightly elongated N-S, extremely high surface brightness, blue color.  Very faint outer halo is elongated N-S.  No central star seen. 

 

8" (7/79): bright, small, very high surface brightness.

 

Wilhelm Struve discovered NGC 6572 = · 6 = h2000 on 18 Jul 1825 with the 9.6" Fraunhofer refractor at the Dorpat Observatory.  It was included in his list of 9 "Nebulae detectae" in an appendix to his main catalogue of double stars, which was published in 1827.  According to Wolfgang Steinicke, Bessel earlier measured NGC 6572 in 1822 during his "Zone observations" at Konigsberg, but didn't mention it as being nebulous.

 

JH first observed this planetary on 9 May 1828 and recorded "a beautiful round, perfectly well defined and brilliant disc, equally a star 8-9 mag.  White equably bright.  Well seen in broad morning twilight.  A * 9-10m follows, 2' dist.  The sweeping power shows it as a * of large diameter, which could not escape examination in a good night; with 240 the disc seen as described.  It cannot be more than 4" diameter."  On 19 Aug 1830, JH showed the planetary to Wilhelm Struve at Slough.  Auwers made several measurements of the size, including 6.4"x5.3".  At Birr Castle, the color was described as "very blue". 

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NGC 6573 = ESO 590-**7

18 13 54 -22 09 48

Size 12'

 

24" (7/7/13): at 125x this is a nice 12' field (not a cluster) with the stars mostly arranged in three distinct groups.  On the west side is an 8' string oriented NW-SE with a clump at the NW end.  On the north side is more scattered circular group of a couple dozen stars.  Finally on the east side is another elongated group oriented NW-SE with the brighter stars on the SE end.  This field is located 25' due west of the rich cluster NGC 6583.

 

JH discovered NGC 6573 = h1999 on 28 Jul 1830 and reported "A cluster composed of 2 or 3 clusters of very small stars, and loose large ones.  Perhaps this is an outlier of V. 31 [NGC 6583]."  NGC 6583 lies 2.0 min of RA east of JH's position.  ESO calls this number NGC 6573 a "Concentration of 5 or 6 stars only".

 

According to Harold Corwin, Jeff Corder suggested this was a large scattered clump of stars right around JH's position, based on an observation with his 17/5-inch.  This is the same group of stars described in my observation.

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NGC 6574 = NGC 6610 = UGC 11144 = MCG +02-46-010 = CGCG 084-024 = CGCG 113-026 = PGC 61536

18 11 51.2 +14 58 54

V = 12.0;  Size 1.4'x1.1';  Surf Br = 12.3;  PA = 160d

 

17.5" (7/1/89): moderately bright, fairly small, elongated 3:2 NNW-SSE, 0.9'x0.6', broad concentration.  A mag 14 star is involved at the south end 30" from the center.

 

8" (6/19/82): faint, small, slightly elongated N-S.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 6574 = m 365 on 9 Jul 1863 and noted "pB, S, R."  His position is accurate.  Stephan independently rediscovered this galaxy on 10 Jun 1864 and included it in list VII-21 (later NGC 6610), but his position was poor due to an error with his offset star.  So, NGC 6574 = NGC 6610, with discovery priority to Marth.

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NGC 6575 = UGC 11138 = MCG +05-43-006 = CGCG 172-009 = PGC 61506

18 10 57.6 +31 06 57

V = 12.7;  Size 1.8'x1.3';  Surf Br = 13.6;  PA = 65d

 

17.5" (8/1/89): fairly faint, fairly small, oval SW-NE, bright core.  Forms a pair with IC 1277 9' SW.  Located 8.0' S of mag 8.2 SAO 66720.

 

Truman Safford discovered NGC 6575 = Sf 33 = St XII-88 on 7 Jun 1866 and recorded "bN (12m) diam 20"."  ƒdouard Stephan independently found this galaxy on 1 Jul 1880 and called it "mB, S, R."  As Safford's discovery was not published until 1887 when the NGC was going to press, Stephan is credited with the discovery.

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NGC 6576 = CGCG 142-014 = PGC 61530

18 11 48.0 +21 25 42

V = 14.5;  Size 0.6'x0.5';  Surf Br = 13.0

 

17.5" (7/16/88): extremely faint, very small, round, weak concentration.  Located 3.3' SW of NGC 6577 in the NGC 6579/6580 group.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 6576 = m 366, along with NGC 6577, 6579 and 6580, on 7 Aug 1864 and noted "eF, vS."  His position is 1' too far north.

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NGC 6577 = UGC 11148 = MCG +04-43-009 = CGCG 142-017 = PGC 61543

18 12 01.2 +21 27 49

V = 12.6;  Size 1.5'x1.3';  Surf Br = 13.3

 

17.5" (7/16/88): faint, small, round, small bright core.  A mag 14/15  double star is 1' E.  Located in the NGC 6579/NGC 6580 group with NGC 6576 3.3' SW.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 6577 = m 367 = Sf 30, along with NGC 6576, 6579 and 6580, on 7 Aug 1864 and noted "vF, S." His position is accurate.  Truman Safford rediscovered this galaxy on 6 Jun 1866 with the 18.5-inch Clark refractor at the Dearborn Observatory.  The discovery was not announced until the 1887 Dearborn Observatory publication.

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NGC 6578 = PK 10-1.1 = PN G010.8-01.8 = ESO 590-PN12

18 16 16.4 -20 27 02

V = 12.6;  Size 13"x10"

 

17.5" (8/17/01): Situated within a clump of stars at 100x and appeared stellar at low power.  At 500x, a small unevenly lit 4" disc was easily visible close ENE [21"] of a mag 11 star. An extremely faint star is just off the SE edge and an evenly matched 20" pair of mag 11 stars lie 1' SE.  Located 7' NW of a mag 7 star.

 

13" (6/18/85): just non-stellar at 220x, estimate V = 13.0, 5" diameter.  Suspected nebulous at 144x, confirmed by UHC blinking.  Located 7.2' NW of mag 7.1 SAO 186575 (17 Sagittarii?).  Forms a close double with a mag 11 star 21" WSW and a pair of mag 11 stars is 1' SE.  This PN is plotted incorrectly on the Sky Atlas 2000.0.

 

Edward Pickering discovered NGC 6578 on 18 Aug 1882 using a direct-vision spectroscope with the 15-inch refractor at the Harvard College Observatory.  NGC 6578 was found on the same night with NGC 6439 and NGC 6567.  His RA, though, was 1.5 minutes too small (same error as NGC 6567) and his declination was 10' too far north.  The discovery was announced in AN 2459 and Sidereal Messenger, Oct 1882.

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NGC 6579 = MCG +04-43-011 = CGCG 142-022 = Holm 775b = PGC 61562

18 12 31.8 +21 25 14

V = 13.5;  Size 0.5'x0.5';  Surf Br = 11.9

 

17.5" (7/16/88): very faint, very small, slightly elongated.  A mag 15.5 star is 30" SW (this is a double star on the POSS).  Nearly attached at the SW edge of NGC 6580 (34" separation) in a large group.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 6579 = m 368, along with NGC 6580, 6576 and 6577, on 7 Aug 1864 and noted "F, Dneb [with NGC 6580]."  His position is less than 1' north of CGCG 142-022 = PGC 61562. 

 

CGCG misidentifies CGCG 142-020 as NGC 6579 = NGC 6580.  This galaxy is 11' NNE of the NGC 6579/6580 double system.

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NGC 6580 = MCG +04-43-012 = CGCG 142-022 = Holm 775a = PGC 61566

18 12 33.7 +21 25 35

V = 13.1;  Size 1.1'x0.6';  Surf Br = 12.5;  PA = 126d

 

17.5" (7/16/88): faint, small, elongated NW-SE, small bright core, diffuse halo.  A mag 12 star is off the north edge.  Forms a double system with NGC 6579 off the SW edge 34" from centers.  Brightest in the cluster.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 6580 = m 369 = Sf 31, along with NGC 6579, 6576 and 6577, on 7 Aug 1864 and noted "F, Dneb [with NGC 6579]."  His position matches CGCG 142-022 = PGC 61566.  Truman Safford rediscovered this galaxy on 6 Jun 1866 with the 18.5-inch Clark refractor at the Dearborn Observatory.  CGCG misidentifies CGCG 142-020 as NGC 6579/6580.  This error is mentioned in Malcolm Thomson's unpublished "Catalogue Corrections".