NGC 1001 = MCG +07-06-050 = CGCG 539-069 = PGC 10050

02 39 12.7 +41 40 18

V = 13.9;  Size 0.7'x0.3';  Surf Br = 12.1;  PA = 114d

 

18" (12/18/06): fairly faint, fairly small, very elongated 3:1 or 7:2 NW-SE, 0.7'x0.2'.  With direct vision a faint stellar nucleus is visible.  Occasionally I thought the nucleus was double, but instead there appeared to be an extremely faint star at the NW edge.  Located 4.7' E of NGC 999.

 

17.5" (11/1/86): faint, small, very elongated WNW-ESE.  An extremely faint mag 15.5 star is at the west end or an extremely faint companion (appears elongated on the POSS).  A mag 13.5 star is 1.4' SE.  NGC 999 lies 4.7' W in the NGC 995-1005 group.

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 1001 = St III-16 on 8 Dec 1871 with the 31" reflector at the Marseille Observatory.  His position is accurate.  Fifth in a group of 6 NGC galaxies discovered by Stephan.

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NGC 1002 = UGC 2133 = MCG +06-06-070 = CGCG 523-079 = N983 = PGC 10034

02 38 55.7 +34 37 21

V = 13.1;  Size 1.2'x0.9';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 140d

 

17.5" (11/27/92): fairly faint, small, slightly elongated, larger brighter core, irregular surface brightness.  Collinear with a mag 12.5 star 1.2' NE and a mag 13 star 2.8' NE.

 

ƒdouard Stephan found NGC 1002 = St XII-21 on 14 Dec 1881 with the 31" reflector at the Marseille Observatory.  His position matches UGC 2133 = PGC 10034, though he discovered (list III-11) this galaxy 10 years earlier on 13 Dec 1871 and Dreyer catalogued it as NGC 983.  Stephan misidentified his comparison star, though, so the position for NGC 983 is incorrect.  When corrected, NGC 983 = NGC 1002.  Because the position for NGC 1002 is unambiguous, catalogues use this identification.  See Corwin's notes for NGC 983.

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NGC 1003 = UGC 2137 = MCG +07-06-051 = CGCG 539-070 = LGG 070-005 = PGC 10052

02 39 16.9 +40 52 20

V = 11.5;  Size 5.5'x1.9';  Surf Br = 13.8;  PA = 97d

 

18" (12/18/06): fairly bright, fairly large, elongated 3:1 ~E-W, 2.5'x0.9', broad concentration with a large, brighter core.  The core brightens slightly to the center but there is no distinct nucleus, although the center has a mottled appearance with an occasional sparkle or two (possibly a faint, superimposed star or a slightly brighter knot).  A mag 13 star is just off the NE edge of the core.  Located 2' NE mag 10 SAO 38196 and two degrees SSW of M34.  Member of the NGC 1023 Group.

 

17.5" (11/1/86): moderately bright, elongated 3:1 WNW-ESE, bright core.  A mag 13 star is involved at the NE side, just 0.8' from center.  Located 2' NE of a mag 10 star.

 

13"  (12/22/84): moderately bright, elongated ~E-W, weak concentration.  A mag 13 star is on the NE edge 0.8' from center.  An extremely faint knot is at the NW edge.

 

WH discovered NGC 1003 = H II-238 = H III-198 = h240 on 6 Oct 1784 (sweep 283) and noted "Suspected, but the haziness will not permit to verify it."  On 17 Oct 1786 (sweep 614), he logged "pB, mE nearly in the parallel, mbM, near 4' long and about 1' br." The next night (sweep 618) he logged "cB, mE, vgmbM, near 4' l."  The two H-designations were combined in the GC and NGC (suggested by Marth).

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NGC 1004 = UGC 2112 = MCG +00-07-057 = CGCG 388-068 = PGC 9961

02 37 41.8 +01 58 31

V = 12.7;  Size 1.4'x1.3';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 115d

 

18" (11/18/06): fairly faint, fairly small, slightly elongated, 0.5'x0.4', weak concentration.  A mag 12 star is attached at the west edge of the halo.  Observation through thin clouds.

 

18" (10/21/06): fairly faint, small, round, bright nearly stellar nucleus.  A mag 12 star is barely off the WSW edge.  Located 13' SW of NGC 1016 on the west side of the cluster.

 

17.5" (10/8/94): faint, very small, round, 0.5' diameter.  A mag 12 star is just off the WSW edge 25" from the center.  Forms a pair with NGC 1008 7.1' NE at the SW end of the NGC 1016 cluster.

 

17.5" (10/17/87): fairly faint, very small, round, small bright core.  A mag 12 star is just 25" WSW of the center.  Member of the NGC 1016 cluster with NGC 1008 8' NNE and NGC 1016 13' NE.

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 1004 = St XI-3 on 1 Dec 1880 with the 31" reflector at the Marseille Observatory.  His position matches UGC 2112 = PGC 9961.  Lewis Swift independently found the galaxy again on 17 Oct 1885 and his position in list III-14 is also accurate.  His comment "pF * very close" applies to this galaxy.

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NGC 1005 = MCG +07-06-052 = CGCG 539-071 = PGC 10062

02 39 27.7 +41 29 36

V = 13.6;  Size 0.9'x0.8';  Surf Br = 13.4

 

18" (12/18/06): fairly faint, small, round, 25" diameter, increases to a samll bright core.  Located on the SE side of the NGC 995-1005 group, 3' E of a 40" pair of mag 11.5-12 stars.

 

17.5" (11/1/86): fairly faint, very small, round, bright core.  Located in the NGC 995-1005 group.

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 1005  = St III-17 on 9 Dec 1871 with the 31" reflector at the Marseille Observatory.  His position matches CGCG 539-071 = PGC 10062.  Sixth in a group of 6 NGC galaxies discovered by Stephan.

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NGC 1006 = NGC 1010 = MCG -02-07-044 = PGC 9949

02 37 34.9 -11 01 31

Size 0.9'x0.9'

 

See observing notes for NGC 1010.

 

Lewis Swift found NGC 1006 = Sw V-30 on 29 Sep 1886 with a 16" refractor. His position is 10 sec of RA west of NGC 1010, discovered 10 years earlier by ƒdouard Stephan.  Swift caught the error in position and corrected it in his notes section of list VI.  So, NGC 1010 = NGC 1006.  Still, Dreyer included NGC 1006 as a separate entry in the NGC.

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NGC 1007 = CGCG 388-069 = MCG +00-07-059 = PGC 9967

02 37 52.2 +02 09 21

V = 16.0;  Size 0.6'x0.2';  Surf Br = 12.8;  PA = 49d

 

18" (11/18/06): very faint, extremely small, round, 12" diameter.  Located 7.2' WNW of NGC 1016 and 2.7' S of a mag 9.5 star.  This is the faintest NGC galaxy in the cluster.

 

17.5" (10/17/87): extremely faint and small, round.  A mag 9 star (SAO 110651) lies 2.8' N.  Located 4.6' NNW of NGC 1008 within the NGC 1016 cluster.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 1007 = m 66 on 15 Jan 1865 with Lassell's 48" on Malta and reported "vF, stellar".  Marth's position is 1' S of CGCG 388-069 = PGC 9967.

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NGC 1008 = UGC 2114 = MCG +00-07-060 = CGCG 388-070 = PGC 9970

02 37 55.3 +02 04 47

V = 13.6;  Size 0.8'x0.6';  Surf Br = 12.8;  PA = 85d

 

18" (11/18/06): faint, small, slightly elongated, 0.4'x0.3', weak concentration, very faint stellar nucleus with direct vision.  Located 6.5' WSW of NGC 1016 and 3' NW of a mag 11 star.

 

18" (10/21/06): fairly faint, small, elongated 4:3 ~E-W, 0.5'x0.35', weak even concentration.  Located 3' NW of a mag 11 star and 7' WSW of NGC 1016 in the core of the cluster.

 

17.5" (10/8/94): very faint, small, round.  A mag 10 star is 2.9' SE.  Located between NGC 1004 7.1' SW and NGC 1016 6.5' ENE.

 

17.5" (10/17/87): fairly faint, small, slightly elongated, weak concentration.  NGC 1007 lies 4.6' NNW. Located 7' SW of NGC 1016 in the NGC 1016 cluster.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 1008 = m 67 on 15 Jan 1865 with Lassell's 48" on Malta and reported "vF, eS, stellar". His position is accurate.

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NGC 1009 = UGC 2129 = MCG +00-07-065 = CGCG 388-077 = FGC 325 = PGC 9995

02 38 19.0 +02 18 35

V = 14.4;  Size 1.4'x0.2';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 124d

 

18" (11/18/06): very faint, small, very elongated 3:1 WNW-ESE, 0.6'x0.2', low even surface brightness.  Located 11.5' due north of NGC 1016 in a cluster.

 

18" (10/21/06): very faint, small, very elongated 3:1 NW-SE, 0.45'x0.15'.  Brighter IC 241 lies 6' WNW.  Located 11' due north of NGC 1016 in the cluster.

 

17.5" (10/17/87): extremely faint, small, elongated WNW-ESE.  A mag 11 star is 2' SE.  IC 241 lies 6.2' WNW and NGC 1016 11.5' S in a cluster.

 

Edward Swift, Lewis' 15 year-old son, discovered NGC 1009 = Sw III-15 on 1 Jan 1886 with the 16" refractor at the Warner Observatory.  The Swifts' published positon is 15 sec of RA west of UGC 2129.

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NGC 1010 = NGC 1006 = MCG -02-07-044 = Holm 62a = PGC 9949

02 37 34.9 -11 01 31

V = 14.4;  Size 0.9'x0.9';  Surf Br = 14.0

 

17.5" (10/8/94): faint, fairly small, round, no concentration.  A mag 13 star is 3.7' NW.  First in and brightest of a trio with NGC 1011 1.5' NE and NGC 1017 3.8' ENE.

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 1010 = St VIIIb-6 (along with NGC 1011) on 21 Nov 1876 with the 31" reflector at the Marseille Observatory.  His position matches PGC 9949.  Swift later independently found the pair on 29 Sep 1886 and his position in list V-30 is just 10 sec of RA too far west.  In the errata section of list VI, Swift noted the equivalence with GC 5262 = NGC 1010, but Dreyer included Swift's entry as NGC 1006.  So, NGC 1006 = NGC 1010, with discovery priority to Stephan.

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NGC 1011 = MCG -02-07-045 = Holm 62b = PGC 9955

02 37 38.9 -11 00 20

V = 14.3;  Size 0.6'x0.6';  Surf Br = 13.0

 

17.5" (10/8/94): very faint, small, round.  Located 1.5' NE of NGC 1010.  Second of three with NGC 1017 2.7' E.

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 1011 = St VIIIb-7 (along with NGC 1010 = St VIIIb-6) on 21 Nov 1876 with the 31" reflector at the Marseille Observatory.  His position is accurate.  Lewis Swift later independently found the pair on 29 Sep 1886.  His position in list V-31 is just 10 tsec too far west.  Swift noted his object was identical to GC 5263 in the errata to list VI. Dreyer combined the two observations into NGC 1011.

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NGC 1012 = UGC 2141 = MCG +05-07-027 = CGCG 505-030 = PGC 10051

02 39 14.9 +30 09 05

V = 12.0;  Size 2.5'x1.1';  Surf Br = 13.0;  PA = 24d

 

17.5" (11/27/92): fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 3:2 ~N-S, broad concentration.  Unusual appearance as a mag 13.5 star is embedded just east of the core.

 

WH discovered NGC 1012 = H III-152 = h241 on 11 Sep 1784 (sweep 266) and recorded "vF, pS, of equal light."  On 11 Jan 1787 (sweep 680) he logged "F, irr figure, some stars visible, but they seem not to belong to it."  JH recorded "pB; irreg R; bM; 18"; resolvable. RA doubtful".  R.J. Mitchell made a sketch with the 72" on 23 Nov 1857 that was included in LdR's 1861 publication (plate XXV, figure 4).

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NGC 1013 = MCG -02-07-046 = PGC 9966

02 37 50.4 -11 30 26

V = 13.5;  Size 0.9'x0.7';  Surf Br = 12.8

 

17.5" (12/28/94): faint, small, round, 30" diameter, weak concentration.  Located 8.8' SW of a mag 8.5 star (·288 = 8.9/11.9 at 12").  The galaxy is collinear with an elongated group of four mag 12-13 stars oriented SW-NE starting 6' SW.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 1013 = Sw V-32 on 29 Sep 1886 with his 16" Clark refractor.  His position is 7 tsec west and 26" south of MCG -02-07-046 = PGC 9966 and his comment "between 2 distant D stars" applies to this galaxy.

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NGC 1014

02 38 00.8 -09 34 24

V = 14.8/15.2;  Size 10"

 

24" (2/5/13): this NGC designation applies to a close pair of faint stars that was resolved at 282x.  The two stars are both 15th magnitude (14.8/15.2) and at a separation of 10" or less.  Located 3' SW of NGC 1018.

 

Frank Muller discovered NGC 1014 = LM II-342 in 1886 with the 26" refractor and reported "0.1' dia, iR, and 1st of 2 [with NGC 1018]."  With respect to NGC 1018, Muller's offset is 0.2 tmin west and 1' south.  Just 1' further south is a very faint double star (separation ~11") and Corwin identifies this double as NGC 1014.

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NGC 1015 = UGC 2124 = MCG +00-07-066 = CGCG 388-075 = PGC 9988

02 38 11.5 -01 19 08

V = 12.1;  Size 2.6'x2.6';  Surf Br = 14.0;  PA = 10d

 

17.5" (11/14/87): moderately bright, fairly small, slightly elongated, bright core, faint halo.  Located 6.4' NW of mag 8.0 SAO 130029.

 

Wilhelm Tempel discovered NGC 1015 = T I-13 = T V-1 on 27 Dec 1875 with an 11" refractor at the Arcetri Observatory.  His micrometric position in list V is a precise match with UGC 2124 = PGC 9988.

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NGC 1016 = UGC 2128 = MCG +00-07-067 = CGCG 388-076 = PGC 9997

02 38 19.5 +02 07 09

V = 11.6;  Size 2.0'x2.0';  Surf Br = 13.2

 

18" (11/18/06): fairly bright, moderately large, round, 1.5' diameter.  Contains a bright 20" core that increases to the center.  Located 8' SE of a mag 9.6 star.  Brightest and largest member of the NGC 1016 cluster.

 

18" (10/21/06): moderately bright, fairly large, round.  The bright 30" core increases to the center.  Surrounding the core is a fairly large, low surface brightness halo ~2' in diameter.  This is the dominant galaxy in the cluster.  A parallelogram of four mag 14 stars is just south.

 

17.5" (10/17/87): fairly bright, moderately large, slightly elongated, bright core.  This galaxy is the brightest and largest in the NGC 1016 cluster.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 1016 = m 68 = Sf 103 = T I-12 on 15 Jan 1865 with Lassell's 48" on Malta and reported "F, S, R, psbM."  His position matches UGC 2128, the brightest member of the cluster.  Truman Safford independently rediscovered the galaxy on 1 Nov 1867 with the 18.5-inch refractor at Dearborn Observatory (Sf 103) and again by Wilhelm Tempel in 1876 with the 11" refractor at the Arcetri Observatory. Dreyer credited Tempel with the discovery in the GC Supplement (5264), but both Marth and Tempel are listed in the NGC.  Safford's list was missed by Dreyer until after the NGC was compiled.

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NGC 1017 = MCG -02-07-047 = Holm 62c = PGC 9964

02 37 49.8 -11 00 37

V = 13.9;  Size 0.7'x0.6';  Surf Br = 12.8

 

17.5" (10/8/94): extremely faint, small, round.  Last and faintest of three with NGC 1011 2.7' W and NGC 1010 3.8' WSW.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 1017 = Sw V-33 = LM I-61 on 29 Sep 1886 with the 16" refractor at Warner Observatory and recorded "eeeF, vS, R, eee dif 3rd of 3 [with NGC 1010 and 1011].  His position is 1.4' NNE of MCG -02-07-045 = PGC 9955.  Ormond Stone independently discovered the galaxy the same year at Leander McCormick Observatory, so the discovery priority is unknown.

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NGC 1018 = MCG -02-07-048 = PGC 9986

02 38 10.3 -09 32 38

V = 13.7;  Size 1.0'x0.6';  Surf Br = 12.6;  PA = 5d

 

24" (2/5/13): faint to fairly faint, small, oval 4:3 N-S, 20"x15", weak concentration.  A group of stars lies immediately to the east.  NGC 1014, a close pair of stars, is 3' SW.

 

17.5" (12/28/94): extremely faint, very small, slightly elongated N-S, unconcentrated.  Requires averted vision and cannot hold steadily.  A mag 12 star is 2.2' SE.  Located 22' NW of mag 6.7 SAO 148523.  Appears fainter than listed V = 13.7.

 

Frank Muller discovered NGC 1018 = LM II-343 in 1886 with the 26" refractor at Leander McCormick Observatory and recorded "mag 15.0, 0.2'x0.1', E 180 (N-S), 2nd of 2 [with NGC 1014]."  His position is 0.1 tmin west and 2' north of MCG -02-07-048 = PGC 9986, though NGC 1014 is a faint double star.

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NGC 1019 = UGC 2132 = MCG +00-07-068 = CGCG 388-079 = PGC 10006

02 38 27.5 +01 54 27

V = 13.5;  Size 1.0'x0.9';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 40d

 

18" (10/21/06): fairly faint, moderately large, irregularly round, 1.0'x0.8', low surface brightness.  Located 13' SSE of NGC 1016.  CGCG 388-080 lies 3.7' N.

 

17.5" (10/17/87): faint, fairly small, slightly elongated, broad concentration.  Located 13' S of NGC 1016 in cluster.

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 1019 = St XI-4 on 1 Dec 1880 with the 31" reflector at the Marseille Observatory and reported "vF; lE; vslbM".  His position matches UGC 2132 = PGC 10006.

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NGC 1020 = CGCG 388-081 = PGC 10018

02 38 44.3 +02 13 52

V = 14.1;  Size 0.8'x0.2';  PA = 20d

 

18" (11/18/06): faint, small, elongated 2:1 N-S, 0.6'x0.35', sharply concentrated with a very small bright core surrounded by a low surface brightness halo.  Forms a very close pair with NGC 1021 1.2' SE.

 

18" (10/21/06): faint, fairly small, very elongated 3:1 N-S, 0.7'x0.25', very faint stellar nucleus or a faint star is superimposed at the center.  Located 9' NE of NGC 1016 on the NE side of the cluster.  Forms a pair with NGC 1021 1' SE.

 

17.5" (10/17/87): very faint, very small, oval ~N-S, weak concentration.  Forms a close pair with NGC 1021 1.2' SE in the NGC 1016 cluster.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 1020 = m 69 (along with NGC 1021 = m 70) on 15 Jan 1865 with Lassell's 48" on Malta and logged "eF, vS".  His position is accurate.

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NGC 1021 = CGCG 388-084 = PGC 10027

02 38 48.0 +02 13 02

V = 14.2;  Size 0.8'x0.6';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 160d

 

18" (11/18/06): extremely faint, small, slightly elongated, 25"x20", low surface brightness with no concentration.  Forms a close pair with brighter NGC 1020 1.2' NW.

 

18" (10/21/06): very faint, small, elongated 4:3 ~N-S, 0.5'x0.35', low even surface brightness.  Fainter member of a close pair with NGC 1020 1' NW.

 

17.5" (10/17/87): extremely faint, very small, oval ~N-S, diffuse.  Forms a close pair with NGC 1020 1.2' NW in the NGC 1016 cluster.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 1021 = m 70 (along with NGC 1020 = m 69) on 15 Jan 1865 with Lassell's 48" on Malta and logged "eF, S".  His position is accurate.

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NGC 1022 = MCG -01-07-025 = PGC 10010

02 38 32.6 -06 40 39

V = 11.3;  Size 2.7'x2.7';  Surf Br = 13.3

 

17.5" (10/29/94): fairly bright, moderately large, elongated 4:3 WNW-ESE, 1.5'x1.2'.  Broadly concentrated halo contains a well-defined fairly bright 30" core.  The core increases to a stellar nucleus.  At times the elongation appears more pronounced.  A mag 13 star lies 2.1' NE of center.

 

8" (10/13/81): faint, small, diffuse, broad concentration, slightly elongated.

 

WH discovered NGC 1022 = H I-102 = h244 on 10 Sep 1785 (sweep 436) and recorded "cB, pL, mbM."  On 5 Oct 1785 (sweep 456) he noted "cB, pL, R, mbM."  R.J. Mitchell, using Lord Rosse's 72" on 28 Nov 1856, reported "pL, mbMN, patchy.  Suspect the preceding end is separated from the rest of the neb by a darkish line.  Small * or knot close NW."

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NGC 1023 = Arp 135 = UGC 2154 = MCG +06-06-073 = CGCG 523-083 = LGG 070-003 = PGC 10123

02 40 23.8 +39 03 48

V = 9.4;  Size 8.7'x3.0';  Surf Br = 12.8;  PA = 87d

 

48" (10/25/11): this gorgeous galaxy appeared extremely bright, very elongated 4:1 E-W, ~7'x1.8', with a large, brighter central core that increases to an intensely bright inner core punctuated by a bright stellar nucleus.  The outer halo gradually fades at the ends of the extensions.  Several stars are superimposed on both sides of the core.

 

NGC 1023A = PGC 10139, a low surface brightness dwarf companion, is superimposed on the east side (2.4' ESE of center).  It appeared as a faint, fairly large, low surface brightness patch oriented SSW-NNE, roughly 1.2'x0.8', and it blends into the main galaxy.  Although most of the companion is within the halo of NGC 1023, part of it juts out the southeast edge of the galaxy.  The halo of NGC 1023 extends beyond (east) of the dwarf.

 

18" (8/1/05): at 225x, this striking galaxy appeared very bright, large, very elongated 4:1 E-W, ~4.5'x1.0', though can possibly be traced further with averted vision.  The central region has a dramatic, sharp concentration with an unusually bright, oval core.  Two mag 14 and 15 stars are superimposed off the west side of the core and a mag 14 star is off the east side.

 

17.5" (12/8/90): bright, large, very elongated 7:2 E-W, very bright core, almost stellar nucleus.  A large fainter halo increases the dimensions to 7'x2'.  Two 15th magnitude stars are superimposed on the east and west ends. 

 

13" (12/22/84): very bright, impressive, elongated ~E-W, bright core, stellar nucleus. 

 

8" (11/8/80): fairly bright, bulging bright core, lens-shaped.

 

WH discovered NGC 1023 = H I-156 = h242 on 18 Oct 1786 (sweep 618) and noted "eB, mE, a very BN, the branches losing themselves in the direction of the parallel nearly."  On 17 Jan 1787 (sweep 692), he recorded "vB, gmbM to a very bright nucleus, mE nearly 10' long, from about 12” sp to nf." JH sketched the galaxy and as well as Bindon Stoney at Birr Castle on 27 Dec 1850 (included in plate XXV in LdR's 1861 publication).

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NGC 1024 = Arp 333 = UGC 2142 = MCG +02-07-020 = CGCG 439-022 = KTG 9A = PGC 10048

02 39 11.9 +10 50 49

V = 12.1;  Size 3.9'x1.4';  Surf Br = 13.8;  PA = 155d

 

24" (1/12/13): bright, moderately large, very elongated 3:1 NNW-SSE.  Sharply concentrated with a very bright, elongated core ~25"x15" and much fainter extensions increasing the size to ~1.2'x0.4'.  Interestingly, the elongation of the core seems is slightly misaligned with respect to the major axis of the extensions.  The extremely low surface brightness outer arms were not seen.  A mag 12 star is 0.7' NNE of center.  Brightest in a triplet (KTG 9) with NGC 1029 7' SE and NGC 1028 6' E.

 

17.5" (12/23/92): fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 2:1 NNW-SSE, rounder bright core, brighter along major axis.  A mag 11 star is 42" NNE of center.  Located 13' NNE of mag 6.8 SAO 93034.  Forms a pair with NGC 1029 7' ESE.

 

WH discovered NGC 1024 = H II-592 = h243 on 18 Sep 1786 (sweep 591) and logged "pB, S, E, bM".  Both of the Herschels' positions are accurate.

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NGC 1025 = ESO 154-004 = PGC 9891

02 36 20.0 -54 51 49

V = 13.8;  Size 0.9'x0.5';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 6d

 

30" (11/4/10 - Coonabarabran, 264x): moderately bright but fairly small, 0.6'x0.4', weak concentration.  A star or stellar companion is at the NW edge of the halo.  Forms a pair with brighter NGC 1031 situated 2.7' E.

 

JH discovered NGC 1025 = h2488 on 11 Sep 1836 and recorded "eF, S, R, 15"; the preceding of two [with NGC 1031]."  His position is 16 tsec of RA west of ESO 154-004 = PGC 9891.

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NGC 1026 = UGC 2145 = MCG +01-07-018 = CGCG 414-033 = PGC 10055

02 39 19.2 +06 32 38

V = 12.6;  Size 2.0'x1.8';  Surf Br = 13.8

 

17.5" (11/26/94): fairly faint, fairly small, round, 1.0' diameter, well concentrated with a small bright core and a stellar nucleus.  A mag 11.5 star lies 2.8' S.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 1026 = m 71 on 24 Dec 1864 with Lassell's 48" on Malta, noting "pF, S, R, psbM".  His position is accurate.

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NGC 1027 = IC 1824 = Cr 30 = Mel 16

02 42 35 +61 35 42

V = 6.7;  Size 20'

 

17.5" (11/27/92): 90 stars in 15' diameter, fairly scattered but still a striking cluster. Surrounds mag 7.0 SAO 12402 and includes about 15 mag 10-11 stars and many mag 13-14 stars.  A number of the stars are arranged in spiraling rays emanating from the dominant star.  The cluster is composed of a mixture of bright and faint stars. 

 

8": includes a dozen stars mag 8 to 12.5.  Fairly small, rich, over unresolved background haze.

 

WH discovered NGC 1027 = H VIII-66 on 3 Nov 1787 (sweep 774) and described "a cluster of coarsely scattered considerably large stars, 8' or 10' diameter, one 7th mag, near the middle."  On 9 Nov 1787 (sweep 777) he logged "a much scattered cluster of cL stars.  A star 7m not far from the middle, about 15' diam."

 

Corwin comments that E.E. Barnard independently found the object (probably on a plate), sent a note directly to Dreyer and it was catalogued again as IC 1824.  Barnard's position is at the west edge of the cluster and his description reads "Cl, sts F, perh[aps] F neby p extends to it."  So, NGC 1027 = IC 1824.

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NGC 1028 = MCG +02-07-023 = CGCG 439-025 = KTG 9C = PGC 10068

02 39 37.2 +10 50 38

V = 14.3;  Size 0.9'x0.5';  Surf Br = 13.0

 

24" (1/12/13): at 375x appeared faint, elongated ~5:3 SSW-NNE, 25"x15", low surface brightness though seems slightly uneven or patchy like a face-on spiral.  Faintest in the KTG 9 triplet with NGC 1029 3' S and NGC 1024 (brightest) 6' W.

 

17.5" (11/26/94): extremely faint, small, elongated 4:3 SSW-NNE, 0.6'x0.4'.  A mag 14 star is 1.4' N and a mag 12 star lies 1.7' SW.  Faintest of trio and located 3.0' N of NGC 1029 and 6.1' E of NGC 1024.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 1028 = m 72 (along with NGC 1029 = m 72) on 1 Oct 1864 with Lassell's 48" on Malta.  His position is accurate.

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NGC 1029 = UGC 2149 = MCG +02-07-024 = CGCG 439-024 = KTG 9B = PGC 10078

02 39 36.5 +10 47 36

V = 13.1;  Size 1.4'x0.4';  Surf Br = 12.3;  PA = 70d

 

24" (1/12/13): fairly faint to moderately bright, moderately large, very elongated 3:1 or 7:2 WSW-ENE, 1.0'x0.3', well concentrated with a small high surface brightness core that increases to a stellar nucleus.

 

17.5" (12/23/92): faint, fairly small, very elongated 3:1 WSW-ENE, weak concentration.  A very faint mag 15 star is superimposed at the NE edge.  A mag 12 star is 2.0' NW.  Forms a trio with NGC 1024 7' WNW and NGC 1028 3.0' N.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 1029 = m 73 (along with NGC 1028 = m 72) on 1 Oct 1864 with Lassell's 48" on Malta and recorded "F, S, mE".  His position is accurate.

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NGC 1030 = UGC 2153 = MCG +03-07-039 = CGCG 462-039 = PGC 10088

02 39 50.8 +18 01 28

V = 13.2;  Size 1.6'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 8d

 

17.5" (1/20/90): faint, fairly small, very elongated N-S, low surface brightness, weak concentration and slightly brighter along major axis.

 

WH discovered NGC 1030 = H III-581 = h245 on 25 Oct 1786 (sweep 623) and reported "vF, E, irr F.  The time very inaccurate."  As WH noted, his RA was poor, but JH's position matches UGC 2153 = PGC 10088 despite his note "Doubtful obs. Clouded".

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NGC 1031 = ESO 154-005 = PGC 9907

02 36 38.7 -54 51 35

V = 12.5;  Size 1.9'x1.1';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 23d

 

30" (11/4/10 - Coonabarabran, 264x): fairly bright, fairly large, elongated 2:1 SSW-NNE, gradually increases to a small bright core and stellar nucleus.  A mag 11.5 star lies 3.3' NNE.  Forms a pair with fainter NGC 1025 2.7' W.  Located 15' W of h3520 = 7.6/8.8 at 21" and 40' SW of mag 5.2 Zeta Hor.

 

JH discovered NGC 1031 = h2490 on 11 Sep 1836 and recorded "F, S, R, gbM, 20"; the following of two [with NGC 1025]".  His position is close west of ESO 154-005 = PGC 9907.

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NGC 1032 = UGC 2147 = MCG +00-07-073 = CGCG 388-086 = PGC 10060

02 39 23.6 +01 05 37

V = 11.6;  Size 3.3'x1.1';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 68d

 

48" (10/26/11): at 385x and 488x appears very bright, large, very elongated 4:1 WSW-ENE, 3.0'x0.8'.  Well concentrated with a prominent, bulging oval core that brightens towards the center and long, thin, fainter tapering extensions that dim at the tips. A mag 13 star is at the tip of the ENE extension.  The visual treat, though, is a razor thin dust lane that clearly bisects the large central buge.  As the much fainter extensions start to taper down, the dust lane loses contrast and disappears towards the ends.

 

18" (1/15/07): fairly bright, fairly large, very elongated 3:1 WSW-ENE, 2.8'x0.9'.  Well concentrated with a bright core that increases to a quasi-stellar nucleus.  The galaxy extends to a mag 12.5 star at the ENE edge making the total length nearly 2.8'.  The thin dust lane seen on images was not visible.

 

17.5" (10/29/94): fairly bright, fairly large, very elongated 4:1 WSW-ENE, 2.5'x0.6'.  Dominated by a bright core which is broadly concentrated and contains a faint stellar nucleus.  The extensions are smooth and unconcentrated.  A mag 12.5-13 star is at the ENE edge 1.4' from the center and two mag 13 stars are along the north side (1.8' NE and 1.3' NNW of center) forming a right triangle.

 

8": faint, small, very elongated WSW-ENE, weak concentration.  Four mag 13 stars to north including one 1.8' NE.

 

WH discovered NGC 1032 = H II-5 = h246 on 18 Dec 1783 (early sweep 47) and noted "vF, S, like a small comet, 3/4” above Delta Ceti."  On 7 Nov 1785 (sweep 470), he called it "the nebula in the quartile.  It is not quite R, but lE having vF rays sp and nf."  His summary description (from 8 sweeps) reads "pB, S, lE, bM."  This was first object WH found with the telescope moving vertically only and using reference stars as they passed through the eyepiece.  NGC 1032 was his 10th overall deep sky discovery (using CH's internal numbering).  LdR's 1861 publication mentions "Spirality suspected".

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NGC 1033 = MCG -02-07-053 = PGC 10108

02 40 16.1 -08 46 37

V = 13.2;  Size 1.3'x1.1';  Surf Br = 13.4;  PA = 0d

 

17.5" (10/29/94): very faint, fairly small, round, 0.6' diameter, very low even surface brightness, no details.  Located 7.1' NE of mag 8.5 SAO 130043 at the SW end of the NGC 1052 group.  Appears fainter than listed magnitude V = 13.2.

 

Francis Leavenworth discovered NGC 1033 = LM II-344 in 1886 with the 26" refractor at Leander McCormick Observatory.  There is nothing at his position, but 1.2 tmin of RA east is MCG -02-07-053 = PGC 101083, and Leavenworth's position angle of 10” matches this galaxy.

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NGC 1034 = MCG -03-07-043 = PGC 9991

02 38 13.9 -15 48 35

V = 11.5;  Size 1.2'x0.7';  Surf Br = 11.2;  PA = 135d

 

17.5" (10/29/94): fairly faint, small, elongated 3:2 WNW-ESE, 0.8'x0.5', weak concentration.  A wide pair of evenly matched mag 12-13 stars lie 5' W (58" separation in PA 316”).

 

Francis Leavenworth discovered NGC 1034 = LM I-62 on 12 Nov 1886 with the 26" refractor at Leander McCormick Observatory.  There is nothing at his position, but 1.0 tmin of RA west is MCG -03-07-043 = PGC 9991 and his comment "2 B st, p 20s" matches this galaxy.  Herbert Howe measured an accurate position in 1899-00 using the 20" refractor at Chamberlin Observatory (repeated in the IC 2 notes).  He noted the two "B st" are only mag 11 and 12.

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NGC 1035 = MCG -01-07-027 = KTS 18A = PGC 10065

02 39 29.1 -08 07 58

V = 12.2;  Size 2.2'x0.7';  Surf Br = 12.6;  PA = 150d

 

13.1" (9/3/86): moderately bright, very elongated 3:1 NNW-SSE (PA 150”), fairly small.  A mag 14 star is attached at the SE end.  NGC 1052 lies 25' ESE.

 

13.1" (9/9/83): fairly faint, very elongated (nearly edge-on) NW-SE.

 

WH discovered NGC 1035 = H II-284 = h249 = h2489 on 7 Nov 1784 (sweep 355) and recorded "F, mE, about 3' long and 3/4' broad, resolvable."  JH observed this galaxy from both Slough and the Cape.  His latter description reads "vF, pmE, has a vF star at the S.f. extremity".

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NGC 1036 = UGC 2160 = MCG +03-07-041 = CGCG 462-041 = IC 1828 = Mrk 370 = PGC 10127

02 40 29.1 +19 17 50

V = 13.2;  Size 1.4'x1.0';  Surf Br = 13.5;  PA = 5d

 

17.5" (1/20/90): fairly faint, fairly small, slightly elongated N-S, large brighter core, very small bright nucleus is possibly stellar.

 

WH discovered NGC 1036 = H III-475 = h247 on 29 Nov 1785 (sweep 481) and logged "vF, S, confirmed with 240 power."  His position is within 1' of UGC 2160 = PGC 10127.  Stephane Javelle independently found this galaxy on 18 Jan 1898 and recorded it in his list 3-939 (and later by Dreyer as IC 1828) despite Herschel's fairly good position.  So, NGC 1036 = IC 1828.  CGCG and UGC equate NGC 1036 = IC 1828 = IC 1829, but Javelle made an error in reducing IC 1829 and IC 1829 = CGCG 439-026.  Discussed by Malcolm Thomson in WSQJ #84, April 1991 and his Catalogue Corrections.

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NGC 1037

02 40 00 -01 44

 

=Not found, Gottlieb and Corwin.  The RNGC identification of UGC 2119 is incorrect (see notes).

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 1037 = Sw V-35 on 29 Sep 1886 with the 16" refractor at Warner Observatory and wrote "eeeF; vS; vE; eee dif; [NGC 1032] in field".  There is nothing near his position and furthermore NGC 1032 is ~3” away from his coordinates.  But no reasonably bright galaxy is in the field of NGC 1032 either. Perhaps he misidentified NGC 1032?  RNGC, PGC, and RC3 misidentify UGC 2119 = PGC 9973 as NGC 1032.  This galaxy is 2 tmin of RA west and 7' S of Swift's position and still doesn't agree with Swift's comment about NGC 1032.  See my RNGC Corrections #2 and Corwin's identification comments.

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NGC 1038 = UGC 2158 = MCG +00-07-076 = CGCG 388-090 = PGC 10096

02 40 06.3 +01 30 32

V = 13.4;  Size 1.2'x0.4';  Surf Br = 12.4;  PA = 61d

 

17.5" (11/26/94): fairly faint, fairly small, very elongated 3:1 SW-NE, 1.2'x0.4', bright core is moderately concentrated.  Forms a pair with IC 1827 5.6' NW.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 1038 = Sw III-16 on 17 Oct 1885 with the 16" refractor at the Warner Observatory and "discovered" it again on 2 Oct 1886, recording it in list V-34.  Dreyer combined both entries in the NGC.  His position is accurate.

 

WH, though, made the original observation on 1 Jan 1786 in sweep 505.  He noted "suspected, may be 2 small close stars in the parallel."  Apparently he never confirmed the observation and it was not assigned an H-designation.  His position (CH's reduction) is less that 1' northwest of UGC 2158, so he clearly "suspected" NGC 1038.

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NGC 1039 = M34 = Cr 31

02 42 00 +42 47

V = 5.2;  Size 35'

 

24" (12/28/13): gorgeous low power field with 21mm Ethos (125x; 49' diameter).  The cluster roughly extends 35' with a much richer and brighter core of ~12'-15' that contains a large number of mag 8-10 stars.  Several of the brighter stars appear as wide doubles or in chains.  A long string of stars is on the south side of the core, extending towards the southeast.  Other chains extend north and east out of the core.  Several doubles were identified using the chart in Stoyan's "Atlas of the Messier Objects".  O· 44 is a challenging mag 8.5/9.0 pair at 1.4" that just resolved at 225x and better at 300x.  Another 8th mag star (C component) is widely separated at 86".  h2154 is a 9.5/10.9 pair at 10" on the SW side and h1123 is a very wide 20" pair of mag 8.4 star.  Also in the core is ES 1506, a challenging mag 8.9/14 pair at 7" and h2155, a very wide 8.3/10.3 pair at 17" on the NE side.  PN Abell 4 lies 38' ESE of center.

 

13.1" (12/22/84): about 100 stars in a 30' diameter.  Very bright, very large, many double stars, three main curved lanes.  Includes a bright double star h1123 = 8.0/8.0 at 20".  Naked-eye object in fairly dark sky.

 

Charles Messier discovered M34 = NGC 1039 = h248 on 25 Aug 1764, though Giovanni Hodierna probably observed it earlier in 1654. William Herschel described M34 on 17 Oct 1786 (sweep 614) as "a cl of scattered L stars, considerably rich."  JH called it a "fine cluster, about 20 st 9 10...11m and as many less.  Fills field, coarsely scattered."

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NGC 1040 = NGC 1053 = UGC 2187 = MCG +07-06-060 = CGCG 539-083

02 43 12.4 +41 30 03

 

See observing notes for NGC 1053.

 

ƒdouard Stephan found NGC 1040 = St III-18 on 9 Dec 1871 with the 31" silvered-glass reflector at Marseille Observatory.  There is nothing at his position, but precisely 1.0 tmin of RA west is NGC 1053 = UGC 2187, which was found by Swift (V-37) on 21 Oct 1886 and accurately placed.  Karl Reinmuth, in his 1926 survey based on Heidelberg plates, and Dorothy Carlson, in her 1940 NGC Corrections paper, equate NGC 1040 = NGC 1053.  Based on the earlier discovery, NGC 1040 should be the primary designation. See Corwin's notes.

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NGC 1041 = MCG -01-07-030 = PGC 10125

02 40 25.2 -05 26 26

V = 12.3;  Size 1.7'x1.3';  Surf Br = 13.0;  PA = 15d

 

17.5" (10/29/94): faint, fairly small, round, 0.5' diameter.  Symmetrical appearance with an even concentration to a small bright core and stellar nucleus.  A distinctive line (4.5' length) consisting of three equally spaced mag 11 stars oriented WNW-ESE is 3' S.

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 1041 = St XII-22 on 17 Nov 1881 with the 31" silvered-glass reflector at Marseille Observatory and logged "pF, pS, iR, bM".  His position matches MCG -01-07-030 = PGC 10125.

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NGC 1042 = MCG -02-07-054 = KTS 18B = LGG 071-009 = PGC 10122

02 40 23.9 -08 26 01

V = 11.0;  Size 4.7'x3.6';  Surf Br = 13.9;  PA = 15d

 

17.5" (11/1/86): very large, very diffuse low surface brightness system best viewed at 83x or 133x.  Almost round, slightly brighter on the SE end with either a very faint star(s) superimposed or a brighter knot.  Forms a pair with NGC 1048 (double system) 6' SSE and NGC 1052 lies 14' NE.

 

13" (9/3/86): very large but diffuse, only a very weak concentration.

 

13" (9/9/83): large, very diffuse, no central brightening, irregularly round, best at 62x (too large and diffuse for higher power).

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 1042 = Sw III-17 on 10 Nov 1885 with the 16" Clark refractor at Warner Observatory and reported "eeF, L, R, np of 2 [with NGC 1052]".  In list V, Swift corrected the description to read "sp of 2" [with NGC 1052].

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NGC 1043 = CGCG 388-094 = PGC 10155

02 40 46.5 +01 20 35

V = 15.0;  Size 0.8'x0.2';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 110d

 

17.5" (1/9/99): extremely faint, very small, round, 15" diameter.  I just glimpsed the core as a very small, round, knot with a mag 14.5 star 0.4' SSE of center.  The small, thin extensions of this edge-on spiral were not seen.  Located 14' SE of NGC 1038 and 20' SE of IC 1827 (on a line).

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 1043 = Sw V-36 on 2 Oct 1886 with the 16" Clark refractor at Warner Observatory.  His position is just 4 tsec east and 36" south of CGCG 388-094 = PGC 10155.

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NGC 1044 = MCG +01-07-023 = CGCG 414-038 = PGC 10174

02 41 06.1 +08 44 16

V = 13.2;  Size 0.6'x0.6';  Surf Br = 11.8

 

24" (1/31/14): NGC 1044 is a double system with fainter PGC 3080165 barely off the SE side.  At 375x it appeared fairly faint, fairly small, slightly elongated, 24"x20", gradually increases to a sub-stellar nucleus.  PGC 3080165 is attached at the SE side [19" between centers].  The companion was faint, extremely small, round, 8" diameter.  This pair is flanked by CGCG 414-36 1.0' NE (noted as "faint, very small, round, 10" diameter") and NGC 1046 2.0' SE, with the collinear quartet spanning 3.0'.  The four galaxies have identical redshifts, though there is no sign of interaction on the DSS.

 

17.5" (10/29/94): fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 3:2 WNW-ESE, broad concentration to a large brighter core.  A mag 11 star lies 2.3' NW.  Brightest of a collinear compact trio with NGC 1046 2.0' SE and MCG +01-07-022 = CGCG 414-036 off the NW edge 57" from the center (logged as "very faint, extremely small, round"). NGC 1044 appears larger than the listed dimensions probably due to the combined glow with an unresolved contact companion (PGC 3080165) at the SE edge.  The four galaxies are very nearly on a straight line.

 

WH discovered NGC 1044 = III-228 = h251, along with NGC 1046, on 7 Nov 1784 (sweep 308) and noted "eF, vS, 240 power confirmed it.  Another still smaller and fainter about 1' following [NGC 1046]."  JH measured a fairly accurate position.

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NGC 1045 = MCG -02-07-059 = PGC 10129

02 40 29.1 -11 16 39

V = 12.1;  Size 2.2'x1.1';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 55d

 

17.5" (10/29/94): moderately bright, fairly small, elongated 3:2 SW-NE, 0.8'x0.5', well concentrated to a small prominent core and a stellar nucleus.  A nice evenly matched pair of mag 11-12 stars (16" separation in PA 78”) lies 11' NW.

 

WH discovered NGC 1045 = H II-488 = h253 = h2491 on 28 Nov 1785 (sweep 479) and recorded "F, S, iF, bM."  JH observed this galaxy at both Slough and the Cape, His Cape descriptions reads "pB, R, bM, 35". Observed in a south-east cloud drift."

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NGC 1046 = MCG +01-07-024 = CGCG 414-039 = PGC 10185

02 41 12.8 +08 43 09

V = 13.8;  Size 0.3'x0.3'

 

24" (1/31/14): fairly faint, fairly small, round, 25" diameter, weak concentration.  A mag 14 star is 50" SE.  Fourth of 4 in a 3' string oriented NW to SE line with NGC 1044 (double) 1.8' NW and CGCG 414-36 2.9' NW.

 

17.5" (10/29/94): faint, fairly small, round, 0.5' diameter, weak concentration.  A mag 13.5 star is off the SE edge 48" from the center.  Forms the third of three on a line with double system NGC 1044 2.0' NW and MCG +01-07-022 = CGCG 414-036 2.9' NW.

 

WH discovered NGC 1046 = H III-229 = h252, along with NGC 1044, on 7 Nov 1784  (sweep 308) , recording "Another still smaller and fainter about 1' following [NGC 1044] suspected; but 240 power left it doubtful." JH measured a fairly accurate position.

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NGC 1047 = MCG -01-07-032 = PGC 10132

02 40 32.9 -08 08 52

V = 14.3;  Size 1.3'x1.0';  Surf Br = 14.4;  PA = 88d

 

17.5" (11/26/94): very faint, fairly small, slightly elongated 4:3 E-W, diffuse with only a very weak concentration, no distinct core.  A mag 11.5 star is 3.9' S.  Located 10.2' NW of NGC 1052 and 15.8' E of NGC 1035 in the NGC 1052 group.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 1047 = Sw III-18 on 10 Nov 1885 with the 16" refractor at Warner Observatory.  His position is 6 tsec of RA east and 1' S of MCG -01-07-032 = PGC 10132.

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NGC 1048 = MCG -02-07-062 = PGC 10140

02 40 37.9 -08 32 00

V = 14.5;  Size 1.0'x0.2';  Surf Br = 12.8;  PA = 90d

 

17.5" (11/26/94): at first glance, appeared as an ill-defined faint glow 1' S of a mag 14 star.  One closer inspection, resolved into a pair of small, faint galaxies 1.0' between centers oriented NNE-SSW.  The northern member (generally identified as NGC 1048) is clearly brighter and elongated 2:1 E-W, 0.6'x0.3'.  Just 1.0' SSW is a fainter companion (NGC 1048A).  Located 7' SSE of the large, low surface brightness system NGC 1042 within a large group.

 

17.5" (11/1/86): large, very diffuse system best viewed at 83x. There is a slight brightening to the south but the fainter companion was not clearly resolved in poor seeing.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 1048 = Sw III-19 on 10 Nov 1885 with the 16" refractor at Warner Observatory.  His position matches the contact pair PGC 10137 and 10140, and he probably viewed the combined glow of both.  The northern component is brighter and often called NGC 1048, though sometimes the southwestern component is called NGC 1048A and the northeastern NGC 1048B.

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NGC 1049 = Fornax-3 = ESO 356-SC3 = MCG -06-06-017

02 39 49 -34 15 30

V = 12.6;  Size 1.3'

 

30" (11/4/10 - Coonabarabran, 264x): very bright, moderately large, very sharply concentrated with a very small, very bright core surrounded by 1' halo that dims around the periphery.

 

24" (9/14/12): at 325x, moderately bright, fairly small, round, bright core, 30" diameter.

 

18" (12/10/07): moderately bright gc in the Fornax Dwarf.  Appears small, round, ~30" diameter, gradually increases to a small brighter core.  Located 15' NNE of mag 8.4 HD 16690.  Brightest gc in the Fornax Dwarf.

 

17.5" (10/8/88): fairly faint, very small, round, small bright core.

 

13.1" (10/10/86): brightest of four globular clusters in the Fornax Dwarf galaxy.  Moderately bright (estimate V = 12), small, very small bright core, faint halo.  Located 15' NNE of mag 8.0 SAO 193841.  Fornax Dwarf galaxy not seen.

 

JH discovered NGC 1049 = h2492 on 19 Oct 1835 and reported "pretty bright; small; round; like a star 12th magnitude a very little rubbed at the edges, a curious little object and easily mistaken for a star, which, however, it certainly is not".  His position is 1' N of this Fornax Dwarf globular.  The galaxy itself was discovered over a century later by Harlow Shapley in 1938 while at the Boyden Station in South Africa on photographic plates taken with the 24" Bruce refractor.

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NGC 1050 = UGC 2178 = MCG +06-06-078 = CGCG 523-092 = PGC 10257

02 42 35.7 +34 45 48

V = 12.6;  Size 1.4'x1.1';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 110d

 

17.5" (11/27/92): fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 4:3 E-W, 1.0'x0.8', weak concentration.  A mag 15 star is 45" N of center.  This 15th mag star is described as mag 18 in the NGC.

 

Heinrich d'Arrest discovered NGC 1050 = St III-18 on 17 Sep 1865 with the 11-inch refractor at Copenhagen.  His single position is just off the north edge of the galaxy and he mentioned the mag 15 star off the north edge of the galaxy (called mag 18).  Stephan independently discovered the galaxy on 9 Dec 1871 with the 31" reflector at Marseille Observatory. Both are credited in the NGC.

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NGC 1051 = NGC 961? = IC 249? = MCG -01-07-033 = UGCA 40 = PGC 10172

02 41 02.4 -06 56 09

V = 12.6;  Size 2.3'x1.6';  Surf Br = 13.9;  PA = 45d

 

17.5" (12/28/94): fairly faint, moderately large, elongated 5:2 SW-NE, 1.2'x0.5', no concentration.  Very unusual appearance as a mag 12 star is attached at the NE end 35" from the center and the galaxy appears to hang from the star.  Forms the east vertex of a triangle with two mag 10 stars 6.7' NW and 5.2' WSW.

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 1051 = St XI-5 on 27 Nov 1880 with the 31" silvered-glass reflector at Marseilles Observatory and recorded as "eeF; elongated NE-SW, a little diffuse, * att np."  His position matches MCG -01-07-033 = PGC 10172, though the star is at the northeast end.  Ormond Stone (II-338) independently discovered the nebula in 1886 with the 26" refractor at Leander McCormick but he made a 10 tmin error in RA (error caught by Harold Corwin) and it was catalogued again as NGC 961.  Stephane Javelle also possibly found the galaxy in 1892 and it was catalogued as IC 249 = J 1-92, although Javelle claimed it was a different object.  See Corwin's notes and Thomson's Catalogue Corrections.  So, NGC 1051 = NGC 961 and possibly IC 249, with NGC 1051 the primary designation.

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NGC 1052 = MCG -01-07-034 = KTS 18C = PGC 10175

02 41 04.8 -08 15 21

V = 10.5;  Size 3.0'x2.1';  Surf Br = 12.5;  PA = 120d

 

13.1" (9/9/83): bright, small, round, intense core.  Brightest in a large group with three galaxies in 62x field including NGC 1042 14' SW and NGC 1047 10.2' NW.

 

13.1" (9/3/86): small oval shape, very bright core, stellar nucleus.

 

8" (11/8/80): faint, bright core.

 

WH discovered NGC 1052 = H I-63 = h254 = h2493 on 10 Jan 1785 (sweep 355) and recorded "B, R, mbM, about 1' diameter, vF towards the border."  His position is matches PGC 10175.  JH observed this galaxy twice at Slough recording on sweep 318, "B; S; R; 20"; gb and psmbM to a *12".

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NGC 1053 = NGC 1040 = UGC 2187 = MCG +07-06-060 = CGCG 539-083 = PGC 10298

02 43 12.4 +41 30 03

V = 12.9;  Size 1.7'x0.8';  Surf Br = 13.0;  PA = 40d

 

17.5" (11/27/92): faint, very small, slightly elongated.  Bracketed by two mag 15 stars just off the north and south edges and collinear with three equally spaced stars to the south (mag 11.5 star 2.3' S, a mag 10.5 star 4' S and a mag 13 star 6' S).  Located 5' W of mag 7.5 SAO 38287.  Brightest in a group and forms a pair with UGC 2194 6' SSE.

 

Lewis Swift found NGC 1053 = Sw V-37 on 21 Oct 1886 with the 16" refractor at Warner Observatory and noted "vF, vS, lE, 4 stars in line south point to it, one close".  His position and description matches UGC 2187 = PGC 10298.  ƒdouard Stephan (III-18) earlier discovered this nebula on 9 Dec 1871, but made a 1 tmin error in RA in the reading from his offset star and Dreyer catalogued it as NGC 1040.  So, NGC 1053 = NGC 1040, with discovery priority going to Stephan.

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NGC 1054 = MCG +03-07-046 = CGCG 462-045 = PGC 10242

02 42 15.8 +18 13 03

V = 13.6;  Size 0.9'x0.5';  Surf Br = 12.4;  PA = 20d

 

17.5" (1/20/90): faint, small, round, even surface brightness.  A mag 14 star is 30" NW.  NGC 1030 lies 30' WSW.

 

Heinrich d'Arrest discovered NGC 1054 on 8 Oct 1864 with the 11" refractor at Copenhagen and logged "eF, vS, verified at 230x.  A star is near the northwest rim. "  His single position and description matches CGCG 462-045 = PGC 10242.

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NGC 1055 = UGC 2173 = MCG +00-07-081 = CGCG 388-095 = PGC 10208

02 41 45.2 +00 26 31

V = 10.6;  Size 7.6'x2.7';  Surf Br = 13.7;  PA = 105d

 

48" (10/24/14): very bright, nearly edge-on spiral, spans ~6'x1.8' WNW -ESE.  The bright central region extends 2'x0.5' and increases gradually towards the center.  A relatively wide, prominent dust lane runs along nearly the entire northern flank of the galaxy!  The fainter portion of the galaxy to the north of the dust lane was clearly visible, paralleling the central region, ~1.6' in length, and perhaps 30" wide at maximum.  This outer section of the central bulge runs into the mag 11.2 star that is 1.2' NNW of center and disappears.  M77 lies 30' SSE.

 

18" (1/13/07): fairly bright, large, very elongated 3:1 ~E-W, ~5'x1.6', broad concentration but no well-defined core or nucleus.  A mag 11 star is just north of the core and two mag 13 stars are north of the western flank.  A dark lane runs along the north edge of the galaxy creating a sharp light cut-off, though the faint portion of the galaxy to the north that's cut off by the dark lane was not seen.

 

17.5" (11/14/87): fairly bright, fairly large, very elongated 3:1 WNW-ESE, broadly concentrated halo.  A mag 11 star is just off the NW flank 1.2' from the center.  Located 7' SE of mag 6.8 SAO 110689 and 7' SW of mag 7.8 SAO 110692.  Member of the M77 group.

 

13" (9/3/83): fairly faint, elongated WNW-ESE.  A mag 12 star is 1' N.

 

8" (11/8/80): faint, elongated.  Located 30' NNW of M77.

 

WH discovered NGC 1055 = H I-1 = H II-6? = h258 on 19 Dec 1783 (early sweep 53?).  His summary description (based on 7 observations) reads "cB, cL, iF, bM."  He possibly found NGC 1055 the night before, noting H II-6 as "a small nebula. It is like a very small comet, not visible in the finder 1/2”."  He noted the position as roughly 1/2” north of Delta Ceti and later commented "This has probably been a telescopic comet, as I have not been able to find it again, notwithstanding the assistance of a drawing which represents the telescopic stars in its neighbourhood."  In the 1912 revision of WH's catalogues, Dreyer equated H. II 6 with NGC 1055 with uncertainty and added the note "very rough sketch shows it in line with 2 stars preceding and one following."  Steinicke, though, equates H. II 6 with a pair of stars at 02 40 19.5 +00 54 37 (2000), which fits Dreyer's comments.

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NGC 1056 = UGC 2183 = MCG +05-07-032 = Mrk 1183 = PGC 10272

02 42 48.4 +28 34 26

V = 12.4;  Size 2.3'x1.1';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 160d

 

17.5" (12/23/92): fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 3:2 NNW-SSE, increases to rounder small bright core.  A mag 12 star is 2.2' ENE.

 

WH discovered NGC 1056 = H III-584 = h256 on 26 Oct 1786 (sweep 626) and recorded "vF, S, bM".  JH measured an accurate position.

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NGC 1057 = UGC 2184 = MCG +05-07-033 = CGCG 505-037 = WBL 085-001 = PGC 10287

02 43 02.9 +32 29 28

V = 14.2;  Size 1.1'x0.8';  Surf Br = 13.9;  PA = 115d

 

24" (2/7/16): fairly faint, moderately large, elongated 2:1 WNW-ESE, 0.7'x0.35', small brighter core.  The major axis points to NGC 1061 3.1' SE.

 

18" (1/26/11): very faint, fairly small, elongated 3:2 NW-SE, 0.7'x0.45', low even surface brightness.  Located 4.7' NW of NGC 1060 in a group with NGC 1061 3' SE.  NGC 1066 and NGC 1067 lies 10' E.

 

George Johnstone Stoney discovered NGC 1057 with Lord Rosse's 72" sometime in Dec 1849.  The sketch and description ("vF double neb") clearly applies to UGC 2184, although the appearance of double is due to a very close, faint double star at the NW edge.

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NGC 1058 = UGC 2193 = MCG +06-07-001 = CGCG 523-096 = PGC 10314

02 43 29.8 +37 20 27

V = 11.2;  Size 3.0'x2.8';  Surf Br = 13.4

 

18" (1/26/11): fairly bright, fairly large, irregularly round, 2' diameter, broad, weak concentration, very small brighter nucleus ~5" diameter, irregular surface brightness, asymmetric appearance.  A star is superimposed on the NW side ~35" from the center.  The halo is more extensive or brighter on the west side and ver weak on the east side, so the nucleus appears offset towards the northeast side.  A mag 15 star is at the south end of the galaxy.  Member of the NGC 1023 Group.

 

17.5" (12/8/90): moderately bright, moderately large, round, almost even surface brightness, no distinct core, possibly mottled.  A mag 14 star is involved at the NW edge and a mag 15 star is involved at the south end.  A mag 11.5 star lies 2.3' SSW of center.

 

13" (11/29/86): moderately bright, moderately large, round, almost even surface brightness.  A faint star mag 14.5 star is superimposed on the NW edge.

 

WH discovered NGC 1058 = H II-633 = h255 on 17 Jan 1787 (sweep 692) and logged "F, cL, R, lbM, 4' diametenoted "pF; L; R; glbM; 50"."  JH made the single observation "pF; L; R; glbM; 50"."  His RA is 9 seconds too small. This galaxy was observed 4 times at Birr Castle.  On 24 Nov 1854, R.J. Mitchell remarked "L, R. Susp Nucl or * in centre, 2 conspicuous stars inv in the preceding side."

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NGC 1059

02 42 35.6 +17 59 48

 

=**, Reinmuth and Gottlieb.

 

JH discovered NGC 1059 = h259 on 25 Jan 1832 and simply noted "eF, hardly sure."  There is no non-stellar object at his position but just 1' SE is a close pair of mag 14 stars at 10" separation.  Several observers looked for Herschel's object.  Heinrich d'Arrest was unable to find anything "on a very clear night" and Sherburne Burnham (Publ of Lick Observatory, II) also carefully searched unsuccessfully for the object, although in sweeping around he discovered IC 248.  Karl Reinmuth, in his 1926 survey based on Heidelberg plates, and Dorothy Carlson in her NGC errata paper identify NGC 1059 with this double star. See Corwin's notes.

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NGC 1060 = UGC 2191 = MCG +05-07-035 = CGCG 505-038 = WBL 085-002 = PGC 10302

02 43 15.1 +32 25 30

V = 11.8;  Size 2.3'x1.7';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 75d

 

24" (2/7/16): very bright, large, sharply concentrated with an intensely bright core that increases to the center.  The much fainter halo gradually dims and is slightly elongated WSW-ENE, ~1.6'x1.3'.  Brightest in a group of 10 galaxies (including 5 NGCs) in a 20' field.

 

The two closest galaxies are NGC 1061 2.5' N and PGC 213071 3' SSE ("extremely faint, small, roundish, 12"-15").  On the south side of the cluster is MCG +05-07-034 ("fairly faint, fairly small, round, 20" diameter, fairly low even surface brightness.  Two mag 14.8/15.1 stars at 11" separation lie 1.7' SE.  Located 9.6' S of NGC 1060).  CGCG 505-042 is 4.9' further east-southeast.  It was logged as moderately bright, fairly small, elongated 3:2 E-W, 21"x14", fairly high surface brighness.  A mag 14.5 star is 1.5' E.

 

18" (1/26/11): bright, fairly large, elongated 4:3 WSW-ENE, large low surface brightness halo extends 2.0'x1.5'.  Sharply concentrated with a large, very bright core that is well concentrated to the center.  Brightest in a group of 5 NGC galaxies including NGC 1061 2.5' N, NGC 1057 4.8' NW, NGC 1066 8' NE and NGC 1067 9' NE.  Located 10' WNW of mag 7.4 HD 16954.

 

17.5" (11/27/92): moderately bright, fairly small, round, halo gradually brightens to small bright core, stellar nucleus.  Located 10' WNW of mag 7.7 SAO 55822.  Brightest in a group with NGC 1061 2.5' N and NGC 1066 8' ENE.

 

Huey (22" @230 and 383x): Very bright round glow with diffuse edges, 1.3' across. Gradually then suddenly brighter center.

 

WH discovered NGC 1060 = H III-162 = h257, along with NGC 1066 = III-163, on 12 Sep 1784 (sweep 268) and described the pair as "Two, both vF, pS, R lbM".  WH's position is about 15 tsec of RA east and 3' north of UGC 2191 = PGC 10302.  JH measured an accurate position and described a "red *7.8 43.5 tsec preceding", though the star is east-southeast.

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NGC 1061 = MCG +05-07-036 = CGCG 505-039 = WBL 085-003 = PGC 10303

02 43 15.8 +32 28 00

V = 14.0;  Size 0.9'x0.6';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 25d

 

24" (2/7/16): fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 4:3 SW-NE, 24"x18", even surface brightness.  NGC 1057 is 3.1' NW and NGC 1060 is 2.5' S.

 

18" (1/26/11): faint, fairly small, elongated 3:2 SSW-NNE, 30"x20".  Located in the center of the group, 2.5' N of NGC 1060.  NGC 1057 lies 3' NW.

 

17.5" (11/27/92): very faint, very small, round, even surface brightness.  Located 2.5' N of NGC 1060 in a group.

 

George Johnstone Stoney discovered NGC 1061 in Dec 1849 using Lord Rosse's 72" and logged "pF, S, R".  The diagram made in 1850 matches CGCG 505-039 = PGC 10303.

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NGC 1062

02 43 24.0 +32 27 44

 

=*, Gottlieb and Corwin.  The RNGC and RC3 identification of NGC 1062 = UGC 2201 is incorrect, but here are my notes on UGC 2201.

 

24" (2/7/16): extremely faint, fairly small, very elongated 3:1 E-W, ~30"x10".  This low surface brightness edge-on was only occasionally glimpsed with effort.  Situated 1.8' NW of NGC 1066 and 1.7' SW of NGC 1067 in the NGC 1060 = WBL 085 cluster.

 

Ralph Copeland discovered NGC 1062 on 11 Oct 1873 as observing assistant on the 72" at Birr Castle.  He placed this object with respect to NGC 1061 at 116.8" in PA 97.6 deg (ESE). At this offset (1.9' ESE of NGC 1061) is an extremely faint star.  RNGC and RC3 (as well as SIMBAD and other sources) misidentify UGC 2201 = PGC 10331 as NGC 1062.  This galaxy is located over 6' ENE of NGC 1061.  See my RNGC Corrections #2 and Corwin's notes.

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NGC 1063 = MCG -01-07-036 = PGC 10232

02 42 10.0 -05 34 07

V = 14.3;  Size 1.4'x0.5';  Surf Br = 14.0;  PA = 105d

 

17.5" (11/28/97): faint, fairly small, elongated 3:2 ~E-W, 0.8'x0.5', low even surface brightness.  Preceded by a wide pair of mag 11/13 stars ~4' W.

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 1063 = St XII-23 on 16 Nov 1881 with the 31" reflector at Marseille Observatory.  His position is accurate.

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NGC 1064 = MCG -02-07-071 = PGC 10249

02 42 23.5 -09 21 44

V = 13.7;  Size 1.1'x0.9';  Surf Br = 13.5;  PA = 30d

 

17.5" (11/10/96): very faint, fairly small, round, 30" diameter.  Requires averted vision but can hold with concentration due to a very low even surface brightness.  Forms a pair with brighter MCG -2-7-72 6.8' SSE (on the first observation of the field, this galaxy was assumed to be NGC 1064) and it is surprising that Leavenworth did not pick up MCG -2-7-72.  NGC 1064 is a face-on spiral with a small core and much fainter arms (halo) and I missed it twice from the brighter skies east of Mt Hamilton.

 

Francis Leavenworth discovered NGC 1064 = LM II-345 in 1886 with the 26" refractor at Leander McCormick Observatory.  His position is just 0.2 tsec west of MCG -02-07-071 = PGC 10249. This galaxy was missed on two attempts from Digger Pines although nearby MCG -02-07-072 was viewed!  (finally picked up at Fiddletown).

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NGC 1065 = MCG -03-07-059 = PGC 10228

02 42 06.2 -15 05 30

V = 13.5;  Size 0.8'x0.7';  Surf Br = 12.7

 

17.5" (12/20/95): In a trio with slightly brighter IC 253 2.7' N and extremely faint IC 252 just 1.0' SSW (forms compact galaxy group SCG 19).  Appears faint, small, irregularly round, 25" diameter.  There is no core but contains a definite faint stellar nucleus.  A mag 11 star is 2.9' SE of center.  Located 9' E of mag 7.6 SAO 48549.

 

IC 253 is fairly faint, fairly small, round, small bright core, stellar nucleus, 30" diameter.  IC 254 is an extremely faint, round, barely nonstellar spot just 1.0' SSW of NGC 1065.  Requires averted vision to glimpse and <10" diameter.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 1065 = Sw V-38 on 29 Sep 1886 and reported "eeF, pS, * nr s, B* preceding, e difficult".  His position is just 4 tsec west of MCG -03-07-059 and the description matches, so the identification is secure.  Still, I'm surprised he missed nearby IC 253 to the north, which Javelle discovered later at the Nice Observatory.  RNGC mistakenly equates NGC 1065 and IC 254 (a separate galaxy).

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NGC 1066 = UGC 2203 = MCG +05-07-042 = WBL 085-006 = PGC 10338

02 43 49.9 +32 28 30

V = 13.3;  Size 1.7'x1.6';  Surf Br = 14.3

 

24" (2/7/16): moderately to fairly bright, moderately large, slightly elongated SW-NE, 1.3'x1.0', well concentrated core increases to the center, occasional faint stellar nucleus.  Second brightest and largest in the cluster (WBL 085).  In a small trio with NGC 1067 2.2' N and UGC 2201 1.7' NW.

 

UGC 2201, which is misidentified as NGC 1062 in RNGC, RC3 and SIMBAD, is an extremely low surface brightness edge-on and was only occasionally glimpsed, extending ~30"x10" E-W.  UGC 2202, situated 5.1' S, appeared very faint, small, round, low even surface brightness, 18" diameter.  A mag 13 star is 0.8' W. This dwarf irregular is located just 2.8' NW of mag 7.4 HD 16954 and it helped to place the star just outside the field.  MCG +05-07-046 is 10.6' SE and 5' ESE of the bright star.  It appeared very faint, fairly small, oval 2:1 E-W, 25"x14", low surface brightness, no concentration.

 

18" (1/26/11): moderately bright, fairly large, irregularly round, 1.5'x1.2', broad concentration in halo.  Contains a small brighter core that increases to the center.  Forms a pair with NGC 1067 2.2' due north.  Located 8' NE of NGC 1060 and 7' NNW of mag 7.4 HD 16954.

 

17.5" (11/27/92): faint, moderately large, slightly elongated N-S, 1.5'x1.3'.  Similar size to NGC 1060 8' WSW but one magnitude fainter.  Broadly concentrated halo but no well defined core.  Located 7' NNW of mag 7.7 SAO 55822.  Forms a pair with NGC 1067 2.2' N, also nearby is NGC 1061 7' W.  Appears brighter than the CGCG mag of 14.9.

 

WH discovered NGC 1066 = H III-163 = h260, along with NGC 1060, on 12 Sep 1784 (sweep 268) and described both as "Two, both vF, pS, R lbM."  The cluster was observed 10 times at Birr Castle!

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NGC 1067 = UGC 2204 = MCG +05-07-043 = WBL 085-007 = PGC 10339

02 43 50.6 +32 30 42

V = 13.7;  Size 1.0'x1.0';  Surf Br = 13.6

 

24" (2/7/16): fairly faint, fairly small, roundish, low surface brightness with a broad weak concentration [face-on Sc].  In a small trio with NGC 1066 2.2' S and UGC 2201 1.7' SW.  Situated 8' NE of NGC 1060 (brightest in the cluster) and 6.7' NNW of mag 7.4 HD 16954.

 

18" (1/26/11): very faint, fairly small, irregularly round, ~40"x35", very low surface brightness, very weak concentration.  Located 2.2' N of NGC 1066 in a group of 5 NGC galaxies.

 

17.5" (11/27/92): very faint, very small, round, low surface brightness.  Forms a close pair with NGC 1066 2.2' S in the NGC 1060 group.  UGC 2201 (misidentified in the RNGC and RC3 as NGC 1062) is 1.6' SW and was not seen.

 

JH discovered NGC 1067 = h261 on 22 Nov 1827 and reported "eF; S; the nf of two [with NGC 1066].  Change in polar distance estimated at 3'."  The actual separation is 2.2'.

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NGC 1068 = M77 = Arp 37 = UGC 2188 = MCG +00-07-083 = Cetus A = PGC 10266

02 42 40.3 -00 00 48

V = 8.9;  Size 7.1'x6.0';  Surf Br = 12.8;  PA = 70d

 

48" (10/26/11): at 375x; this is by far the best view I've had of M77.  Spiral arm structure was easily visible with two main outer arms and a bright inner arm.  The bright inner arm attaches at the east side of the intense core and wraps tightly clockwise around the north side of the core and heads south on the west side of the core.  There are two main arms in the halo forming an elongated "S" pattern.  A long spiral arm is attached near the east side of the core and wraps outside the inner arm described above.  It continues around to the west side and heads south, ending near a compact HII knot (listed in NED as [H66] 6 from Paul Hodge's 1996 "Atlas and Catalog of HII Regions in Galaxies").  A second long spiral arm is attached on the southwest side of the core and wraps clockwise to the east side of the core and extends to the northern edge of the halo.  Besides these main arms, several fainter sections of additional arms are tightly wrapped in the halo.  NGC 1055 lies 30' NNE.

 

18" (10/21/06): very bright, fairly large oval, extended 4:3 SW-NE, ~3.5'x2.5'.  Sharply concentrated with a very bright, oval core containing a sharp, very bright stellar nucleus.  There is a strong impression of mottling or spiral structure in the halo with a curving dust lane (gap between the spiral arms) embedded in the halo that swings around from the southwest side of the halo towards the north along the west side of the core.  Inner arm detail is also suggested around the edge of the halo with an impression of turbulence.  A mag 11 star is just off the SE side, ~1.5' from the center. 

 

17.5" (11/14/87): very bright, moderately large, sharp concentration with an unusually bright core, almost stellar nucleus, diffuse slightly elongated halo.  Appears mottled at high power and a hint of inner arm structure.  A mag 11 star is 1.3' ESE of the center.  This is a Seyfert 2 galaxy and brightest in a group.

 

8" (11/28/81): bright, intense core, faint halo.

 

Pierre MŽchain discovered M77 = NGC 1068 = h262 on 29 Oct 1780.  WH described M77 as "Very bright; an irregular extended nucleus with milky chevelure, 3 or 4' long, near 3' broad."

 

Lord Rosse (or his assistant) recorded M77 on 22 Dec 1848 as "a blue spiral?" and it was included in the list of "Spiral or curvilinear" object in Rosse's 1850 PT paper.  Bindon Stoney made a sketch on 24 Nov 1851 (the description reads "The central part is, I am nearly sure, spiral") shown on plate XXV, figure 6 in LdR's 1861 paper (also Plate 1, Figure 4 in the 1880 publication).

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NGC 1069 = MCG -01-07-038 = PGC 10285

02 42 59.7 -08 17 22

V = 13.7;  Size 1.5'x1.0';  Surf Br = 14.0;  PA = 145d

 

17.5" (11/26/94): fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 2:1 NNW-SSE, 1.4'x0.7', slightly brighter core.  A mag 12 star lies 2.2' NE.  Located 4.9' W of mag 8.8 SAO 130077 at the east edge of the NGC 1052 group.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 1069 = Sw V-39 on 29 Sep 1886 with the 16" refractor at Warner Observatory and recorded "eeF; pS; R; between two dist stars; B* nr following."  Swift's position is just 6 tsec west of MCG -01-07-038 = PGC 10285 and his comment "B * nr foll" applies to this galaxy.

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NGC 1070 = UGC 2200 = MCG +01-07-026 = CGCG 414-045 = PGC 10309

02 43 22.2 +04 58 05

V = 11.9;  Size 2.3'x1.9';  Surf Br = 13.4;  PA = 175d

 

17.5" (11/26/94): moderately bright, moderately large, elongated 3:2 N-S.  Contains a well-defined bright, round core which is evenly concentrated to the center.  A mag 11 star lies 2.4' SSW of center.

 

WH discovered NGC 1070 = H II-273 = h263 on 13 Dec 1784 (sweep 338) and noted "F, S, iR."  His position is 10 tsec in RA west of UGC 2200 = PGC 10309.  JH's position is accurate.

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NGC 1071 = MCG -02-07-077 = PGC 10290

02 43 07.8 -08 46 26

V = 14.5;  Size 1.1'x0.5';  Surf Br = 14.0;  PA = 160d

 

17.5" (11/28/97): extremely faint, small, round, 25" diameter, very low surface brightness, no concentration.  Requires averted vision and probably only viewed the core as this galaxy has low surface brightness arms.  Nearly collinear with two mag 11/12 stars 3.3' E and 4.6' W, respectively.

 

Francis Leavenworth discovered NGC 1071 = LM II-346 with the 26" refractor at Leander McCormick Observatory and logged "0.3'x0.1', pE 180”, *10, p 16s; *9, f 15s".  His position is an exact match with MCG -02-07-077 as well as the two mentioned stars, although they are a couple of magnitudes fainter than given.

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NGC 1072 = UGC 2208 = MCG +00-07-088 = CGCG 388-103 = IC 1837? = PGC 10315

02 43 31.3 +00 18 25

V = 13.4;  Size 1.5'x0.5';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 11d

 

18" (1/15/07): fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 2:1 ~N-S, ~0.9'x0.5'.  Contains a moderately bright roundish core with much fainter extensions N-S.  A mag 11 star lies 3.9' NNW and a pair of mag 11/13 stars at 14" is 4.7' SE.  Located 23' NE of M77. 

 

17.5" (11/14/87): fairly faint, fairly small, very elongated 3:1 ~N-S, bright core.  Located 23' NNE of M77. 

 

13" (9/3/83): very faint, thin, very elongated SSW-NNE.

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 1072 = St XII-24 on 20 Dec 1881.  His position matches UGC 2208 = PGC 10315.  Stephane Javelle (III-945) independently found the galaxy on 24 Jan 1898, but Harold Corwin comments that he reversed the sign of his declination offset from his reference star.  Once corrected, IC 1837 = NGC 1072.  Although this is a reasonable assumption (it occured in several other cases), it's odd that Javelle described NGC 1072 as round as it appeared noticeably elongated in both of my observations.  The RNGC has a typo as the RA is given as 00 01.3 (1975).

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NGC 1073 = UGC 2210 = MCG +00-08-001 = CGCG 389-002 = PGC 10329

02 43 40.3 +01 22 33

V = 11.0;  Size 4.9'x4.5';  Surf Br = 14.2;  PA = 15d

 

48" (10/24/14): at 488x; the central bar is very bright and well-defined, extending 1.0'x0.3' SW-NE. An easily visible spiral arm is attached at the northeast end of the bar and extends at a right angle to the northwest, passing through a mag 16 star [50" N of center].  The arm then dims but sweeps clockwise around the west side, and merges with the second arm attached at the southwest end of the bar. As a result, the galaxy appears to have a single continuous arm rotating ~270” and ending on the southeast side, ~1.2' from center!  The outer part of the halo has a low surface brightness but extends at least 4' in diameter.  Another mag 16 star is on the southwest side of the halo [1.4' from center].

 

At least three HII complexes were identified.  The brightest is NGC 1073:[HK 83] 6/9, an elongated patch ~13"x8" E-W, situated at or just beyond the southeast end of the spiral arm, 1.4' from center.  A small, fainter knot close west, [HK83] 19, was difficult to resolve.  [HK83] 69, a faint 10" knot, is on the west side of the halo (beyond the arm), 1.4' due west of center.  Finally, [HK83] 49 is a third 10" knot of low contrast in the northwest outer halo (1.9' NNW of center).  The designations are from Hodge and Kennicutt's 1983 "An Atlas of HII Regions in 125 Galaxies".

 

13.1" (9/3/83): fairly faint, large, even surface brightness, round.  An equilateral triangle consisting of three mag 9.5-10.5 stars with sides 5' lies SW. 

 

8" (11/28/81): very faint, fairly large, very diffuse, round.  Three mag 10 stars are close SW.

 

WH discovered NGC 1073 = H III-455 on 9 Oct 1785 (sweep 463) and recorded "vF, vL, lbM, 6 or 7' diameter".  He noted it was  "easily resolvable" on a later sweep. The mottling he noted is due to numerous HII knots.

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NGC 1074 = MCG -03-08-001 = PGC 10324

02 43 36.1 -16 17 50

V = 13.7;  Size 1.9'x1.2';  Surf Br = 14.4;  PA = 167d

 

17.5" (12/20/95): very faint, small, elongated 3:2 ~N-S, 50"x35", low surface brightness.  A mag 13 star is 2.8' SSW of center.  Forms a pair with NGC 1075 5.8' N.

 

Francis Leavenworth discovered NGC 1074 = LM I-63 on 28 Nov 1885 with the 26" Leander McCormick refractor.  His rough position essentially matches MCG -03-08-001 = PGC 10324. Herbert Howe measured an accurate position in 1898-99 using the 20" refractor at Chamberlin Observatory (repeated in the IC 2 notes).

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NGC 1075 = MCG -03-08-002 = PGC 10320

02 43 33.5 -16 12 05

V = 13.9;  Size 0.9'x0.6';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 153d

 

17.5" (12/20/95): extremely faint and small, round, 15" diameter.  Requires averted vision.  Forms a pair with NGC 1074 5.8' S.

 

Francis Leavenworth discovered NGC 1075 = LM I-64 on 28 Nov 1885 with the Leander McCormick 26" refractor.  His approximate RA (nearest min of RA) is just 0.6 tmin west, though 2' south of MCG -03-08-002 = PGC 10320.  Herbert Howe measured an accurate position in 1898-99 using the 20" refractor at Chamberlin Observatory (repeated in the IC 2 notes) and "noticed that NGC 1075 "really precedes 1074".  I'm surprised that Leavenworth described this galaxy as brighter than NGC 1074 (mag 14.0 vs. mag 15.5).

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NGC 1076 = MCG -03-08-003 = PGC 10313

02 43 29.2 -14 45 16

V = 12.3;  Size 1.8'x1.1';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 99d

 

17.5" (12/20/95): moderately bright, fairly small, elongated 2:1 E-W, 1.5'x0.7', broad concentration with a large brighter core.  Located 5.4' W of mag 9.4 SAO 148572.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 1076 = Sw III-20 on 29 Dec 1885 with the 16" refractor at Warner Observatory and commented "vF; pS; R; B* 22s east".  His position is 7 tsec of RA east of MCG -03-08-003 = PGC 10313 and the bright star is accurated placed.

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NGC 1077 = UGC 2230 = MCG +07-06-069 = CGCG 539-095 = PGC 10468

02 46 00.7 +40 05 24

V = 13.7;  Size 1.3'x0.9';  Surf Br = 13.0;  PA = 165d

 

17.5" (12/23/92): faint, small, elongated 3:2 NNW-SSE, almost even fairly low surface brightness.  Forms a double system with NGC 1077b = MCG +07-06-068 at 0.5' ENE (not seen).

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 1077 = Sw I-23 on 16 Aug 1885 with the 16" refractor at Warner Observatory and placed accurately.  This is a double system (with PGC 10465), though the brighter southwestern component is called NGC 1077B in the MCG. The RNGC magnitude of 16.0 is in error.

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NGC 1078 = MCG -02-08-001 = PGC 10362

02 44 08.0 -09 27 08

V = 14.5;  Size 1.0'x0.8';  Surf Br = 14.1

 

17.5" (12/20/95): very faint, very small, round.  Contains a 10" brighter core surrounded by a 25" halo.  A mag 10 star lies 5.8' NNW.  Located close to the Eridanus border.

 

Frank Muller discovered NGC 1078 = LM II-347 in 1886 with the 26" Leander McCormick refractor and noted a "mag 9.5 star follows 30 sec, south 2'."  His position is 0.3 tmin east of MCG -02-08-001 = PGC 10362 and the description applies.

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NGC 1079 = ESO 416-013 = MCG -05-07-017 = PGC 10330

02 43 44.5 -29 00 11

V = 11.5;  Size 3.5'x2.1';  Surf Br = 13.5;  PA = 87d

 

13.1" (10/10/86): moderately bright, fairly large, elongated 2:1 E-W, bright core, faint stellar nucleus, faint elongated halo.

 

JH discovered NGC 1079 = h2494 on 14 Nov 1835 and logged "B, pmE, sbM, 90" long, 40" broad". His position is accurate.

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NGC 1080 = MCG -01-08-003 = PGC 10416

02 45 10.0 -04 42 39

V = 13.5;  Size 1.1'x0.8';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 160d

 

17.5" (11/26/94): fairly faint, fairly small, round, 1.0' diameter, almost even surface brightness, well-defined halo.  Several stars are near and forms the west vertex of an equilateral triangle with two mag 12.5/13.5 stars 2.7' SE and 2.6' NE of center.  A brighter mag 11.5 star lies 3.5' W.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 1080 = Sw V-40 on 21 Oct 1886 with the 16" refractor at Warner Observatory.  His position is 5 tsec east and 15" north of MCG -01-08-003 = PGC 10416.

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NGC 1081 = MCG -03-08-010 = PGC 10411

02 45 05.5 -15 35 17

V = 13.3;  Size 1.7'x0.6';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 27d

 

18" (11/26/03): at 160x appears faint, fairly small, very elongated 5:2 or 3:1 SSW-NNE, 1.0'x0.35', low even surface brightness.  Located 10' S of mag 7.6 SAO 14856.  NGC 1105 = IC 1840 lies 20' WSW and NGC 1083 is 16' NE.

 

17.5" (11/26/94): faint, fairly small, elongated 5:2 SSW-NNE, 1.2'x0.5', uniform surface brightness.  Located 10' SSW of mag 8.2 SAO 148586 at the edge of the 220x field.  A wide pair of mag 11/12 stars at 1.1' separation is 5' E and a mag 14.5 star is 2' NE.  The mag 8 star to the north is surrounded by a halo of 7 faint mag 14 stars!  First of three with NGC 1083 16' NE.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 1081 = Sw V-40 on 21 Oct 1886 with the 16" refractor at the Warner Observatory.  His position is 5 tsec of RA west of MCG -03-08-010 = PGC 10411 (same offset as NGC 1083).

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NGC 1082 = MCG -01-08-004 = PGC 10447

02 45 41.2 -08 10 50

V = 14.7;  Size 0.9'x0.6';  Surf Br = 13.9;  PA = 90d

 

17.5" (12/20/95): faint, fairly small, elongated 4:3 ~E-W, 0.8'x0.6'.  Fairly sharp concentration with a well-defined 20" core.  A mag 12.5 star lies 2.4' N of center.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 1082 = Sw V-42 on 29 Sep 1886 with the 16" refractor at the Warner Observatory.  His position is accurate. The RNGC declination is 2' too far south.

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NGC 1083 = MCG -03-08-015 = PGC 10445

02 45 40.6 -15 21 29

V = 13.8;  Size 1.7'x0.3';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 17d

 

17.5" (11/26/94): fairly faint but striking edge-on streak 5:1 SSW-NNE, 1.5'x0.3'.  Weak concentration with no distinct core.  Located almost at the midpoint of two mag 11 stars 2.5' NW and 3.2' SE.  Second of three on a line with NGC 1081 16' SW and NGC 1089 18' NE.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 1083 = Sw V-43 on 29 Sep 1886 with the 16" refractor at Warner Observatory and reported "eeF; pS; vE; surrounded by 5 or 6 stars; np of 2 [with NGC 1089].  His position is close to MCG -03-08-015 = PGC 10445 and the comment "surrounded by 5 or 6 stars" applies.  His comment "np of 2" should read "sp of 2".

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NGC 1084 = MCG -01-08-007 = PGC 10464

02 45 59.8 -07 34 42

V = 10.7;  Size 3.2'x1.8';  Surf Br = 12.5;  PA = 35d

 

17.5" (10/21/95): very bright, fairly large, elongated 2:1 SSW-NNE, 2.5'x1.2', broad concentration with a large bright core.  Irregular mottled appearance or dust or dark lanes on the east side.  The west side has a symmetric bulging appearance but there are dark indentations or bays on the NE and SE sides of the halo (probably between the spiral arms).

 

8" (10/13/81): bright, moderately large, elongated.  Three mag 9-10 stars lie 13' N, 15' NNE and 16' NNW.

 

WH discovered NGC 1084 = H I-64 = h264 on 10 Jan 1785 (sweep 355). He recorded "vB, pL, lE, mbM" and measured an accurate position .  The galaxy was observed 8 times at Birr Castle.  On 16 Oct 1855, R.J. Mitchell called this a "Fine oval neb, has nucl, light mottled, sometimes I thought I saw a dark bay north of Nucl, certainly the neb is brighter along n and nf side than in the part intervening between that and the nucleus".

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NGC 1085 = UGC 2241 = MCG +00-08-010 = CGCG 389-008 = PGC 10498

02 46 25.3 +03 36 26

V = 12.3;  Size 3.0'x2.1';  Surf Br = 14.1;  PA = 15d

 

17.5" (12/28/94): fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 3:2 N-S, 1.2'x0.8', gradually increases to a small bright core.  Forms the east vertex of an equilateral triangle with two mag 10.5/12.5 stars 4' SW and NW.

 

Heinrich d'Arrest discovered NGC 1085 on 26 Sep 1865 with an 11" refractor at Copenhagen.  His position is accurate and he further noted the nebula was between two mag 11-12 stars - one preceding by 14.5 seconds [4' SW] and the other following by 18.5 seconds [4.6' E].

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NGC 1086 = UGC 2258 = MCG +07-06-071 = CGCG 539-101 = PGC 10587

02 47 56.4 +41 14 47

V = 12.8;  Size 1.5'x1.0';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 35d

 

17.5" (10/24/87): faint, small, slightly elongated, almost even surface brightness, rich star field.  A pretty double star lies 5' SE (9.3/11.3 at 8" in PA 90”).  Surrounded by several mag 14-15 stars.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 1086 = Sw II-24 on 20 Aug 1885 with the 16" refractor at Warner Observatory and recorded "vF; pS; D* near".  His position is 13 tsec east of UGC 2258 = PGC 10587, but there are no other nearby candidates and the nearby double star is 4.8' SE.

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NGC 1087 = UGC 2245 = MCG +00-08-009 = CGCG 389-010 = PGC 10496

02 46 25.1 -00 29 55

V = 10.9;  Size 3.7'x2.2';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 5d

 

18" (1/15/07): fairly bright, fairly large, round, 1.7' diameter.  Broad concentration with an ill defined core which appears to be offset towards the west side.  The halo gradually fades into the background.  MCG +00-08-012, located 3.5' NE, was just glimpsed.

 

17.5" (11/14/87): bright, fairly large, elongated 3:2 N-S, gradually brighter halo, small bright core.  Two mag 11 stars 2.9' NE and 3.8' ESE of center are part of a string of brighter stars oriented NW-SE.  NGC 1090 lies 15' NNE.  Nearby MCG +00-08-012 was not seen.

 

13" (9/3/83): fairly bright, moderately large, weak concentration, elongated N-S.

 

8" (12/6/80): faint, fairly small, diffuse.  Located near a string of mag 10 stars.

 

WH discovered NGC 1087 = H II-466 = h265 on 9 Oct 1785 (sweep 463) and noted "pB, cL, R, mbM."  A month later on 7 Nov 1785 (sweep 470) he logged "pB, pL, irr R."  JH measured a more accurate position.

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NGC 1088 = UGC 2253 = MCG +03-08-009 = CGCG 463-011 = PGC 10536

02 47 04.0 +16 12 00

V = 13.7;  Size 1.1'x0.6';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 105d

 

17.5" (11/10/96): faint, fairly small, elongated 3:2 SW-NE, 0.8'x0.5'.  Faint stellar nucleus at moments.  A mag 13.5 star is 1.2' NW.  The main body appears elongated E-W on the POSS.  Perhaps the elongation I noticed was caused by a superimposed companion at the NE end.  IC 255 lies 5' N (not seen).

 

WH discovered NGC 1088 = H III-582 on 25 Oct 1786 (sweep 623) and noted "vF, S, irr F."  His position is 2' south of UGC 2253 = PGC 10536.

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NGC 1089 = MCG -03-08-020 = PGC 10481

02 46 10.1 -15 04 23

V = 13.5;  Size 0.9'x0.7';  Surf Br = 12.8;  PA = 15d

 

17.5" (11/26/94): very faint, small, round, 0.4' diameter. Symmetrical appearance with a weak, even concentration to a faint stellar nucleus.  Third of three on a line with NGC 1083 18' SSW and NGC 1081 34' SSW.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 1089 = Sw V-44 on 29 Sep 1886 with the 16" refractor at Warner Observatory and noted "eeF, S, R, sf of 2 [with NGC 1083]" .  His position is 9 tsec west of MCG -03-08-020, though his comment "sf of 2" should read "nf of 2".  Dreyer noted this correction in a short errata list at the end of the NGC.

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NGC 1090 = UGC 2247 = MCG +00-08-011 = CGCG 389-011 = PGC 10507

02 46 33.9 -00 14 50

V = 11.8;  Size 4.0'x1.7';  Surf Br = 13.8;  PA = 102d

 

18" (1/15/07): fairly bright, fairly large, elongated ~5:2 WNW-ESE, ~2.5'x1', broad mild concentration to a fairly large, slightly brighter core which has a mottled texture.  A mag 15 star is just off the the south edge and an 11th magnitude star lies 3' N.

 

17.5" (11/14/87): moderately bright, moderately large, oval ~E-W, weak concentration.  A mag 15 star is at the south edge 42" from center and a mag 11.5 star is 3.1' N.  NGC 1087 lies 15' S and NGC 1094 is 14' ESE.

 

13" (9/3/83): faint, moderately large, diffuse, slightly elongated ~E-W.

 

WH discovered NGC 1090 = H II-465 = h266 on 9 Oct 1785 (sweep 463) and recorded "F, pL, R, bM."

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NGC 1091 = ESO 546-016 = MCG -03-08-013 = HCG 21e = PGC 10424

02 45 22.4 -17 32 00

V = 14.1;  Size 0.9'x0.6';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 77d

 

17.5" (11/26/94): very faint, very small, elongated 4:3 WSW-ENE, 0.7'x0.5', no concentration.  A mag 11.5 star is 2.4' NNW of center.  Forms a close pair with NGC 1092 1.8' ESE.  Member of HCG 21 with NGC 1098 10' SW, NGC 1100 10' S and NGC 1099 11' S.

 

Francis Leavenworth discovered NGC 1091 = LM I-65 (along with NGC 1092, 1098, 1099 and 1100) on 17 Oct 1886 with the 26" refractor at Leander McCormick Observatory.  His position is just 1' too far south.  Herbert Howe measured an accurate position in 1897 using the 20" refractor at Chamberlin Observatory (repeated in the IC 2 notes).

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NGC 1092 = ESO 546-017 = MCG -03-08-014 = HCG 21d = PGC 10432

02 45 29.5 -17 32 32

V = 13.4;  Size 0.9'x0.8';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 170d

 

17.5" (11/26/94): faint, small, round, 40" diameter, increases to a bright core.  Brighter of a close pair with NGC 1091 1.8' WNW.  Last in HCG 21, consisting of five faint galaxies with NGC 1091, NGC 1098, NGC 1099 and NGC 1100.

 

Francis Leavenworth discovered NGC 1092 = LM I-66 (along with NGC 1091 and 1098) on 17 Oct 1885 with the 26" refractor at Leander McCormick.  Herbert Howe's corrected position, repeated in the IC 2 notes, is accurate.  Howe also noted that NGC 1092 is "considerably brighter than its companion" although both were described by Leavenworth as "vF".

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NGC 1093 = UGC 2274 = MCG +06-07-011 = CGCG 524-022 = PGC 10606

02 48 16.2 +34 25 12

V = 13.1;  Size 1.8'x1.1';  Surf Br = 13.7;  PA = 100d

 

17.5" (12/23/92): faint, fairly small, slightly elongated 4:3 WNW-ESE, fairly low almost even surface brightness.  Located 4.3' SSE of a mag 9.5 star.

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 1093 = St X-14 on 6 Dec 1879 with the 31" reflector at Marseilles Observatory.  His position is accurate.

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NGC 1094 = UGC 2262 = MCG +00-08-015 = CGCG 389-016 = PGC 10559

02 47 27.8 -00 17 06

V = 12.5;  Size 1.3'x1.0';  Surf Br = 12.6;  PA = 85d

 

18" (1/15/07): moderately bright, fairly small, elongated 5:3 E-W, ~1'x0.6', broad weak concentration.  Forms a close pair with MCG +00-08-014 1' N.  It appeared extremely faint, very small, elongated 2:1 WSW-ENE, 20"x10".  Required averted vision to just glimpse and too faint for details but I was confident of the sighting.  NGC 1094 is less than 5' S of a mag 9.5 star.

 

17.5" (11/14/87): fairly faint, very small, round, bright core.  NGC 1087 lies 20' SW and NGC 1090 14' WNW.  Located 4.8' S of mag 9.1 SAO 130113.  Forms a close pair with MCG +00-08-014 1.1' N (not seen).

 

13" (9/3/83): very faint, very small, almost round.  Located 14' ESE of NGC 1090.

 

WH discovered NGC 1094 = H III-462 = h267 on 7 Nov 1785 (sweep 470) and noted "vF, S."  His position is 1' S of UGC 2262 = PGC 10559.  The RA in the UGC is 1 hr too large (typo).

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NGC 1095 = UGC 2264 = MCG +01-08-001 = CGCG 415-008 = PGC 10566

02 47 37.9 +04 38 15

V = 13.3;  Size 1.3'x0.8';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 45d

 

17.5" (12/28/94): very faint, fairly small, elongated 3:2 SW-NE, 1.2'x0.8'.  Appears as a low unconcentrated glow just 2.0' SE of a mag 10 star which hampers viewing.  Forms a pair with NGC 1101 10' SE.

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 1095 = St VIIIb-8 on 11 Dec 1876 with the 31" silvered-reflector at the Marseille Observatory.  His position is accurate.

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NGC 1096 = ESO 115-028 = AM 0242-600 = PGC 10336

02 43 49.4 -59 54 47

V = 12.8;  Size 1.9'x1.8';  Surf Br = 14.0

 

14" (4/7/16 - Coonabarabran, 184x): very faint, fairly small, slightly elongated SW-NE, 35"x25", fairly even surface brightness.  Mag 9.8 HD 17288 is 9' SSE (along with two nearby mag 12/13 stars).  Viewed through thin clouds.

 

JH discovered NGC 1096 = h2496 on 3 Oct 1836 and logged "F, R, glbM, 30 arcsec."  His RA is 10 seconds west of ESO 115-028 = PGC 10336.

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NGC 1097 = Arp 77 NED2 = ESO 416-020 = MCG -05-07-024 = UGCA 41 = PGC 10488

02 46 18.9 -30 16 28

V = 9.5;  Size 9.3'x6.3';  Surf Br = 13.8;  PA = 130d

 

30" (10/13/15 - OzSky): NGC 1097 was one of the top highlights of my October 2015 trip to Australia.  At 303x; this showpiece barred spiral contains a bright central bar ~4.5'x1.5' NW-SE. The bar is sharply concentrated with an extremely bright, slightly elongated NW-SE core but no distinct stellar nucleus.

 

A prominent spiral arm is attached on the northwest end of the bar.  The arm is relatively thin, well defined and knotty as it curls counterclockwise to the east, dimming out gradually about 3' ENE of center.  A large bright knot is close to the northwest end of the bar, just inside the beginning of the arm and close east of a superimposed mag 14.5 star.  NED catalogues this region with the multiple designations NGC 1097:[EKS96] 148 and [EKS96] 151 from the 1996 "An Atlas of H II Regions in Nearby Seyfert Galaxies" in ApJS, 105, 93.  Roughly halfway along its length is a pair of fairly prominent HII knots.  The first is [EKS96] 245, a 12" knot 2.5' NNE of center.  Close east is slightly larger [EKS96] 300/304, 2.5' NE of center. The arm then fades as it passes just south of a mag 15 star.  At the southeast end of the bar a delicate, thin spiral arm unfurls counterclockwise towards the northwest.  About halfway along its length is a slightly brighter elongated patch extending ~30" in length, with designations [EKS96] 100/105/119 and others.  The arm dims out about 3' WSW of center.  Tip to tip the arms stretch about 6', giving overall dimensions of perhaps 7'x6'.

 

The satellite galaxy NGC 1097A is superimposed in the halo on the northwest side, 3.3' from center.  It appeared moderately bright, fairly small, elongated 2:1 WNW-ESE, 40"x20".

 

18" (12/30/08): very bright, large, very elongated NW-SE.  The brightest portion is the entire central "bar" which extends ~5'x1.5'.  This region is surrounded by a much fainter "halo", increasing the size to ~5'x3'.  The center is strongly concentrated to a very bright 50"x40" core, slightly elongated NW-SE.  At the northwest end of the bar, a very diffuse arm sweeps to the east in a counterclockwise direction for ~2.5' in length and appears to brighten or have a faint knot near the end.  At the southeast end of the bar, only a hint of a short extension sweeping west was detected.  A faint star (mag ~14.5) is along the west side at the northwest end of the main bar, near where the brighter arm is attached.  NGC 1097A, a small companion galaxy, is situated just off the NW side and appeared faint, very small, irregularly round, 25"x20".

 

17.5" (10/17/87): very bright, very large, very elongated NW-SE, very bright core.  A companion galaxy NGC 1097A is attached at the NW end.

 

8" (10/13/81): bright, elongated NW-SE, bright core.

 

WH discovered NGC 1097 = H V-48 =h2495 on 9 Oct 1790 (sweep 972) and logged "vB; E 75” np to sf; about 8' long.  A very bright nucleus confined to a small part about 1' diameter."  JH recorded this barred spiral on 18 Nov 1835 from the Cape as "B, L, vmE, pspmbM, 3' long; pos = 151.1”." The next night he logged "B, L, vmE, psvmbM to a pL, R nucleus; 4' long, 40" broad."  Dunlop's D 625 possibly refers to NGC 1097, although his position is too rough to make a positive identification.  He found a "round nebula, about 2' dia, very bright at the centre, and very faint from the centre to the margin , almost equally faint from the bright nucleus to the margin.  There are two pretty bright small stars following the nebula rather north."

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NGC 1098 = ESO 546-014 = MCG -03-08-008 = HCG 21c = PGC 10403

02 44 53.7 -17 39 33

V = 12.6;  Size 1.8'x1.3';  Surf Br = 13.4;  PA = 102d

 

17.5" (11/26/94): fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 3:2 E-W, 1.2'x0.8', small bright core, stellar nucleus with direct vision.  Located 5.2' SSW of mag 8.1 SAO 148582!  First in HCG 21 with NGC 1099 6.4' SE, NGC 1100 10.1' ESE, NGC 1091 10.2' NE and NGC 1092 11.1' NE.

 

Francis Leavenworth discovered NGC 1098 = LM I-67, along with NGC 1091 = I-65 and NGC 1092 = I-66, on 17 Oct 1885.  There is nothing at his position but 2 tmin east and 2' north is ESO 546-014 = PGC 10403.  Leavenworth noted this was the "1st of 3" [with NGC 1099 and 1100] and this secures the identification.  Ormond Stone and Herbert Howe later measured accurate positions (Stone's is given in the IC 1 notes).

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NGC 1099 = ESO 546-015 = MCG -03-08-011 = HCG 21a = PGC 10422

02 45 17.6 -17 42 31

V = 13.1;  Size 1.8'x0.6';  Surf Br = 13.0;  PA = 10d

 

17.5" (11/26/94): faint, fairly small, very elongated 3:1 SSW-NNE, 1.5'x0.5', no concentration.  Brightest in HCG 21 with NGC 1100 4.5' ENE and NGC 1098 6.4' NW.

 

Francis Leavenworth discovered NGC 1099 = LM I-68 (along with NGC 1098 = I-67 and NGC 1100 = I-69) on 17 Oct 1885 with the 26" refractor at Leander McCormick Observatory. Ormond Stone's corrected position in the IC 1 is accurate and Herbert Howe also measured an accurate position in 1899-00.

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NGC 1100 = ESO 546-018 = MCG -03-08-016 = HCG 21b = PGC 10438

02 45 36.0 -17 41 19

V = 13.0;  Size 1.7'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 58d

 

17.5" (11/26/94): faint, fairly small, elongated 5:2 WSW-ENE, weak concentration.  Similar appearance as NGC 1099 4.5' WSW.  A mag 14 star is off the SE side 1.7' from the center and a mag 13 star is 2.3' NNE.  About 9' N is pair of faint galaxies; NGC 1091 = HCG 21E and NGC 1092 = HCG 21D.

 

Francis Leavenworth discovered NGC 1100 = LM I-69 (along with NGC 1098 = I-67 and NGC 1099 = I-68) on 17 Oct 1885 with the 26" refractor at Leander McCormick Observatory. Ormond Stone's corrected position given in the IC 1 Notes is accurate and Herbert Howe also measured an accurate position in 1899-00 at the Chamberlin Observatory in Denver.

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NGC 1101 = UGC 2278 = MCG +01-08-003 = PGC 10613

02 48 14.8 +04 34 41

V = 13.0;  Size 1.3'x1.0';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 100d

 

17.5" (12/28/94): fairly faint, small, elongated 2:1 E-W, 0.8'x0.4', very small bright core.  Forms a "double" with a mag 13 star at the west end 24" from the center.  Starting about 4' SW is a very shallow arc of five mag 12-13 stars open to the NW with two 30" pairs at the SW and east ends of the arc and a total length of 4.5'.  Forms a pair with NGC 1095 10' NW.

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 1101 = St VIIIb-9 on 22 Nov 1876 with the 31" reflector at Marseille Observatory, recording "eF, eeS, R, bM, *13 preceding".  His position and description is accurate.

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NGC 1102 = ESO 546-019 = MCG -04-07-040 = PGC 10545

02 47 12.9 -22 12 32

V = 14.4;  Size 0.8'x0.5';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 89d

 

17.5" (12/20/95): extremely faint, very small, slightly elongated, only glimpsed with averted vision.  Situated on a E-W line between two mag 12 and 13 stars 5.4' E and 4.4' W.  There are two mag 14 stars nearly collinear 1.6' and 2.4' S.  Located 17' due north of mag 6.5 SAO 168051.

 

Francis Leavenworth discovered NGC 1102 = LM II-348 with the 26" refractor at Leander McCormick Observatory and logged "mag 15.7, 0.2', R."  His position is 17 tsec east of ESO 546-019.  ESO misidentifies ESO 546-020 as NGC 1102.  This fainter galaxy is a better match in RA, but further off in declination (a less likely error).

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NGC 1103 = MCG -02-08-005 = PGC 10597

02 48 06.0 -13 57 35

V = 12.9;  Size 2.1'x0.5';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 40d

 

17.5" (12/28/94): fairly faint, small, elongated 3:1 SW-NE.  Unusual appearance with a mag 12 star just at the NE end of this small streak.  Forms a pair with IC 1853 (noted as "extremely faint, very small") 2.0' SSW.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 1103 = Sw III-21 on 26 Dec 1885 with the 16-inch refractor at Warner Observatory.  His position is 8 sec of RA west of MCG -02-08-005 = PGC 10597 and the comment "11 mag * close f" clinches this identification.  Herbert Howe, observing with the 20" refractor at the Chamberlin Observatory in Denver, discovered nearby IC 1853 to the south.

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NGC 1104 = UGC 2287 = MCG +00-08-019 = CGCG 389-020 = PGC 10634

02 48 38.7 -00 16 17

V = 13.6;  Size 1.2'x0.9';  Surf Br = 13.4;  PA = 70d

 

18" (1/15/07): fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 4:3, very weak concentration except for a slightly brighter quasi-stellar nucleus.  A mag 13 star lies 1' S.

 

17.5" (11/14/87): very faint, very small, slightly elongated NW-SE.  A mag 14 star is 1.0' S of center.  Located 18' E of NGC 1094.

 

13" (9/3/83): extremely faint, very small.  A line of three stars is following and a faint star is off the SE edge.

 

Heinrich d'Arrest discovered NGC 1104 on 6 Nov 1864 with an 11" refractor at Copenhagen and logged "vF, vS, a mag 14 star is 50" south."  His position and description matches UGC 2287.

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NGC 1105 = IC 1840 = MCG -03-08-004 = PGC 10333

02 43 42.0 -15 42 20

V = 14.3;  Size 0.7'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.4

 

18" (11/26/03): very faint, small, slightly elongated SW-NE, 0.5'x0.4', broad concentration with a round 20" core.  Located 6' NW of mag 8.9 SAO 148573.  NGC 1081 lies 20' ENE.

 

Francis Leavenworth discovered NGC 1105 = LM I-71 on 2 Dec 1885 with the 26" refractor at Leander McCormick Observatory.  There is nothing at his position but Harold Corwin examined Leavenworth's discovery sketch and it matches PGC 10333, which is located 4.5 min of RA west of his position.  This galaxy was independently discovered by Herbert Howe on 30 Jan 1900 with the 20" refractor at Chamberlain Observatory in Denver and catalogued as IC 1840.   So, NGC 1105 = IC 1840.  Howe mentions he was unable to recover NGC 1105 at Leavenworth's position, but found another candidate (MCG -03-08-036 = PGC 10867) 4 minutes of RA futher east which he suggested might be NGC 1105.  Because of this "correction", PGC 10867 has been taken as NGC 1105 in the RNGC, MCG, PGC, LEDA, etc., although it was not the galaxy found by Leavenworth. See Corwin's notes.

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NGC 1106 = UGC 2322 = MCG +07-06-076 = CGCG 539-112 = PGC 10792

02 50 40.5 +41 40 18

V = 12.3;  Size 1.8'x1.8';  Surf Br = 13.4

 

17.5" (10/24/87): fairly faint, very small, slightly elongated WSW-ENE, bright core.  A mag 14.5 star is attached at the west end.  Located 3' WNW of mag 8.5 SAO 38389 which interferes with viewing.

 

JH discovered NGC 1106 = h268 on 18 Sep 1828, although he was uncertain about the observation: "Query whether a nebula or a knot of minute stars indistinctly seen."  There is nothing at his position, but exactly 1.0 tmin of RA west is UGC 2322 = PGC 10792.  Heinrich d'Arrest corrected the RA and the position is accurate in the NGC.

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NGC 1107 = UGC 2307 = MCG +01-08-006 = CGCG 415-013 = Holm 63a = PGC 10683

02 49 19.6 +08 05 34

V = 12.2;  Size 1.8'x1.5';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 140d

 

17.5" (10/21/95): moderately bright, fairly small, elongated 3:2 NW-SE.  Fairly high surface brightness with a prominent core and much fainter extensions.  Two strings of stars form a "V" to the south.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 1107 = m 74 on 2 Sep 1864 with Lassell's 48" on Malta and reported "F, vS, R."  His position is accurate.

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NGC 1108 = PGC 10633

02 48 38.5 -07 57 04

V = 15.1;  Size 0.7'x0.4';  Surf Br = 13.7;  PA = 85d

 

17.5" (11/28/97): very faint, very small, round, 25" diameter.  At moments a stellar nucleus is visible.  NGC 1110 lies 11' NE at the edge of the 220x field.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 1108 = Sw V-45 on 31 Oct 1886 with the 16-inch refractor at Warner Observatory.  His position is 5 tsec east and 24" north of PGC 10633.

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NGC 1109 = IC 1846 = UGC 2265 = MCG +02-08-006 = CGCG 440-008 = PGC 10573

02 47 43.6 +13 15 20

V = 14.0;  Size 1.0'x0.8';  Surf Br = 13.6

 

17.5" (1/9/99): faint, small, round, 25" diameter, weak concentration, very faint stellar nucleus with direct vision.  Situated 2.5' ENE of a mag 11.5 star.  The NGC identification of this galaxy is very uncertain due to poor positions in the group by Marth and UGC, MCG and CGCG identify this galaxy as IC 1846.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 1109 = m 75 on 2 Dec 1863 with Lassell's 48" on Malta and simply noted "vF".  This is the first object in a group of 8 that he discovered that night, several of which (NGC 1109, 1111, 1112, 1113, 1117) have identification problems because of poor positions or perhaps he confused some faint stars as nebulous.  There is nothing near his position for NGC 1109.  Harold Corwin suggests that NGC 1109 may refer to UGC 2265 = PGC 10573, which is 2 tmin of RA west of Marth's position but matching in declination.  Stephane Javelle later discovered this galaxy at the Nice Observatory on 7 Jan 1896, gave an accurate position, and it was catalogued as IC 1846. So, NGC 1109 is possibly IC 1846, though other objects on the same night seem to have different offsets in RA and based on all the problems here this identification is uncertain.

 

Modern catalogues, including RC3, RNGC, PGC and LEDA identify IC 1852 as NGC 1109.  This galaxy is 39 sec of RA west and 2' S of Marth's position.  Although closer in RA, IC 1852 is further off in declination (a less likely error) and Corwin assigns NGC 1112 = IC 1852.  Courtney Seligman suggests IC 1850 as a better candidate for NGC 1109.  This galaxy is 1.0 min of RA west of Marth's position and matches in declination, though  Corwin suggests NGC 1111 = IC 1852.  See Corwin's notes and Courtney Seligman's entry for NGC 1109.

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NGC 1110 = MCG -01-08-010 = UGCA 43 = FGC 346 = PGC 10673

02 49 09.5 -07 50 14

V = 14.2;  Size 2.6'x0.6';  Surf Br = 14.5;  PA = 18d

 

17.5" (11/28/97): this unusual galaxy appears a moderately large, low surface brightness streak, 2.0'x0.4' oriented SSW-NNE.  Located 2.7' N of a mag 11.5 star.  NGC 1108 lies 11' SW.

 

Francis Leavenworth discovered NGC 1110 = LM II-349 on 21 Dec 1886 with the 26" refractor at Leander McCormick Observatory.  His position is 15 tsec east of MCG -01-08-010 = PGC 10673 and his dimensions of 2.8'x0.3' clearly refers to this galaxy although his PA (168”) has a quadrant error.

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NGC 1111 = IC 1850 = PGC 1426583

02 48 39.3 +13 15 34

Size 0.7'x0.3';  PA = 9d

 

17.5" (1/9/99): extremely faint, very small, elongated 3:1 SSW- NNE, ~25"x9".  Originally this object appeared virtually stellar as I probably just detected the core but after viewing for awhile the thin extensions were noticed.  Located 5.6' NW of IC 1852.  The NGC identification from Marth of this galaxy is very uncertain, although it was correctly placed by Javelle (IC 1850).  The galaxy chosen by the RNGC is probably incorrect.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 1111 = m 76 on 2 Dec 1863 with Lassell's 48" on Malta and noted "F, vS, stellar".  This is the second in a group of 8 galaxies he discovered that night, several of which (NGC 1109, 1111, 1112, 1113, 1117) have identification problems because of poor positions or perhaps he confused faint stars as nebulous.  Harold Corwin suggests that NGC 1111 = IC 1850 = PGC 1426583, which is located 1.0 min of RA west of Marth's position but matches in RA.  Courtney Seligman notes that IC 1850 could just as easily be equated with NGC 1109, as Marth's positions for these two entries are very close.  RNGC, PGC and LEDA identify NGC 1111 as PGC 10719.  This galaxy is only 8 sec of RA east, but 6' S of Marth's position (a less likely error).  So, the identification of NGC 1111 is quite uncertain but given as IC 1850 here.  See Corwin's discussion of NGC 1109 and Seligman's website.

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NGC 1112 = IC 1852 = UGC 2293 = MCG +02-08-011 = CGCG 440-015 = PGC 10660

02 49 00.4 +13 13 25

V = 13.8;  Size 1.2'x0.9';  Surf Br = 13.8;  PA = 3d

 

17.5" (1/9/99): very faint, fairly small, ~40"x25".  Appears as a very low surface brightness glow with no noticeable concentration and an ill-defined edge.  After extended viewing could hold continuously with direct vision.  IC 1850 = NGC 1111: lies 5.6' NW and IC 1846 = NGC 1109: is 19' W.  The NGC identification is very uncertain due to a poor position from Marth. This galaxy is identified as IC 1852 in CGCG, UGC and MCG and identified as NGC 1109 in RNGC and RC3.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 1112 = m 77 on 2 Dec 1863 with Lassell's 48" on Malta and logged "F, pS".  This is the third in a group of 8 galaxies he discovered that night, several of which (NGC 1109, 1111, 1112, 1113, 1117) have identification problems because of poor positions or possibly he confused faint stars as nebulous.

 

Harold Corwin suggests NGC 1112 may refer IC 1852 = UGC 2293 = PGC 10660.  Stepane Javelle discovered this galaxy on 7 Jan 1896 with the 30-inch refractor at the Nice Observatory.  Marth's position is exactly 1.0 min of RA following IC 1852 and matches in declination.  CGCG, UGC and MCG label this galaxy IC 1852, while RNGC, PGC, RC3 and Megastar identify it as NGC 1109.  RNGC lists NGC 1112 as nonexistent.  Finally, LEDA equates IC 1852 with NGC 1109.  Although NGC 1112 = IC 1852 is a reasonable match, given all the problems in this region this identification is very uncertain. See Corwin's notes for NGC 1109 and Courtney's Seligman website for NGC 1112.

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NGC 1113

02 50 05.0 +13 19 39

 

=*??, Corwin. =NF, RNGC.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 1113 = m 78 on 2 Dec 1863 with Lassell's 48" on Malta and noted simply as "vF".  This is the 4th in a group of 8 galaxies he discovered that night, several of which (NGC 1109, 1111, 1112, 1113, 1117) have identification problems because of poor positions or perhaps he confused faint stars as nebulous.  Marth's position falls very close to a 10th magnitude star, though it is very unlikely Marth could have described this star as "vF" and there are no other non-stellar candidates due west or east.  Corwin suggests that NGC 1113 may refer to a 15th magnitude star 2' NW (position given here) of the bright star, though this is very speculative.  NGC 1113 is classified as nonexistent in the RNGC and there is no entry in LEDA.

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NGC 1114 = MCG -03-08-029 = PGC 10669

02 49 07.2 -16 59 39

V = 12.8;  Size 1.5'x0.8';  Surf Br = 12.8;  PA = 8d

 

17.5" (12/28/94): fairly faint, moderately large, elongated almost 3:1 N-S, 2.0'x0.7', broad concentration to a brighter middle but no nucleus.  Appears slightly larger than catalogued dimensions.

 

WH discovered NGC 1114 = H III-449 = h269 = h2497 on 6 Oct 1785 (sweep 459) and logged "vF, pL, broadly extended, lbM."  JH observed this galaxy both at Slough and at the Cape, where he recorded "pB, L, pmE, vglbM, 2' long, 40" broad."

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NGC 1115 = MCG +02-08-016 = CGCG 440-020 = PGC 10774

02 50 25.3 +13 15 58

V = 14.7;  Size 0.6'x0.3';  PA = 10d

 

17.5" (11/28/97): extremely faint, very small, round, 15" diameter.  Can hold steadily with averted vision.  A nice pair of mag 13.5/14 star lie 2' N [17" separation].  Located 4.8' SSW of NGC 1116.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 1115 = m 79 on 2 Dec 1863 with Lassell's 48" on Malta and simply noted "vF".  Although 5 of the 8 objects in the region he discovered this night have poor positions or are lost, Marth's position is a good match with CGCG 440-021 = PGC 10774.

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NGC 1116 = UGC 2326 = MCG +02-08-017 = CGCG 440-021 = PGC 10781

02 50 35.7 +13 20 06

V = 14.3;  Size 1.3'x0.3';  Surf Br = 13.0;  PA = 27d

 

17.5" (11/28/97): very faint, small, elongated 3:1 SW-NE, 0.6'x0.2', very small brighter core.  Forms a pair with NGC 1115 4.8' SSW.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 1116 = m 80 on 2 Dec 1863 with Lassell's 48" on Malta and simply noted "vF".  Although 5 of the 8 objects in the region he discovered this night have poor positions or are lost, NGC 1116 is an excellent match with UGC 2326 = PGC 10781.

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NGC 1117 = UGC 2337s = MCG +02-08-019/020 = CGCG 440-022s = PGC 10822

02 51 13.0 +13 11 07

V = 13.9;  Size 1.0'x0.6';  Surf Br = 11.0;  PA = 0d

 

17.5" (11/28/97): very faint, very small, slightly elongated N-S.  Appears as a barely resolved double system oriented N-S, ~30"x20" total size. The object at the south side appears to have a stellar nucleus.  The northern object has a 20" halo and appears larger.  The centers of this pair are only 24" apart.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 1117 = m 81 on 2 Dec 1863 with Lassell's 48" on Malta and noted "Close to a small star".  This is the 7th in a group of 8 galaxies he discovered that night, several of which (NGC 1109, 1111, 1112, 1113, 1117) have identification problems because of poor positions or perhaps he confused faint stars as nebulous.  There is nothing near his position for NGC 1117, but UGC 2337 = PGC 10821/10822 lies 30 sec of RA east and is fairly close in declination.  This is a double system and perhaps Marth thought one component was a star.   Neither CGCG or MCG label this system as NGC 1117 but RNGC, PGC and LEDA apply this identification.  The southern component is sometimes taken as NGC 1117.

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NGC 1118 = MCG -02-08-011 = PGC 10748

02 49 58.7 -12 09 50

V = 12.7;  Size 2.6'x0.8';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 90d

 

17.5" (12/28/94): fairly faint, fairly small, very elongated 3:1 E-W, 1.2'x0.4'.  The small, rounder bright core contains a faint stellar nucleus.  A wide unequal pair [mag 12/14 at 33" separation] lies 5' NE.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 1118 = Sw V-46 on 1 Nov 1886 with the 16-inch refractor at Warner Observatory.  His position and description "vE" is accurate

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NGC 1119 = ESO 546-024 = PGC 10607

02 48 17.1 -17 59 15

V = 13.8;  Size 0.5'x0.4';  Surf Br = 12.0;  PA = 0d

 

17.5" (12/20/95): very faint, very small, round, 20" diameter, weak concentration.  Forms the west vertex of a near equilateral triangle with a mag 10.5 star 3.0' NE and a mag 12 star 3.5' SE.

 

Francis Leavenworth discovered NGC 1119 = LM I-72 on 17 Oct 1885 with the 26" refractor at Leander McCormick Observatory.  There is nothing at his position, but Herbert Howe measured an accurate position in 1899-00 (repeated in the IC 2 notes) that matches ESO 546-024 = PGC 10607.  This galaxy is 1.8 min of RA west and 2' N of Leavenworth's position (not an uncommon error) and this galaxy is generally taken as NGC 1119.  RNGC lists the number as nonexistent.

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NGC 1120 = MCG -03-08-028 = IC 261 = PGC 10664

02 49 04.1 -14 28 15

V = 13.2;  Size 1.1'x0.7';  Surf Br = 12.8;  PA = 40d

 

17.5" (11/18/95): fairly faint, fairly small, round, 40" diameter.  Even concentration to a bright core and nearly stellar nucleus.  A faint, close double star lies 4.2' SSW and 5' NW is a small group of four mag 13 stars (includes a 30" pair).

 

Francis Leavenworth discovered NGC 1120 = LM I-72 on 1 Jan 1886 with the 26" refractor at Leander McCormick Observatory.  There is nothing at his rough position, but 1.1 min of RA west (common error) is MCG -03-08-028 = PGC 10664, and Corwin confirms this galaxy matches Leavenworth's field sketch.  This galaxy was later discovered by Stephane Javelle on 7 Dec 1891 and accurately measured.  Dreyer assumed this was new object, so catalogued it as IC 261.  Herbert Howe measured an accurate position for NGC 1120 in 1899-00 using the 20" refractor at Chamberlin Observatory (repeated in the IC 2 notes). Some sources, such as the MCG, label this galaxy IC 261 although NGC 1120 should be the primary designation.  See Corwin's notes.

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NGC 1121 = UGC 2332 = MCG +00-08-030 = CGCG 389-032 = PGC 10789

02 50 39.1 -01 44 03

V = 12.9;  Size 0.9'x0.4';  Surf Br = 11.5;  PA = 10d

 

17.5" (12/28/94): fairly faint, small, elongated 2:1 N-S, 0.6'x0.3', well concentrated with a small bright core and a stellar nucleus.  Located 1.7' SSW of a mag 10 star in the northwest corner of Eridanus.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 1121 = Sw I-4 on 9 Nov 1884 with the 16-inch refractor at Warner Observatory.  His position is 0.2 tmin east of ESO 546-024 = PGC 10607. Herbert Howe measured an accurate position in 1898 using the 20" refractor at Chamberlin Observatory.

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NGC 1122 = NGC 1123 = UGC 2353 = MCG +07-06-083 = CGCG 539-117 = PGC 10890

02 52 51.1 +42 12 20

V = 12.1;  Size 1.7'x1.3';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 40d

 

17.5" (10/24/87): fairly faint, small, round, diffuse.  A pair of mag 14 stars are at the ESE and NE end and a mag 15 star is at the west end.  Located 12' NNE of mag 7.2 SAO 38407.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 1122 = Sw II-25 on 6 Sep 1885 with the 16-inch refractor at Warner Observatory and recorded "vF, pS, R, * nr north."  His position and description matches NGC 1123 = UGC 2353 = PGC 10890, which was discovered by William Herschel (II-601).  Since neither of the Herschel's position are poor, it's unusual that Dreyer did not catch the equivalence. 

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NGC 1123 = NGC 1122 = UGC 2353 = MCG +07-06-083 = CGCG 539-117 = PGC 10890

02 52 51.1 +42 12 20

 

See observing notes for NGC 1122.

 

WH discovered NGC 1123 = H II-601 = h270 on 17 Oct 1786 (sweep 614) and logged "F, S, iF, resolvable."  His position is within 2' of UGC 2353 = PGC 10890.  Lewis Swift independently "discovered" the galaxy on 6 Sep 1885 and it was also catalogued as NGC 1122.  As the positions for NGC 1122 and NGC 1123 are so close, it is very surprising Dreyer included both entries in the NGC. All modern catalogues identify this galaxy as NGC 1122 although by historical priority, NGC 1123 should take precedence.

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NGC 1124 = ESO 480-007 = MCG -04-07-047 = PGC 10838

02 51 35.9 -25 42 07

V = 14.0;  Size 1.0'x0.8';  Surf Br = 13.6;  PA = 0d

 

17.5" (11/17/01): very faint, very small, round, 20" diameter.  Located 1.8' SW of a mag 10.3 star.  This galaxy has a faint outer ring, but the observation records the smaller, round core only.

 

Ormond Stone discovered NGC 1124 = LM I-74 in 1886 with the 26" refractor at Leander McCormick Observatory and noted "*9, nf 1'."  His description and rough position is a good match with ESO 480-007 = PGC 10838.

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NGC 1125 = MCG -03-08-035 = PGC 10851

02 51 40.4 -16 39 02

V = 12.6;  Size 1.8'x0.9';  Surf Br = 13.0;  PA = 53d

 

17.5" (11/18/95): moderately bright, fairly small, very elongated 7:2 SW-NE, 1.5'x0.4', small bright core.  Forms a double system with MCG -03-08-034 at the SW tip (not seen).

 

WH discovered NGC 1125 = H III-450 = h272 on 6 Oct 1785 (sweep 459) and noted "vF, S, E."  His position is accurate, though closer to the fainter southwest component of this double system.  The northeast component (MCG -03-08-035 = PGC 10851) is generally identified as NGC 1125 with MCG -03-08-034 at the southwest tip.

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NGC 1126 = MCG +00-08-038 = CGCG 389-038 = PGC 10868

02 52 18.6 -01 17 45

V = 14.6;  Size 0.7'x0.2';  Surf Br = 12.4;  PA = 135d

 

17.5" (11/7/89): extremely faint, small, edge-on 4:1 NW-SE, low even surface brightness.  Located 8' WSW of NGC 1132.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 1126 = Sw V-47 on 31 Oct 1886 with the 16-inch refractor at Warner Observatory.  His position is just 44" north of CGCG 389-038 = PGC 10868 and his comment "p of [N1132]" applies.

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NGC 1127 = UGC 2356 = MCG +02-08-024 = CGCG 440-024 = PGC 10889

02 52 51.8 +13 15 23

V = 14.4;  Size 0.7'x0.5';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 39d

 

17.5" (11/17/01): very faint, very small, slightly elongated, 0.5'x0.4', low even surface brightness with no noticeable core.  Situated in a fairly sparse star field with a mag 10.9 star 6' ESE.  Located 19' NW of NGC 1134 in a group.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 1127 = m 82 on 2 Dec 1863 with Lassell's 48" on Malta and simply noted "vF".  Although 5 of the 8 objects in the region he discovered this night have poor positions or are lost, Marth's position for this number is a good match with UGC 2356 = PGC 10889.

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NGC 1128 = MCG +01-08-027 = CGCG 415-041 = III Zw 52 = 3C 75 = PGC 11188 = PGC 11189

02 57 41.6 +06 01 28

V = 12.7;  Size 0.9'x0.4';  Surf Br = 11.7

 

18" (11/22/08): on initial glance the brightest galaxy in AGC 400 appeared faint, small, elongated 3:2 N-S, 25"x18". I soon realized this was an extremely close contact pair oriented N-S with two tangent knots (described in the professional literature as a "dumb-bell system") just 16" between centers in a very small common halo.  Each component is no more than 15" in diameter with the southern member brighter.

 

17.5" (11/28/97): very faint, small, elongated 2:1 N-S, 40"x20", irregular surface brightness.  On careful examination the glow resolved into a very close pair of extremely small galaxies oriented N-S with tangent halos [just 16" between centers!].  This double system is the brightest in AGC 400 with CGCG 415-040 3.5' SW.

 

The identification of this galaxy with NGC 1128 is very uncertain as Swift's position is 5 tmin preceding.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 1128 = Sw V-48 on 8 Oct 1886 with the 16-inch refractor at Warner Observatory and recorded "eF; S; lE; 2 pF stars close preceding."  There are no good candiates near Swift's position.

 

Harold Corwin suggests NGC 1128 = CGCG 415-041 = PGC 11189 +11188, the brightest galaxy (double) in Abell Galaxy Cluster 400.  It is situated 5 minutes of RA east of Swift's position, though Corwin notes that several other objects found by Swift in October 1886 have similar 5 minute errors (NGC 1128, 1667, 1689).  Two mag 12-13 stars just west of this galaxy fit Swift's description.

 

Interestingly, this double system might have been first seen by WH.  On 30 Sep 1786 (sweep 607), he recorded "Some small stars with suspected nebulosity, probably a deception."  Although it was never catalogued, his position is just 1' northwest of CGCG 415-041!

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NGC 1129 = VV 85a = UGC 2373 = MCG +07-07-004 = CGCG 540-006 = CGCG 539-124 = AWM 7-1 = PGC 10959

02 54 27.3 +41 34 46

V = 12.5;  Size 2.9'x2.1';  Surf Br = 14.4;  PA = 90d

 

18" (11/18/06): this giant cD galaxy is the brightest in the nearby X-ray bright cluster WBL 88 = AWM 7 (z = 0.017), which is a member of the Pisces-Perseus supercluster. Several faint galaxies lie within a few arcminutes including NGC 1130 1.7' NNW and NGC 1131 1.8' SE.  A very faint companion (MCG +07-07-003) is embedded at the southwest edge of the halo and appears like a short spike jutting out towards the SW.

 

17.5" (10/24/87): brightest in a compact group.  Moderately bright, moderately large, elongated WSW-ENE, brighter along major axis, small bright core.  A mag 15 star is at the west edge 22" from the center.  Forms a close trio with NGC 1130 1.7' NNW and NGC 1131 1.7' SE.  IC 265 5.6' NE not seen.

 

WH discovered NGC 1129 = H II-602 = h271 on 17 Oct 1786 (sweep 614) and logged "F, pS, iR, lbM."  Both William and John's positions match UGC 2373 = PGC 10959, the brightest member of a cluster, with MCG +07-07-003 superimposed on its southwest side .

 

Using LdR's 72" in Oct 1854, R.J. Mitchell noted "has either a F* sp or is double".  This refers to MCG +07-07-003, which MCG misidentifies this galaxy as NGC 1129.  In December, he noted "suspect the supposed neb close sp edge to be only a faint double star.  Finally in Dec 1855, Mitchell observed with Lord Rosse, who "thought the companion on sp edge to be merely a neb with a * for centre."  Because of the uncertainty, Dreyer didn't assign an NGC designation to MCG +07-07-003.

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NGC 1130 = MCG +07-07-002 = CGCG 540-004 = CGCG 539-122 = AWM 7-6 = PGC 10951

02 54 24.4 +41 36 20

V = 14.6;  Size 0.5'x0.3';  Surf Br = 11.9;  PA = 35d

 

18" (11/18/06): faint, very small, elongated ~2:1 SSW-NNE, 0.4'x0.2'.  A mag 14 star is attached at the south end.  Located in the core of the NGC 1129 cluster = AWM 7, just 1.7' NNW of NGC 1129.

 

17.5" (10/24/87): very faint, very small, round.  A mag 14 star is just south.  Located 1.7' NNW of NGC 1129.

 

William Parsons (Lord Rosse) and assistant R.J. Mitchell discovered NGC 1130 and 1131 on the 8 Dec 1855 observation of the NGC 1129 field.  Their description reads, "there is a knot north about 2' distance [from NGC 1129].  CGCG 540-004 = CGCG 539-122 lies 1.7' NNW of NGC 1129, so it's the logical candidate.  Corwin suggests PGC 197768, situated 1.9' N of NGC 1130, as another possible candidate, but this galaxy is fainter and was not picked up in my observation.  The MCG appears to have a mixup in its identifications.

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NGC 1131 = MCG +07-07-005 = CGCG 539-125 = CGCG 540-007 = V Zw 286 = AWM 7-4 = PGC 10964

02 54 34.0 +41 33 32

V = 14.6;  Size 0.5'x0.5';  Surf Br = 12.5

 

18" (11/18/06): faint, very small, round, 20" diameter, weak even concentration.  Located 1.7' SE of NGC 1129 in the core of the AWM 7 cluster.  Brighter MCG +07-07-008 lies 2.7' SE!

 

17.5" (10/24/87): very faint, very small, round, bright core.  Third of three with much brighter NGC 1129 1.7' NW and NGC 1130 3.5' NW.

 

William Parsons (Lord Rosse) and assistant R.J. Mitchell discovered NGC 1131 and 1130 during the 8 Dec 1855 observation of the NGC 1129 field.  They recorded, "another about 2' following and a little south of h271 [NGC 1129]".  CGCG 540-004 = PGC 10964 lies 1.7' SE of NGC 1129 and is the best candidate.  Harold Corwin notes that CGCG 540-008, a brighter galaxy, lies 4.5' SE of NGC 1129, but that would require a very poor estimate of the separation.  MCG (+07-07-005) does not label PGC 10964 as NGC 1131.  See Corwin's notes for NGC 1130.

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NGC 1132 = UGC 2359 = MCG +00-08-040 = CGCG 389-040 = PGC 10891

02 52 51.8 -01 16 27

V = 12.3;  Size 2.5'x1.3';  Surf Br = 13.6;  PA = 140d

 

17.5" (11/7/89): faint, small, round, almost even surface brightness, faint stellar nucleus.  Located 4.3' WSW of mag 9.5 SAO 130162.  Forms a pair with NGC 1126 8' WSW.

 

NGC 1132 is the prototype of a "Fossil Group" -- the end-product of extensive merging of a once normal group, leaving a massive central galaxy that dominates the luminosity of a X-ray luminous group (delta Rmag ³ 2.0 with next brightest group member).

 

JH discovered NGC 1132 = h273 on 23 Nov 1827 and recorded "eF; pL; gbM; has a *8m following".  His position and description matches UGC 2359 = PGC 10891.

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NGC 1133 = MCG -02-08-015 = PGC 10885

02 52 42.1 -08 48 15

V = 13.6;  Size 1.0'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 175d

 

17.5" (11/28/97): very faint, small, slightly elongated, 30" diameter, weak concentration to a small brighter core.  Mag 14.5 stars lie 2.6' E and 2.3' NNW.

 

Francis Leavenworth discovered NGC 1133 = LM II-350 in 1886 with the 26" refractor at Leander McCormick Observatory.  His position is a good match with MCG -02-08-015.  His notes mention that mag 12 stars 3' np and 2' nf.  These stars are 2.3' NNW and 2.6' E, and closer to mag 14.

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NGC 1134 = Arp 200 = UGC 2365 = MCG +02-08-027 = CGCG 440-027 = PGC 10928

02 53 41.2 +13 00 53

V = 12.1;  Size 2.5'x0.9';  Surf Br = 12.8;  PA = 148d

 

17.5" (10/21/95): fairly faint, fairly small, slightly elongated NW-SE, 1.0'x0.8', broad concentration with a large brighter core.  A mag 13 star is 48" ENE of center.  Located 11' ENE of mag 8.9 SAO 93163. Brightest in a group with IC 267 10.3' SSE and NGC 1127 19' NW.  The larger low surface brightness spiral arms extending the diameter to over 2' were not seen.

 

WH discovered NGC 1134 = H II-254 on 16 Oct 1784 (sweep 295) and recorded "F, S, iR, r".  His position is 2.3' SE of Arp 200 = PGC 10928, and there are no other nearby candidates.  John Dreyer, using Lord Rosse's 72", recorded "L, irr R, perhaps sharper on nf side".  This probably refers to the brighter arm segment on the east side.

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NGC 1135 = NGC 1136 = ESO 154-019 = PGC 10807

02 50 53.7 -54 58 33

V = 13.0;  Size 1.4'x1.2';  Surf Br = 13.4;  PA = 80d

 

See observing notes for NGC 1136 with the 30" from Coonabarabran.

 

JH found NGC 1135 = h2498 on 11 Sep 1836 and recorded "F, R, gbM.  Taken for No 3 sweep 520 [h2499 = NGC 1136], but proves, on reduction, to be a different nebula".  His position is 1.5' NW of NGC 1136 and 2' S of ESO 154-018 = PGC 10800.  Since there are two NGC numbers as well as two nearby galaxies, ESO 154-018 is taken as NGC 1135 in PGC, ESO, SGC, NED, SIMBAD and Steinicke's Historic NGC.

 

If this identification is correct, NGC 1135 is John HerschelÕs faintest discovery at B = 16.2.  But then why did he classify it as "Faint", instead of "Extremely Faint" (his faintest class)?  Instead, Harold Corwin argues NGC 1135 is a duplicate observation of NGC 1136 (discovered earlier on 5 Dec 1834), despite Herschel stating they were two different objects.  HyperLeda is the only online catalogue that equates NGC 1135 and 1136.

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NGC 1136 = NGC 1135 = ESO 154-019 = PGC 10807

02 50 53.7 -54 58 33

V = 13.0;  Size 1.4'x1.2';  Surf Br = 13.4;  PA = 80d

 

30" (11/4/10 - Coonabarabran, 429x): fairly bright, moderately large, slightly elongated E-W, ~1.5'x1.2'.  Sharply concentrated with a fairly small (20") very bright core surrounded by a much fainter halo.  Located 7' NW of mag 8.3 HD 18003.  ESO 154-018 (misidentified as NGC 1135 in RNGC, ESO and PGC) lies 3' NNW.

 

JH discovered NGC 1136 = h2499 on 5 Dec 1834 and logged "F; R; gb; - moon up."  There is nothing at his position but 5.4' N is ESO 154-019 = PGC 10807.  This galaxy was probably also later recorded by Herschel as h2498 (closer to ESO 154-019), and it received the designation NGC 1135.  He assumed they were different objects, because of the apparent difference in positions.  The RNGC uses Herschel's incorrect position.  See Corwin's notes for NGC 1135. 

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NGC 1137 = UGC 2374 = MCG +00-08-043 = CGCG 389-042 = PGC 10942

02 54 02.7 +02 57 43

V = 12.4;  Size 2.1'x1.3';  Surf Br = 13.4;  PA = 20d

 

17.5" (1/7/89): faint, very small, almost round, broad concentration, stellar nucleus?

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 1137 = Sw III-22 on 17 Oct 1885 with the 16-inch refractor at Warner Observatory.  His position is 11 seconds of RA east and 1' south of UGC 2374.

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NGC 1138 = UGC 2408 = MCG +07-07-012 = CGCG 540-015 = PGC 11118

02 56 36.5 +43 02 50

V = 12.8;  Size 1.1'x0.9';  Surf Br = 12.6

 

17.5" (10/24/87): fairly faint, small, round, bright core, faint stellar nucleus.  Forms an equilateral triangle with a mag 13 star 0.9' S and a mag 12.5 star 0.9' SE.

 

WH discovered NGC 1138 = H III-580 = h274 on 24 Oct 1786 (sweep 620) and remarked "Suspected. resolvable, 1 or 2 stars visible in it."  JH gave a more complete description: "vF; vS; R; gbM; 10"; makes isosc triangle with 2 st 15 mag".  His position and description matches UGC 2408 = PGC 11118.

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NGC 1139 = MCG -03-08-038 = PGC 10888

02 52 46.8 -14 31 46

V = 13.3;  Size 0.9'x0.6';  Surf Br = 12.5;  PA = 36d

 

17.5" (11/10/96): very faint, small, round, 30" diameter, low even surface brightness.  Appeared fainter than V = 13.3 and required averted vision to see with certainty using GSC chart.  A mag 15.5 double star is 1' SW (verified on GSC).  MCG -03-38-037 lies 6.1' WSW (not seen).

 

Francis Leavenworth discovered NGC 1139 = LM I-75 on 1 Jan 1886 with the 26" refractor at Leander McCormick Observatory.  There is nothing at his rough position, but 1.4 min of RA west is MCG -03-08-038 = PGC 10888.

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NGC 1140 = VV 482 = MCG -02-08-019 = Mrk 1063 = PGC 10966

02 54 33.4 -10 01 42

V = 12.5;  Size 1.9'x1.2';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 6d

 

13.1" (12/7/85): fairly bright, very small, round, stellar nucleus.

 

WH discovered NGC 1140 = H II-470 = h275 = h2500 on 22 Nov 1785 (sweep 475) and logged "F, S.  I had hardly been out long enough, but yet I think it was no deception."  A second observation showed it as "pretty bright, but hardly to be distinguished from a star."  JH observed this galaxy both at Slough and at the Cape.

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NGC 1141 = NGC 1143 = Arp 118 NED1 = VV 331 = UGC 2388 = MCG +00-08-047 = CGCG 389-046

02 55 09.7 -00 10 41

 

See observing notes for NGC 1143.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 1141 = m 83 on 5 Jan 1864 with Lassell's 48" on Malta and described as "vF, S, [Double neb with NGC 1142]".  There is nothing at his position, however 40' S is the double system NGC 1143 and 1144, independently found by ƒdouard Stephan (VIIIa-10 and VIIIa-11) on 17 Nov 1876 and accurately placed. This pair is generally identified as NGC 1143 and 1144), although Marth's numbers should takes priority. Several other objects discovered that night by Marth have large positional errors.

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NGC 1142 = NGC 1144 = UGC 2389 = MCG +00-08-048 = CGCG 389-046 = VV 331 = Arp 118

02 55 12.0 -00 10 59

 

See observing notes for NGC 1144.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 1142 = m 84 on 5 Jan 1864 with Lassell's 48" on Malta and reported "pF, S, R [Double neb with NGC 1141]".  There is nothing at his position for the pair, however 40' S is the double system NGC 1143 and 1144.  This was later independently discovered by ƒdouard Stephan (VIIIa-10 and 11) on 17 Nov 1876 and accurately placed. This pair is generally identified as NGC 1143 and 1144, although Marth's NGC 1141 and 1142 should take priority. Several other objects discovered that night by Marth have large positional errors.

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NGC 1143 = NGC 1141 = Arp 188 NED1 = Arp 118:C1 = VV 331b = UGC 2388 = MCG +00-08-047 = CGCG 389-046 = PGC 11007

02 55 09.7 -00 10 41

V = 13.5;  Size 0.9'x0.8';  PA = 110d

 

48" (10/25/11): bright, fairly small to moderately large, oval 4:3 WNW-ESE, 0.9'x0.7', well concentrated with a very bright, intense core!  Slightly fainter of an interacting pair with highly disrupted NGC 1144, just 35" between centers.  The eastern portion of the outer halo of NGC 1143 is merged or overlaps with the halo of NGC 1144 on its northwestern side.  2MASX J02550661-0009448, listed as a 2nd "collider" with NGC 1144 in Madore's 2009 Atlas and Catalogue of Collisional Rings, lies 1.2' NW.  The 2MASS galaxy appeared fairly faint, small, very elongated 3:1 N-S, 0.4'x0.15', stellar nucleus.

 

17.5" (1/7/89): very faint, very small, round.  In a common halo with NGC 1144 0.5' ESE.  This galaxy is the slightly fainter of the pair.

 

ƒdouard Stephan found NGC 1143 = St VIIIa-11 (along with NGC 1144 = St VIIIa-10) on 17 Nov 1876 with the 31" reflector at Marseille Observatory.  His position is accurate.  This galaxy was first discovered by Marth on 5 Jan 1864 but his position was 40' too far N (also NGC 1142), so he did not receive credit.  But it clear that NGC 1143 = NGC 1141 and NGC 1144 = NGC 1142.

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NGC 1144 = NGC 1142 = Arp 118 NED2 = VV 331a =UGC 2389 = MCG +00-08-048 = CGCG 389-046 =  PGC 11012

02 55 12.0 -00 10 59

V = 13.0;  Size 1.1'x0.7';  Surf Br = 12.5;  PA = 130d

 

48" (10/25/11): at 488x, appeared very bright, moderately large, elongated 4:3 SW-NE, 50"x35".  Contains a large, very bright core that is offset to the SE side.  The core gradually increases to an intense center.  A mag 16.4 star is off the southeast side.  Forms a double system (Arp 118) with NGC 1143, attached on thenorthwest side where the halos merge.  This galaxy is highly disrupted with a loop or ring on the NW side.  An extended halo was seen on this side, but only a hint of the actual ring was visible.

 

17.5" (1/7/89): faint, small, round, bright core.  Slightly brighter of pair with NGC 1143 in a common halo 0.5' WNW.

 

ƒdouard Stephan found NGC 1144 = St VIIIa-10  (along with NGC 1143 = St VIIIa-11) on 17 Nov 1876 with the 31" reflector at Marseille Observatory.  His position is accurate.  This galaxy was discovered by Albert Marth on 5 Jan 1864 and catalogued as NGC 1142, but his position was 40' too far N.  So, NGC 1144 = NGC 1142.  Based on the earlier discovery, NGC 1142 should be the primary designation, but due to Marth's poor position, Stephan's number has been used.

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NGC 1145 = ESO 546-029 = MCG -03-08-042 = UGCA 45 = FGC 360 = PGC 10965

02 54 33.2 -18 38 09

V = 12.5;  Size 3.2'x0.5';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 60d

 

17.5" (12/28/94): faint, moderately large, thin edge-on 7:1 WSW-ENE, 2.2'x0.3', only a weak concentration.  Among a group of three mag 10-11 stars with a mag 10 star just following the ENE tip.

 

JH discovered NGC 1145 = h2501 on 11 Dec 1835 and recorded "F, vmE, 90" long, 10" broad; has two stars 10th mag following."  His position is accurate.   MCG misidentifies MCG -03-08-028 as NGC 1145 and UGC misidentifies UGC 2384 as NGC 1145.

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NGC 1146

02 57 37.0 +46 26 14

Size 0.4'

 

18" (11/23/05): this asterism consists of a 30" pair of mag 12/13 stars with a couple of fainter companions making a quadruple.  About 1' NW is a faint, hazy clump of three mag 14-15 stars.  Viewed at 225x and 300x.  CGCG 554-017 lies 6.2' NE.  Listed as nonexistent in the RNGC.

 

Heinrich d'Arrest discovered NGC 1146 on 29 Jan 1864 with the 11" refractor at Copenhagen and described "Cl, vS.  At 226x the stars are clearly mixed with nebulosity. A triple star is directly south."  His position is ~1' northwest of a a group of four stars that Corwin identifies as NGC 1146.  Three brighter stars are also close southeast matching d'Arrest's description.

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NGC 1147

02 55 18 -09 07

 

=Not found, Corwin and RNGC.

 

Frank Muller discovered NGC 1147 = LM II-351 in 1886 with the 26" refractor at Leander McCormick Observatory and reported "mag 15.0, 0.4'x0.2', E 180”, *9.5 f 25s n 1'."  There are no candidates near his position and Corwin found no match within 5” of Muller's position, so it stands now as lost.  Listed as nonexistent in RNGC.

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NGC 1148 = MCG -01-08-018 = PGC 11148

02 57 04.4 -07 41 09

V = 12.7;  Size 1.6'x0.8';  Surf Br = 12.8;  PA = 80d

 

17.5" (12/28/94): very faint, fairly small, round, low surface brightness, no concentration.  A mag 15 star appears superimposed at the NE side.  Forms a pair with NGC 1152 8.5' SE.  Located 9' ESE of mag 8.7 SAO 130198.  Appears fainter than V = 12.7.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 1148 = Sw III-23 on 10 Nov 1885 with the 16-inch refractor at Warner Observatory.  His position is accurate although Bigourdan could not find the galaxy.  Leavenworth independently discovered the galaxy again on 21 Oct 1886 and reported it as new in list II-352, though his position was 30 seconds of time too far east.

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NGC 1149 = MCG +00-08-058 = CGCG 389-054 = PGC 11170

02 57 23.8 -00 18 34

V = 14.0;  Size 0.6'x0.5';  Surf Br = 12.5;  PA = 130d

 

17.5" (1/7/89): very faint, very small, round.  A mag 14.5 star is 30" SSW of center.

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 1149 = St XI-6 on 2 Dec 1880 with the 31" reflector at Marseille Observatory and reported "vF, vS, R, bM, S* preceding 2 sec".  His position and description (the star is 0.5' SW) is accurate.

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NGC 1150 = MCG -03-08-048 = PGC 11144

02 57 01.3 -15 02 55

V = 14.0;  Size 0.9'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 65d

 

17.5" (11/10/96): brighter of pair with NGC 1151 2.3' NNE.  Faint, fairly small, elongated 3:2 SW-NE.  Broad, weak concentration.  Following a group of four stars mag 7.7 SAO 148677 8' WNW.

 

Francis Leavenworth discovered NGC 1150 = LM I-76 (along with NGC 1151 = LM I-77) on 31 Dec 1885 with the 26" refractor at Leander McCormick Observatory.  His (rough) position is close to MCG -03-08-048 = PGC 11144, with NGC 1151 = PGC 11147 at 2' separation.  Herbert Howe measured an accurate position in 1898-99 using the 20" refractor at Chamberlin Observatory (repeated in the IC 2 notes), but assumed the pair was NGC 1180 and 1181.  RNGC mistakenly equates NGC 1150 = NGC 1180 and NGC 1151 = NGC 1181.  Although the declinations are similar, NGC 1180/NGC 1181 are a separate 2' pair about 4.7 min of RA further east.

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NGC 1151 = PGC 11147

02 57 04.6 -15 00 47

V = 15.0;  Size 0.5'x0.4';  Surf Br = 13.4;  PA = 10d

 

17.5" (11/10/96): extremely faint, very small, round, 15"-20" diameter.  Requires averted to glimpse using GSC chart and no details visible.  Located 2.3' NNE of NGC 1150.

 

Francis Leavenworth discovered NGC 1151 = LM I-77 (along with NGC 1150 = LM I-76) with the 26" refractor at Leander McCormick Observatory.  His rough position (nearest min of RA) is close to MCG -03-08-048, with NGC 1151 = PGC 11147.  RNGC mistakenly equates NGC 1150 = NGC 1180 and NGC 1151 = NGC 1181.  Although the declinations are similar, NGC 1180/NGC 1181 are a separate 2' pair about 4.7 min of RA further east.

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NGC 1152 = MCG -01-08-019 = PGC 11182

02 57 33.6 -07 45 32

V = 14.5;  Size 1.0'x0.7';  Surf Br = 14.0;  PA = 10d

 

17.5" (12/28/94): faint, small, elongated 4:3 SSW-NNE, bright core.  Forms a pair with NGC 1148 8.5' NW.  This galaxy is the smaller of the pair but has a higher surface brightness and is more concentrated.  Located 2.5' N of a mag 11 star.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 1152 = Sw III-24 on 10 Nov 1885 with the 16-inch refractor at Warner Observatory.  His position is accurate.

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NGC 1153 = UGC 2439 = MCG +00-08-059 = CGCG 389-055 = PGC 11230

02 58 10.2 +03 21 43

V = 12.4;  Size 1.3'x1.2';  Surf Br = 12.7;  PA = 45d

 

17.5" (1/7/89): fairly faint, small, very small bright core, slightly elongated SW-NE, small halo.  A mag 14.5 star is superimposed 20" S of center.

 

WH discovered NGC 1153 = H II-274 = h276 on 13 Dec 1784 (sweep 338) and logged "F, vS, iE, easily resolvable."  His position is 3.5' southeast of UGC 2439 = PGC 11230.  JH made a single observation and his position was 1' too far north.

 

Four observations were made with Lord Rosse's 72".  On 7 Dec 1857, R.J. Mitchell recorded "F, vS, R, a S* close preceding."  The mag 14.5 star is mentioned in my observation.

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NGC 1154 = MCG -02-08-034 = Holm 64a = PGC 11221

02 58 07.7 -10 21 47

V = 13.5;  Size 1.1'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 95d

 

17.5" (10/13/90): faint, small, round, even surface brightness.  Forms a close pair with NGC 1155 1.5' NE.

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 1154 = St VIIIb-11b (along with NGC 1155 = St VIIIb-10) on 15 Dec 1876 with the 31" reflector at Marseille Observatory.  His position is accurate.

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NGC 1155 = MCG -02-08-035 = Mrk 1064 = Holm 64b = PGC 11233

02 58 13.0 -10 21 00

V = 14.2;  Size 1.0'x0.8';  Surf Br = 13.8

 

17.5" (10/13/90): faint, very small, slightly elongated WSW-ENE, weak concentration.  Slightly fainter of a close pair with NGC 1154 1.5' SW.

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 1155 = St VIIIb-10 (along with NGC 1154 = St VIIIb-11) on 15 Dec 1876 with the 31" reflector at Marseille Observatory.  His position is accurate.

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NGC 1156 = UGC 2455 = MCG +04-08-006 = CGCG 485-006 = VV 531 = PGC 11329

02 59 42.3 +25 14 15

V = 11.7;  Size 3.5'x2.5';  Surf Br = 13.9;  PA = 25d

 

18" (10/25/08): fairly bright, fairly large, elongated 5:2 SSW-NNE, 2.0'x0.8'.  Brighter along the major axis with a slightly brighter core.  The outline is roughly rectangular and the surface brightness is irregular.  The SW end appears asymmetric.  A mag 11.5 star is at the north end, 0.9' from center.

 

8" (12/6/80): faint, diffuse, slightly elongated SSW-NNE.  A mag 12.5 star is just NW of the NE flank.

 

WH discovered NGC 1156 = H II-619 on 13 Nov 1786 (sweep 637) and recorded "pB, cL, pmE in the meridian, resolvable, within a minute of a star."  His position was just off the southeast side of this dwarf Irregular.  Four observations were made with Lord Rosse's 72".

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NGC 1157 = PGC 11218

02 58 06.6 -15 07 07

V = 16.5;  Size 0.5'x0.2';  Surf Br = 13.8;  PA = 170d

 

17.5" (11/10/96): very faint, very small, round, 20" diameter, no other details visible.  Located 1.9' WNW of a mag 12.5 star.

 

Francis Leavenworth discovered NGC 1157 = LM I-78 (along with NGC 1158 = LM I-79) on 31 Dec 1885 with the 26" refractor at Leander McCormick Observatory.  His rough position matches PGC 11218 and his estimated position angle of 0” is fairly close.

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NGC 1158 = MCG -03-08-050 = PGC 11157

02 57 11.4 -14 23 45

V = 14.0;  Size 0.9'x0.6';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 147d

 

17.5" (10/17/98): extremely faint, very small, round, 20" diameter (probably only viewed the core).  Surprisingly faint as nearby IC 270 located 24' NW was clearly brighter.

 

Francis Leavenworth discovered NGC 1158 = LM I-79 (along with NGC 1157 = LM I-78) on 1 Jan 1886 with the 26" refractor at Leander McCormick Observatory.  His position (nearest tmin of RA) is 1 min of RA east of MCG -03-08-050, which is a typical error.  The MCG does not identify MCG -03-08-050 as N1158.

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NGC 1159 = UGC 2467 = CGCG 540-023 = PGC 11383

03 00 46.5 +43 09 46

V = 13.4;  Size 0.5'x0.4';  Surf Br = 11.5

 

17.5" (10/24/87): faint, very small, round, weak concentration.  Located 6.8' ENE of mag 7.6 SAO 38497.

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 1159 = St XIII-21 on 2 Dec 1883 with the 31" reflector at Marseille Observatory.  His position is accurate.

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NGC 1160 = UGC 2475 = MCG +07-07-014 = CGCG 540-027 = PGC 11403

03 01 13.2 +44 57 18

V = 12.8;  Size 1.9'x0.9';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 50d

 

17.5" (10/24/87): fairly faint, fairly small, oval 2:1 SW-NE, broad concentration, diffuse halo.  A trio of mag 12-13 stars lie 1.5'-2' N.  Forms a pair with NGC 1161 3.5' S.

 

WH discovered NGC 1160 = H III-199 = h277, along with NGC 1160, on 7 Oct 1784 (during sweeps 281-285, carried out in the east) and reported "the first of 2 [with NGC 1161]. vF, iF, pS."  On 11 Dec 1786 (sweep 645), he logged "pB, iR, mbM, about 1' in diam." and measured separate positions for the two objects.

 

JH measured an accurate position for NGC 1161 and noted the wide double star off the west side, but has no entry for NGC 1160 and it was not found by d'Arrest.  So, the observers at Birr Castle assumed NGC 1160 was a new discovery and the two galaxies have three entries in the GC.  Dreyer staightened this out before the publication of the NGC, while an observing assistant at Birr Castle.  Surprisingly, NGC 1160 was sketched by Dreyer and clearly shows the southern spiral arm.

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NGC 1161 = UGC 2474 = MCG +07-07-015 = CGCG 540-026 = PGC 11404

03 01 14.2 +44 53 50

V = 11.0;  Size 2.8'x2.0';  Surf Br = 12.8;  PA = 23d

 

17.5" (10/24/87): fairly bright, fairly small, oval 3:2 SW-NE, bright core, stellar nucleus.  Two bright stars are close west; a mag 10 star is 45" W and mag 9 SAO 38510 is 1.2' SW.  Also collinear with two mag 11 stars 1.5' E and 3' ENE.  Forms a pair with NGC 1160 3.5' N.

 

WH discovered NGC 1161 = H II-239 = h277, along with NGC 1160, on 7 Oct 1784 (during sweeps 281-285, carried out in the east), and reported "The 2nd of 2; pB; pS; resolvable."  On 11 Dec 1786 (sweep 645) he noted "F, E, about 1 1/2' long."  This pair was observed at Birr Castle on 4 occasions and NGC 1160 ( was originally assumed to be nova.

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NGC 1162 = MCG -02-08-036 = PGC 11274

02 58 55.9 -12 23 55

V = 12.5;  Size 1.3'x1.3';  Surf Br = 12.9

 

17.5" (12/28/94): moderately bright, fairly small, round, 1.0' diameter, evenly concentrated with a small bright core and an quasi-stellar nucleus.  A mag 12.5 star is 3.7' S of center.

 

WH discovered NGC 1162 = H III-469 = h2502 on 27 Nov 1785 (sweep 478) and recorded "vF, stellar, 240 power left some doubt."  His position matches MCG -02-08-036 = PGC 11274.  JH observed this galaxy from the Cape, recorded "pF, R, glbM, 25"."

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NGC 1163 = MCG -03-08-056 = FGC 373 = PGC 11359

03 00 22.0 -17 09 10

V = 13.8;  Size 2.2'x0.3';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 135d

 

17.5" (11/18/95): very faint, fairly small, very elongated 3:1 NW-SE, 1.0'x0.3' (full length of extensions not seen), low even surface brightness.

 

Francis Leavenworth discovered NGC 1163 = LM I-80 on 31 Oct 1885 with the 26" refractor at Leander McCormick Observatory.  Leavenworth's rough RA (nearest min of RA) is about 1tmin west of MCG -03-08-056 = PGC 11359, and although this PA = 75d is wrong (should be 135d) he describes this galaxy as "very elongated" and "spindle shaped", so the identification is certain.  Herbert Howe measured an accurate position in 1899-00 using the 20" refractor at Chamberlin Observatory (repeated in the IC 2 notes).

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NGC 1164 = UGC 2490 = MCG +07-07-016 = CGCG 540-028 = Mrk 1067 = PGC 11441

03 01 59.8 +42 35 06

V = 13.1;  Size 1.3'x1.0';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 145d

 

17.5" (10/24/87): very faint, very small, round.  A mag 14 star is just 0.6' NNW of center and a mag 15 star is even closer at 0.4' NW.

 

JH discovered NGC 1164 = h278 on 18 Sep 1828 and logged "eF; S; 5 arcsec."  His position is accurate.

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NGC 1165 = ESO 417-008 = MCG -05-08-009 = PGC 11270

02 58 47.7 -32 05 55

V = 12.7;  Size 2.5'x1.0';  Surf Br = 13.5;  PA = 115d

 

17.5" (12/9/01): faint, moderately large, elongated 3:2 WNW-ESE, 1.5'x1.0', irregular surface brightness.  The brighter core appeared double at moments (faint star superimposed?).  The outer halo is very diffuse.

 

JH discovered NGC 1165 = h2503 on 19 Oct 1835 and noted "vF, pmE, vlbM, 60" long, 30" broad." His position and description matches E417-008  = PGC 11270.

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NGC 1166 = UGC 2471 = MCG +02-08-046 = CGCG 440-041 = PGC 11372

03 00 35.0 +11 50 35

V = 14.0;  Size 1.2'x1.1';  Surf Br = 14.1

 

17.5" (1/9/99): very faint, fairly small, weak concentration.  The halo is ill-defined but appears irregularly round, ~0.8'x0.6.  A couple of mag 15.5 stars are within 1' of the west side.  Also confusing the observation is a superimposed  mag 15.5+ star at the north edge which pops in and out of view for moments.  A wide pair of mag 14 stars lie 3' NE. Forms a pair with fainter NGC 1168 5.2' SE.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 1166 = m 85 on 1 Oct 1864 with Lassell's 48" on Malta and noted "eF, S".  His position is accurate.

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NGC 1167 = UGC 2487 = MCG +06-07-033 = CGCG 524-045 = PGC 11425

03 01 42.4 +35 12 20

V = 12.4;  Size 2.8'x2.3';  Surf Br = 14.3;  PA = 70d

 

17.5" (1/1/92): fairly faint, moderately large, high surface brightness core with very faint larger halo slightly elongated WSW-ENE.  A mag 10 star lies 4.0' S.  UGC 2465 lies 13' WSW.  Brightest in a group that includes UGC's 2435, 2465, 2466, 2491, 2494 and 2526 in the foreground of AGC 407.

 

WH discovered NGC 1167 = H III-178 on 13 Sep 1784 (sweep 271) and reported "vF, pL, R, small pB place in the middle."  His position (reduced by Auwers) is ~11' WNW of UGC 2487 = PGC 11425 and the GC position is 4' too far northwest.  The NGC position, though, is accurate.

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NGC 1168 = UGC 2476 = MCG +02-08-047 = CGCG 440-042 = PGC 11378

03 00 47.2 +11 46 21

V = 14.2;  Size 1.1'x0.6';  Surf Br = 13.7;  PA = 18d

 

17.5" (1/9/99): extremely faint, very small, round, 20" diameter.  Probably only viewed the core (the arms are very low surface brightness on the digitized sky survey).  Located midway between NGC 1166 5.2' NW and mag 9 SAO 93236 to the SE.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 1168 = m 85 on 1 Oct 1864 with Lassell's 48" on Malta and simply noted "eF".  His position is accurate.

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NGC 1169 = UGC 2503 = MCG +08-06-025 = CGCG 554-020 = PGC 11521

03 03 34.7 +46 23 09

V = 11.3;  Size 4.2'x2.8';  Surf Br = 13.8;  PA = 28d

 

17.5" (10/24/87): moderately bright, very small, bright core.  With averted vision a large extremely faint halo is visible elongated SW-NE.  A mag 13.5 star is superimposed at the SW side of the core!

 

This galaxy is located just 10.6” from the galactic equator.  This is a huge spiral, with a diameter of 170,000 light-years.

 

8" (1/1/84): faint, very small, slightly elongated.  Only the core was visible as I missed the large halo.

 

WH discovered NGC 1169 = H II-620 = h279 on 11 Dec 1786 (sweep 645) and logged "F, S, irr R, bM."  His position is at the northeast end of the galaxy.  R.J. Mitchell, using the Lord Rosse's 72" on 11 Dec 1854, recorded a "B* sp the Nucl and a vF* ? involved np the Nucl.  The neby fades away gradually."  The RNGC places this galaxy 1.0 min of RA too far east.

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NGC 1170

03 02 24 +27 04

 

= Tail of a comet?, HC  =Not found, JS. 

 

Charles Sanders Peirce (son of Benjamin Peirce) discovered NGC 1170 = HN 38 on 31 Dec 1869 at Harvard College Observatory using the 15-inch Merz & Mahler refractor (Annals of Harvard Obs, Vol 13, #47).  An approximate position is given in the Harvard Observatory list based on comparison with Comet 1869 III.  A very close, unequal double star is near Peirce's position at 03 02 29.6 +27 03 20 (2000).  But the description "J.W. and C.S.P. independently think the sky generally bright f and a little n of the comet for 14' or more (several fields according to C.S.P.)" suggests that the observation refers to an extremely large object and Corwin and Steinicke suggest the observation perhaps refers to the actual tail of the comet!  This is the only object in the NGC attributed to Peirce (mispelled as Pierce in the NGC).   Classified as nonexistent in the RNGC.  See Corwin's comments.

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NGC 1171 = UGC 2510 = MCG +07-07-018 = CGCG 540-031 = PGC 11552

03 03 59.0 +43 23 54

V = 12.3;  Size 2.6'x1.1';  Surf Br = 13.4;  PA = 147d

 

17.5" (10/24/87): fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 2:1 NW-SE, broadly concentrated.

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 1171 = St X-15 on 4 Dec 1880 with the 31" reflector at Marseille Observatory and recorded "vF, pL, iF".  His position matches UGC 2510 = PGC 11552.  Lewis Swift independently found this nebula on 12 Sep 1885 and his position in list II-26 is 0.2 tmin too far east.

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NGC 1172 = MCG -03-08-059 = PGC 11420

03 01 36.0 -14 50 12

V = 11.9;  Size 2.3'x1.8';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 25d

 

13.1" (1/18/85): faint, small, round, broad concentration.  Located 2.1' SW of mag 9.6 SAO 148719.

 

WH discovered NGC 1172 = H II-502 = h280 on 30 Dec 1785 (sweep 499) and logged "F, eS, stellar, preceding a pB star. 240 verified it."  The "pB star" is 2' NE.

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NGC 1173

03 03 58 +42 23

 

=Not found, RNGC.

 

Guillaume Bigourdan discovered NGC 1173 = B. 12, along with NGCs 1176, 1178, 1183, on 17 Dec 1884 with the 12" at the Paris Observatory and reported "mag 13.4-13.5; 20" diameter, stellar ncl".  There is nothing at his position, though Harold Corwin states that Bigourdan made a 1 degree error in reducing the NPD from his offset stars.  Once corrected, his positions for the other three objects match single stars near NGC 1175, but in the case of NGC 1173 there is nothing at his position.  So, NGC 1173 is lost at this time though probably refers to a faint star like the other objects. See Corwin's notes for story.

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NGC 1174 = NGC 1186 = UGC 2521 = MCG +07-07-021 = CGCG 540-034 = PGC 11617

03 05 30.7 +42 50 05

 

See observing notes for NGC 1186.

 

Lewis Swift found NGC 1174 = Sw IV-11 on 31 Aug 1883 with the 16-inch refractor at Warner Observatory and recorded "vF; pS; lE; in contact on preceding side with a pB*; D* np point to it about 4.5"."  There is nothing at his position but 1 min of RA east is NGC 1186 = H IV-43 and his detailed description of the star in contact and the nearby double star clinches the equivalence.  So, NGC 1174 = NGC 1186, with priority to Herschel.  The IC 1 notes mentioned this equivalence "Probably identical with h 281 = Sw IV 43 (Spitaler, AN 3030)".

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NGC 1175 = UGC 2515 = MCG +07-07-019 = CGCG 540-032 = PGC 11578

03 04 32.3 +42 20 22

V = 12.9;  Size 1.9'x0.6';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 153d

 

17.5" (10/24/87): moderately bright, fairly small, edge-on 3:1 NW-SE, bright core, faint stellar nucleus.  Forms a close pair with NGC 1177 2' NE.  Located 10' SE of mag 7.5 SAO 38540.  Located at the western edge of AGC 426.

 

13" (1/18/85): fairly faint, elongated NNW-SSE, fairly small, larger brighter core, diffuse outer arms, possible faint stellar nucleus.  Located SE of a mag 7 star.  Forms a close pair with NGC 1177 1.7' NE.

 

WH discovered NGC 1175 = H II-607 on 24 Oct 1786 (sweep 620) and recorded "F, cL, E."  His position is just off the east edge of UGC 2515 = PGC 11578.  Nearby NGC 1175 was discovered at Birr Castle.

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NGC 1176

03 04 34.9 +42 23 37

 

=*, Corwin. =NF, RNGC.

 

Guillaume Bigourdan discovered NGC 1176 = B. 13, along with NGC 1173, 1178 and 1183, on 17 Dec 1884 with the 12" at the Paris Observatory. There is nothing at the NGC position, but Corwin states that Bigourdan made a 1 degree error in reducing the NPD from his offset star.  Once corrected, his position for NGC 1176 corresponds with a mag 14.5 star 3.3' N of NGC 1175.  The positions for NGC 1178 and 1183 also match stars, although NGC 1173 is apparently lost.  See Corwin's notes.

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NGC 1177 = MCG +07-07-020 = CGCG 540-033 = IC 281 = PGC 11581

03 04 37.1 +42 21 46

V = 14.5;  Size 0.4'x0.4';  Surf Br = 12.6

 

17.5" (10/24/87): very faint, very small, slightly elongated ~E-W.  A mag 13 star is just 33" N of center.  Located 1.7' NE of NGC 1175 at the western edge of AGC 426.

 

Lawrence Parsons, the 4th earl of Rosse, discovered NGC 1177 on 29 Nov 1874 and reported a "vS, F, R neb (to which 637 [NGC 1175] perhaps extends) north-following.  A *11 in Pos 15.4”, Dist 34.6 arcsec."  The position and description matches CGCG 540-033.  Lewis Swift (VIII-11) independently found the galaxy on 1 Nov 1888 with the 16" at the Warner Observatory.  His position falls between NGC 1175 and NGC 1177, but the description mentions the star to the north, so IC 281 = NGC 1177.  Surprisingly, Dreyer didn't catch the equivalence. See Corwin's notes.

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NGC 1178

03 04 38.8 +42 18 49

 

=*, Corwin.  =NF, RNGC.

 

Guillaume Bigourdan discovered NGC 1178 = Big. 14, along with NGC 1173, 1176 and 1183, on 17 Dec 1884 with the 12" at the Paris Observatory. There is nothing at his position, but Corwin states that Bigourdan made a 1 degree error in reducing the NPD from his offset star.  Once corrected, his position for NGC 1176 corresponds with a mag 13.8 star 2.0' SE of NGC 1175.  The positions for NGC 1176 and 1183 also match stars, although NGC 1173 is apparently lost.  See Corwin's notes.

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NGC 1179 = ESO 547-001 = MCG -03-08-060 = UGCA 48 = PGC 11480

03 02 38.3 -18 53 51

V = 12.0;  Size 4.9'x3.8';  Surf Br = 15.0;  PA = 35d

 

17.5" (1/1/92): extremely faint, moderately large, 2.5' diameter, very low surface brightness, Appears as a diffuse, hazy region with a mag 13.5 star at the ESE edge 1.2' from center.

 

Ormond Stone discovered NGC 1179 = LM I-81 in 1886 with the 26" refractor at Leander McCormick Observatory.  His (rough) position essentially matches ESO 547-001 and his note "*12 follows 1 arcmin" applies to this galaxy.

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NGC 1180 = PGC 11435

03 01 51.0 -15 01 48

V = 14.9;  Size 0.6'x0.4';  Surf Br = 13.4;  PA = 5d

 

17.5" (1/28/00): extremely faint, very small, slightly elongated N-S, 0.4'x0.3', weak concentration.  Forms a close pair with NGC 1181 2.4' SW.  Located 2' WNW of a mag 12 star.  This galaxy is identified as NGC 1150 in the RNGC.

 

Francis Leavenworth discovered NGC 1180 = LM I-82 (along with NGC 1181 = I-83) on 31 Dec 1885 with the 26" refractor at Leander McCormick Observatory.  Leavenworth's generally poor positions are close enough here so the identification NGC 1180 = PGC 11435 and NGC 1181 = PGC 11427 is certain.  For some reason Howe could not find these galaxies near Leavenworth's position but did find NGC 1150 and 1151 about 5 min of RA west of Leavenworth's positions and assumed they were NGC 1180 and 1181. Dreyer even added the comment "are they perhaps = 1150 and 1151?".  But these are two different pairs, roughly where Leavenworth placed them.  Because of Howe's error, RNGC claims NGC 1150 is identical to NGC 1180 and NGC 1151 is identical to NGC 1181.

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NGC 1181 = PGC 11427

03 01 42.8 -15 03 09

V = 15.4;  Size 0.8'x0.2';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 100d

 

17.5" (1/28/00): extremely faint, very small, slightly elongated E-W, 0.4'x0.2', requires averted.  Was only able to detect the brighter central region and missed the extensions.  Slightly fainter of a close pair with NGC 1181 2.4' NE.  Located 2' WNW of a mag 12 star. This galaxy is identified as NGC 1151 in the RNGC.

 

Francis Leavenworth discovered NGC 1181 = LM I-83 (along with NGC 1180 = I-82) on 31 Dec 1885 with the 26" refractor at Leander McCormick Observatory.  Leavenworth's generally poor positions are close enough here so the identification NGC 1180 = PGC 11435 and NGC 1181 = PGC 11427 is certain.  For some reason Howe could not find these galaxies near Leavenworth's position but did find NGC 1150 and 1151 about 5 min of RA west of Leavenworth's positions and assumed they were NGC 1180 and 1181. Dreyer even added the comment "are they perhaps = 1150 and 1151?"  But these are two different pairs, roughly where Leavenworth placed them.  Because of Howe's error, RNGC claims NGC 1150 is identical to NGC 1180 and NGC 1151 is identical to NGC 1181.

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NGC 1182 = NGC 1205 = PGC 11511

03 03 28.4 -09 40 13

V = 14.8;  Size 0.9'x0.4';  Surf Br = 13.5;  PA = 115d

 

17.5" (1/28/00): very faint, small, round, slightly elongated NW-SE, 25"x20" diameter, low surface brightness.  A mag 12 star lies 2.5' SW and a mag 13 star is 1' E.  Located 29' NE of mag 5.8 SAO 148721.  NGC 1185 lies 33' NNW.

 

Ormond Stone discovered NGC 1182 = LM I-84 in 1886 with the 26" refractor at Leander McCormick Observatory and recorded "mag 15.5, 0.7'x0.3', E 120”, *10 P 240” [SW], dist 3.0'."  There is nothing at his rough position (RA to the nearest min of time), but 1 min of RA east is PGC 11511 and his position angle of 120” as well as the nearby star matches this galaxy.  This galaxy was also found again by Stone (I-87) the same year, but this time his position was 2 min of RA too far east!  In this case, he listed the identical dimensions and even mentioned the same star preceding but gave an incorrect PA of 25”.  Herbert Howe measured an accurate position for NGC 1182 in 1898-99 using the 20" refractor at Chamberlin Observatory (repeated in the IC 2 notes) and the following year noted the equivalence of these two numbers.

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NGC 1183

03 04 46.1 +42 22 08

 

=*, Corwin.  =NF, RNGC.

 

Guillaume Bigourdan discovered NGC 1183 = B. 15, along with NGC 1173, 1176 and 1178, on 17 Dec 1884 with the 12" at the Paris Observatory. There is nothing at his position, but Corwin states that Bigourdan made a 1 degree error in reducing the NPD from his offset star.  Once corrected, his position for NGC 1183 corresponds with a mag 14 star 1.7' ENE of NGC 1177.  The positions for NGC 1176 and 1178 also match stars, although NGC 1173 is apparently lost.  See Corwin's notes.

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NGC 1184 = UGC 2583 = MCG +13-03-002 = CGCG 346-002 = PGC 12174

03 16 45.4 +80 47 36

V = 12.4;  Size 2.8'x0.6';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 168d

 

17.5" (10/20/90): fairly faint, fairly small, edge-on 4:1 NNW-SSE, sharp concentration, stellar nucleus.  This is a pretty edge-on system with a bulging core and tapering extensions.

 

WH discovered NGC 1184 = H II-704 on 16 Sep 1787 (sweep 757) and recorded "F, pL, mE from np to sf, lbM."  Auwer's reduced position is ~5' north of MCG -02-08-041 = PGC 11488, although the NGC position is accurate.  This galaxy is the third closest galaxy to the north celestial pole discovered by WH (after NGC 6251 and 6252).

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NGC 1185 = MCG -02-08-041 = PGC 11488

03 02 59.4 -09 07 55

V = 14.8;  Size 1.2'x0.5';  Surf Br = 14.1;  PA = 30d

 

17.5" (1/28/00): faint, fairly small, elongated 2:1 SSW-NNE, 0.8'x0.4', weak concentration.  A mag 15 star is close SSE [56" from center].

 

Francis Leavenworth discovered NGC 1185 = LM II-353 in 1886 with the 26" refractor at Leander McCormick Observatory and reported "mag 15.7, 0.8' dia, pE 15”.".  His position is just 8 tsec west of MCG -02-08-041 = PGC 11488 and the description applies.

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NGC 1186 = NGC 1174 = UGC 2521 = MCG +07-07-021 = CGCG 540-034 = PGC 11617

03 05 30.7 +42 50 05

V = 11.4;  Size 3.2'x1.2';  Surf Br = 12.7;  PA = 122d

 

17.5" (10/24/87): fairly faint, moderately large, very elongated 3:1 WNW-ESE.  A mag 13 star, superimposed just southwest of the center, detracts from viewing.

 

WH discovered NGC 1186 = H IV-43 = h281 on 17 Oct 1786 (sweep 614) and reported "a pretty S star with a very F nebulosity to the nf side, of very little extent." On 24 Oct 1786 (sweep 621), he swept it again as "a pretty B star with two faint branches." JH also noted "a star 14m with some kind of faint nebulous appendage."  The NGC position is accurate although Herschel's class IV refers to objects that appeared to be planetary nebulae.

 

Lewis Swift independently found this galaxy and superimposed star on 31 Aug 1883 but placed it 1 tmin too far west in his list IV-11.  Dreyer assumed it was a different object and it was catalogued as NGC 1174.  R.J. Mitchell and Samuel Hunter, observing assistants on the 72", failed to find this galaxy and Dreyer noted d'Arrest searched in vain on several attempts.  It seems odd as the galaxy is not difficult.  Bigourdan observed it though, and suggested it was a "variable nebula", because of the mixed results.  Sherburne Burnham (Publ of Lick Observatory, II) also readily found and measured this galaxy.  So, NGC 1186 = NGC 1174 with NGC 1186 the primary designation.

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NGC 1187 = ESO 480-023 = MCG -04-08-016 = UGCA 49 = PGC 11479

03 02 37.4 -22 52 03

V = 10.8;  Size 5.5'x4.1';  Surf Br = 14.0;  PA = 130d

 

17.5" (11/26/94): moderately bright, fairly large, 4'x3' NW-SE.  Elongated in the direction of mag 8.8 SAO 168248, which is 4.7' NW of center.  Broad concentration to an ill-defined core which contains a faint but distinct stellar nucleus.

 

8" (10/13/81): faint, fairly large, elongated, diffuse.  Located 4.7' SE of a mag 9 star.

 

WH discovered NGC 1187 = H III-245 = h2504 on 9 Dec 1784 (sweep 331) and noted "vF, cL, iE, resolvable, unequally bright."  JH described the galaxy from the Cape as "bright; very large; pretty much elongated; very gradually brighter to the middle; 3.5' long, 2.5' broad; has in or near the middle a star 16 mag."   E.E. Barnard observed the nebula on 23 Aug 1883 and was surprised Herschel called it "vF", as it was not difficult in his 5-inch refractor.

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NGC 1188 = MCG -03-08-068 = PGC 11533

03 03 43.4 -15 29 07

V = 13.8;  Size 1.1'x0.5';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 170d

 

17.5" (10/13/90): faint, small, elongated 3:1 N-S.  NGC 1199 lies 8' S.  This galaxy is the farthest northern galaxy in the NGC 1199 cluster (HCG 22), but is not a HCG 22 member.  Incorrectly listed as nonexistent in the RNGC.

 

Francis Leavenworth discovered NGC 1188 = LM I-89 on 2 Dec 1885 with the 26" refractor at Leander McCormick Observatory.  This is the first in a group of five galaxies (NGC 1189, NGC 1190, NGC 1191 and NGC 1192) discovered that night.  Although Leavenworth only gave a rough RA for these objects, Herbert Howe measured accurate individual RA's in 1899-00 (repeated in the IC 2 Notes section).  In this case, Howe's corrected RA is a good match with  MCG -03-08-068 = PGC 11533.  It is interesting to note that this places NGC 1188 just 8' N of NGC 1199, which is the brightest member of HCG 22.  The RNGC incorrectly equates NGC 1188 with NGC 1199 and the MCG does not label MCG -03-08-068 as MCG.

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NGC 1189 = MCG -03-08-061 = HCG 22c = PGC 11503

03 03 24.3 -15 37 23

V = 13.9;  Size 1.7'x1.5';  Surf Br = 14.8

 

17.5" (10/13/90): extremely faint, fairly small, unusually low even surface brightness.  First of seven in the NGC 1199 group (HCG 22) with NGC 1199 4' ENE and NGC 1189 2.3' SSE.

 

Francis Leavenworth discovered NGC 1189 = LM I-90 (along with nearby NGC 1188, 1190, 1191 and 1192) on 2 Dec 1885 with the 26" refractor at Leander McCormick Observatory.  Although Leavenworth only gave a rough RA for these objects (corrected by 3 min of RA in a note in the second discovery list), Howe measured relatively accurate individual RA's in 1899-00, which are repeated in the IC 2 Notes section.  This is the first of 5 NGC galaxies in HCG 22.

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NGC 1190 = MCG -03-08-062 = HCG 22b = PGC 11508

03 03 26.2 -15 39 44

V = 14.2;  Size 0.9'x0.3';  Surf Br = 12.6;  PA = 95d

 

17.5" (10/13/90): extremely faint, fairly small, elongated 2:1 E-W, very low surface brightness, requires averted vision.  Member of HCG 22 with NGC 1199 4' NE, NGC 1191 1.8' SE, NGC 1189 2.3' NNW and NGC 1192 3' ESE.

 

Francis Leavenworth discovered NGC 1190 = LM I-91 (along with nearby NGC 1188, 1189, 1191 and 1192) on 2 Dec 1885 with the 26" refractor at Leander McCormick Observatory.  Although Leavenworth only gave a rough RA for these objects (corrected by 3 min of RA in a note in the second discovery list), Herbert Howe measured relatively accurate individual RA's in 1899-00, which are repeated in the IC 2 Notes section.  This is the second of five NGC galaxies in HCG 22.

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NGC 1191 = MCG -03-08-064 = HCG 22d = PGC 11514

03 03 30.9 -15 41 08

V = 14.3;  Size 0.6'x0.5';  Surf Br = 12.7;  PA = 60d

 

17.5" (10/13/90): extremely faint and small, round.  A mag 14 star is 1.5' S.  Forms a very close quadruple (HCG 22) with NGC 1192 1.0' ENE, NGC 1190 1.8' NW and NGC 1199 4' NNE.  This galaxy and NGC 1192 have 3x higher redshift than the other group members.

 

Francis Leavenworth discovered NGC 1191 = LM I-91 on 2 Dec 1885 (along with nearby NGC 1188, 1189, 1190 and 1192) with the 26" refractor at Leander McCormick Observatory.  Although Leavenworth only gave a rough RA for these objects (corrected by 3 min of RA in a note in the second discovery list), Herbert Howe measured relatively accurate individual RA's in 1899-00, which are repeated in the IC 2 Notes section.  This is the third of five NGC galaxies in HCG 22.

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NGC 1192 = MCG -03-08-065 = HCG 22e = PGC 11519

03 03 34.6 -15 40 45

V = 14.4;  Size 0.7'x0.3';  Surf Br = 12.7;  PA = 102d

 

17.5" (10/13/90): extremely faint and small, round.  In a tight group (HCG 22) with NGC 1191 1' WSW, NGC 1190 2.3' NW and NGC 1199 4' N.  This galaxy and NGC 1191 have 3x higher redshift than the other group members.

 

Francis Leavenworth discovered NGC 1192 = LM I-91 (along with nearby NGC 1188, 1189, 1190 and 1191) on 2 Dec 1885 with the 26" refractor at Leander McCormick Observatory.  Although Leavenworth only gave a rough RA for these objects (corrected by 3 min of RA in a note in the second discovery list), Howe measured relatively accurate individual RA's, except for NGC 1192.  But assuming this object is east of NGC 1191 and 1' N, the identification is certain.

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NGC 1193 = Cr 35 = OCL-390 = Lund 99

03 05 56 +44 23 00

Size 2'

 

17.5" (10/24/87): this faint open cluster consists of an elongated glow with five faint stars mag 14-15 superimposed and a mag 11 star at the west edge.  Located 4' ESE of a wide pair of bright stars (7.7/9.5 at 1.1').  This is a fairly old open cluster with age ~ 4.2 billion years.

 

WH discovered NGC 1193 = H II-608 on 24 Oct 1786 (sweep 621) and recorded "F, cL, easily resolvable, some of the stars visible."  His position is accurate.

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NGC 1194 = UGC 2514 = MCG +00-08-078 = CGCG 389-068 = PGC 11537

03 03 49.1 -01 06 13

V = 12.9;  Size 1.8'x1.0';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 140d

 

17.5" (1/7/89): faint, small, slightly elongated NW-SE, broad concentration.  UGC 2517 is in the field 8' SE.

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 1194 = St XIII-22 on 23 Nov 1883 with the 31" reflector at Marseille Observatory.  His position is accurate.

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NGC 1195 = MCG -02-08-042A = Holm 65b = PGC 11517

03 03 32.8 -12 02 03

V = 14.7;  Size 0.6'x0.6';  Surf Br = 13.4

 

17.5" (10/20/90): very faint, very small, elongated 3:2 N-S, even surface brightness.  A mag 13 star is 45" SE of center.  First of four in the NGC 1200 quartet with NGC 1196 3' S and NGC 1200 7' NE.

 

John Dreyer discovered NGC 1195 on 8 Jan 1877 with the 72" at Birr Castle while observing NGC 1196.  He logged an "eF, eS nebula (distinctly seen)" in position 305” (NW) of a mag 12 star directly north of NGC 1196.  The separation is 45" but the position angle is good and clearly establishes NGC 1195 = PGC 11517.

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NGC 1196 = MCG -02-08-042B = Holm 65a = PGC 11522

03 03 35.2 -12 04 34

V = 12.5;  Size 1.5'x1.4';  Surf Br = 13.2

 

17.5" (10/20/90): fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 3:2 WNW-ESE, well-defined bright core.  A mag 13 star is 1.7' N and a mag 12 star is 3' SSE.  Second of four in the NGC 1200 compact group with NGC 1195 2.2' N.

 

JH discovered NGC 1196 = h2505 on 8 Jan 1877 while observing the field of NGC 1196 and NGC 1200. Logged on two consecutive nights as "vF" and "the S.p. of two [with NGC 1200]".  His position is accurate.

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NGC 1197

03 06 12 +44 04

 

=Not found, Corwin and RNGC.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 1197 = Sw II-27 on 12 Sep 1885 with the 16-inch refractor at Warner Observatory and reported "pF, cE, pS, sev vF stars nr".  His position falls on a blank piece of sky between two mag 13.1 and 14.2 stars. There are also a number of faint double stars in the vicinity on the DSS that he might have mistaken for a nebulous object.  In any case, this number is currently lost or nonexistent.

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NGC 1198 = UGC 2533 = MCG +07-07-024 = CGCG 540-038 = IC 282 = PGC 11648

03 06 13.3 +41 50 56

V = 12.5;  Size 1.9'x1.1';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 120d

 

17.5" (10/24/87): faint, very small, diffuse round halo, stellar nucleus about 14th magnitude.  Located 7' N of mag 8.8 SAO 38577.

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 1198 = St XI-7 on 6 Dec 1880 with the 31" reflector at Marseille Observatory.  His position matches UGC 2533 = MCG +07-07-024.  MCG doesn't label this galaxy as NGC 1198.  Lewis Swift independently found this galaxy on 27 Dec 1888 (list VIII-12) and logged "eF, S, R, bet 2 nr stars".  His position was 1 min of RA too far west, so Dreyer assumed it was a different object and it was catalogued again as IC 282.  But Swift's description applies to NGC 1198.  So, NGC 1198 = St IC 282, with priority to Stephan.  Harold Corwin and Malcolm Thomson both agree with this equivalence.

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NGC 1199 = MCG -03-08-067 = HCG 22a = PGC 11527

03 03 38.4 -15 36 50

V = 11.4;  Size 2.4'x1.9';  Surf Br = 13.0;  PA = 48d

 

17.5" (10/13/90): moderately bright, fairly small, oval 4:3 SSW-NNE, broadly concentrated halo, small bright core.  A mag 11 star is 2.8' NE.  This galaxy is the brightest in a small, rich group (HCG 22) of extremely faint galaxies.  Nearby are NGC 1190 4.1' SW, NGC 1191 4.6' SSW, NGC 1189 3.4' W, NGC 1192 4.0' S.  An extremely faint mag 15 star or possibly an anonymous galaxy is 2' N.

 

13" (1/18/85): moderately bright, small, round, diffuse halo surrounded by a fairly bright stellar nucleus.

 

WH discovered NGC 1199 = H II-503 = h282 on 30 Dec 1785 (sweep 499) and logged "pB, S, iF, mbM."  Both William and John Herschel's dec is about 1' too far north but Engelhardt gave an accurate micrometric position.

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NGC 1200 = MCG -02-08-043 = PGC 11545

03 03 54.6 -11 59 30

V = 12.7;  Size 2.8'x1.3';  Surf Br = 14.0;  PA = 85d

 

17.5" (10/20/90): fairly faint, fairly small, round, bright core, halo slightly elongated N-S.  There is an extremely faint star at or possible companion at the south edge.  Third of four and brightest in a compact quartet with NGC 1195 and 1196.

 

NGC 1200 forms a close pair with IC 285 3.2' ESE.  The IC was logged as "very faint, small, elongated 5:2 WNW-ESE, very low even surface brightness."

 

WH discovered NGC 1200 = H II-475 = h2506 on 27 Nov 1785 (sweep 478) and noted "pF, pL, irr F, bM."  JH observed this galaxy from the Cape on 22 Nov 1835 and logged "pB, L, R, 80". The N.f. of two, distance about 7.5'; position 45 degrees." His mean position from 2 measures is accurate.

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NGC 1201 = ESO 480-028 = MCG -04-08-023 = PGC 11559

03 04 08.0 -26 04 12

V = 10.7;  Size 3.6'x2.1';  Surf Br = 12.8;  PA = 7d

 

17.5" (11/26/94): fairly bright, moderately large, elongated 2:1 N-S, 1.6'x0.8', well concentrated.  Dominated by a bright, very small round core and an almost stellar nucleus.  Forms the southern vertex of an acute triangle with a mag 12 star off the NNW side 2.9' from center and a mag 10.5 star 3.8' NE of center.

 

8" (10/13/81): fairly bright, small, slightly elongated N-S, small bright core.  A mag 11 star is 4' NE.

 

WH discovered NGC 1201 = H I-109 = h283 on 26 Oct 1785 (sweep 466) and logged "cB; mbM; iR; resolvable."  His position is 4' too far north.  cB, pS, lE in the direction of the meridian, mbM, resolvable, 1.5' long."  In a later sweep (593) he recorded "pB, pS, bM, lE."  JH remarked "B; R; psbM; 30"." His position is just off the north end of the galaxy.

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NGC 1202 = PGC 11593

03 05 02.5 -06 29 30

V = 14.2;  Size 0.6'x0.5';  Surf Br = 12.7

 

17.5" (1/12/02): very faint, small, round, 25" diameter, low even surface brightness.  A pair of mag 14/15 star (32" separation) lie 1' SE.  Located 4' SW of a 20" pair of mag 10.5/11.5 stars and 4.8' SSW of a mag 10.3 star.

 

Ormond Stone discovered NGC 1202 = LM II-354 in 1886 with the 26" refractor at Leander McCormick Observatory and recorded "mag 15.5, 0.3' dia, wide double star, position 45” (NE) at 4' distance.  His position is ~30 tsec of RA east of PGC 11593, but his description of the double star is a perfect match.  Bigourdan's position for IC 286, which he claimed to have found while searching for this galaxy, is very close to NGC 1202 and Corwin notes that his offset stars don't match the field.  So, IC 286 is lost unless his offset stars can be recovered.

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NGC 1203 = (R)NGC 1203A = MCG -03-08-070 = PGC 11599

03 05 14.1 -14 22 53

V = 14.5;  Size 0.6'x0.6';  Surf Br = 13.7

 

17.5" (10/13/90): very faint, very small, round.  A very close contact pair NGC 1203B is attached at the NE end.  The fainter companion appeared extremely faint and small, round.  Located almost at midpoint of mag 8.2 SAO 148753 2.6' SE and mag 9.5 SAO 148757 3.1' NE.

 

Francis Leavenworth discovered NGC 1203 = LM I-85 on 1 Jan 1886 with the 26" refractor at Leander McCormick Observatory.  His rough position is a good match with  MCG -03-08-070/071 = PGC 11603/11599.  This is a close double system with the brighter component (identified as NGC 1203A in NED and MCG) on the south side.  The magnitudes are reversed (brighter mag associated with the northern component) in several sources.  It's likely Leavenworth saw the combined glow of both objects as I could pick out the northern component.  Howe called this object "extremely faint and very small", with no indication of a companion.

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NGC 1204 = MCG -02-08-045 = PGC 11583

03 04 40.0 -12 20 29

V = 13.3;  Size 1.2'x0.4';  Surf Br = 12.3;  PA = 69d

 

17.5" (11/17/01): interesting object as it appears as a diffuse glow, elongated ENE-WSW with three stars near including a mag 11 star attached at the south edge.

 

Francis Leavenworth discovered NGC 1204 = LM I-86 on 26 Dec 1886 with the 26" refractor at Leander McCormick Observatory and reported "mag 15.5, E 45”, B* and sev F stars inv in neb, resolvable."  His position is a good match with MCG -02-08-045 = PGC 11583 and the description is appropriate for this galaxy.  Herbert Howe measured an accurate position in 1899-00 using the 20" refractor at Chamberlin Observatory (repeated in the IC 2 notes) and mentions "I noticed simply a small triangle of stars of mags 11, 12, and 13.  The brightest star seemed to be enveloped in an extremely faint mantle of nebulous matter."

 

Recently (27 Mar 2015), I found that WH observed NGC 1204 on 27 Nov 1785 (sweep 478), though he only logged "a deception", and didn't assign it an internal discovery number or H-designation.  His offset in position from #1193 = NGC 1200 (the previous object in the sweep), places the "deception" just 1.2' south of NGC 1204, based on Corwin's reduction (Steinicke also confirms this observation).  Based on my visual notes, I can see why WH found the appearance ambiguous.

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NGC 1205 = NGC 1182 = PGC 11511

03 03 28.4 -09 40 13

 

See observing notes for NGC 1182.

 

Ormond Stone discovered NGC 1205 = LM I-87 in 1886 with the 26" refractor at Leander McCormick Observatory and logged "mag 14.0, 0.7'x0.3', E 25”, *9.5 in PA 240” at 3.0' dist."  There is nothing at his position but 2 min of RA west is PGC 11511 and Stone's description applies (except his PA should read 125”).  This was Stone's second observation of this galaxy.  His position for I-84 = NGC 1182 was 1.0 min of west too far west, but the descriptions are virtually the same.  Herbert Howe examined the field in 1899-00 and report "having examined the locality very carefully on two fine nights I judge the objects to be identical."  Based on this this observation, Dreyer states in the IC 2 Notes that "1205 is equal to 1182".  Either number could be the primary designation as the earlier observation is not known.  See Corwin's notes.

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NGC 1206 = PGC 11644

03 06 09.7 -08 50 00

V = 14.9;  Size 0.5'x0.5';  Surf Br = 13.2

 

18" (1/1/08): extremely faint, very small, round, 15" diameter.  Visible ~80% of the time using averted vision as a very low surface brightness knot with no structure.  Located 6.5' N of a mag 10.5 star.  The edge-on streak identified as NGC 1206 in the RNGC is actually a plate flaw.

 

Francis Leavenworth discovered NGC 1206 = LM II-355 in 1886 with the 26" refractor at Leander McCormick Observatory and logged "mag 15.6, 0.2' dia, vlE 180”."  His position matches PGC 11644, though Bigourdan was unable to recover this galaxy.  The RNGC misidentifies a plate flaw as NGC 1206!

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NGC 1207 = UGC 2548 = MCG +06-07-043 = CGCG 524-055 = LGG 087-001 = PGC 11737

03 08 15.5 +38 22 56

V = 12.6;  Size 2.3'x1.7';  Surf Br = 13.9;  PA = 123d

 

24" (2/7/16): moderately bright, fairly small, elongated 3:2 NNW-SSE, 0.6'x0.4'.  A mag 14.5-15 star is superimposed on the northwest side.  CGCG 524-054 lies 5.7' W and was noted as fairly faint, small, round, 12"-15" diameter, slightly brighter nucleus.  A mag 12 star is 1' NNW.  NGC 1207 is situated in a rich star field with mag 8.6 SAO 56192 5.7' ESE.

 

17.5" (1/1/92): moderately bright, fairly small, elongated 2:1 NW-SE, broadly concentrated halo.  A mag 15 star is attached at northwest end.  NGC 1213 lies 20' NE.

 

WH discovered NGC 1207 = H III-578 = h284 on 18 Oct 1786 (sweep 618) and noted "vF, vS."  JH logged "F; vS; R; psbM; 12" dia." and measured an accurate position.  The superimposed star was mentioned at Birr Castle: "I am not sure whether it is a star or a nucleus in the north-preceding end."

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NGC 1208 = MCG -02-08-047 = PGC 11647

03 06 11.9 -09 32 27

V = 12.6;  Size 1.9'x1.2';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 75d

 

17.5" (10/20/90): fairly faint, very elongated 3:1 E-W, broadly concentrated halo, much fainter extensions.  First and brightest in a group with NGC 1214 = HCG 23A 11' E.

 

WH discovered NGC 1208 = H II-285 = h285 = h2507 on 10 Jan 1785 (sweep 355) and logged "pF, S, lE, south of a pB triangle, about 1/2' in length." On 15 Dec 1786 (sweep 650) he recorded "F, S, lbM, E not far from the parallel; a little from sp to nf."  JH observed this galaxy both at Slough and at the Cape and there were 7 observations at Birr Castle.  The NGC position is accurate.

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NGC 1209 = MCG -03-08-073 = LGG 081-003 = PGC 11638

03 06 03.0 -15 36 41

V = 11.5;  Size 2.4'x1.1';  Surf Br = 12.5;  PA = 85d

 

17.5" (1/12/02): moderately bright, fairly small,, elongated 2:1 E-W, 1.4'x0.7'.  Increases to a bright, rounder core and stellar nucleus.  NGC 1231 lies 6.8' NE.  Member of the LGG 81 group.  Located 40' following HCG 22 whose brightest member is NGC 1199.

 

13" (1/18/85): fairly faint, small, slightly elongated ~E-W, very small bright core.  Appears slightly fainter than NGC 1199 40' W.

 

WH discovered NGC 1209 = H II-504 = h286 on 30 Dec 1785 (sweep 499) and logged "pB, S, lE, mbM.  The brightness also extended. " JH called this galaxy "vB; E; psbM; 30" l; 20" br."  His position and description matches MCG -03-08-073 = PGC 11638.

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NGC 1210 = ESO 480-031 = MCG -04-08-024 = PGC 11666

03 06 45.3 -25 42 59

V = 12.6;  Size 2.0'x1.8';  Surf Br = 13.9;  PA = 121d

 

17.5" (12/28/00): fairly faint, fairly small, round, 1.0' diameter, weak but even concentration to a brighter core.  A mag 13 star lies 1.1' NNW of center.  Located 40' NE of NGC 1201.

 

Ormond Stone discovered NGC 1210 = LM I-88 on 13 Nov 1885 with the 26" refractor at Leander McCormick Observatory and reported "mag 15.0, vS, iR, E 340”?, gbMN".  There is nothing at his rough RA (nearest minute), but 1 tmin east is ESO 480-031 = PGC 11666 and this galaxy is identified as NGC 1210 in the RNGC and PGC. MCG lists the NGC designation as uncertain.

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NGC 1211 = UGC 2545 = MCG +00-08-093 = CGCG 389-081 = PGC 11670

03 06 52.4 -00 47 40

V = 12.3;  Size 2.1'x1.8';  Surf Br = 13.6;  PA = 30d

 

17.5" (1/7/89): moderately bright, fairly small, very faint outer halo, sharp concentration, round.  Two mag 13 stars lie 2.1' ESE and 2.2' ENE oriented N-S with a separation of 1.1'.

 

Truman Safford  discovered NGC 1211 = Sf 102 on 31 Oct 1867 with the 18.5" refractor at the Dearborn Observatory.  Stephan independently discovered the galaxy on 27 Nov 1880, published it in list XI-8 and measured an accurate position.  Stephan is credited with the discovery in the NGC, as Safford's discovery was not published until 1887, too late to be included in the NGC.

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NGC 1212 = UGC 2560 = IC 1883 = PGC 11815

03 09 42.2 +40 53 35

Size 0.9'x0.5';  PA = 22d

 

18" (11/22/03): faint, small, round, 25" diameter, even surface brightness.  Forms the SW vertex of an equilateral triangle with mag 8.7 SAO 38614 2.7' NE and a mag 11.7 star 2.2' E.  Located just 18' ESE of Algol at the western edge of AGC 426!

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 1212 = Sw I-5 on 18 Oct 1884 with the 16" refractor at the Warner Observatory and recorded "S; R; vvF.  Right angled with 2 stars.  In field with Algol".  Swift's position is poor - 40 seconds of RA west of UGC 2560 - but his description of the two stars applies to this galaxy.  E.E. Barnard independently found this galaxy on 26 Nov 1888 with the 12-inch refractor at Lick Observatory and comunicated the discovery directly to Dreyer.  Barnard and Dreyer assumed this was a new object, probably due to Swift's poor position, and it was cataloged again as IC 1883.  So, NGC 1212 = IC 1883, with discovery priority to Swift.

 

RNGC and PGC (as well as secondary sources such as Megastar) misidentify PGC 11761, an extremely faint galaxy just 8' SE of Algol, as NGC 1212.  This galaxy is not only too faint to have been seen by Swift, it is nearly lost in the glare of Algol.  See Corwin's notes.

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NGC 1213 = IC 1881 = UGC 2557 = MCG +06-07-045 = CGCG 524-058 = PGC 11789

03 09 17.3 +38 38 59

V = 14.5;  Size 1.8'x1.4';  Surf Br = 15.4;  PA = 60d

 

24" (2/7/16): faint or fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 4:3 ~SW-NE, 24"x18", low surface brightness, fades into background.  The image is confused as there are two very faint stars involved as well as two additional stars off the north side.  Located in a rich star field 50' ESE of mag 3.4 Rho Per.  NGC 1207 is 20' SW.

 

17.5" (1/1/92): extremely faint, fairly small, slightly elongated.  This galaxy has an extremely low surface brightness with a very ill-defined outline!  Several faint stars are near or involved including a mag 14 star close off the SW edge and a pair of mag 15.5 stars at the north end.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 1213 = Sw I-6 on 14 Oct 1884 with his 16" refractor and recorded "vvF; lE; v diff; F* close north."  His position is 0.4 min of RA west of UGC 2557 and his description fits (there are faint stars close north and south).  Bigourdan (B. 253) independently found the galaxy on 10 Jan 1891 and measured an accurate RA.  Dreyer assumed it was a new object so this galaxy was also catalogued as IC 1881.

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NGC 1214 = HCG 23A = MCG -02-08-051 = Holm 66a = PGC 11675

03 06 55.9 -09 32 38

V = 14.0;  Size 1.3'x0.3';  Surf Br = 12.8;  PA = 40d

 

17.5" (10/20/90): faint, very small, elongated 2:1 SW-NE, small bright core, stellar nucleus.  A mag 11 star is 2.7' N.  FIrst of four in the field with NGC 1215 4' SE and NGC 1208 11' W.  Brightest in HCG 23.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 1214 = Sw V-49 = LM I-94 on 21 Oct 1886 with the 16" refractor at Warner Observatory.  The same year it was also found by Ormond Stone with the 26" refractor at the Leander McCormick Observatory. The discovery priority is unknown.

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NGC 1215 = HCG 23B = MCG -02-08-055 = Holm 66b = PGC 11687

03 07 09.4 -09 35 32

V = 14.1;  Size 1.5'x1.1';  Surf Br = 14.5;  PA = 15d

 

17.5" (10/20/90): faint, small, elongated 2:1 SW-NE, well defined small bright core, faint extensions.  Member of the NGC 1208 group and HCG 23 with NGC 1214 4' NW and NGC 1216 2' SE.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 1215 = Sw V-50 = LM I-95 on 21 Oct 1886 with the 16" refractor at Warner Observatory.  The same year Ormond Stone independently discovered this galaxy with the 26" refractor at the Leander McCormick Observatory. The discovery priority is unknown.

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NGC 1216 = HCG 23C = MCG -02-08-056 = PGC 11693

03 07 18.4 -09 36 44

V = 14.8;  Size 0.8'x0.2';  Surf Br = 12.8;  PA = 65d

 

17.5" (10/20/90): very faint, extremely small, stellar nucleus or faint star superimposed, extremely faint and very small extensions SW-NE.  Member of HCG 23 with NGC 1215 2' NW.

 

Ormond Stone discovered NGC 1216 = LM I-96 in 1886 with the 26" refractor at Leander McCormick Observatory and recorded "mag 14.5, 0.2' dia, stellar ncl, 3rd of 3".  His rough position matches MCG -02-08-056 = PGC 11693.  This galaxy was missed by Lewis Swift, though he found nearby NGC 1214 and 1215.

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NGC 1217 = ESO 300-010 = MCG -07-07-003 = PGC 11641

03 06 06.0 -39 02 11

V = 12.4;  Size 1.8'x1.3';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 50d

 

18" (1/17/09): fairly faint, fairly small, round, 45" diameter, sharply concentrated with a small brighter core and much fainter halo.  A 24" pair of mag 9/12 stars located 7' SE is lined up with the galaxy.  A mag 13 star lies 1.5' N.  A faint companion galaxy 0.9' N (MCG -07-07-004) was not seen, probably because of the low elevation.

 

JH discovered NGC 1217 = h2508 on 23 Oct 1835 and logged "not vF; R; pslbM; 20". Has a *11m 2' N.  JH's position (h2508) and description is accurate (the star is 1.6' N).

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NGC 1218 = UGC 2555 = MCG +01-09-001 = CGCG 416-002 = 3C 78 = PGC 11749

03 08 26.3 +04 06 38

V = 12.7;  Size 1.3'x1.0';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 155d

 

13.1" (11/29/86): faint, small, round, bright core.  Located 92' E of Alpha Ceti.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 1218 = Sw IV-12 on 6 Sep 1886 with the 16" refractor at the Warner Observatory.  His position is 1.4' west of UGC 2555 = PGC 11749.

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NGC 1219 = UGC 2556 = MCG +00-09-006 = CGCG 390-006 = PGC 11752

03 08 28.0 +02 06 30

V = 13.0;  Size 1.2'x1.2';  Surf Br = 13.2

 

17.5" (10/24/87): moderately bright, moderately large, almost round, weak concentration.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 1219 = m 87 on 9 Sep 1864 with Lassell's 48" reflector on Malta, reporting "F, pL, R".  His position is accurate.

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NGC 1220 = Cr 37 = OCL-380 = Lund 100

03 11 41 +53 20 54

Size 2'

 

17.5" (12/28/94): very compact group of about a dozen faint stars mag 13.5-15 in a small 1.5' wedge-shaped clump.  There is a very tight string of three strings at the NE end and the brightest mag 13 star is at the south end.  Does not appear fully resolved due to density and background haze.  This is a young cluster(60 million years old) at a distance of ~5900 light years in the Perseus Arm.

 

8" (11/28/81) : faint open cluster, small, six faint stars are visible over unresolved haze.

 

JH discovered NGC 1220 = h287 on 28 Nov 1831, recording "a vS, close-packed group of 8 or 10 stars 14...15 mag in a space of 30" diam, so as easily to be taken for a pB nebula."  His position and description matches this cluster.

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NGC 1221 = MCG -01-09-002 = PGC 11739

03 08 15.5 -04 15 35

V = 14.2;  Size 1.4'x0.6';  Surf Br = 13.9;  PA = 160d

 

17.5" (1/7/89): very faint, very small, round.  A mag 13 star is 1.2' SE.  FIrst of three with NGC 1223 8' NNE and NGC 1225 15' NE.  Also IC 1886 lies 10' SSW.  All four galaxies are visible in a 35' field.

 

Francis Leavenworth discovered NGC 1221 = LM II-356 in 1886 with the 26" refractor at the Leander McCormick Observatory and recorded "mag 15.5, 0.2'x0.1', E 170”, * in PA 175” (south)."  His position is 20 sec of RA east of MCG -01-09-002 = PGC 11739 and his PA estimate matches.  Howe's corrected position in the IC 2 Notes is accurate.  Bigourdan listed this galaxy as #255, measured an accurate position, and noted "could be NGC 1221 with an error of 20 sec in RA."  MCG gives the NGC designation as uncertain.

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NGC 1222 = MCG -01-09-005 = Mrk 603 = PGC 11774

03 08 56.9 -02 57 18

V = 12.5;  Size 1.1'x0.9';  Surf Br = 12.3;  PA = 170d

 

17.5" (1/7/89): fairly faint, fairly small, round, very small bright core, stellar nucleus.

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 1222 = St XIII-23 on 5 Dec 1883.  His position is accurate.

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NGC 1223 = MCG -01-09-003 = PGC 11742

03 08 19.9 -04 08 18

V = 14.0;  Size 1.1'x1.1';  Surf Br = 14.1

 

17.5" (1/7/89): second and brightest of a trio with NGC 1221 8' SSW and NGC 1225 7' E.  Faint, small, round, bright core.  The identifications of NGC 1223 and NGC 1225 are reversed in the RNGC and U2000.

 

Francis Leavenworth discovered NGC 1223 = LM II-357 (along with NGC 1225 = II-358) in 1886 with the 26" refractor at Leander McCormick Observatory in 1886, recording "mag 15.0, 0.3' dia, R, gbMN".  His position is 45 sec of RA following MCG -01-09-003 = PGC 11742 and the description applies.  Bigourdan listed this galaxy as #256, measured an accurate position, and noted "could be NGC 1223 with an error of 40 sec in RA."   MCG does not label this galaxy as NGC 1223.  RNGC reversed the identifications of NGC 1223 and NGC 1225 and because of this mistake they were switched in the first edition of the Uranometria 2000.0 Atlas.

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NGC 1224 = UGC 2578 = MCG +07-07-034 = CGCG 540-055 = LGG 088-002 = PGC 11886

03 11 13.6 +41 21 49

V = 13.7;  Size 1.4'x1.2';  Surf Br = 14.1

 

17.5" (10/24/87): very faint, very small, round, small brighter core.  Member of AGC 426.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 1224 = Sw II-28 on 20 Aug 1885 with the 16" refractor at Warner Observatory.  His position matches UGC 2578, located just 42' SE of Algol. Swift made specific searches around bright stars assuming others might have missed nebulae hiding in the glare of these stars.

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NGC 1225 = MCG -01-09-004 = PGC 11766

03 08 47.2 -04 06 05

V = 14.4;  Size 1.1'x0.8';  Surf Br = 14.1

 

17.5" (1/7/89): third of three with NGC 1221 and NGC 1223.  Very faint, very small, round, small bright core.  Located 7' E of NGC 1223.  The identifications of NGC 1223 and NGC 1225 are reversed in the RNGC.

 

Francis Leavenworth discovered NGC 1225 = LM II-358 (along with NGC 1223 = II-357) in 1886 with the 26" refractor at Leander McCormick Observatory, recording "mag 15.5, 0.2' dia, R".  His position is 30 sec of RA following MCG -01-09-004 = PGC 11766.  Bigourdan listed this galaxy as #257, measured an accurate position, and noted "could be NGC 1225 with an error of 30 sec in RA."   MCG mislabels -01-09-004 as NGC 1223.  RNGC reversed the identifications of NGC 1223 and NGC 1225 and because of this mistake they were switched in the first edition of the Uranometria 2000.0 Atlas.

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NGC 1226 = UGC 2575 = MCG +06-08-001 = CGCG 524-061 = PGC 11879

03 11 05.4 +35 23 12

V = 12.9;  Size 2.1'x1.9';  Surf Br = 14.3;  PA = 95d

 

17.5" (1/1/92): fairly faint, fairly small, round, bright core.  Forms a pair with NGC 1227 4' SSE.

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 1226 = St X-16 on 6 Dec 1879 with the 31" reflector at Marseille Observatory.  His position is accurate. This galaxy was apparently first discovered by d'Arrest on 17 Sep 1865, but due to a transcription error his position is 1-hour of RA too small and falls on a blank piece of sky.  See NGC 832.

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NGC 1227 = UGC 2577 = CGCG 524-062 = CGCG 525-003 = PGC 11880

03 11 07.8 +35 19 29

V = 14.2;  Size 1.0'x0.9';  Surf Br = 14.0

 

17.5" (1/1/92): very faint, very small, round.  Forms a pair with NGC 1226 4' NNW.

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 1227 = St X-17 on 10 Jan 1880 with the 31" reflector at Marseille Observatory, one month after discovering NGC 1226 (or perhaps he didn't have time to measure the position earlier).  His position is accurate.

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NGC 1228 = Arp 332 NED3 = VV 337a = ESO 480-032 = MCG -04-08-026 = UGCA 54 = PGC 11735

03 08 11.7 -22 55 23

V = 13.2;  Size 1.5'x0.9';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 78d

 

17.5" (11/10/96): faint, small, elongated 3:2 SW-NE, 0.8'x0.6'.  A mag 13 star is 50" S.  In a group with NGC 1229 2.2' S.  NGC 1230 lies 3.8' SSE, and IC 1892 8.6' SSE.

 

Francis Leavenworth discovered NGC 1228 = LM II-359 (along with NGC 1229 = II-360) in 1886 with the 26" refractor at the Leander McCormick Observatory, recording "mag 15.5, 0.1', R, gbM, 1st of 2".  There is nothing at his position, but 1 min of time west is ESO 480-032 = PGC 11735.  Herbert Howe measured an accurate position in 1899-00 using the 20" refractor at Chamberlin Observatory (repeated in the IC 2 notes).

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NGC 1229 = Arp 332 NED1 = VV 337b = UGCA 53 = ESO 480-033 = MCG -04-08-025

03 08 11.0 -22 57 37

V = 14.0;  Size 1.4'x0.9';  Surf Br = 14.1;  PA = 81d

 

17.5" (11/10/96): very faint, very small, round, 0.4' diameter.  Located 2.2' S of brighter NGC 1228 in a group with NGC 1230 1.9' SE and IC 1892.  A mag 13.5 star lies 1.4' N on a line to NGC 1228.

 

Francis Leavenworth discovered NGC 1229 = LM II-359, along with NGC 1228 = II-359, in 1886 with the 26" refractor at the Leander McCormick Observatory, recording "mag 16.0, 0.1', R, gbM, 2nd of 2".  There is nothing at his position, but 1 min of RA west is ESO 480-033 = PGC 11734.  Herbert Howe measured an accurate position in 1899-00 using the 20" refractor at Chamberlin Observatory (repeated in the IC 2 notes).  He also mentioned that NGC 1229 precedes 1228 a little.

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NGC 1230 = Arp 332 NED2 = ESO 480-034 = MCG -04-08-027 = PGC 11743

03 08 16.4 -22 59 03

V = 14.4;  Size 0.6'x0.2';  Surf Br = 12.7;  PA = 109d

 

17.5" (11/10/96): faintest in a group with NGC 1228, NGC 1229 and IC 1892.  Only glimpsed momentarily using Vicker's CCD Atlas.  Appears extremely faint and small, 10" diameter with possible extensions to 20".  Located 3.8' SSE of NGC 1228 and 1.9' SE of NGC 1230.  IC 1892 lies 5' further SE.

 

Francis Leavenworth discovered NGC 1230 = LM II-361, along with NGC 1228 and NGC 1229, in 1886 with the 26" refractor at the Leander McCormick Observatory.  Leavenworth made no estimate of size or brightness, only the comment "*??".  There is nothing at his position, but 1 min of RA west and 2' N is ESO 480-033 = PGC 11734.  Herbert Howe measured an accurate position in 1899-00 using the 20" refractor at Chamberlin Observatory (repeated in the IC 2 notes).

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NGC 1231 = MCG -03-08-074 = PGC 11658

03 06 29.3 -15 34 09

V = 14.2;  Size 0.8'x0.8';  Surf Br = 13.6

 

17.5" (1/12/02): extremely faint, very small, round, 0.4' diameter.  A mag 15 star is just off the SSW edge of the halo, 30" from the center.  Located 6.8' NE of NGC 1209.  Due to a poor position by Leavenworth, this galaxy is classified as nonexistent in the RNGC.

 

Francis Leavenworth discovered NGC 1231 = LM I-97 on 2 Dec 1885 with the 26" refractor at the Leander McCormick Observatory, recording "mag 16.0, pL, E like a fan."  There is nothing at his rough position (given to an nearest min of RA and arcmin of Dec).  But exactly 4 min of RA west is MCG -03-08-074 = PGC 11658.  MCG doesn't label this galaxy as NGC 1231.  RNGC classifies the number as nonexistent.  Assuming NGC 1231 = PGC 11658, I'm a little surprised Leavenworth didn't mention NGC 1209, just 6' SW, but I don't think this is a duplicate observation of NGC 1209 as it is much too bright to be called mag 16.0.

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NGC 1232 = Arp 41W = ESO 547-0141 = MCG -04-08-032 = PGC 11819

03 09 45.1 -20 34 46

V = 9.9;  Size 7.4'x6.5';  Surf Br = 13.9;  PA = 108d

 

30" (10/15/15 - OzSky): at 303x; this face-on multi-arm knotty Sc appeared very bright, very large, roundish, at least 6' diameter.  Sharply concentrated with a very bright, elongated core that contains a brighter central bar-like nuclear region.  Spiral structure is evident in the large halo, but subtler than I expected as several segments are disconnected.  Most prominent is a knotty arm on the north side.  It emerges near the northwest end of the core and shoots linearly (2' length) towards the northeast in the direction of a mag 14 star 2.5' NE of center.  Another spiral arm extends east and west perhaps 1.5' length, just south of the central region.  The arm fades out at its west end but after a short break, a very faint elongated knot, ~14"x8", is visible 1.7' WSW of center.  NED includes multiple designations NGC 1232:[HK83] 442, [HK83] 445, [HK83] 450 and more from Hodge and Kennicutt's 1983 "Atlas of HII regions in 125 galaxies".  The arm dims again but can just be traced shooting straight N-S in the northwest end of the halo.  Another short, linear segment of a arm (containing [HK83] 110) is just visible close east of the core, 1.1' ENE of center.  NGC 1232A (the subject of a long-standing redshift controversy) is visible 4.1' ESE of center, just beyond the east edge of the galaxy.  It appeared very faint, small, round, ~20" diameter

 

17.5" (10/8/88): bright, large, slightly elongated, bright core, very large faint halo.  Located 8' WSW of mag 8.6 SAO 168347.

 

13" (1/18/85): large, large bright core, substellar nucleus, very diffuse outer halo.  An arm is suspected attached at the west end and winding towards the east on the north side of the core.

 

8" (10/13/81): faint, diffuse, low surface brightness.

 

WH discovered NGC 1232 = H II-258 = h2509 on 20 Oct 1784 (sweep 303) recording "eF, lbM, 7 or 8' dia."  On 19 Dec 1799 (sweep 1091) he logged "F, cL, bM, irr F, 5 or 5' diam.  The nebulosity is unequal, seeming to be two or three clouds or nebulosities joined together." JH made 3 observations at the Cape, the most detailed being ""B; vL; R; resolvable; 3' (dia), first very grad then psbM.  With the left eye I see it mottled. (N.B. This is no doubt a distant globular cluster)."  The NGC position is accurate.

 

NGC 1232B = PGC 11834, near the end of one of the spiral arms, was assumed to be interacting with NGC 1232, but its redshift places it four times the distance.  This system was used by Arp to argue against redshift-based distances.

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NGC 1233 = UGC 2586 = MCG +06-08-003 = CGCG 525-006 = PGC 11955

03 12 33.1 +39 19 07

V = 13.2;  Size 1.8'x0.6';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 27d

 

17.5" (12/23/92): fairly faint, very elongated 3:1 NNW-NNE, 1.2'x0.4', broadly concentrated, faint extensions.  A mag 13.5 star is off the NE end.  Member of AGC 426 (south of main stream).

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 1233 = St III-20 on 10 Dec 1871 with the 31" reflector at Marseille Observatory.  His position matches UGC 2586 = PGC 11955.  Harold Corwin mentions that Swift's V-51 = NGC 1235 might be a duplicate observation of this galaxy, with a 24' error in declination.

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NGC 1234 = MCG -01-09-011 = PGC 11813

03 09 39.2 -07 50 47

V = 14.2;  Size 1.8'x0.9';  Surf Br = 14.6;  PA = 141d

 

17.5" (1/12/02): extremely faint, small, round, 0.6' diameter, low even surface brightness.  Requires averted vision but once identified I could almost hold it continuously with concentration.  Based on the galaxy's size and elongation, I probably viewed the brighter core only.  Located 4' SW of mag 9.5 SAO 130313.

 

Francis Leavenworth discovered NGC 1234 = LM II-362 in 1886 with the 26" refractor at the Leander McCormick Observatory, recording "mag 16.2, 0.6' dia, iR, 1 or eF stars inv, *9m precedes 30 sec."  There is nothing at his position but 40 sec of RA due west is MCG -01-09-011 = PGC 11813.  The star to the west is preceding by 22", though it's odd he didn't mention a brighter star to the NE.

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NGC 1235

03 12 48 +38 56

 

=***, JS. =NGC 1233?, HC

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 1235 = Sw V-51 on 21 Oct 1886 with the 16" refractor at the Warner Observatory.  There are no galaxies near his position.  The RNGC identifies NGC 1235 as a triple star, situated about 1.5' N of Swift's position.  But these stars appear too bright and too easily resolved to be confused with a faint nebulous object by Swift.  Harold Corwin suggests that NGC 1235 may be a duplicate of NGC 1233, which is located due north.  If this identification is correct, Swift made a 24' error in declination (too far south).  Except for NGC 58, the other dozen discoveries by Swift on that night have no significant errors, so this identification is very uncertain.  See Corwin's notes.

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NGC 1236 = CGCG 441-003 = PGC 11898

03 11 28.0 +10 48 30

V = 14.7;  Size 0.5'x0.3';  PA = 30d

 

18" (12/10/07): very faint, small, elongated 2:1 SW-NE, 0.4'x0.2', low surface brightness, no concentration in fairly poor seeing.

 

Albert Marth discovered  NGC 1236 = m 88 on 5 Oct 1864 with Lassell's 48" reflector on Malta, recording "eF, vS, R".  His position is just off the south side of CGCG 441-003 = PGC 11898.

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NGC 1237

03 10 08.9 -08 41 32

V = 14.5/14.5;  Size 13"

 

24" (12/28/13): this 13" pair of evenly matched mag 14-15 stars was easily resolved at 225x.  Located 21' NW of the NGC 1241/1242 pair (Arp 304).

 

Frank Muller discovered NGC 1237 = LM II-363 in 1886 with the 26" refractor at the Leander McCormick Observatory, reporting "mag 13.0, 0.4' diameter, E 170”, double star?"  Dreyer included the description as a possible double star and Corwin confirms it *is* a double star 36 tsec west and 1' south of Muller's position.  The separation is 14" with a PA 152”.

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NGC 1238 = MCG -02-09-010 = Holm 67a = PGC 11868

03 10 52.7 -10 44 53

V = 12.4;  Size 1.5'x1.1';  Surf Br = 12.8;  PA = 110d

 

17.5" (12/28/94): fairly faint, small, round, very small bright core.  Contains a faint stellar nucleus or possibly a faint star is superimposed.  Forms the west vertex of an obtuse isosceles triangle with a mag 13 star 2.4' SE and a mag 14 star 2.3' NNE of center.  IC 1897, just 3.3' SW, appeared faint, small, round, weak concentration.  A mag 13 star is 1.5' S. 

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 1238 = Sw V-52 on 1 Nov 1886 with the 16" refractor at the Warner Observatory, recording "vF; pS; R; sp of [NGC 1247].  His position is 9 tsec east and 20" south of MCG -02-09-010 = PGC 11868 and NGC 1247 is 25' NE.

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NGC 1239 = MCG -01-09-012 = PGC 11869

03 10 53.7 -02 33 11

V = 14.2;  Size 1.1'x0.6';  Surf Br = 13.6;  PA = 70d

 

17.5" (1/7/89): faint, very small, round, weak concentration.

 

WH discovered NGC 1239 = H III-262 = h288 on 6 Jan 1785 (sweep 351) and recorded "Suspected, stellar, 240x verified it with difficulty."  WH's position was poor but JH was only able to correct the declination, as the nebula was "scarcely seen through thick haze". So, the RA is roughly 30 sec too far east in the NGC.  Still there are no other nearby candidates and the identification NGC 1239 = PGC 11869 is not in question.

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NGC 1240

03 13 26.7 +30 30 26

 

=**, Corwin.

 

WH discovered NGC 1240 = H III-164 on 12 Sep 1784 (sweep 268) and recorded "suspected, 240 left a doubt; extremely faint and very small, most probably two close stars; between two stars."  There is nothing near his position and Bigourdan was unsuccessful (twice) in trying to recover this object.  Karl Reinmuth, in his 1926 survey based on Heidelberg plates, notes "*13.5 in Dreyer's place".  Harold Corwin suggests NGC 1240 is a double star (11" separation) about 8' southeast of WH's position.  This pair is also on a line between two other stars so matches Herschel's position.

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NGC 1241 = Arp 304 NED1 = VV 334a = MCG -02-09-011 = Holm 68a = PGC 11887

03 11 14.7 -08 55 20

V = 12.0;  Size 2.8'x1.7';  Surf Br = 13.5;  PA = 145d

 

24" (12/28/13): fairly bright, moderately large, oval 2:1 NW-SE, 2'x1', contains a large bright core that increases towards the center.  There was a hint of arm structure in the outer halo.  Forms a pair with NGC 1242 1.7' NE with both galaxies just south of a mag 9.3 star.

 

13.1" (12/7/85): moderately bright, round, bright core surrounded by a diffuse halo.  Forms a close pair with fainter NGC 1242 1.6' NE.  Located 3.0' due south of mag 9.0 SAO 130329.

 

WH discovered NGC 1241 = H II-286 = h289 = h2510 on 10 Jan 1785 (sweep 355) and recorded "F, pL, R, lbM, south of a small star." JH observed this galaxy both at Slough and at the Cape, where he logged "F, pmE, 50", the preceding of two [with NGC 243]."  The NGC position is accurate.

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NGC 1242 = Arp 304 NED2 = VV 334b = Holm 68c = MCG -02-09-012 = PGC 11892

03 11 19.2 -08 54 07

V = 13.7;  Size 1.2'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 130d

 

24" (12/28/13): fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 5:3 NW-SE, ~35"x21", weak concentration.  Forms a pair (Arp 304 = VV 334) with brighter NGC 1241 1.7' SE.  A bright mag 9.3 star lies 2' NW.

 

13.1" (12/7/85): very faint, small, round, small bright core, stellar nucleus, can hold with averted vision.  Forms a close pair with much brighter NGC 1241 1.6' SW.  Located 2.1' SE of mag 9.0 SAO 130329.

 

WH discovered NGC 1242 = H III-591 on 15 Dec 1786 (sweep 650) and recorded "Two [along with NGC 1241], that of which the place is taken [NGC 1241] is F, pL, vgvmbM, R.  The other [NGC 1242] is about 1' nf, eF, stellar.  A 3rd suspected sf the 1st, still fainter than the 2nd; the I did not see it well enough to verify it, and it may be a deception."  Bindon Stoney, using LdR's 72" on Dec 7 1850, assumed it was a new discovery (labeled as "Beta" in his sketch).  Dreyer later noticed the equivalence with III-591 when he examined the field on 6 Nov 1877 as the observing assistant at Birr Castle.

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NGC 1243 = Holm 68b

03 11 25.4 -08 56 43

 

=**, Corwin.

 

JH discovered NGC 1243 = h291 = h2511 on 6 Jan 1831.  From Slough he recorded "eF, vS" and from the Cape "eF; R; the following of two; pos from the other [NGC 1241] = 120” (ESE)".  At JH's position a faint double star and the position angle matches. Interestingly Herschel never observed NGC 1242, which is close NE of NGC 1241.  At Birr Castle, NGC 1241 was observed several times and assumed to be a "nova", but on 6 Nov 1877 Dreyer (the observing assistant at the time) claimed he saw all three objects in the field.  His micrometric offset for h291 = h2511, points exactly to this double star again!  See Corwin's notes for the complete story.

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NGC 1244 = ESO 082-008 = PGC 11659

03 06 31.2 -66 46 33

V = 13.1;  Size 1.9'x0.4';  Surf Br = 12.6;  PA = 2d

 

24" (4/5/08 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): at 260x appeared as a moderately bright, fairly large edge-on N-S, ~2.0'x0.4'.  Exhibits only a broad, weak concentration to a slightly brighter core.  Forms a 10' pair with NGC 1246 to the SSE.

 

JH discovered NGC 1244 = h2512 on 2 Nov 1834 and recorded "pF, lE, gbM, 25 arcseconds."  His position (from 2 sweeps) is accurate.  He questioned if this object was the same as Dunlop's 205, but Dunlop's description ("a very faint small nebula, north following, a pretty bright small star; a very minute star is between the bright star and the nebula") does not seem to match.

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NGC 1245 = Cr 38 = Mel 18 = OCL-389

03 14 41 +47 14 18

V = 8.4;  Size 10'

 

17.5" (12/8/90): about 100 stars at 220x in 10' diameter.  Rich in mag 13.5-14 stars and includes four mag 12 stars along the west side.  Roughly circular outline and uniform but no concentration to the center, many stars are arranged in lanes.  A mag 8.5 star is off the south edge and a mag 9 star is about 5' off the ENE edge.

 

13" (1/28/84): about 75 stars in a dense cluster.  Includes bright stars on the north side.

 

WH discovered NGC 1245 = H VI-25 = h290 on 11 Dec 1786 (sweep 645), recording "a beautiful very compressed and rich cluster of small stars, about 8' or 9' diameter, irr R."  On 30 Nov 1787 (sweep 786) he added "The large stars arranged in lines, like interwoven letters."  JH called it a "rich, L, cl not very comp; irreg R with stragllers; stars 12...15m; brightest part 5' diam".

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NGC 1246 = ESO 082-009 = PGC 11680

03 07 02.0 -66 56 19

V = 12.9;  Size 1.3'x0.8';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 40d

 

24" (4/5/08 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): moderately bright and large oval 3:2 SW-NE, ~1.2'x0.8'.  Contains a large bright core that increases to a faint, stellar nucleus with a much fainter outer halo.  Located 10' SSE of NGC 1244.  Three mag 10-11 stars lie midway between NGC 1246 and NGC 1244.

 

JH discovered NGC 1246 = h2513 on 2 Nov 1834 and noted "pF, R, glbM, 15 arcseconds."  His position is accurate (2 observations).

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NGC 1247 = MCG -02-09-014 = UGCA 58 = FGC 396 = PGC 11931

03 12 14.3 -10 28 50

V = 12.5;  Size 3.4'x0.5';  Surf Br = 13.0;  PA = 69d

 

17.5" (12/28/94): moderately bright edge-on 5:1 WSW-ENE, 2.4'x0.5', weak concentration.  A mag 14.5 "star" 2.5' SE of center appears possibly quasi-stellar -- this is the compact galaxy Mrk 1071.  A mag 10 star is 6.2' NW.

 

17.5" (1/1/92): fairly faint, moderately large, edge-on 5:1 WSW-ENE, 2.5'x0.5', broad mild concentration, fairly striking appearance.

 

WH discovered NGC 1247 = H II-900 on 10 Dec 1798 (sweep 1087), recording "F, E nearly in the parallel sp-nf, 3' l, 1' b".  His position is 10 sec of RA east of MCG -02-09-014 = PGC 11931.  John Dreyer, using Lord Rosse's 72" on 12 Jan 1877, logged "vF, vmE 72.5”, glbM. *10m 6' np."

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NGC 1248 = MCG -01-09-016 = PGC 11970

03 12 48.5 -05 13 29

V = 12.5;  Size 1.1'x1.0';  Surf Br = 12.5;  PA = 100d

 

17.5" (1/7/89): fairly faint, small, round, small bright core, possible stellar nucleus.  Located 5.5' S of mag 8.3 SAO 130357.

 

WH discovered NGC 1248 = H III-443 = h292 on 5 Oct 1785 (sweep 457), noting "vF, vS, confirmed by 240 power."  JH observed it three times and thought it was a "nova" although his position is close to his father's.  JH combined the entries in the GC.

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NGC 1249 = ESO 155-006 = LGG 093-004 = PGC 11836

03 10 01.2 -53 20 09

V = 11.8;  Size 4.9'x2.3';  Surf Br = 14.3;  PA = 86d

 

24" (4/9/08 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): fairly bright, large, very elongated nearly 3:1 E-W, ~4'x1.4', broad concentration with a bulging middle.  Brighter along the major axis suggesting it's a bar.  The observation was cut short by clouds, so it's possible the observation was somewhat compromised.

 

JH discovered NGC 1249 = h2514 on 5 Dec 1834, recording "B; L; vmE in pos. 80”; vgbM to an axis; 2.5' l; 1' br."  His position and description matches ESO 155-006 = PGC 11836.

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NGC 1250 = UGC 2613 = MCG +07-07-040 = CGCG 540-066 = PGC 12098

03 15 21.1 +41 21 20

V = 12.8;  Size 2.1'x0.9';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 159d

 

17.5" (12/3/88): fairly faint, fairly small, slightly elongated NNW-SSE, bright core, faint almost stellar nucleus.  Member of AGC 426.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 1250 = Sw V-53 on 21 Oct 1886 with the 16" refractor at Warner Observatory.  His position is accurate (on the west side of AGC 426).

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NGC 1251

03 14 09.1 +01 27 24

 

=**, Carlson and Corwin.

 

Sidney Coolidge discovered NGC 1251 = HN 24 on 25 Jan 1860 with the 15-inch refractor of Harvard College Observatory during the Zone Survey of equatorial stars.  He simply noted "faint nebulosity", but within 25" of his position is a faint double star (14.3/15.0 at 7").  All 9 of his nebulous objects in the NGC turned out to be single or double stars.

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NGC 1252 = ESO 116-?011

03 10 44 -57 45 30

Size 10'

 

14" (4/7/16 - Coonabarabran, 142x): fairly large scattered group of ~20 stars in a 10' region.  Includes mag 6.6 HD 20037 on the southwest end and mag 8.7 HD 20059 on the north side.  Not impressive but detached in the field.

 

JH discovered NGC 1252 = h2515 on 4 Dec 1834, recording a "Star 8m, the chief of a cluster of 18 or 20 stars."  His Cape catalogue position corresponds with mag 6.6 HD 20037 at 03 10 39.2 -57 48 35 (2000), the brightest in this 10' group.  Apparently JH made a copying error after he precessed his coordinates to 1860 for the General Catalogue (#663) as his position there is exactly 20' too far south.  Dreyer didn't catch this mistake so it carried over into the NGC.  As a result, ESO says "Not found" and RNGC classifies NGC 1252 as an "unverified southern object", both using the erroneous NGC position.

 

The group of stars at Herschel's position has been shown to be an asterism (not a related cluster) as most of the brighter stars have different proper motion using Hipparchos and ACT data. See Baumgardt "The nature of some doubtful open clusters as revealed by HIPPARCOS" in A&A, 340, 402–414 (1998).

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NGC 1253 = Arp 279 NED1 = MCG -01-09-018 = UGCA 62 = PGC 12041

03 14 09.1 -02 49 22

V = 11.7;  Size 5.2'x2.3';  Surf Br = 14.3;  PA = 82d

 

48" (10/23/11): very bright, very large, elongated ~5:2 WSW-ENE, ~4'x1.6'.  Contains a large, very bright elongated core that gradually increases to the center.  A mag 12.5 star is superimposed just SW of the central region.  A spiral arm emerges from the galaxy on the ENE end and curls sharply clockwise towards the SW on the follwing end of the galaxy and quickly dims.  The arm appears patchy with a couple of small knots near the outer edge (~1.6' from center).  The arm on the west end is harder to make out as it emerges from the central region near the superimposed star and is not as well defined, appearing more as a hazy, mottled region with some brighter patches.  A mag 12 star lies 3' ENE and just beyond the star is NGC 1253A, a low surface brightness dwarf.  NGC 1253A appeared fairly faint, large, irregular, roughly oval 3:2 E-W, 1.2'x0.8', small brighter core, very patchy appearance (contains HII knots).  The nearby mag 12 star is just off the SW side.

 

24" (12/1/13):  NGC 1253A was picked up as a very faint to faint glow, elongated 2:1 E-W, 0.4'x0.2' (central region seen), low surface brightness.  Situated 3.9' ENE of much brighter NGC 1253 and just 0.9' NE of a mag 12 star.  NGC 1253 showed a little structure but I didn't take notes.

 

17.5" (1/7/89): moderately bright, oval ~E-W, no central brightening but contains a slightly brighter knot at the NE end.  A mag 12 star is involved at the west end 52" from the center and a mag 11 star is 2.9' ENE of center.  Forms a double system with NGC 1253A 3.7' ENE (just following the mag 11 star) which was not seen.

 

WH discovered NGC 1253 = H IV-17 on 20 Sep 1784 (sweep 280), reporting "a small star with a vF nebulous brush following, discovered with 240x. The brush was faint and about 1.5' or 2' long.  A star on each side which viewed were free from that brush that I drew them in the same part of the field."  His position was 6' too far south (at the beginning of this sweep, he noted "The rope being broken the PD is coarsely marked in revolutions of the axel").  d'Arrest corrected the position on 4 Jan 1864 and made a total of 4 accurate positions.

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NGC 1254 = MCG +00-09-033 = CGCG 390-032 = PGC 12052

03 14 23.8 +02 40 42

V = 14.1;  Size 0.8'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.2

 

17.5" (10/24/87): faint, very small, slightly elongated SW-NE, small bright core, faint stellar nucleus.  Equidistant between mag 8.7 SAO 111066 5' SSW and mag 8.4 SAO 111068 5' NE.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 1254 = m 89 on 9 Sep 1864 with Lassell's 48" reflector on Malta and logged "F, vS, stellar".  His position is accurate.

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NGC 1255 = ESO 481-013 = MCG -04-08-050 = UGCA 60 = PGC 12007

03 13 32.2 -25 43 31

V = 10.9;  Size 4.2'x2.6';  Surf Br = 13.4;  PA = 117d

 

13.1" (10/10/86): moderately bright, large, fairly diffuse, weak concentration, elongated NW-SE.  A mag 12 star is 2.0' SW of center.

 

E.E. Barnard discovered NGC 1255 = LM I-98 on 30 Aug 1883 with the 6-inch refractor at Vanderbilt University (Sidereal Messenger, Vol 2, page 226 and Object "b" in AN 108, 370, 1884) and described a "faint nebula, not large, pretty even in light.  A faint star close p and slightly south probably involved.  Star is s and f the nebula by about 30'."  Ormond Stone made an independent discovery in 1886 with the 26" refractor at Leander McCormick Observatory, recording  "4.1'x2.0', PA 315”."  The NGC position is 2.5' south of ESO 481-013 = PGC 12007, although Stone's declination is accurate.

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NGC 1256 = ESO 547-023 = MCG -04-08-052 = PGC 12032

03 13 58.2 -21 59 10

V = 13.6;  Size 1.1'x0.4';  Surf Br = 12.7;  PA = 108d

 

17.5" (11/10/96): faint, fairly small, slightly elongated, weak even concentration to a small brighter core.  A mag 15 star lies 1.1' N.  Located 6.5' ESE of mag 9 SAO 168391.  In same field with NGC 1258 13' NNE.

 

JH discovered NGC 1256 = h2516 on 13 Nov 1835, calling it "F, S, almost stellar, but E, has a * 8  preceding 7.5', 2' N."  His position and description (the star is mag 9.3 HD 20129) matches ESO 547-023 = PGC 12032.

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NGC 1257

03 16 59.5 +41 31 45

 

=**, Corwin.  Misidentified in RNGC and RC3.

 

Guillaume Bigourdan discovered NGC 1257 = Big. 16 on 19 Oct 1884 with the 12" at the Paris Observatory.  There is nothing at his position, but according to Harold Corwin, Bigourdan's position (once the position of his offset star is corrected) points directly to a close pair of 15th magnitude stars at 03 16 59.5 +41 31 45.  The RNGC, PGC and RC 3 misidentify UGC 3621 as NGC 1257.  This galaxy is 38 sec of RA preceding his published position and does not match the description. See Corwin's notes.

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NGC 1258 = ESO 547-024 = MCG -04-08-053 = PGC 12034

03 14 05.5 -21 46 28

V = 13.3;  Size 1.3'x0.9';  Surf Br = 13.4;  PA = 17d

 

17.5" (11/10/96): faint, moderately large, elongated 3:2 SSW-NNE, low even surface brightness.  Appears ~1.5'x1.0' (slightly larger than listed dimensions).  In field with NGC 1256 13' SSW.

 

Francis Leavenworth discovered NGC 1258 = LM II-364 on 19 Nov 1886 with the 26" refractor at Leander McCormick Observatory, recording "mag 15.6, 1.2' dia, vlE 0”, GC 665 [NGC 1256] 12' south."  His position is just 0.2 min of RA east of ESO 547-024 = PGC 12034 and this galaxy is 13' N of NGC 1256.

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NGC 1259 = MCG +07-07-046 = PGC 12208

03 17 17.3 +41 23 07

Size 0.7'x0.7'

 

17.5" (12/19/87): extremely faint, very small.  An extremely faint mag 15.5 star is at the west edge.  Located 3.7' NE of UGC 2626 = (R)NGC 1259.  First of three with NGC 1260 and MCG +07-07-48 within AGC 426.  Incorrect identification in the RNGC.

 

Guillaume Bigourdan discovered NGC 1259 = Big. 17 on 21 Oct 1884 with the 12" at the Paris Observatory, noting "round, 25" diameter, vslbM".  With respect to I-18 = NGC 1260, his position is 11 sec of RA west and 1' S.  This offset corresponds to MCG +07-07-046 = PGC 12208 (11 sec west and 1.2' S).  MCG misidentifies NGC 1260 as NGC 1259 and the RNGC misidentifies UGC 2626 (3.7' SW of NGC 1259) as NGC 1259!

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NGC 1260 = UGC 2634 = MCG +07-07-047 = CGCG 540-081 = PGC 12219

03 17 27.2 +41 24 19

V = 13.3;  Size 1.1'x0.5';  Surf Br = 12.6;  PA = 86d

 

17.5" (12/19/87): fairly faint, fairly small, oval ~E-W, weak concentration.  This member of AGC 426 is the brightest of three with NGC 1259 2.2' SW.

 

Guillaume Bigourdan discovered NGC 1260 = Big. 18 on 19 Oct 1884 with the 12" at the Paris Observatory, reporting "mag 13.3-13.4, 25" dia, no nucleus."  His position corresponds with UGC 2634 = PGC 12219.  MCG misidentifies this galaxy as NGC 1259 and misidentifies PGC 12225 as NGC 1260.

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NGC 1261 = ESO 155-SC011

03 12 15.3 -55 13 01

V = 8.3;  Size 6.9'

 

18" (7/8/02 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): bright, symmetric globular, ~5' diameter, with a large very bright condensed core (concentration class II).  A mag 9 star lies 3.6' NE of the center, just outside the halo.  At 171x, the halo is just resolved into a large number of faint stars.

 

20" (7/8/02 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): at 212x, the resolution was a bit better in the halo than with the 18", but the blazing core was still unresolved.

 

James Dunlop discovered NGC 1261 = D 337 = h2517 on 28 Sep 1826 with his 9" reflector from Parramatta and described "a very bright round nebula, about 1.5' diameter, pretty well defined and gradually bright to the centre. A small star north following."  No mention is made of resolution, though it should have been possible (brightest stars mag 13.5).

 

JH observed the cluster twice, first describing it on 5 Dec 1834 as a "globular, bright; large; irregularly round; 2.5' diameter; all resolved into equal stars 14 mag.  Has a star 9th mag 45” N.f. 3' distant."  On his second sweep he logged "pretty bright; round; very gradually brighter in the middle; 3' across; resolved into stars of 15th magnitude. A very faint nebula (??) precedes."  There is a close pair of extremely faint galaxies southwest of the globular, but I doubt Herschel could have picked these up.

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NGC 1262 = MCG -03-09-014 = PGC 12107

03 15 33.6 -15 52 46

V = 14.2;  Size 0.8'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.4;  PA = 135d

 

17.5" (12/30/99): extremely faint, very small, round, 0.4' diameter, no concentration.  Requires averted vision and could not hold steadily.  A mag 15 star lies 1.0' SW.  The redshift-based distance of this galaxy is nearly 1.1 billion l.y., with a second measurement in NED yielding 1.4 billion l.y.!

 

Francis Leavenworth discovered NGC 1262 = LM I-99 on 12 Nov 1885 with the 26" refractor at the Leander McCormick Observatory, recording "mag 15.0, pS, iR, sbMN, halo 15.5."  Within the accuracy of his measurement (nearest minute of RA), his position matches MCG -03-09-014 = PGC 12107. Herbert Howe measured an accurate position in 1899-00 using the 20" refractor at Chamberlin Observatory (repeated in the IC 2 notes).

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NGC 1263 = MCG -03-09-015 = PGC 12114

03 15 39.6 -15 05 55

V = 14.2;  Size 0.7'x0.6';  Surf Br = 13.1

 

17.5" (12/30/99): extremely faint and small, round, 15" diameter.  Requires averted to glimpse.  Once or twice the small halo disappeared and an extremely faint stellar nucleus was momentarily visible.

 

Francis Leavenworth discovered NGC 1263 = LM I-100 on 31 Dec 1885 with the 26" refractor at the Leander McCormick Observatory, recoerding it as "mag 14.0, 0.7' dia, lE 0”, sbM."  His very rough RA (nearest min of RA) is 0.7 min west of MCG -03-09-015 = PGC 12114.  Herbert Howe measured an accurate position in 1899-00 using the 20" refractor at Chamberlin Observatory (repeated in the IC 2 notes).

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NGC 1264 = UGC 2643 = MCG +07-07-050 = PGC 12270

03 17 59.5 +41 31 14

V = 14.6;  Size 1.0'x0.7';  Surf Br = 14.1;  PA = 30d

 

17.5" (12/3/88): very faint, small, round, low surface brightness.  An extremely faint companion is 1.5' SSW.  Member of AGC 426.  Incorrect identification in the RNGC.

 

Guillaume Bigourdan discovered NGC 1264 = Big. 19 on 19 Oct 1884 and noted "mag 13.3, 30" diameter, vslbM."  His position corresponds with UGC 2643 = PGC 12270.  The RNGC misidentifies CGCG 540-085 = PGC 12254 as NGC 1264.  UGC and MCG have the correct identification.  Discussed in RNGC Corrections #3 and Corwin's notes.

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NGC 1265 = UGC 2651 = MCG +07-07-052 = CGCG 540-088 = 3C 83.1 = PGC 12287

03 18 15.8 +41 51 28

V = 12.1;  Size 1.8'x1.6';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 165d

 

17.5" (1/7/89): very faint, small, round glow.  This member of the AGC 426 cluster is located just east of a mag 11 star and has a striking location.  Forms a pair with IC 312 6' SSW.

 

Guillaume Bigourdan discovered NGC 1265 = Big. 20 on 14 Nov 1884 and reported "mag 13.3, 15" diameter, slbM." His position is 5 tsec of RA east and 1.4' south of UGC 2651 = PGC 12287.  Steinicke mentions this is the brightest galaxy discovered by Bigourdan.

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NGC 1266 = MCG -01-09-023 = PGC 12131

03 16 00.8 -02 25 38

V = 12.7;  Size 1.5'x1.0';  Surf Br = 13.0;  PA = 115d

 

17.5" (1/7/89): faint, small, oval 3:2 ~E-W, even surface brightness.  A mag 13.5 star is 1.5' WSW.

 

WH discovered NGC 1266 = H III-194 on 20 Sep 1784 (sweep 280) and noted "eF and eS. 240 verified it"  There is nothing at his position, but 11.7' north and 13 sec of RA east is MCG -01-09-023 = PGC 12131. At the beginning of this sweep, WH noted "The rope being broken the PD is coarsely marked in revolutions of the axel." so this identification is reasonable.   Heinrich d'Arrest noted the error and measured an accurate micrometric position on 4 different nights and noted the mag 13 star 6 seconds of RA west and 1' south.

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NGC 1267 = UGC 2657 = MCG +07-07-055 = CGCG 540-092 = LGG 088-005 = PGC 12331

03 18 44.9 +41 28 04

V = 14.4;  Size 0.8'x0.8'

 

17.5" (10/24/87): faint, very small, round, faint stellar nucleus.  Forms a close pair with NGC 1268 1.0' N with CGCG 540-089 1.8' NW and NGC 1270 2.6' E.  Located in the rich central section of AGC 426 with NGC 1272 7.0' ENE and NGC 1275 12.2' ENE.

 

13" (1/28/84): very faint, small, compact, arc of stars just south.  In a group of 4 in AGC 426.

 

Heinrich d'Arrest discovered NGC 1267 on 14 Feb 1863 with the 11" refractor at Copenhagen Observatory.  He noted a size of 8" and his position (measured on 2 nights) is accurate.  The same night he also discovered nearby NGC 1268, 1270, 1272, 1273 and 1278.

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NGC 1268 = UGC 2658 = MCG +07-07-056 = CGCG 540-093 = PGC 12332

03 18 45.1 +41 29 19

V = 13.4;  Size 1.0'x0.6';  Surf Br = 12.7;  PA = 120d

 

17.5" (10/24/87): extremely faint and small, round, faint stellar nucleus.  Forms a close pair with NGC 1267 1.2' S.  Also very near are CGCG 540-089 1.8' SW and NGC 1270 is 2.7' ESE.  Located in the central core of AGC 426 with NGC 1272 6.8' E.

 

13" (1/28/84): extremely faint, very small, diffuse.  Located 1' N of NGC 1267 in AGC 426.

 

Heinrich d'Arrest discovered NGC 1268 on 14 Feb 1863 with the 11" refractor at Copenhagen Observatory.  His position (measured on 2 nights) and description (1' north of NGC 1267) matches UGC 2658.  At the same time, he discovered and measured NGC 1267, 1270, 1272, 1273 and 1278.

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NGC 1269 = NGC 1291 = ESO 301-002 = MCG -07-07-008 = PGC 12209

03 17 18.2 -41 06 26

 

See observing notes for NGC 1291.

 

JH discovered NGC 1269 = h2518 on 1 Nov 1836, and logged "vB; R; glbM; 15"."  The same sweep he found NGC 1291 = h2521 and strangely he recorded identical declinations and almost identical descriptions!  Could he have reobserved the same object unknowingly?  In MN, Vol 62, p469, Innes comments "not visible in the 7-inch [at the Cape of Good Hope].  This is perhaps the same as NGC 1291, observed by John Herschel on the same night.  JH gives for the latter exactly the same declination and description as for h2518."  The most reasonable conclusion is he recorded this object twice and NGC 1269 = NGC 1291.  See Corwin's notes.

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NGC 1270 = UGC 2660 = MCG +07-07-057 = CGCG 540-095 = LGG 088-006 = PGC 12350

03 18 58.1 +41 28 13

V = 13.1;  Size 1.5'x1.2';  Surf Br = 13.7;  PA = 15d

 

17.5" (10/24/87): faint, very small, slightly elongated ~N-S, small bright core.  Located in the central core of AGC 426 with NGC 1267 2.6' W, NGC 1268 2.7' WNW and NGC 1272 4.4' ENE.

 

13" (1/28/84): faint, small, weak concentration.  Last of four in a small group in the core of AGC 426 with NGC 1267 2.5' W.

 

Heinrich d'Arrest discovered NGC 1270 on 14 Feb 1863 with the 11" refractor at Copenhagen Observatory and accurately placed 14 seconds of time following NGC 1267.  At the same time, d'Arrest discovered nearby NGC 1267, 1268, 1272, 1273 and 1278.

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NGC 1271 = CGCG 540-096 = PGC 12367

03 19 11.3 +41 21 12

V = 14.1;  Size 0.5'x0.2'

 

17.5" (8/12/88): very faint, small, slightly elongated, bright core, faint stellar nucleus.  Member of AGC 426.

 

Guillaume Bigourdan discovered NGC 1271 = Big. 21 on 14 Nov 1884, recording "mag 13.5, 20" diameter, no nucleus."  His position is just off the south edge of CGCG 540-096 = PGC 12367.

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NGC 1272 = UGC 2662 = MCG +07-07-058 = CGCG 540-098 = LGG 091-003 = PGC 12384

03 19 21.3 +41 29 27

V = 11.8;  Size 2.0'x1.9';  Surf Br = 13.2

 

17.5" (10/24/87): fairly faint, small, round, small bright core.  This galaxy is the second brightest in AGC 426 and forms the SW vertex of a distinctive parallelogram of brighter galaxies with NGC 1275 5' ENE, NGC 1273 3.1' NNE and NGC 1278/1277 7.5' NE.  Also located midway between NGC 1275 and NGC 1270 4.4' WSW.

 

13" (1/28/84): fairly faint, fairly small, bright core. 

 

8" (1/1/84): extremely faint and small, round.

 

Heinrich d'Arrest discovered NGC 1272 on 14 Feb 1863 with the 11" refractor at Copenhagen Observatory.  He estimated a size of 45"-50" diameter and measured the position on 2 nights (27 seconds preceding NGC 1275).  The same night he found NGC 1267, 1268, 1270, 1273 and 1278.

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NGC 1273 = MCG +07-07-059 = CGCG 540-099 = LGG 088-029 = PGC 12396

03 19 26.7 +41 32 26

V = 13.2;  Size 1.1'x1.1';  Surf Br = 13.2

 

17.5" (10/24/87): faint, very small, round, small bright core.  Forms the NW vertex of a parallelogram of brighter galaxies in the core of AGC 426 with NGC 1272 3.1' SSW, NGC 1275 4.4' ESE, and NGC 1278 5.3' ENE.

 

13" (1/28/84): faint, small.  Located 4.4' WNW of NGC 1275 in the core of AGC 426.

 

Heinrich d'Arrest discovered NGC 1273 on 14 Feb 1863 with the 11" refractor at Copenhagen Observatory.  His position (measured on 2 nights) matches CGCG 540-099 = PGC 12396.  The same night he discovered NGC 1267, 1268, 1270, 1272 and 1278.

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NGC 1274 = MCG +07-07-062 = CGCG 540-102 = PGC 12413

03 19 40.5 +41 32 55

V = 14.1;  Size 0.5'x0.4';  Surf Br = 12.4

 

17.5" (10/24/87): faint, very small, weak concentration, slightly elongated.  Located in the dense central core of AGC 426 just 2.7' NW of NGC 1275 and 2.6' E of NGC 1273.

 

13" (1/28/84): very faint, very small. Located 2.7' NW of NGC 1275 within AGC 426.

 

Lawrence Parsons, the 4th earl of Rosse, discovered NGC 1274 on 13 Dec 1874 and labeled it as "d" on his sketch.  The sketch and micrometric offset from a nearby star matches CGCG 540-102 = PGC 12413.  This galaxy is identified as IC 1907 (discovered by Bigourdan on 22 Oct 1884 and included in list IV-375).  But Harold Corwin equates IC 1907 with NGC 1278 (see that number). Thomson has a long discussion on the identify of IC 1907 in his IC survey.

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NGC 1275 = UGC 2669 = MCG +07-07-063 = CGCG 540-103 = Perseus A = 3C 84 = PGC 12429

03 19 48.1 +41 30 43

V = 11.9;  Size 2.2'x1.7';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 110d

 

17.5" (10/24/87): fairly bright, fairly small, oval ~E-W, small bright core.  NGC 1275 is a Seyfert galaxy and is the largest and brightest member of AGC 426.  Surrounded by a swarm of faint galaxies in the core including NGC 1272 5.2' WSW, NGC 1273 4.4' WNW, NGC 1274 2.6' NW, NGC 1277 3.7' NNE, NGC 1278 3.3' NNE, NGC 1279 2.8' SE, NGC 1281 7.8' NNE.

 

13" (1/28/84): fairly bright, fairly small, small bright core. 

 

8" (1/1/84): faint but not difficult, small, slightly elongated, small bright core.

 

6": extremely faint and small, round.  Used a 6" mask on the 17.5".

 

WH discovered NGC 1275 = H II-603 = h293 on 17 Oct 1786 (sweep 614) and recorded "pretty bright, stellar [nebula], or a pretty considerable star with a small, vF chevelure."  WH's position is 1.5' too far south, but JH's position is a very close match.

 

Heinrich d'Arrest observed the cluster on 14 Feb 1863 (discovering NGC 1267, 1268, 1270, 1272, 1273 and 1278) and described NGC 1275 as a "nebula duplex", the second component being NGC 1278 about 3' NE, so d'Arrest was the first to observe NGC 1278.  But he wasn't sure which of the two nebulae was NGC 1275 (H. II-603), so reported his observation of NGC 1275 as new and noted for NGC 1278: "II 603? [h]293?".  JH credited d'Arrest with the discovery of GC 675 (later NGC 1278), but Dreyer thought WH discovered NGC 1278 and he mistakenly assigned d'Arrest's discovery to NGC 1275.  Steinicke agrees (personal e-mail) that Dreyer reversed the discovery credits and descriptions for NGC 1275 and NGC 1278 in the NGC and concludes:

NGC 1275 = II 603 = h 293 = GC 674, discovered by WH on 17 Oct 1786 and observed by d'Arrest on 14 Feb 1863.

NGC 1278 = GC 675, discovered by d'Arrest on 14 Feb 1863 and independently by Bigourdan on 22 Oct 1884 (IC 1907).

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NGC 1276

03 19 51.2 +41 38 31

 

=**, Corwin.  =PGC 12430, Thomson.  See Catalogue Corrections

 

John Dreyer discovered NGC 1276 on 12 Dec 1876 with the 72" at Birr Castle.  With respect to NGC 1278 (incorrectly identified as h674), this nova was placed 3.5 sec of RA west and 288" north.  There is no galaxy close to this position.  A possible identification is PGC 12430 at 03 19 47.8 +41 35 47 (2000).  Thomson feels this identification is a reasonable match but the offsets are 6 seconds of RA west of NGC 1278 and only 2' N (instead of 4.8' N).  Karl Reinmuth, in his 1926 survey based on Heidelberg plates, mentions "not found in Dreyer's place; perhaps 1.6' nnp of NGC 1277."  This also refers to PGC 12430.  But closer to Dreyer's offset is a 15" pair of stars at 03 19 51.2 +41 38 31 (2000).  The offsets are 3 seconds west and 283" north of NGC 1278, which is an excellent match with Dreyer, and Corwin identifies this pair as NGC 1276.  Still it's wide enough that I'm surprised that Dreyer did not resolve the pair.  So, the identification is uncertain.

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NGC 1277 = MCG +07-07-064 = CGCG 540-104 = PGC 12434

03 19 51.5 +41 34 25

V = 13.5;  Size 1.0'x0.4';  Surf Br = 12.3

 

17.5" (10/24/87): faint, very small, oval ~E-W, small bright core.  Located in the central core of AGC 426 3.7' N of NGC 1275 and forms a close pair with NGC 1278 0.8' SE.

 

13" (1/28/84): very faint, extremely small.  Located 0.8' NW of NGC 1278.

 

Lawrence Parsons, the 4th Earl of Rosse, discovered NGC 1277 on 4 Dec 1875.  Dreyer independently found the galaxy a year later on 12 Dec 1876 and both observations are in Dreyer's GC Supplement (5304 = 5305).  Dreyer equated the GC entries in the NGC.

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NGC 1278 = UGC 2670 = MCG +07-07-065 = CGCG 540-105 = IC 1907 = PGC 12438

03 19 54.1 +41 33 48

V = 12.4;  Size 1.5'x1.3';  Surf Br = 13.2

 

17.5" (10/24/87): fairly faint, fairly small, oval, small bright core.  Located in the central core of AGC 426.  Forms a close pair with NGC 1277 0.8' NW.  Located at the NE corner of a parallelogram with NGC 1275 3.4' SSW, NGC 1272 7.5' SW and NGC 1273 5.3' WSW.

 

13" (1/28/84): faint, small.  Located 3.4' N of NGC 1275 and forms a close pair with NGC 1277.

 

Heinrich d'Arrest discovered NGC 1278 on 14 Feb 1863 with the 11" refractor at Copenhagen Observatory.  WH (II-603) is credited with the discovery in the NGC, but H. II-603 and h293 should apply to NGC 1275 instead, as well as the description "pB, pS, R, bM".  Guillaume Bigourdan independently found this galaxy on 22 Oct 1884 and reported it as a new discovery Big. 375 (4th discovery list) and Dreyer recatalogued it as IC 1906.  Both d'Arrest and Bigourdan missed nearby NGC 1277. See notes for NGC 1275 for more on the confusion of NGC 1275 and 1278.

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NGC 1279 = PGC 12448 = PGC 12449

03 19 59.0 +41 28 47

V = 14.6;  Size 0.5'x0.2';  PA = 0d

 

17.5" (8/12/88): very faint, very small, slightly elongated.  Visible continuously with averted vision.  Located in the central core of AGC 426 just 2.8' SE of NGC 1275!  This galaxy is not listed in MCG, CGCG or RC3 and was incorrectly identified in the PGC.

 

17.5" (10/24/87): very faint, small, slightly elongated ~N-S.

 

13" (1/28/84): extremely faint, very small, near visual threshold.  Located 2.8' SE of NGC 1275.

 

John Dreyer discovered NGC 1279 on 12 Dec 1876 with the 72" at Birr Castle and logged "vF, vS".  Micrometric offsets were measured from a star between NGC 1275 and NGC 1272 as 272.4" in PA 104.5”.  At this precise offset (270" in PA 105”) is PGC 12448 = PGC 12449 (two entries for this galaxy in the PGC).  The PGC (and secondary sources such as Megastar) misidentifies PGC 12450 = V Zw 338 as NGC 1279.  The current versions of LEDA and NED have the correct identification.

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NGC 1280 = UGC 2652 = MCG +00-09-050 = PGC 12262

03 17 57.1 -00 10 09

V = 13.4;  Size 0.9'x0.8';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 55d

 

17.5" (10/24/87): faint, small, round, weak concentration.

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 1280 = St XII-25 on 19 Dec 1881 with the 31" reflector at Marseille Observatory, recording "vF, vS, R, gbM, seems resolvable".  His position is accurate.

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NGC 1281 = MCG +07-07-067 = CGCG 540-108 = PGC 12458

03 20 06.1 +41 37 48

V = 13.3;  Size 1.0'x0.7';  Surf Br = 12.9

 

17.5" (10/24/87): faint, small, elongated WSW-ENE.  Located in the central core of AGC 426 1.0' NE of a mag 10 star.  NGC 1275 lies 7.8' SSW.

 

John Dreyer discovered NGC 1281 on 12 Dec 1876 with the 72" at Birr Castle and noted "vF, S, *11m 1' p".  With respect to NGC 1278 (incorrectly identified by Dreyer as h674), this object was placed 10.8 seconds of RA east and 239" N.  This micrometric offset points exactly at CGCG 540-108 = PGC 12458.

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NGC 1282 = UGC 2675 = MCG +07-07-068 = CGCG 540-109 = PGC 12471

03 20 12.1 +41 22 02

V = 12.9;  Size 1.4'x1.1';  Surf Br = 13.4;  PA = 25d

 

17.5" (8/12/88): faint, fairly small, oval SW-NE, bright core.  Forms a pair with NGC 1283 2' NNE in the core of AGC 426.  NGC 1275 lies 10' NW.

 

17.5" (11/14/87): fairly faint, small, round, slightly brighter core.  Located 1' E of a mag 13.5 star.

 

13" (1/8/84): faint, fairly small, diffuse halo, 10' SE NGC 1275.  Forms a pair with NGC 1283.

 

Guillaume Bigourdan discovered NGC 1282 = Big. 22 on 23 Nov 1884 with the 12" at the Paris Observatory, describing "mag 13.2-13.3, 20" diameter, faint stellar ncl." His position is accurate.

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NGC 1283 = UGC 2676 = MCG +07-07-069 = CGCG 540-110 = PGC 12478

03 20 15.5 +41 23 55

V = 13.6;  Size 0.7'x0.6';  Surf Br = 12.6;  PA = 70d

 

17.5" (8/12/88): faint, small, round.  A pair of stars are close north.

 

17.5" (11/14/87): faint, very small, slightly elongated.  Forms the southern vertex of an isosceles triangle with a mag 13.5 star 1' N and a mag 14 star 1' NNW.  This member of AGC 426 forms a pair with NGC 1282 2' SSW.

 

Guillaume Bigourdan discovered NGC 1283 = Big. 23 on 23 Nov 1884 with the 12" at the Paris Observatory, reporting "mag 13.4, 20" diamewter, vlbM."  His position is accurate.

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NGC 1284 = MCG -02-09-022 = PGC 12247

03 17 45.5 -10 17 20

V = 12.1;  Size 2.0'x1.6';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 90d

 

17.5" (12/28/94): very faint, fairly small, round, 0.8' diameter, low even surface brightness.  A wide mag 13.5/14.5 double at 26" lies 2' SSE.  Located 9.8' NNW of mag 7.1 SAO 148889.  Appears fainter than listed V = 12.1.

 

WH discovered NGC 1284 = H III-956 = h2519 on 10 Dec 1798 (sweep 1087) and noted "vF, vS, 2 or 3' north of 2 small stars.". His position matches MCG -02-09-022 = PGC 12247.

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NGC 1285 = MCG -01-09-026 = PGC 12259

03 17 53.4 -07 17 54

V = 13.4;  Size 1.3'x1.0';  Surf Br = 13.5;  PA = 35d

 

17.5" (12/28/94): faint, fairly small, elongated 3:2 ~N-S, weak broad concentration but no defined core.  Slightly mottled or irregular surface brightness.

 

Heinrich d'Arrest discovered NGC 1285 on 28 Oct 1865 with the 11" refractor at Copenhagen Observatory.  His single position is just off the east side of the galaxy.

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NGC 1286 = MCG -01-09-025 = PGC 12250

03 17 48.5 -07 37 01

V = 13.8;  Size 0.9'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 150d

 

18" (11/23/05): fairly faint, small, round, 25" diameter, very small bright core.  A mag 15 star is just of the west side, ~40" from the center.  Located 4.9' ENE of mag 9.7 SAO 130402 and 3.4' NNW of a mag 10.4 star.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 1286 = Sw III-25 on 10 Nov 1885 with the 16" refractor at Warner Observatory.  His position is 7 sec  of RA east of MCG -01-09-025 = PGC 12250.

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NGC 1287 = PGC 12310

03 18 33.4 -02 43 51

V = 14.2;  Size 0.9'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.5

 

17.5" (10/24/87): faint, small, round, even surface brightness.  Located 9' NW of mag 7.1 SAO 130415.

 

WH discovered NGC 1287 = H III-195 on 20 Sep 1784 (sweep 280) and noted "eF, eS, verified with 240 power."  His RA is 13 seconds too large. Heinrich d'Arrest noted the error and his mean position (3 nights) is close off the northeast edge of the galaxy.

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NGC 1288 = ESO 357-013 = MCG -05-08-025 = PGC 12204

03 17 13.2 -32 34 34

V = 12.1;  Size 2.3'x1.9';  Surf Br = 13.6

 

17.5" (12/28/00): fairly faint, moderately large, elongated 4:3 ~N-S, 2.0'x1.5', broad concentration with no distinct.  The surface brightness appears somewhat uneven (face-on Sb) although the outer halo fades smoothly into the background.

 

JH discovered NGC 1288 = h2520 on 19 Nov 1835 and recorded "vF; L; R; vglbM; 2.5' diam."  His position and description is accurate.

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NGC 1289 = UGC 2666 = MCG +00-09-054 = CGCG 390-055 = IC 314 = PGC 12342

03 18 49.8 -01 58 24

V = 12.6;  Size 1.8'x1.1';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 100d

 

17.5" (12/28/94): fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 3:2 E-W, broad concentration to a brighter core.  An 8' line of four mag 11-13 stars oriented SW-NE follows; the closest is a mag 11 star 3.6' ESE.  NGC 1298 lies 22' SE.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 1289 = Sw IV-13 on 1 Sep 1886 with the 16" refractor at the Warner Observatory and recorded "vF; S; R; 4 st following in a row.".  His position is 11 tsec of RA west of UGC 2666 but his description of the 4 stars applies so the identity is not in doubt.  Bigourdan (Big 140) independently found this galaxy again on 14 Dec 1887, measured a accurate position, and it was also catalogued as IC 314 (though Swift's position was only a few arcmin off).  So, NGC 1289 = IC 314, with discovery priority to Swift.  Herbert Howe, observing with the 20" refractor at the Chamberlin Observatory in Denver, measured an accurate micrometric position and reported "the "4 st following" are of about mag 10, and are not close together, the farthest being perhaps 10' from the nebula."

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NGC 1290 = PGC 12395

03 19 25.2 -13 59 23

V = 14.8;  Size 0.5'x0.4';  Surf Br = 12.9

 

17.5" (1/12/02): faint, very small, round, 20" diameter. Located 1.3' SE of a mag 13.5 star.  Forms a pair with NGC 1295 9' due east.  The identifications of NGC 1290 and NGC 1295 are reversed in the RNGC.

 

Ormond Stone discovered NGC 1290 = LM I-101 (along with NGC 1295 = LM I-102) in 1886 with the 26" refractor at the Leander McCormick Observatory.  There is nothing at his rough position (nearest min of RA) but 1.2 tmin of RA east is PGC 12395.  Herbert Howe measured an accurate position in 1899-00 using the 20" refractor at Chamberlin Observatory (repeated in the IC 2 notes).

 

RNGC and MCG misidentify MCG -02-09-030 as NGC 1290.  The correct identification is NGC 1295 = MCG -02-09-030.

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NGC 1291 = NGC 1269 = ESO 301-002 = MCG -07-07-008 = PGC 12209

03 17 18.2 -41 06 26

V = 8.5;  Size 9.8'x8.1';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 156d

 

17.5" (8/31/86): very bright, fairly large, contains a very bright, large core.  A mag 12 star is just off the north end 1.7' from the center.  Mag 8 SAO 216239 lies 11' SSW.  Viewed at only 10” elevation.

 

13" (10/10/86): very bright, moderately large, round, very bright core, almost stellar nucleus, large faint halo.  A star is involved on the NW side.

 

James Dunlop discovered NGC 1291 = D 487 = h2521 on 2 Sep 1826 with his 9" reflector at Parramatta and recorded "a pretty bright round nebula, about 1.5' diameter, very bright and condensed to the centre, and very faint at the margin; with a very small star about 1' north, but not involved.".  His position is 4' ESE of PGC 12209.  This galaxy was observed by JH on 1 Nov 1836, along with h2518 = NGC 1269.  The declination and descriptions are identical for the two entries, but differ by 2.6 tmin in RA.  Clearly, JH was confused and recorded the object twice.  So, NGC 1269 = NGC 1291.

 

On a second sweep JH described the galaxy as "Globular; vB, R, 1st gradually, then suddenly very mbM; r, mottled, but not resolved.", so Dreyer identified this galaxy as a globular in the NGC description.  In a 1908 paper in Annals of the Harvard College Observatory, Solon Bailey expressed his doubt on the object's nature: "This object is given as a globular cluster in the NGC.  This appears probable, although it is not resolved on the Bruce plates."  He later included it in a list of uncertain or not probable globular star cluster.

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NGC 1292 = ESO 418-001 = MCG -05-08-026 = PGC 12285

03 18 14.8 -27 36 37

V = 12.1;  Size 3.0'x1.3';  Surf Br = 13.5;  PA = 7d

 

13.1" (10/10/86): fairly faint, fairly small, oval 2:1 SSW-NNE, bright core.  A group of four stars lies to the north includes a mag 11 double star at 24" separation 3' NE, a third mag 11 star 4.4' NNE and a mag 12 star 3' due north.

 

E.E. Barnard discovered NGC 1292 in Nov 1885 with the 6" Cooke refractor at Vanderbilt University.  His position and description in Sidereal Messenger 5, p25 ("rather faint, moderate size, elongated nearly north and south, just south and slightly preceding a small wide double-star") is accurate.

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NGC 1293 = MCG +07-07-075 = CGCG 540-116 = PGC 12597

03 21 36.4 +41 23 35

V = 13.4;  Size 1.0'x1.0';  Surf Br = 13.5

 

17.5" (12/3/88): faint, small, round, faint stellar nucleus.  Forms a pair with NGC 1294 2' SSE.  Member of AGC 426.

 

WH discovered NGC 1293 = H III-574 = h294, along with NGC 1294 = III-575, on 17 Oct 1786 (sweep 614) and described both as "Two [NGC 1293 and NGC 1294] Both vF, stellar, vlbM, but the southern [NGC 1294] is the brightest and largest."  His position is ~10 tsec of RA too far west and JH was confused in the orientation (NW - SE), but the identifications are clear.

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NGC 1294 = UGC 2694 = MCG +07-07-076 = CGCG 540-117 = PGC 12600

03 21 40.0 +41 21 36

V = 13.2;  Size 1.3'x1.1';  Surf Br = 13.5

 

17.5" (12/3/88): faint, small, round, small bright core.  Forms a pair with NGC 1293 2' NNW.  Member of AGC 426.

 

WH discovered NGC 1294 = H III-575 = h295, along with NGC 1293, on 17 Oct 1786 (sweep 614) and described both as "Two [NGC 1293 and NGC 1294] Both vF, stellar, vlbM, but the southern [NGC 1294] is the brightest and largest."  His position is ~10 tsec of RA too far west and JH mixed up the orientation (calling this galaxy the "north-following of two), but this was corrected in the NGC descriptions and positions.

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NGC 1295 = MCG -02-09-030 = PGC 12465

03 20 03.3 -13 59 54

V = 14.3;  Size 0.9'x0.5';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 175d

 

17.5" (1/12/02): fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 2:1 N-S, 0.6'x0.3', very small bright core.  A mag 13.5 star lies 1.3' NW.  Located 3' WSW of a mag 10.3 star and 8' N of mag 9 SAO 148906.  Forms a pair with NGC 1295 9' due east.  The identifications of NGC 1290 and NGC 1295 are reversed in the RNGC.

 

Ormond Stone discovered NGC 1295 = LM I-102 (along with NGC 1290 = I-101) in 1886 with the 26" refractor at Leander McCormick Observatory.  His description reads "mag 15.0, 0.2' dia, *10 3.0' in PA 75” (ENE)."  There is nothing at Stone's rough position (nearest minute of RA) but 1 min of RA east is MCG -02-09-030 = PGC 12465 and the star is just where he placed it.  Herbert Howe measured an accurate position in 1899-00 using the 20" refractor at Chamberlin Observatory (repeated in the IC 2 notes).  This galaxy is misidentified as NGC 1290 in RNGC and MCG.

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NGC 1296 = MCG -02-09-025 = PGC 12341

03 18 49.7 -13 03 44

V = 13.5;  Size 1.2'x0.9';  Surf Br = 13.4;  PA = 0d

 

17.5" (12/30/99): faint, small, round, 0.6' diameter, weak concentration.  At 280x, there is a hint of structure or possibly a very faint star is attached.  The DSS image shows a barred spiral with spiral arms attached at the east and west ends of the bar.

 

Francis Leavenworth discovered NGC 1296 = LM I-365 in 1886 with the 26" refractor at Leander McCormick Observatory, reporting "0.2' diam, R".  His position is 34 tsec of RA east of MCG -02-09-025 = PGC 12341.  Herbert Howe measured an accurate position in 1899-00 using the 20" refractor at Chamberlin Observatory.

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NGC 1297 = ESO 547-030 = MCG -03-09-017 = PGC 12373

03 19 14.2 -19 06 00

V = 11.8;  Size 2.2'x1.9';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 3d

 

17.5" (8/31/86): moderately bright with a large faint halo nearly 2' diameter, broadly concentrated halo, small bright nucleus.  A mag 13.5 star is at the north edge 1' NNE of center.

 

E.E. Barnard discovered NGC 1297 around Jan 1885 with his 5-inch Byrne refractor while sweeping comets (Sidereal Messenger 4, p53).  His position is accurate.

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NGC 1298 = UGC 2683 = MCG +00-09-062 = CGCG 390-063 = PGC 12473

03 20 13.1 -02 06 51

V = 14.0;  Size 1.6'x1.3';  Surf Br = 14.7;  PA = 70d

 

17.5" (10/24/87): fairly faint, small, oval slightly elongated WSW-ENE, weak concentration.  NGC 1289 lies 22' WNW.

 

Heinrich d'Arrest discovered NGC 1298 on 4 Jan 1864 with the 11" refractor at Copenhagen Observatory.  His position (observed on 2 nights) is very good and he accurately measured a mag 13-14 star that precedes by 8 seconds of time.  The MCG misidentifies MCG +00-09-063 as NGC 1298.

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NGC 1299 = MCG -01-09-028 = PGC 12466

03 20 09.6 -06 15 45

V = 13.6;  Size 1.2'x0.6';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 40d

 

17.5" (1/1/92): moderately bright, fairly small, elongated 5:2 SW-NE, irregular surface brightness.  A bright knot or possibly a star is superimposed at the NE end.  The galaxy appears to extend out from the pointed NE corner towards the SW.  MCG +01-09-027 lies 14' NW.

 

WH discovered NGC 1299 = H II-287 = h296 on 27 Jan 1785, logging it as "F, vS, lE, easily resolvable, unequally bright."  On 15 Dec 1786 (sweep 650) he noted "vF, pS, E."  It was observed 9 times with LdR's 72", perhaps trying to resolve this galaxy.  The NGC position is accurate.  The PA is off by 90 deg in the RC 3.

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NGC 1300 = ESO 547-031 = MCG -03-09-018 = UGCA 66 = PGC 12412

03 19 41.0 -19 24 40

V = 10.4;  Size 6.2'x4.1';  Surf Br = 13.8;  PA = 106d

 

30" (10/15/15 - OzSky): beautiful classic barred spiral at 303x!  A prominent 3' bar runs WNW-ESE and contains a very bright, roundish 1' core that gradually brightens to the center.  An easily visible arm is attached at the east end of the bar.  It hooks sharply to the west on the south side, gradually curling towards the north.  The arm has a fairly even surface brightness except where is attaches to the bar in a brighter, thicker section.  It ends nearly due west of the core [2.2' from center].  An opposing arm attaches at the west end of the bar and is brightest initially along a clumpy section (containing at least 2 resolved knots) angling from southwest to northeast.  The central section of the northern arm (directly north of the core) has a very low surface brightness but it then brightens in a thin section near the east end. The two main arms extend at least 4.5'x3' ~E-W.

 

48" (10/25/14): the northern spiral arm is brightest and thickest in the 1' section, oriented SW-NE, where it attaches to the bar.  At 375x and 488x at least three knots (HII complexes) were clearly resolved along this region.  The brightest knot is on the southwest end (close to the end of the bar) and appears as a very faint, small, elongated glow, ~12"x8".  This HII complex contains NGC 1300:[H69] 16/19 from Paul Hodge's 1969 "HII Regions in Twenty Nearby Galaxies" (ApJS, 18, 73).  [H69] 15, the next brightest knot, is 0.3' NE and appeared very faint and small, ~8" diameter.  Finally, [H69] 14, the faintest knot, is near the northeast end of this arm segment (~15" NE of [H69] 15) and is extremely faint and small, 6" diameter.

 

48" (10/25/11): this prototype barred spiral was mesmerizing at 375x.  Running roughly E-W through the center is a long bright bar, ~3' in length.  The center is sharply concentrated with an intensely bright 1' core that continues to increase to a stellar nucleus.  At the west end of the bar, a fairly bright arm emerges and hooks back dramatically to the east (counterclockwise) to the north of the bar and continues to the northeast end of the galaxy.  The arm is brightest in a thick arc, oriented SW-NE, where it attaches to the bar.  The central section of the arm to the north of the core is slightly fainter and then brightens slightly on its northeast end.  A mag 15.5-16 star is superimposed in the gap between this arm and the core, 45" NE of center.  The second arm emerges at the east end of the bar and is brightest initially in a fairly thick arc extending counterclockwise to the southwest.  This arm is slightly more separated from the core as it gracefully curves to the southwest side of the galaxy.  The two main arms increase the overall size of the galaxy to 5'x3' WNW-ESE.

 

17.5" (8/31/86): fairly bright, elongated ~E-W, bright core, stellar nucleus.  A spiral arm is visible at the west end of the central bar curving to the north. 

 

8" (10/13/81): faint, fairly large, elongated, low surface brightness, diffuse.

 

JH discovered NGC 1300 = h2522 on 11 Dec 1835, recording "B; vL; 1st very gradually then pretty suddenly vmbM; 3' l; 2' b; mE. (N.B. These dimensions can only refer to the brighter portions.)" His second descriptions reads: "pF, vL; 1st gradually then pretty suddenly bM to a F nucleus; mE 8' or 10' l, 2' b.".  Herschel's position (2 observations) is accurate but in the GC he accidentally placed GC 689 = NGC 1300 one degree too far south  Barnard caught this error (Sidereal Messenger 4, p125) and Dreyer corrected the position while compiling the NGC.

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NGC 1301 = ESO 547-032 = MCG -03-09-022 = PGC 12521

03 20 35.4 -18 42 58

V = 13.4;  Size 2.2'x0.4';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 140d

 

17.5" (12/30/99): very faint, fairly small, elongated 2:1 NW-SE, 0.8'x0.4', weak concentration.  A mag 15 star lies 1.7' NNW of center. Located 30' NW of NGC 1297 and 44' NNW of NGC 1300.

 

Ormond Stone discovered NGC 1301 = LM I-103 in 1886 with the 26" refractor at the Leander McCormick Observatory, logging "mag 13.0, iF, vmE 135”."  His rough position is 13' NW of  ESO 547-032 = PGC 1252, but there is no question about the identification as the position angle matches this galaxy.

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NGC 1302 = ESO 481-020 = MCG -04-08-058 = PGC 12431

03 19 51.0 -26 03 37

V = 10.7;  Size 3.9'x3.7';  Surf Br = 13.5;  PA = 172d

 

13.1" (10/10/86): fairly bright, compact, oval ~N-S, small very bright core.  A mag 11.5 star is 1.9' NE of center.

 

8" (10/13/81): fairly faint, bright core, fairly small, round.

 

E.E. Barnard discovered NGC 1302 around Jan 1885 with his 5-inch Byrne refractor while sweeping comets (Sidereal Messenger 4, p53).  His position is accurate.

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NGC 1303 = MCG -01-09-029 = PGC 12527

03 20 40.8 -07 23 40

V = 13.9;  Size 0.8'x0.6';  Surf Br = 13.0;  PA = 20d

 

17.5" (1/12/02): faint, small, slightly elongated N-S, 30"x25".  The halo suddenly brightens to a sharp 5" nucleus.  A mag 15 star is just off the southeast side 20" from center.  Forms the northern vertex of an isosceles triangle with  mag 9.7 SAO 130433 6' SSE and mag 10.1 SAO 130427 6' WSW.

 

Heinrich d'Arrest discovered NGC 1303 on 28 Oct 1865 with an 11" refractor at Copenhagen.  His single position matches MCG -01-09-029 = PGC 12527 and his comment that "two or three stars are involved" refers to a star right along the eastern edge and probably the nucleus.

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NGC 1304 = NGC 1307 = MCG -01-09-030 = PGC 12575

03 21 12.8 -04 35 03

V = 13.7;  Size 1.3'x0.8';  Surf Br = 13.6;  PA = 130d

 

17.5" (1/7/89): very faint, small, oval WSW-ENE, weak concentration.

 

WH discovered NGC 1304 = H III-444 on 5 Oct 1785 (sweep 457) and logged  "eF, pS, E.".  His position (reduced by Auwers) is just 3 sec of RA east and 2' S of MCG -01-09-030 = PGC 12575.  Corwin suggests that NGC 1307, discovered by Francis Leavenworth (II-366) in 1886 is probably a duplicate observation of PGC 12575.  Leavenworth's position is 1.0 tmin east (a common error), though his note of a "*9.5 f 8s, north 3'." does not match.  But there is a mag 11.5-12 star 6 sec of RA west and 3.2' W, which might be Leavenworth's star.

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NGC 1305 = UGC 2697 = MCG +00-09-069 = CGCG 390-072 = PGC 12582

03 21 23.0 -02 19 01

V = 13.3;  Size 1.4'x0.9';  Surf Br = 13.5;  PA = 130d

 

17.5" (10/24/87): very faint, small, slightly elongated ~N-S.  A faint mag 15.5 star is 30" off the NE edge and 0.9' from center.

 

Heinrich d'Arrest discovered NGC 1305 on 4 Jan 1864 with an 11" refractor at Copenhagen, logging it as "pB, R, 20" diam, *15 near the northern end."  His position is 1' too far north.

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NGC 1306 = ESO 481-023 = PGC 12559

03 21 03.0 -25 30 45

V = 12.8;  Size 1.1'x0.9';  Surf Br = 12.6

 

17.5" (12/30/99): fairly faint, fairly small, round, 0.7' diameter.  Weak, even concentration to a slightly brighter core and a faint stellar nucleus.  Located 17' WNW of mag 6.5 SAO 168493.

 

Ormond Stone discovered NGC 1306 = LM I-103 in 1886 with the 26" refractor at the Leander McCormick Observatory and recorded "mag 14.8, vS, gbM, no Nucl, *10.5 4' E."  His rough position matches ESO 481-023 = PGC 12559, though there is no matching star.  But a mag 12.5 star 3.3' NE may be the intended star.

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NGC 1307 = NGC 1304 = MCG -01-09-030 = PGC 12637

03 21 12.8 -04 35 03

V = 13.7;  Size 1.3'x0.8';  Surf Br = 13.6;  PA = 130d

 

See observing notes for NGC 1304.

 

Francis Leavenworth discovered NGC 1307 = LM II-366 in 1886 with the 26" refractor at the Leander McCormick Observatory, reporting "mag 15.3, 0.2' diam, R, *9.5 follows 8 sec, north 3'."  Close to his discovery position is KUG 319-47 = PGC 12637, though this galaxy may be too faint to have picked up by Leavenworth.  Corwin suggests that NGC 1307 is identical to NGC 1304, discovered earlier by William Herschel.  This brighter galaxy is 1 tmin of RA west of Leavenworth's position (a common error).  Although there is no star matching Leavenworth's description, Corwin suggests a mag 11.5-12 star 6 tsec of RA west and 3.2' north might be Leavenworth's intended star.  If Leavenworth reversed his directions, then NGC 1307 = NGC 1304.  RNGC calls NGC 1307 nonexistent. See Corwin's notes.

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NGC 1308 = MCG -01-09-032 = PGC 12643

03 22 28.6 -02 45 27

V = 13.9;  Size 1.3'x0.9';  Surf Br = 13.9;  PA = 45d

 

17.5" (1/7/89): faint, small, round, weak concentration.  Located within a small group of four stars including two mag 11 stars 1.5' E and 1.9' NNW, also a pair of mag 13.5 stars lie 2' WSW.  These four stars form an isosceles trapezoid.

 

WH discovered NGC 1308 = H II-568 on 30 Sep 1786 (sweep 608), recording "eF, S, iF. In the midst of 3 or 4 stars; the following thereof is the brightest."  His position and description of the nearby stars is an exact match with MCG -01-09-032 = PGC 12643.

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NGC 1309 = MCG -03-09-028 = PGC 12626

03 22 06.3 -15 24 00

V = 11.5;  Size 2.2'x2.0';  Surf Br = 13.0

 

17.5" (1/1/92): fairly bright, moderately large, halo gradually increases to brighter middle, faint almost stellar nucleus, well-defined halo slightly elongated SW-NE.  Located 4' NE of mag 7.5 SAO 148921.

 

8" (11/28/81): fairly faint, small, round.  A mag 8 star is 4' SW.

 

WH discovered NGC 1309 = H I-106 = h2523 on 3 Oct 1785 (sweep 451), logging it as "cB, cL, iR, bM, 3' diameter."  JH described it as "pF, R, glbM, pos from a * 7 mag = 31”, difference in RA 7.5 sec, * 4' S."

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NGC 1310 = ESO 357-019 = MCG -06-08-004 = LGG 094-001 = PGC 12569

03 21 03.5 -37 06 07

V = 12.1;  Size 2.0'x1.5';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 95d

 

17.5" (1/12/02): faint, moderately large, the halo is slightly elongated ~E-W, 1.8'x1.4'.  The halo is weakly concentrated to a slightly brighter, 1' round core.  Located 20' WNW of NGC 1316 (Fornax A) and 8' SW of mag 9.4 SAO 194250.  Member of the Fornax I Cluster.

 

JH discovered NGC 1310 = h2524 on 22 Oct 1835 and reported "vF, R, pL, vlbM; 90 arcsec."  His position is 2' S of ESO 357-019 = PGC 12569.  On a later sweep he called it a globular cluster (three other members of the Fornax cluster were also described as globulars).  His position is accurate on two of the sweeps.

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NGC 1311 = ESO 200-007 = LGG 093-005 = PGC 12460

03 20 07.2 -52 11 11

V = 13.0;  Size 3.0'x0.8';  Surf Br = 13.8;  PA = 40d

 

24" (11/18/12 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): moderately bright, fairly large, very elongated 7:2 SW-NE, 2.2'x0.6', broad concentration with a large, brighter core but no distinct nucleus.  Located 9.5' S of mag 8.4 HD 20916.  Member of the Dorado Group.

 

JH discovered NGC 1311 = h2525 on 24 Dec 1837, recording it as "F, mE in position 37.3 degrees; gbM, 2' long, 15 arcseconds broad.".  His position and description is accurate.  NGC 1311 and NGC 1356 are included in a list of 46 nebulae recorded on two plates made with the Bruce telescope in October 1898 by DeLisle Stewart (http://adsabs.harvard.edu/full/1899HarCi..38....1P).

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NGC 1312

03 23 41.7 +01 11 05

 

=**, Corwin.

 

Sidney Coolidge discovered NGC 1312 = HN 23 on 16 Dec 1859 with the 15-inch refractor of Harvard College Observatory during the Zone Survey of equatorial stars.  He simply noted "a circular nebulosity", but at his exact position is a double star at 03 23 41.7 +01 11 05 (J2000).  Bigourdan was unable to find this object and Karl Reinmuth, in his 1926 survey based on Heidelberg plates, mentions "perhaps *, ef * ssf vnr."  RNGC, CGCG, UGC, MCG and RC3 all misidentify UGC 2711 as NGC 1312.  See Corwin's notes.

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NGC 1313 = ESO 082-011 = VV 436 = AM 0317-664 = PGC 12286

03 18 16.1 -66 29 53

V = 8.7;  Size 9.1'x6.9';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 39d

 

24" (4/4/08 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): this was the first object I took a look at using the 24" f/3.7 as it was the brightest galaxy I had yet to observe.  I was amazed to find a striking, two-armed barred spiral with obvious bright HII knots in the arms!  At 200x the main body of the galaxy appeared as a bright oval or wide bar ~4.5'x3.5' oriented SSW-NNE with a central bulge.  A relatively short spiral arm emerges from the south-southwest end and hooks towards the northwest.  Embedded with this extension is [PES80] 5/6, a brighter elongated HII knot, ~30"x20".  A mag 15 star is west of the northwest end of this arm.  Just east of the north-northeast end of the main bar is [PES80] 1, another brighter HII knot, ~30"x15" and oriented E-W.  A faint star (or stellar knot) is less than 1' NW.  This bright HII region is embedded in a diffuse arm that curves gently east-southeast from the north end of the bar.  After the bright knot, this extension dims but ends at [PES80] 3, a third bright knot ~15" diameter, which is isolated the end of this arm (nearly due east of the core).  The HII designations are from a 1980 study of HII regions by Page, Edmunds and Smith in MNRAS, 193, 219.  NGC 1313A = ESO 83-1, lies 16' SE, and appeared as a fairly small, thin edge-on oriented 4:1 SSW-NNE, ~0.6'x0.15'.

 

James Dunlop discovered NGC 1313 = D 206 = h2528 on 27 Sep 1826, describing "a faint ill-defined nebula, rather extended in the direction of the meridian, with several exceedingly minute stars in it."  JH only observed this bright galaxy on one sweep and logged "pB, irreg R or lE, vL, vgbM, resolvable, 3'."

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NGC 1314 = MCG -01-09-033 = PGC 12650

03 22 41.2 -04 11 12

V = 14.2;  Size 1.5'x1.4';  Surf Br = 14.8

 

17.5" (1/12/02): very faint, fairly small, round, 0.8' diameter.  Appears as a low surface brightness glow just north of a mag 12 star [52" from center].

 

17.5" (1/7/89): not seen.

 

Francis Leavenworth discovered NGC 1314 = LM II-367 on 18 Jan 1887 with the 26" refractor at the Leander McCormick Observatory and recorded "mag 16.0, 2.0' diameter, E 170”, mag 10 star with an eF nebula south, *16 in middle?"  There is nothing at his position but 1.1 tmin of RA west is MCG -01-09-033 = PGC 12650, a low surface brightness, face-on spiral, about 1.5' diameter and the RNGC identifies NGC 1314 = PGC 12650.  A mag 12 star is 1' S, so Leavenworth must have reversed his directions (common error).  MCG does not label MCG -01-09-033 as NGC 1314.

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NGC 1315 = ESO 548-003 = MCG -04-09-002 = PGC 12671

03 23 06.6 -21 22 31

V = 12.4;  Size 1.6'x1.4';  Surf Br = 13.2

 

17.5" (12/28/00): moderately bright, slightly elongated NW-SE, 1.5'x1.3', moderate concentration with a bright core.  Located 21' NW of NGC 1325 in the NGC 1332 group.

 

JH discovered NGC 1315 = h2526 on 13 Nov 1835, logging "pB, R, gbM, 25 arcsec."  His position is accurate. The same night he also found NGC 1319, located 15' SE.

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NGC 1316 = Arp 154 = Fornax A = ESO 357-022 = MCG -06-08-005 = PGC 12651

03 22 41.7 -37 12 30

V = 8.5;  Size 12.0'x8.5';  Surf Br = 13.4;  PA = 50d

 

17.5" (11/26/94): very bright, moderately large, oval 3:2 SW-NE, about 2.5'x1.5'.  Dominated by an intense 40"x30" core which brightens to a non-stellar nucleus.  Forms a pair with NGC 1317 6.3' N.  Brightest member of the Fornax I cluster.

 

8" (9/25/81): bright, round, slightly elongated, small bright core.  Forms a pair with NGC 1317 7' N.

 

James Dunlop discovered NGC 1316 = D 548 on 2 Sep 1826 with his 9" reflector from Parramatta and described "a rather bright, round nebula, about 1.5' diameter, gradually condensed to the centre."  He made two observations and his published position was pretty poor -- nearly 20' SE of the galaxy.  Dunlop discovered six members of the Fornax cluster, though most (15) were found by John Herschel.  John (h2527) first observed the galaxy on 22 Oct 1835 and noted "vB; pL; lE; vsvmbM, to a nucleus 2" in diameter." On his second sweep he logged "vB; vL; 4' diameter; 1st gradually, then very suddenly very much brighter towards the middle to a stellar ncl"

 

NGC 1316 is the brightest member of the Fornax cluster and is also known as Fornax A, one of the closest and most famous radio sources in the southern hemisphere.  Its radio lobes extend several degrees of sky.  Arp classified it as a disturbed galaxy with interior absorption -- like Centaurus A, NGC 1316 contains an extensive system of dust filaments as well as low surface brightness shells and tidal tails, indicating a likely merger.  Four supernovae have exploded since 1980.

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NGC 1317 = NGC 1318 = ESO 357-023 = MCG -06-08-006 = PGC 12653

03 22 44.4 -37 06 13

V = 11.0;  Size 2.8'x2.4';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 78d

 

17.5" (11/26/94): moderately bright, fairly small, 1.2' diameter, even concentration to a small bright core and stellar nucleus.  Forms a bright pair with NGC 1316 6.3' S.  Located at the southwest end of the Fornax I cluster.

 

8" (10/13/81): faint, small, bright core.  Forms a pair with NGC 1316 7' S.

 

James Dunlop discovered NGC 1317 = D 547 = h2529 on 24 Nov 1826 with his 9" reflector from Parramatta and described "a small faint round nebula about 15 arcseconds in diameter."  This was the last object he discovered and his position is ~15' ENE of center.  JH first observed the galaxy on 22 Oct 1835 and noted "pB, S, R, psbM." His second sweep he recorded it as "pB, pL, 1' diameter; a miniature of the last neb. of this sweep."  Julius Schmidt independently found the galaxy on 19 Jan 1865 and thought it was new, because JH made an typo of 20 degrees in NPD for h2529 in the CGH catalogue.  JH corrected the NPD in the addendum of the catalogue, but apparently Schmidt didn't check.

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NGC 1318 = NGC 1317 = ESO 357-023 = MCG -06-08-006 = PGC 12653

03 22 44.4 -37 06 13

V = 11.0;  Size 2.8'x2.4';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 78d

 

See observing notes for NGC 1317.

 

Julius Schmidt found NGC 1318 on 19 Jan 1865 with the 6.2-inch refractor at the Athens Observatory in his survey of the Fornax Cluster (nebula "a" in his table).  His position is almost identical to NGC 1317 = h2529.  Schmidt assumed this nebula was "new" in his 1876 paper since he was working from JH's Cape Catalogue.  In the original listing for h2529, Herschel made an typo of 20 degrees in NPD but he corrected this mistake in the addendum of the catalogue. Apparently Schmidt didn't check his correction list.  Dorothy Carlson and RNGC list this number as "Not Found".

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NGC 1319 = ESO 548-006 = MCG -04-09-003 = PGC 12708

03 23 56.5 -21 31 39

V = 12.9;  Size 1.3'x0.7';  Surf Br = 12.6;  PA = 27d

 

17.5" (12/28/00): fairly faint, fairly small, elongated ~2:1 SSW-NNE, 1.0'x0.6'.  Increases to a small brighter core and occasional quasi-stellar nucleus.  Located 6.8' due west of NGC 1325!  A mag 14 star lies 0.8' NW of center.

 

JH discovered NGC 1319 = h2533 on 13 Nov 1835 and logged it as "F; S; R; bM; 15"; precedes IV-77 [NGC 1325]."  His position matches ESO 548-006 = PGC 12708

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NGC 1320 = MCG -01-09-036 = Mrk 607 = PGC 12756

03 24 48.7 -03 02 33

V = 12.5;  Size 1.9'x0.6';  Surf Br = 12.5;  PA = 135d

 

17.5" (11/25/87): fairly faint, small, elongated NW-SE, moderate concentration, small bright core, faint halo.  First of four in the field and forms a close pair with NGC 1321 1.7' N.

 

WH discovered NGC 1320 = H III-197 = h298 = h2530, along with NGC 1321, on 20 Sep 1784 (sweep 280) and described both as "Two. Both eF, verified with 240 power but with 157x I had but a very distant suspicion of them."  JH observed this pair both from Slough as well as the Cape of Good Hope.

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NGC 1321 = MCG -01-09-035 = Mrk 608 = PGC 12755

03 24 48.6 -03 00 56

V = 13.7;  Size 1.1'x0.6';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 45d

 

17.5" (11/25/87): fairly faint, small, elongated ~E-W, bright core.  Appears slightly smaller but higher surface brightness than NGC 1320 1.7' S.  Second of four in the field.

 

WH discovered NGC 1321 = H III-196 = h297 = h2531, along with NGC 1320, on 20 Sep 1784 (sweep 280) and described both as "Two. Both eF, verified with 240 power but just suspected with 157 power."  JH observed this pair both from Slough as well as the Cape of Good Hope.

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NGC 1322 = MCG -01-09-037 = PGC 12761

03 24 54.7 -02 55 09

V = 13.5;  Size 1.0'x0.8';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 100d

 

17.5" (11/25/87): fairly faint, small, slightly elongated, weak concentration.  Third of four in the field and appears slightly fainter than the NGC 1320/NGC 1321 pair.  NGC 1321 lies 6' SSW.

 

JH discovered NGC 1322 = h2553 on Oct 5 1836 and logged "F, R, bM, 15", the 3rd of three [with NGC 1320 and 1322]."  His position is accurate.

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NGC 1323 = PGC 12764

03 24 56.1 -02 49 19

V = 15.0;  Size 0.9'x0.3';  Surf Br = 13.4;  PA = 85d

 

17.5" (11/25/87): very faint, extremely small, round.  Located 30" NE of a mag 14 star.  Fourth of four in a group.

 

Bindon Stoney discovered NGC 1323 on 2 Nov 1850 with Lord Rosse's 72" (and possibly earlier by George Stoney on 19 Dec  1848) and reported a "suspected neb (or perhaps only a star) with a F* close sp."  The group of NGC 1320, 1321, 1322 and 1323 was observed 14 times at Birr Castle!

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NGC 1324 = MCG -01-09-038 = PGC 12772

03 25 01.7 -05 44 44

V = 13.4;  Size 2.0'x0.8';  Surf Br = 13.8;  PA = 135d

 

17.5" (11/25/87): fairly faint, fairly small, very elongated NW-SE, bright core.

 

WH discovered NGC 1324 = H III-445 = h299 on 5 Oct 1785 (sweep 457), logging "vF, pS, E."  On his second observation, JH noted "vF; pmE; 20" l, 12" br."

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NGC 1325 = ESO 548-007 = MCG -04-09-004 = UGCA 70 = PGC 12737

03 24 25.6 -21 32 36

V = 11.5;  Size 4.7'x1.6';  Surf Br = 13.6;  PA = 56d

 

17.5" (12/28/00): bright, large, elongated 5:2 SW-NE, 3.0'x1.3', broad concentration with a large, brighter core.  A mag 11.5 star is embedded in the northeast end.  The southwest end is better defined and clearly tapers down, giving a lens-like appearance.  The edge of the halo is more ill defined to the northeast of the star.

 

Second brightest in the NGC 1332 group with NGC 1319 7' W, NGC 1325A 13' NNE, NGC 1315 21' NW and NGC 1332 29' ENE.  NGC 1325A = Holmberg VI appeared faint, large, round, diffuse glow.  Appears ~2' in diameter and brightens slightly but there is no noticeable core.

 

13" (10/10/86): fairly faint, pretty edge-on 3:1 SW-NE, weak concentration.  A star is attached at the northeast end and a mag 13.5 star is 1.5' SE of center.  Located in a small group with NGC 1319 6.8' W and NGC 1325A.  NGC 1325A is faint, moderately large, round, but very diffuse.

 

WH discovered NGC 1325 = H IV-77 = h2534 on 19 Dec 1799 (sweep 1091), describing "a star about 9 or 10m with a nebulous ray to the south-preceding side. The ray is about 1.5' long. The star may not be connected with it."  JH described and sketched this galaxy from the Cape on 11 Nov 1835: "A complete telescopic comet; a perfect miniature of Halley's, only the tail is rather broader in proportion; mE; 90" l; the star at the head = 10 mag.  See fig 17, Pl VI."

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NGC 1326 = ESO 357-026 = MCG -06-08-011 = PGC 12709

03 23 56.4 -36 27 52

V = 10.5;  Size 3.9'x2.9';  Surf Br = 13.0;  PA = 77d

 

17.5" (11/26/94): bright, fairly small, round, 1.3' diameter, well concentrated with a small bright core and bright stellar nucleus.  On a line with three mag 13 stars 2.7' and 4.2' WSW and 3.6' to the ENE.  A brighter mag 11 star lies 4.3' NNW.  Located on the SW side of the Fornax I cluster.

 

8" (10/13/81): faint, fairly small, round, bright core.

 

JH discovered NGC 1326 = h2535 on 29 Nov 1837, recording it as "60" diameter, vsvmbM to a nucleus, ? a disc."  His position is accurate (on the SE side of the halo).

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NGC 1327 = ESO 481-026 = MCG -04-09-008 = PGC 12795

03 25 23.2 -25 40 46

V = 14.7;  Size 1.0'x0.3';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 176d

 

24" (12/1/13): at 260x appeared very faint, very small, elongated 3:2 N-S, 18"x12".  Visible ~80% of the time with averted.  Situated 2.5' ENE of a mag 10.7 star.  MCG -04-09-010 lies 9.4' ESE.

 

Ormond Stone discovered NGC 1327 = LM I-105 in 1886 with the 26" refractor at the Leander McCormick Observatory and placed roughly at 03h 25m -25d 41' (2000).  His description simply includes a magnitude of 16.3 for the nucleus, and the comment "neb?".  Southern Galaxy Catalogue, ESO-LV, RC3 and Uranometria 2000 (2nd edition) identify NGC 1327 = ESO 481-026 at 03 25 23.2 -25 40 46 (2000).  This galaxy is within 1 tmin of RA and a reasonable match in position and description.

 

ESO/Uppsala identifies a pair of stars with a wider third star about 8' NW of this galaxy as possibly NGC 1327, although they are too bright to be Stone's intended object.  This identification probably derives from the NGC Correction list at Harvard College Observatory "3 vF st close together, no neb" (from DeLisle Stewart and repeated in IC 2).   RNGC classifies this number as nonexistent and it is missing from the first edition of the Uranometria 2000.0 Atlas.  See my RNGC Corrections #6 and Corwin's notes.

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NGC 1328 = PGC 12805

03 25 39.1 -04 07 30

V = 14.2;  Size 0.9'x0.6';  Surf Br = 13.4;  PA = 130d

 

17.5" (11/25/87): faint to fairly faint, very small, round, weak concentration, very faint stellar nucleus.  Located 4.6' SW of mag 8.7 SAO 130481.

 

17.5" (10/24/87): faint, very small, round, slightly brighter core.  Located ~5' SW of a mag 8 star.

 

Francis Leavenworth discovered NGC 1328 = LM II-368 in 1886 with the 26" refractor at the Leander McCormick Observatory.  His position is 0.5 tmin of RA east of PGC 12805 (typical error made in RA at Leander McCormick).

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NGC 1329 = ESO 548-015 = MCG -03-09-042 = PGC 12826

03 26 02.6 -17 35 29

V = 12.6;  Size 1.4'x1.1';  Surf Br = 13.0;  PA = 35d

 

17.5" (12/30/99): faint, small, slightly elongated SW-NE, 0.7'x0.5'.  Contains a small bright core, ~10" in size and a faint stellar nucleus with direct vision.  A mag 11.5 star lies 4.0' S.  Located 9' NE of mag 9 SAO 148955.  A faint edge-on galaxy (ESO 548-014) is attached to the mag 11.5 star but was not noticed.

 

JH discovered NGC 1329 = h2536 on 11 Dec 1835 and commented "F, R, glbM, 30 arcsec.". His position matches ESO 548-015 = PGC 12826.

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NGC 1330

03 29 04.1 +41 40 30

 

24" (2/14/15): at 225x appears as small, fuzzy patch with 1 star often resolving [probably the mag 15 star at the northwest end.  At 375x, a second mag 15.5 star just 15" E was cleanly resolved.  At 450x, a third mag 16 star was resolved.

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 1330 = St XII-26 on 14 Dec 1881 using the 31" reflector at the Marseille Observatory.  His position is 6' north of NGC 1335 (found by Stephan on the same night and accurately placed) and falls precisely on a group of at least four mag 15.5-16 stars and a couple of fainter ones.  RNGC and PGC misidentify CGCG 541-014 = PGC 12967 as NGC 1330.  This galaxy is located ~17' S of Stephan's position.  See my RNGC Corrections #2.

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NGC 1331 = ESO 548-019 = MCG -04-09-012 = IC 324 = PGC 12846

03 26 28.3 -21 21 19

V = 13.4;  Size 0.9'x0.9';  Surf Br = 13.2

 

13.1" (10/10/86): faint, fairly small, almost round.  Located 2' SE of NGC 1332.

 

WH discovered NGC 1331 = H III-959 on 19 Dec 1799 (sweep 1091), recording it as "The second is close to it [NGC 1332], or about 1 1/2' sf the former; it is vF, vS."  His single position on this sweep is 22 seconds of RA too small and happens to fall close to ESO 548-016 = PGC 12827, a galaxy too faint to have been seen by Herschel.

 

Guillaume Bigourdan independently found NGC 1331 on 3 Dec 1888, placed it accurately and Dreyer catalogued it again as IC 324, assuming it was a different object.  In Dreyer's collected "Scientific Papers of William Herschel", he notes for NGC 1331: "This is IC 324, 11 seconds following, 1.2' S of NGC 1332.  NGC 1331 is to be struck out."  The RNGC misidentifies ESO 548-016 as NGC 1331.

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NGC 1332 = ESO 548-018 = MCG -04-09-011 = UGCA 72 = PGC 12838

03 26 17.1 -21 20 04

V = 10.3;  Size 4.7'x1.4';  Surf Br = 12.2;  PA = 120d

 

13.1" (10/10/86): bright, moderately large, very bright core, edge-on 4:1 NW-SE, 2.4'x0.6'.  A faint mag 14-14.5 star is just southwest of the core.  Forms a pair with NGC 1331 = IC 324 2.8' SE (collinear with the major axis).  Brightest in a group with NGC 1315, NGC 1319, NGC 1325, NGC 1331 and Holmberg VI (NGC 1325A).

 

8" (12/6/80): fairly bright, fairly small, elongated NW-SE, bright core, diffuse halo.  NGC 1331 not seen.

 

WH discovered NGC 1332 = H I-60 on 9 Dec 1784 (sweep 331) and logged "vB, S, lE, mbM."  On 19 Dec 1799 (sweep 1091) he recorded "Two [along with NGC 1331], the 1st [NGC 1332] vB, SBNcl with faint branches from np to sf."  The position of NGC 1331 is too far west in the NGC, so the pair is out of RA order.

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NGC 1333 = Ced 16 = LBN 741 = vdB 17

03 29 19.7 +31 24 57

Size 9'x7'

 

18" (1/20/07): fairly large, striking reflection nebula with a 10th magnitude star at the NE end.  The nebula curves to the southwest ending with a 1' brighter knot with very faint star involved near its edge.  A couple of mag 14 stars are superimposed between the mag 10 star and the knot.  The total size is roughly 7'x4'.  The surrounding region (particularly to the north) is nearly starless and clearly affected by dust.  This region has a number of Herbig-Haro objects and is an active star formation region.

 

17.5" (2/9/02): bright, interesting reflection nebula at 140x.  Apparently illuminated by a mag 10 star oddly offset at the NE end of the glow.  The appearance is irregular; extending ~10'x6' SW-NE in the general direction of a mag 10 star 11' SW.  The SW extension contains a couple of faint mag 14 stars and ends at a small, brighter knot that appears to surround a very faint star or stars.  The field is oddly void of faint stars and there is a large starless region to the north (this is the dark nebula Barnard 2).

 

17.5" (12/8/90): fairly bright reflection nebula surrounds a mag 10 star that is offset to the northeast side of the nebula.  This is a large object, about 10'x6' and elongated SW-NE.  There is a bright knot in the southwest end.  Two or three 15th magnitude stars are superimposed.

 

13" (11/29/86): fairly bright nebula, large, extends SSW of a mag 9.5 star, oval, slightly brighter at the south edge.

 

Eduard Schšnfeld discovered NGC 1333 = Au 17 on 31 Dec 1855 with a 3-inch refractor, while measuring stars for the BD catalogue (NGC 1333 received the number BD +30” 548).  The discovery was announced in AN 1391 (1862) and Auwers included it as #17 in his 1862 list of new nebulae.  Horace Tuttle independently discovered this reflection nebula on 5 Feb 1859 with a 3-inch comet-seeker and Bond announced in 1859MNRAS..19..224B that "it follows a star of the 9-10 mag by 6 seconds, and is 2' north of it.  It is barely visible in a telescope of 3 in aperture."  In September 1862 d'Arrest noted it was as faint as a Herschel nebula of third class, but since Tuttle's (independent) discovery was made using a 3-inch scope, he thought it might be a variable nebula (a popular topic among visual observers).  Winnecke also took the view that it "must be a new one" as it was listed neither in the Slough catalogue nor Auwers' lists.  Based on all the observations, Schšnfeld reached the conclusion this case was a "...striking example of how the visibility of very faint, large diffuse nebulae depends on the magnification, air transparency and adaptation to the dark of the eye, so that, compared with ordinary fixed stars, aperture takes a back seat."  Summarized from Harold Corwin's identification notes and Steinicke's "Observing and Cataloguing Nebulae and Star Clusters".

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NGC 1334 = UGC 2759 = MCG +07-08-018 = CGCG 541-017 = PGC 13001

03 30 01.8 +41 49 57

V = 13.1;  Size 1.5'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 115d

 

24" (2/14/15): at 225x; fairly faint, fairly small, oval 2:1 WNW-ESE, ~0.6'x0.3', broad concentration to a brighter core, which increases to a fairly weak nucleus.  A mag 13.5-14 star is 1.0' NW of center.  A mag 15.5 star is at the eastern end [30" E of center] and a similar star is at the north edge of the core.  Located on the east side of AGC 426.

 

17.5" (1/1/92): faint, fairly small, elongated 5:2 WNW-ESE, bright core.  A mag 13.5 star is just off the WNW tip.  An extremely faint stellar nucleus seen for moments. NGC 1335 lies 16' SSE.  This is a possible outlying member of AGC 426.

 

Heinrich d'Arrest discovered NGC 1334 = Sw VIII-37 on 14 Feb 1863 with an 11-inch refractor at Copenhagen and logged "vF, pL, 35", No nucl. A mag 16 star precedes by 9.6 seconds due west."  His position and description matches UGC 2759 = PGC 13001.  Lewis Swift independently discovered this galaxy on 27 Oct 1888 and reported it in his 8th discovery list.  Dreyer apparently realized the equivalence with NGC 1334 as this entry wasn't assigned an IC designation, but the previous entry in the discovery list (described as "p of 2") is IC 323, a triple star.

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NGC 1335 = UGC 2762 = MCG +07-08-019 = CGCG 541-018 = PGC 13015

03 30 19.5 +41 34 22

V = 13.8;  Size 1.1'x0.6';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 165d

 

24" (2/14/15): fairly faint to moderately bright, fairly small, elongated 5:3 N-S, 30"x18".  Contains a bright, elongated small core.  Located 3' N of mag 9.0 HD 21566.

 

17.5" (1/1/92): very faint, very small, round, an extremely faint star is possibly involved, can just hold steadily with averted.  Located 4' N of mag 8.5 SAO 38888.  NGC 1336 lies 16' NNW.  Possible outlying member of AGC 426.

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 1335 = St XII-27 on 14 Dec 1881 using the 31" reflector at the Marseille Observatory.  His position matches UGC 2762, although UGC does not label this galaxy as NGC 1335.

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NGC 1336 = ESO 358-002 = MCG -06-08-016 = LGG 096-009 = PGC 12848

03 26 32.2 -35 42 50

V = 12.3;  Size 2.1'x1.5';  Surf Br = 13.4;  PA = 22d

 

18" (12/22/11): fairly faint, moderately large, elongated 3:2 ~N-S, 1.0'x0.7.  Broad concentration but no distinct core.  Observation may have been through thin clouds.  Located 12' WSW of mag 5.7 Chi 2 and 15' NNE of mag 6.4 Chi 1!

 

17.5" (1/12/02): moderately bright, fairly large, elongated nearly 3:2 SSW-NNE, 2.0'x1.4'.  Gradually increases to a large, brighter core.  Situated within a group of several mag 6 stars and located 13' W of mag 5.7 Chi 2 and 14' NNE of mag 6.4 Chi 1!  Member of the Fornax I cluster.

 

JH discovered NGC 1336 = h2537 on 22 Oct 1835 and recorded on his last of 3 observations "vF, lE, 40 arcsec."  His position matches ESO 358-002 = PGC 12848.

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NGC 1337 = MCG -02-09-042 = PGC 12916

03 28 05.8 -08 23 21

V = 11.9;  Size 5.8'x1.5';  Surf Br = 14.1;  PA = 145d

 

13.1" (1/28/84): fairly faint, moderately large, elongated 2:1 NW-SE, even surface brightness.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 1337 = Sw III-26 on 10 Nov 1885 with his 16" refractor and recorded "vL; vE nearly in meridian; eF."  His position matches  MCG -02-09-042 = PGC 12916, though Herbert Howe, observing with the 20" refractor at the Chamberlin Observatory in Denver, reported the elongation to be 135”.

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NGC 1338 = MCG -02-09-044 = PGC 12956

03 28 54.5 -12 09 12

V = 12.7;  Size 1.4'x1.3';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 55d

 

48" (10/22/11): at 488x this bright, fairly large, roundish galaxy has an interesting structure.  Off center within the glow is a bright "bar" that extends 1' from NW to SE.  The bar contains a small bright core and a stellar nucleus.  Surrounding the bar feature is 1.2' roundish halo, that is more extensive on the SW side but with a noticeably lower surface brightness.  The halo on the NE side of the bar is brighter but smaller.  Located 2.0' W of a mag 10 star and 6' SW of mag 8.8 HD 21634.

 

17.5" (10/20/90): faint, fairly small, slightly elongated WNW-ESE, even surface brightness.  Located 2' W of a mag 10.5 star and 6' SW of mag 8.5 SAO 148982.

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 1338 = St XIII-24 on 15 Dec 1884 using the 31" reflector at the Marseille Observatory.  His position matches MCG -02-09-044 = PGC 12956.

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NGC 1339 = ESO 418-004 = MCG -05-09-004 = PGC 12917

03 28 06.5 -32 17 11

V = 11.6;  Size 1.9'x1.4';  Surf Br = 12.6;  PA = 172d

 

18" (12/22/11): fairly bright, fairly small, elongated 4:3 or 3:2 ~N-S, 0.9'x0.6'.  Has a high surface brightness and evenly increases to a small bright core and stellar nucleus.  Located 6' SE of double star HJ 3578 = 9.2/12.6 at 27".

 

13.1" (10/10/86): moderately bright, very compact, round, bright core.  An uneven mag 10.5/13 double star at 30" separation lies 6' NW.  Member of the Fornax I cluster.

 

JH discovered NGC 1339 = h2538 on 18 Nov 1835 and logged "pB, R, pslbM, 40 arcsec." On a later sweep he noted "B, R, psmbM; a double star precedes."  The double star (HJ 3578) is 5.8' NW.

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NGC 1340 = NGC 1344 = ESO 418-005 = MCG -05-09-005 = PGC 12923

03 28 19.1 -31 04 05

 

See observing notes for NGC 1344.

 

JH discovered NGC 1340 = h715 on 19 Nov 1835 and logged "vB, lE, psbM, 45 arcsec".  There is nothing at his position but exactly 10' S is NGC 1344, which was discovered by WH (I-257) on 9 Oct 1790 and later observed by JH at the Cape.  The equivalence was even suggested in the NGC Notes section.  Swift felt this number should be struck as he was not able to find it at JH's position.  Corwin and ESO equate NGC 1340 = NGC 1344, with NGC 1344 the primary designation.

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NGC 1341 = ESO 358-008 = MCG -06-08-020 = PGC 12911

03 27 58.4 -37 08 58

V = 12.3;  Size 1.5'x1.3';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 134d

 

13.1" (10/10/86): fairly faint, fairly small, oval NW-SE, even surface brightness.  A mag 12 star is off the SE end 0.9' from center.  Member of the Fornax I cluster.

 

JH discovered NGC 1341 = h2540 on 29 Nov 1837 and noted "F, S, R; has a star 12th mag following."  His position and description matches ESO 358-008 = PGC 12911.  The IC notes add "not round, but much extended 140”" (from DeLisle Stewart).

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NGC 1342 = Cr 40 = Mel 21 = OCL-401

03 31 36 +37 22

V = 6.7;  Size 14'

 

17.5" (12/23/92): about 100 stars mag 9-14 in 15' diameter, scattered in chains and loops.  Two mag 8 stars off the NE side are probably field stars, a nice double star is at the west end.  There are several striking star lanes at low power including a long stream oriented E-W.  A line of six stars oriented NW-SE forms the SW side and terminates at an easy double star.  The NW end is near the striking double star (10.4/11.2 at 14".  The field has a large variation of magnitudes.

 

8": bright, large, scattered, consists of mag 8 stars and fainter.

 

WH discovered NGC 1342 = H VIII-88 = h301 on 28 Dec 1799 (sweep 1092) and described "a cluster of coarsely scattered large stars, about 15' diameter."  His position is accurate.

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NGC 1343 = UGC 2792 = MCG +12-04-001 = CGCG 327-005 = VII Zw 8 = PGC 13384

03 37 49.7 +72 34 17

V = 12.7;  Size 2.6'x1.6';  Surf Br = 14.1;  PA = 80d

 

48" (11/2/13): bright, large, elongated 2:1 ~E-W, ~2.2'x1.1', unusually sharply concentrated with a blazing, round core ~0.4' diameter, which is punctuated by a faint stellar nucleus.  Two faint stars [14" separations] are superimposed within the eastern side of the halo and faint spiral arcs are visible in the outer halo.  An extremely faint companion, identified in NED as HFLLZOA G134.74+13.65, was seen as a very low surface brightness patch 1.2' NE of center.  A relatively wide pair of stars (h2190 = 13/14 at 15" separation) is 1' NNW of center.  This is an unusual "nuclear ring" galaxy with intense starburst activity in the ring.

 

17.5" (10/13/90): fairly faint, fairly small, large brighter core, extremely faint halo elongated 2:1 E-W.  A double star (h2190 = mag 13/14 at 15" separation) is off the NNW edge 1.0' from the center.

 

WH discovered NGC 1343 = H III-694 = h300 on 11 Oct 1787 (sweep 764) and noted "vF, vS, irr R, bM. 360 confirmed it."  JH made two observations, recording on 29 Oct 1831 "F, R, gbM, 15".  Close to the double star h 2190."  His position is accurate.

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NGC 1344 = NGC 1340 = ESO 418-005 = MCG -05-09-005 = PGC 12923

03 28 19.1 -31 04 05

V = 10.4;  Size 6.0'x3.5';  Surf Br = 13.7;  PA = 165d

 

18" (12/22/11): very bright, fairly large, elongated 2:1 NNW-SSE, ~3'x1.5'.  Contains a very large, faint halo but sharply concentrated with a very bright, elongated core that increases to the center.  Mag 10 SAO 194317 lies 5.5' N and mag 9.6 HD 21668 lies 6' E.

 

17.5" (11/26/94): bright, moderately large, elongated 2:1 NNW-SSE, 2.3'x1.0', well concentrated with a very bright 30" round core and a bright stellar nucleus.  Forms an isosceles right triangle with mag 9.7 SAO 194325 6' E and mag 10.4 SAO 194317 5.5' N of center.  Outlying member on the north side of the Fornax I cluster.

 

8" (10/13/81): fairly faint, slightly elongated N-S.

 

WH discovered NGC 1344 = H I-257 = h2542 on 9 Oct 1790 (sweep 972) and recorded "cB, iR, vgmbM, about 1.5' diameter."  His position is accurate.  JH independently found ESO 418-005 on 19 Nov 1835 and assumed it was new, but his position was 10' too far north and it was catalogued again as GC 715 = NGC 1340.  So, NGC 1344 = NGC 1340, with NGC 1344 the primary designation.

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NGC 1345 = ESO 548-026 = MCG -03-09-046 = UGCA 74 = VV 690 = PGC 12979

03 29 31.7 -17 46 42

V = 13.8;  Size 1.5'x1.1';  Surf Br = 14.2;  PA = 33d

 

17.5" (12/30/99): fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 3:2 SSW-NNE, 0.8'x0.5'.  Contains a brighter, elongated core.  A trio of mag 9.5-10.5 stars (with nearly equal sides of 4'-5') lies ~5' SW.

 

JH discovered NGC 1345 = h2541 and noted "vF, R, pslbM, 20 arcsec.". His position is an exact match with ESO 548-026.

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NGC 1346 = MCG -01-09-042 = PGC 13009

03 30 13.1 -05 32 35

V = 13.6;  Size 1.2'x0.8';  Surf Br = 13.4;  PA = 80d

 

17.5" (11/25/87): fairly faint, very small, slightly elongated, bright core.  A mag 13.5 star is just 30" W.  Located 13' WSW of mag 8.1 SAO 130538 and 12' E of mag 9.5 SAO 130518.

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 1346 = St VIIIb-12 on 15 Dec 1876 using the 31" reflector at the Marseille Observatory.  His position matches MCG -01-09-042 = PGC 13009.

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NGC 1347 = Arp 39 = VV 23a = ESO 548-027 = MCG -04-09-017 = PGC 12989

03 29 41.8 -22 16 45

V = 13.0;  Size 1.5'x1.3';  Surf Br = 13.6

 

17.5" (1/12/02): faint, moderately large, irregularly round, 1.2' diameter, weakly concentrated.  A very faint companion at the south edge was not seen.  Located 14' N of mag 7 SAO 168587.

 

Francis Leavenworth discovered NGC 1347 = LM II-369 in 1886 with the 26" refractor at the Leander McCormick Observatory and recorded "mag 16.0, 1.0'x0.8', E 130”, sbMN."  His position is only 8 sec of RA east of ESO 548-027 = PGC 12989 (part of Arp 39).  A very faint companion (PGC 816443) is at the south edge.

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NGC 1348 = OCL-391 = Lund 112

03 34 09 +51 25 12

Size 6'

 

18" (11/23/05): at 225x, this unimpressive cluster appears ~4'x3', elongated NW to SE with roughly 20 stars resolved.  Includes two mag 10.5-11.5 stars, a few mag 12 stars with the remainder mag 13-15.  The stars are fairly evenly distributed with a couple of tight clumps of stars on the south side.  Appears fairly well detached in a low power field, though not eye-catching.  Located two degrees NE of Alpha Persei (Mirfak).

 

WH discovered NGC 1348 = H VIII-84 on 28 Dec 1790 (sweep 989) and noted "a cluster of small stars, not very rich."  This is a reddened cluster (see Astronomy and Astrophysics, v.387, p.479-486, 2002) at a distance of roughly 6000 light years.

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NGC 1349 = UGC 2774 = MCG +01-09-006 = CGCG 416-013 = PGC 13088

03 31 27.5 +04 22 51

V = 13.0;  Size 0.7'x0.7';  Surf Br = 12.2

 

17.5" (10/21/95): faint, small, round, 0.6' diameter, very weak even concentration to a quasi-stellar nucleus.  Located along the hypotenuse of a small right triangle formed by three mag 13.5 stars with the nearest star 1.6' SE.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 1349 = Sw VI-13 on 20 Dec 1886 with his 16" refractor and reported "eeF; S; R; between 2 stars."  His position is 10 tsec E and 1' S of UGC 2774 and this galaxy is "between 2 stars".

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NGC 1350 = ESO 358-013 = MCG -06-08-023 = PGC 13059 = "Cosmic Eye"

03 31 07.9 -33 37 42

V = 10.3;  Size 5.2'x2.8';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 0d

 

18" (12/22/11): bright, large, oval 2:1 N-S, 3.0'x1.4'.  Sharply concentrated with a very bright oval core surrounded by a much fainter halo.  The core steadily increases to a very small, brighter, quasi-stellar nucleus.  Located 6' SW of mag 7.2 HD 21988 and  194353 and 8.7' SE of mag 8.9 HD 21898.

 

17.5" (11/26/94): bright, fairly large, elongated 3:2 N-S.  The halo appears about 3'x2' although difficult determine the exact dimensions as the halo fades gradually into the background.  Sharply concentrated with a very bright 20" round core and stellar nucleus.  A very faint star is just west of the south extension and two mag 12 stars are 2.7' SE and 3.0' E of center.  Located 6' SW of mag 7.2 SAO 194353.  Fornax I cluster member.

 

8" (10/13/81): fairly bright, moderately large, elongated 2:1 N-S, bright core.

 

James Dunlop discovered NGC 1350 = D 591 = h2545 on 24 Nov 1826 with his 9" reflector from Parramatta, NSW and noted (single observation) "a very faint small ill-defined nebula." His position is 11' SE of ESO 358-013 = PGC 13059. JH observed the galaxy in his sweep of 19 Oct 1835, logging "bright, large, much elongated, but with a round nucleus much brighter than the environing faint atmosphere. PD roughly taken. Transit missed, the observation having been lost by relying on the RA given by Mr. Dunlop's Catalog (3h 25m) which is too great. That here set down is assumed at random as probably nearer the truth."   His approximate position was corrected by DeLisle Stewart in NGC Corrections, Harvard College Observatory and repeated in the IC 2 Notes.

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NGC 1351 = ESO 358-012 = MCG -06-08-022 = PGC 13028

03 30 34.9 -34 51 15

V = 11.6;  Size 2.8'x1.7';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 140d

 

18" (12/22/11): fairly bright, oval 3:2 NW-SE, 0.8'x0.5', high surface brightness.  Brightens evenly to a very small bright core and a quasi-stellar nucleus.  Located 9' SE of mag 9.4 HD 21851.

 

13.1" (10/10/86): fairly faint, fairly small, oval NW-SE, bright core.  Fornax I cluster member.

 

JH discovered NGC 1351 = h2544 on 19 Oct 1835 and reported "pB, R, psbM, 30 arcsec.". His position matches ESO 358-012 = PGC 13028.

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NGC 1352 = ESO 548-030 = MCG -03-10-002 = PGC 13091

03 31 32.9 -19 16 42

V = 13.3;  Size 1.0'x0.7';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 134d

 

17.5" (11/17/01): fairly faint, fairly small, slightly elongated WNW-ESE, weak concentration.  Located 4.4' NW of mag 8.4 SAO 149019.

 

JH discovered NGC 1352 = h2543 on 11 Dec 1835 and recorded "eF; S; pslbM; has a * 8 mag S.f. Very difficult and probably not to be seen without a recently polished mirror, such as was used in this observation."  His position and description matches ESO 548-030 = PGC 13091.

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NGC 1353 = ESO 548-031 = MCG -04-09-022 = UGCA 76 = PGC 13108

03 32 03.0 -20 49 05

V = 11.5;  Size 3.4'x1.4';  Surf Br = 13.0;  PA = 138d

 

17.5" (11/26/94): fairly bright, moderately bright, elongated 5:2 NW-SE, 2.5'x1.0', large bright core, stellar nucleus.  The halo appears more extensive NW of the core.  The major axis is parallel to a mag 11.5 star off the SE end 2.8' from the center.

 

8" (11/28/81): faint, elongated 2:1 NNW-SSE, bright core.  A mag 12 star is 2.8' SE of center.

 

WH discovered NGC 1353 = H III-246 = h2546 on 9 Dec 1784 (sweep 331) and noted "vF, E, equally bright."  On 19 Dec 1799 (sweep 1091) he reported "cB, cL, irr F, lE from np to sf." JH logged it on 11 Nov 1835 as "B, mE, gmbM, 90" l, 40" br.

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NGC 1354 = MCG -03-10-004 = PGC 13130

03 32 29.4 -15 13 16

V = 12.4;  Size 2.2'x0.8';  Surf Br = 12.7;  PA = 148d

 

18" (11/23/05): this galaxy was a pleasant surprise as it appeared moderately bright and large, very elongated 3:1 NW-SE, 1.4'x0.3'.  Contains a fairly bright bulging core with fainter extensions that fade and taper at the tips (spindle shape).  A mag 14 star lies off the SE end, 1.2' S of center.

 

WH discovered NGC 1354 = H III-487 = h2547 on 30 Dec 1785 (sweep 499) and recorded "vF, S, E."  JH called it "vF, S, lE, glbM, 25 arcsec."  The NGC position is accurate.

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NGC 1355 = MCG -01-10-002 = PGC 13169

03 33 23.5 -04 59 55

V = 13.3;  Size 1.4'x0.4';  Surf Br = 12.5;  PA = 80d

 

17.5" (11/25/87): fairly faint, fairly small, very elongated WSW-ENE, bright core.  NGC 1358 lies 6.8' SSE.

 

13" (11/29/86): faint, small, edge-on WSW-ENE, bright core.

 

Samuel Hunter, LdR's assistant, discovered NGC 1355 on 27 Dec 1861.  His sketch clearly shows NGC 1355 labeled as Alpha, along with NGC 1358 (close to a double star).  Heinrich d'Arrest independently discovered NGC 1355 on 8 Oct 1864 while observing nearby NGC 1358.  He was surprised this nebula was missed by WH and Rosse (unaware of Hunter's observation).  Dreyer made an observation at Birr Castle on 6 Nov 1877 and later realized that Alpha was d'Arrest's "nova".  Nevertheless, he credited d'Arrest and not LdR with the discovery in the GC Supplement and NGC.

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NGC 1356 = ESO 200-031 = Rose 37 = PGC 13035

03 30 40.6 -50 18 35

V = 13.0;  Size 1.4'x1.1';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 149d

 

24" (4/5/08 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): at 260x appeared moderately bright and large, slightly elongated N-S, ~1.2'x1.0'.  Weak concentration, though with direct vision a faint, stellar nucleus is visible.  With careful viewing the galaxy appeared to be mottled or clumpy.  Forms a close pair with much fainter IC 1947 located 2.2' SW.  A mag 12.7 star lies 1.3' SW, directly between NGC 1356 and IC 1947.  IC 1947 appeared faint, fairly small, elongated 2:1 NW-SE, ~0.5'x0.25'.  Forms the west vertex of a small triangle with the mag 12.7 star 1' NE and a mag 11.7 star 1.3' SSE.

 

JH discovered NGC 1356 = h2549 on 23 Dec 1837 and recorded "vF, R, gbM, 40 arcsec."  The next sweep he logged "vF, pL, irregular, near stars."  His first position is at the northern tip of the galaxy.

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NGC 1357 = MCG -02-10-001 = PGC 13166

03 33 17.0 -13 39 49

V = 11.5;  Size 2.8'x1.9';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 85d

 

13.1" (12/7/85): fairly bright, moderately large, round, bright core.  Forms the vertex of an isosceles right triangle with mag 8.1 SAO 149035 4' NNE and mag 9.2 SAO 149028 4' WNW.

 

WH discovered NGC 1357 = H II-290 = h2548 on 1 Feb 1785 (sweep 364) and recorded "F, pL, R, bM, about 5 or 6' south preceding of a pretty large star."  JH logged it twice from the Cape of Good Hope and noted on 8 Dec 1835 "pF, pL, R, 40", near three stars, two of which are 10th mag."  Sir Robert Ball, observing with the 72" at Birr Castle on 13 Nov 1866, remarked "cB, pL, bM, either double or with a star [correct] very closely preceding.  Observations interrupted by the superb display of shooting stars."  According to Wikipedia, the 1866 Leonids produced hundreds per minute and a few thousand per hour in Europe.

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NGC 1358 = MCG -01-10-003 = PGC 13182

03 33 39.7 -05 05 22

V = 12.1;  Size 2.6'x2.0';  Surf Br = 13.8;  PA = 15d

 

17.5" (11/25/87): moderately bright, moderately large, irregularly round, sharp concentration.  A pretty mag 13 double star at 15" separation is 1.7' ENE.  Located 8' W of a mag 10 star.  Forms a pair with NGC 1355 6.8' NW.

 

13" (11/29/86): faint, small, almost round, small bright core.  A faint double star is close east and brighter star to west.

 

13" (12/18/82): very faint, small, elongated N-S.

 

WH discovered NGC 1358 = H III-446 = h302 on 5 Oct 1785 (sweep 457) and noted "vF, S, between some small stars."  His position is 3' S of MCG -01-10-003 = PGC 13182, but JH measured an accurate position used in the NGC.

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NGC 1359 = ESO 548-039 = MCG -03-10-007 = LGG 100-001 = PGC 13190

03 33 47.2 -19 29 23

V = 12.2;  Size 2.4'x1.7';  Surf Br = 13.6;  PA = 139d

 

17.5" (11/17/01): fairly large oval 4:3 NW-SE, 3.0'x2.5' WNW-ESE, fairly low surface brightness with no significant concentration.  This galaxy has a disturbed, knotty appearance that was not picked up visually.  Brightest in a group with ESO 548-044 8.5' NE.

 

JH discovered NGC 1359 = h2550 on 12 Oct 1836 and recorded "F, L, R, vglbM, 2'."  His position matches ESO 548-039 = PGC 13190.

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NGC 1360 = PK 220-53.1 = ESO 482-PN7 = M 1-3 = PN G220.3-53.9

03 33 14.6 -25 52 18

V = 9.6;  Size 460"x320"

 

18" (1/17/09): superb view at 115x and OIII filter.  Appears as a huge oval, elongated 3:2 SSW-NNE, extends ~6'x4', contains a bright mag 10.5 central star.  This showpiece planetary is clearly asymmetric and notably brighter on the NNE side in a sector extending from the center and fanning out to the north.  This brighter region is irregular in surface brightness and slightly dims before brightening along the NNE rim.  The south side is slightly fainter and contains a weaker arc or lane.

 

18" (1/1/08): at 115x; this unusual planetary is a huge oval or irregular egg-shape, ~6'x4', oriented SSW-NNE (PA ~30”) surrounding a very bright mag 10.4 central star.  Excellent contrast with an OIII filter as it really brings out its asymmetric structure.  The planetary is noticeably brighter in a fan-shaped wedge spreading out from the central star to the north.  At times the northeast rim appeared a bit clumpy.  The fainter south side has a slightly darker lane extending to the southeast.

 

17.5" (11/17/01): At 100x with OIII filter, this huge planetary appears a very large oval 3:2 or 4:3 SSW-NNE, ~6'x4.5' with a striking central star.  Appears clearly brighter on the north side of the central star in a section defined by a triangular wedge with apex at the central star.  The nebulosity dims a bit on the west side as well as the south.

 

17.5" (10/8/88): very bright, elongated 3:2 SSW-NNE, 6'x4' diameter, very bright central star mag 10.5-11, almost even surface brightness.  Very impressive planetary with or without OIII filter.

 

13.1" (10/10/86): very large, oval 4:3, very bright mag 10-11 central star.  Impressive at 88x using an OIII filter.

 

13.1" (10/20/84): large, pale oval ~N-S, bright central star.  Appears moderately bright using a filter.

 

80mm finder (1/1/08): faintly visible at 25x as a dim oval glow surrounding a faint star.  Adding an OIII filter significantly increased the contrast and the outline appeared better defined.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 1360 in 1859 with his 4.5-inch comet-seeker (discovery not published until 1885, though).  Wilhelm Tempel independently discovered it on 9 Oct 1861 (along with NGC 1398) using his 4-inch Steinheil refractor from Marseille, but didn't publish his discovery either.  August Winnecke then found it again in Jan 1868 with a 3.8-inch comet-seeker as well as Eugen Block on 18 Oct 1879 (AN 2293).  Dreyer credited Winnecke with the discovery in the GC Supplement (5315).  Afterwards, Tempel published his find in 1882, claiming an earlier discovery.

 

Finally, in the Mar 1885 issue of "The Sidereal Messenger: A Monthly Review of Astronomy", Swift reported "In 1859 while searching in Eridanus for comets I ran upon the most conspicuous nebulous star visible from this latitude - a 7th magnitude star nearly in the center of a bright nebulosity.  As both were so bright, I, of course, supposed they were well known.  Not until five years since was I aware that this wonderful object was not in the G.C."  Dreyer credited Swift (his earliest discovery) and Winnecke in the NGC.  So, NGC 1360 was independently "discovered" by four observers, the most (along with NGC 6364 and 7422) for any NGC number, according to Wolfgang Steinicke.

 

This is one the brightest objects missed by the Herschels as well as by John Dunlop.  First classified as planetary in 1946 by Minkowski. A star was incorrectly plotted at the position on the Uranometria 2000 Atlas (first edition) because the CoD and CPD catalogue (used as a source for the U2000) included the central star. 

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NGC 1361 = MCG -01-10-005 = PGC 13218

03 34 17.7 -06 15 54

V = 13.9;  Size 1.6'x1.4';  Surf Br = 14.6;  PA = 39d

 

17.5" (1/12/02): fairly faint, fairly small, round, 0.8' diameter, weak concentration to a very small, brighter core.  Situated nearly midway between two mag 12 stars 5' NW and 5' ESE.

 

Ormond Stone discovered NGC 1361 = LM II-370 in 1886 with the 26" refractor at the Leander McCormick Observatory.  His position is just 0.2 tmin east and 1' north of MCG -01-10-005 = PGC 13218.  MCG (-01-10-005) mislabels this galaxy NGC 1369.  The Uranometria Deep Sky Field Guide gives a V mag of 13.9 and a surf brightness of 14.6, but that may be too faint.

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NGC 1362 = ESO 548-041 = MCG -03-10-008 = LGG 095-001 = PGC 13196

03 33 53.0 -20 16 56

V = 12.8;  Size 1.2'x1.1';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 5d

 

17.5" (12/9/01): fairly faint, fairly small, round, 30" diameter.  Steadily increases to a small brighter core and a faint stellar nucleus.  Located 5.4' NNW of mag 8.9 SAO 168637.  First in the nearby group LGG 95 with NGC 1370 20' ESE.

 

JH discovered NGC 1362 = h2551 on 13 Nov 1835 and recorded "vF; S; R."  His position (measured on 2 sweeps) is accurate.  WH is credited with the discovery in the GC and NGC, but H. III 960 applies to NGC 1370 (see that number).

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NGC 1363 = PGC 13245

03 34 49.3 -09 50 33

V = 13.1;  Size 0.8'x0.7';  Surf Br = 12.3;  PA = 45d

 

17.5" (11/17/01): fairly faint, fairly small, irregularly round, 0.7'x0.6', very weak concentration.  Forms a close pair with NGC 1364 2.3' following.  Forms the NE vertex of an equilateral triangle with mag 6.2 SAO 149047 3.3' WSW and mag 9.3 SAO 149051 3.7' S!

 

Sherburne Burnham discovered NGC 1363 = Sw V-54 with the 18.5-inch Clark refractor at Dearborn Observatory on 31 Dec 1877 (Memoirs of the Royal Astr Soc, Vol 44, p169).  At Burnham's offset from a nearby mag 6 star is PGC 13245.  Wilhelm Tempel independently discovered this galaxy around 1880 as well as Lewis Swift on 21 Oct 1886, who noted "forms triangle with 2 stars, one vB".  NGC 1364, a fainter companion 2.3' E, was discovered by Frank Muller (list II-371) in 1886.

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NGC 1364 = PGC 13253

03 34 58.8 -09 50 19

V = 14.7;  Size 0.5'x0.5';  Surf Br = 13.1

 

17.5" (11/17/01): very faint, very small, round, 20" diameter, no other details visible.  Forms a close pair with NGC 1363 2.3' W.  Located 5.6' ENE of mag 6.2 SAO 149047.

 

Frank Muller discovered NGC 1364 = LM II-371 in 1886 with the 26" refractor at the Leander McCormick Observatory while observing NGC 1363 (previously discovered by Sherburne Burnham).  His position is a good match with PGC 13253.

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NGC 1365 = ESO 358-017 = MCG -06-08-026 = VV 825 = LGG 094-007 = PGC 13179

03 33 35.9 -36 08 24

V = 9.6;  Size 11.2'x6.2';  Surf Br = 14.1;  PA = 32d

 

48" (10/22/11): stunning view of this huge, barred spiral with the full extent of the long, graceful arms clearly visible and a great deal of structure. The very bright bar runs nearly 3' WSW-ENE and contains an extremely bright core that increases to a striking knotty nucleus that is sliced by a dust lane running SW to NE.  The dust lane creates a mini spiral in the center with a bright elongated section south of the lane that has an "arm" attached at its northeast end that curls to the southwest.  The section of the nucleus north of the lane appears as a small but brighter arm, gently curving from SW to NE.

 

The main northern spiral arm is attached at the west end of the bar and has a bright, mottled "knot" as it emerges from the bar and heads north-northeast.  This knot contains the HII regions #23-25 from Paul Hodge's 1969 "HII Regions in Twenty Nearby Galaxies" (ApJS, 18, 73).  It was also the site of SN 2001du, a supernova discovered visually by Robert Evans.  This arm dims a bit and then brightens along a 1' strip (contains HII #19) just northwest of a superimposed mag 13.5 star.  The arm then dims significantly but can be easily traced a total length of 6.5', ending just southeast of a mag 13.5-14 star.

 

The main southern arm emerges on the east-northeast end of the bar as a brighter patch or OB association that contains #2-3, matching the west end.  A group of stars is just east, beyond this patch.  The arm extends ~6.5' SW and is bordered by several stars; a mag 14.5 star is on the south edge before the middle of the arm, a mag 16 star 1.3' due south of this star and two mag 15/16 stars are on the inside (northern edge) beyond the middle of the arm. A very small, very faint knot is near the southwest tip of the arm.  The arm dims significantly at this point but bends and continues another 2' NW.

 

24" (11/18/12 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): viewed SN2012fr, a type Ia supernova, as a mag 12 star situated just 2" west and 52" north of the center of NGC 1365.

 

24" (4/5/08 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): this is the best visual barred spiral in the sky and although it was only at 33” elevation (well past the meridian), the view was stunning at 200x with its long sweeping arms making a slashing cosmic "Z" in the eyepiece.  I was also surprised by the structure in the fairly small, extremely bright core that is embedded in the 3' E-W bar.  On the north edge of the mottled core, a very short, hooking appendage extended towards the northeast with a fainter counterpart on the southwest end.  This gave the small core the appearance of a tiny barred spiral!  At the west end of the bar a bright arm emerges, dramatically sweeping back to the NNE (sharp 110” angle) beyond a mag 13 star that is situated near the 1/3 mark of its total length.  The counterpart on the east end of the bar shoots to the southwest, reaching a faint star at its end.  The total distance between the tips of the arms is roughly 10'.

 

20" (7/8/02 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): At 127x and 212x, NGC 1365 appeared as an amazing two-armed barred spiral, similar to the photographic appearance.  The core is a quite bright, bulging oval embedded in a larger bar oriented ~E-W.  Attached at opposite ends of the bar are two long, graceful arms that extend quite a distance and are nearly straight.  The arm attached on the west side of the bar wraps around a mag 12.5 star about 1' NW of the core and extends well beyond towards the NNE.  The opposite arm attached on the following end is slightly fainter and shoots towards the SSW.  The tips of the outer arms dramatically increase the total size of the galaxy.

 

18" (12/30/08): although a pale imitation of the view from Australia, with careful viewing at 175x the spiral arm attached at the west end of the central bar was faintly visible sweeping to the NNE for ~3' in length.  The counterpart on the SE side was not seen.

 

13" (12/22/84): bright, elongated core, large, 3' diameter, very diffuse outer halo.  Member of the Fornax I cluster.

 

8" (1/1/84): fairly bright, fairly large, bright core, diffuse halo, broad concentration.

 

8" (9/25/81): moderately large, elongated, gradually brighter core.

 

James Dunlop discovered NGC 1365 = D 562 = h2552 on 2 Sep 1826 with his 9" reflector from Parramatta and described "a pretty large faint round nebula, about 3 1/2' diameter, gradual slight condensation to the centre, very faint at the margin."  He made two observations but his published position is off by 10 tmin in RA.  By examining Dunlop's original papers, Glen Cozens found a copying error, and when corrected his position falls ~8' E of NGC 1365.

 

NGC 1365 was independently discovered by John Herschel on 28 Nov 1837 and described as "A very remarkable nebula. A decided link between the nebula M 51 and M 27. Centre very bright; somewhat extended; gradually very much brighter to the middle; a 13th magnitude star near the edge of the halo involved. The area of the halo very faint; general position of the longer axis 20.8 degrees. whole breadth = 3'. See Pl. IV. fig. 1."  The next night he made a second observation and logged "very bright, extended, resolvable nucleus; or has 2 or 3 stars involved; the preceding Arc is the brighter. I think the oval is in some degree filled up to the south."  The NGC attributes Herschel with the discovery.  Based on his size estimate, he may have only observed the central region.

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NGC 1366 = ESO 418-010 = MCG -05-09-013 = PGC 13197

03 33 53.7 -31 11 39

V = 12.0;  Size 2.1'x0.9';  Surf Br = 12.6;  PA = 2d

 

13.1" (10/10/86): fairly faint, small, bright core, thin faint extensions 2:1 N-S, 1.0'x0.5'.  Located 6.8' S of mag 6.2 SAO 194375.

 

WH discovered NGC 1366 = H III-857 = h2553 on 9 Oct 1790 (sweep 972) and recorded "vF, S, irr F, lbM."  His position is at the south edge of the galaxy.

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NGC 1367 = NGC 1371 = ESO 482-010 = MCG -04-09-029 = UGCA 79 = PGC 13255

03 35 00.7 -24 56 04

 

See observing notes for NGC 1371.

 

Ormond Stone found NGC 1367 = LM I-106 in 1886 with the 26-inch Clark refractor at the Leander McCormick Observatory and recorded "mag 13.0 [bright], *9, nf 5.0'."  His rough position is a good match with NGC 1371 (discovered by WH) and his comment about the nearby star clinches the equivalence.  Dorothy Carlson and Harold Corwin both conclude NGC 1371 = NGC 1367, with NGC 1371 the primary designation.

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NGC 1368 = MCG -03-10-012 = PGC 13247

03 34 58.9 -15 39 23

V = 14.2;  Size 1.3'x0.6';  Surf Br = 13.9;  PA = 108d

 

18" (11/26/03): very faint, small, elongated 5:3 NW-SE, 0.7'x0.4', weak concentration, very small bright core.  Forms an isosceles triangle with a mag 14 star 1.8' ESE and a mag 14.9 2.5' NE.  NGC 1372 lies 32' SE.

 

Francis Leavenworth discovered NGC 1368 = LM I-107 on 12 Nov 1885 with the 26" refractor at the Leander McCormick Observatory.  His rough position falls 3' S of MCG -03-10-012 = PGC 13247.  Herbert Howe measured an accurate position in 1899-00 using the 20" refractor at Chamberlin Observatory.  MCG does not label this galaxy as NGC 1368.

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NGC 1369 = ESO 358-034 = MCG -06-09-004 = LGG 096-019 = PGC 13330

03 36 45.2 -36 15 24

V = 12.8;  Size 1.5'x1.4';  Surf Br = 13.4;  PA = 12d

 

18" (12/30/08): faint, fairly small, irregularly round, ~0.9'x0.8', very weak concentration.  Located 4.3' NW of mag 7.2 HD 22621 and 39' ESE of NGC 1365.  This is a relatively bright member of the Fornax I cluster that was missed by John Herschel.  Listed as nonexistent in the RNGC due to a poor position by Julius Schmidt.

 

Julius Schmidt discovered NGC 1369 on 19 Jan 1865 with the 6.2" refractor at the Athens Observatory during his survey on the Fornax Cluster (nebula "b" in his table).  There is nothing at his position, which is 9.4' SE of NGC 1365.  Interestingly, NGC 1365 is the previous entry in his table (AN 2097, p137) and that position is very accurate.  The entry that follows NGC 1369 is a bright star (assigned mag 5.6), which supposedly follows NGC 1369 by 7 sec in RA and 2.4' S, though its position must also be in error.  Harold Corwin states that if Schmidt made 3 min error in RA for both objects (change 27 to 30), then NGC 1369 = ESO 358-034 = PGC 13330 and the bright star (4.5' SE) is mag 7.2 HD 22621.  ESO-LV (surface photometry catalogue) and RC3 identify NGC 1369 = ESO 358-034 but the ESO-Uppsala catalogue and MCG do not label this galaxy as NGC 1369.  The RNGC calls this number nonexistent.

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NGC 1370 = ESO 548-048 = MCG -03-10-013 = LGG 095-002 = PGC 13265

03 35 14.5 -20 22 26

V = 12.6;  Size 1.5'x1.0';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 50d

 

17.5" (12/9/01): fairly faint, small, elongated 4:3 SW-NE, 0.6'x0.4'.  Situated exactly midway between two mag 13/14 stars just off the NW and SE flanks (both ~40" from center)!  NGC 1362 lies 20' WNW.

 

WH discovered NGC 1370 = H III-559 = H III-960 = h2554 on 20 Sep 1786 (sweep 597) and logged III 559 as "3 vS stars in a line, with vF nebulosity.  On 19 Dec 1799 (sweep 1091) he noted III 960 as "vF, vS, 300 confirmed it."  His position on both sweeps are pretty close to ESO 548-048 and clearly his first description (III-559) mentioning "3 vS stars in a line" applies to this galaxy (one of the "stars" is the nucleus).  In the CGH catalogue, JH assigned the first H-designation to h2551 = NGC 1362 and the second to h2554 = NGC 1370.  Auwers has a note to III 559, commenting on the large discrepancy in position with h2551 (87 seconds in RA and 4' in Dec).  In the GC, JH decided to reverse the assignment of his father's numbers and Dreyer copied this in the NGC.  But both observations refer to NGC 1370.  JH made 3 observations, recording on 11 Dec 1835, "vF; R; situated exactly between 2 stars 14th mag."

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NGC 1371 = NGC 1367 = ESO 482-010 = MCG -04-09-029 = UGCA 79 = LGG 097-012 = PGC 13255

03 35 01.3 -24 56 00

V = 10.7;  Size 5.6'x3.9';  Surf Br = 13.9;  PA = 135d

 

17.5" (11/26/94): fairly bright, moderately bright, elongated 3:2 NW-SE, 2.5'x1.5', halo fades into the background.  Very bright elongated core 30" diameter increases to a stellar nucleus.  A mag 8.3 star SAO 168653 (wide double at 53" with a mag 11.5 star) is 4.5' NE.  NGC 1360 lies one degree SSW.

 

8" (10/13/81): faint, moderately large, bright core, diffuse halo.

 

WH discovered NGC 1371 = H II-262 = h2555 on 17 Nov 1784 (sweep 321) and logged "F, a little & irr E above 1' in dia."  His position is ~5' north of ESO 482-010 = PGC 13255.  JH called the galaxy "B, L, R, psbM, 2'." and noted a 4' error in the PD in his working list from Caroline Herschel.

 

Ormond Stone independently found the galaxy in 1886 and recorded LM I-106 as "mag 13.0 [bright], *9, nf 5.0'."  His rough position is a good match with H II-262 = NGC 1371 and his comment about the nearby star clinches the equivalence.  Dorothy Carlson and Harold Corwin both conclude NGC 1371 = NGC 1367, with NGC 1371 the primary designation.

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NGC 1372 = PGC 13346

03 36 59.7 -15 52 53

V = 14.3;  Size 0.6'x0.6';  Surf Br = 13.2

 

18" (11/23/05): very faint, extremely small, round, 15"-20" diameter.  A mag 14.5 star lies 1' SW.  NGC 1388 lies 17' E and NGC 1368 32' WNW.

 

Francis Leavenworth discovered NGC 1372 = LM I-108 on 12 Nov 1885 with the 26" refractor at the Leander McCormick Observatory.  His rough position (nearest min of RA) is 0.9 tmin west of PGC 13346.

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NGC 1373 = ESO 358-021 = MCG -06-08-028 = PGC 13252

03 34 59.2 -35 10 16

V = 13.3;  Size 1.1'x0.9';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 131d

 

18" (12/17/11): fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 4:3 NW-SE, 40"x30", broad concentration.  Smallest and faintest in a trio with NGC 1374 and 1375 about 6' SE.

 

13.1" (12/22/84): very faint, extremely small.  First of three with NGC 1374 4.8' SE and NGC 1375 6.8' SE.  Member of the Fornax I cluster member.

 

JH discovered NGC 1373 = h2556 on 29 Nov 1837 and recorded "eF, vS, the preceding of three [with NGC 1374 and 1375]."  His position is quite poor and lands at the southwest edge of NGC 1374, so clearly there was some problem.  When Julius Schmidt observed the field he measured an accurate position for NGC 1374, but was unsure of its identification and has no measurement for NGC 1373.  Still, there are only three galaxies here, and Herschel's description is appropriate for ESO 358-021 = PGC 13252.

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NGC 1374 = ESO 358-023 = MCG -06-08-029 = PGC 13267

03 35 16.6 -35 13 35

V = 11.1;  Size 2.5'x2.3';  Surf Br = 12.9

 

18" (12/17/11): very bright, moderately large, round, 1.2' diameter.  Contains a relatively large intense core that increases to the center.  Forms a striking pair with NGC 1375 2.3' S of center.  NGC 1373 lies 4.9' NW and

 

13.1" (12/22/84): fairly bright, round, bright core.  In a close trio with NGC 1375 2' S and NGC 1373 4.8' NW.  Member of the Fornax I cluster.

 

8" (10/13/81): faint, small, round.

 

JH discovered NGC 1374 = h2557 (along with NGC 1373 = h2556 and NGC 1375 = h2558) on 29 Nov 1837, recording "vB, pL, lE, gmbM, the 2nd of three." His position is 1.6' ENE of center (similar offset as NGC 1375).  Julius Schmidt measured a more accurate position with the 6.2" refractor at the Athens Observatory.

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NGC 1375 = ESO 358-024 = MCG -06-08-030 = PGC 13266

03 35 16.8 -35 15 57

V = 12.4;  Size 2.2'x0.9';  Surf Br = 13.0;  PA = 91d

 

18" (12/17/11): fairly bright, fairly large, elongated 5:2 E-W, 1.4'x0.6'.  Broad concentration with a fairly large brighter core.  Forms a striking pair with NGC 1374 2.3' N.

 

13.1" (12/22/84): fairly faint, edge-on streak 3:1 E-W.  In a trio with NGC 1374 2.4' N and NGC 1373 6.8' NW.  Member of the Fornax I cluster.

 

JH discovered NGC 1375 = h2558 in the Fornax Cluster and described "B, S, lE, pmbM; the 3d of 3 [with NGC 1373 and 137] of the same RA as the second."  His RA is 7 sec too large, but Julius Schmidt's position (measured on 19 Jan 1865 with the 6.2" refractor at the Athens Observatory and listed as nebula "c") is accurate in RA.

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NGC 1376 = MCG -01-10-011 = PGC 13352

03 37 05.9 -05 02 34

V = 12.1;  Size 2.0'x1.7';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 95d

 

17.5" (11/25/87): moderately bright, fairly large, slightly elongated, diffuse, weak concentration.

 

13" (12/7/85): moderately bright, round, moderately large, weak concentration, diffuse.

 

WH discovered NGC 1376 = H II-288 = h303 on 28 Jan 1785 (sweep 359) and logged "F, pL, irr R, r."  His position is 1.7' NNE of ESO 548-051 = PGC 13324.  JH measured an accurate position on sweep 96 (Oct 1821), calling it "L; the faintest thing imaginable."

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NGC 1377 = ESO 548-051 = MCG -04-09-033 = PGC 13324

03 36 39.0 -20 54 05

V = 12.5;  Size 1.8'x0.9';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 92d

 

17.5" (12/9/01): moderately bright, fairly small, elongated 2:1 E-W, bright core, 1.2'x0.6'.  Located 11' W of mag 9.5 SAO 168686.  Located one degree NE of 19 (Tau 5) Eridani.  Member of large LGG 97 group.

 

WH discovered NGC 1377 = H II-961 = h2560 on 19 Dec 1799 (sweep 1091) and noted "vF, vS."  JH made two observations from the Cape of Good Hope, recording it as "F, S, R, bM, 15 arcsec."

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NGC 1378 = ESO 358-**030

03 35 58.2 -35 12 40

 

=**, Carlson & ESO.  =NF, de Vaucouleurs

 

Julius Schmidt discovered NGC 1378 on 19 Jan 1865 with the 6.2-inch refractor at the Athens Observatory during his survey of the Fornax Cluster (nebula "d" in his table).  His position corresponds with an 11" double star (brighter component mag 13.2) and ESO, Dorothy Carlson and Harold Corwin identify NGC 1378 with these two stars.

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NGC 1379 = ESO 358-027 = MCG -06-09-001 = PGC 13299

03 36 04.0 -35 26 29

V = 10.9;  Size 2.4'x2.3';  Surf Br = 12.8

 

18" (12/17/11): very bright, fairly large, round, 1.6' diameter. Well concentrated with a very bright 20" core that increases to a bright, stellar nucleus.  Slightly larger NGC 1387 lies 11.5' SE and elongated NGC 1381 is 10.5' NE.

 

13.1" (12/22/84): bright, almost round, bright core, almost stellar nucleus.  Forms a right angle with NGC 1387 11.5' SE and NGC 1381 10' NE.  Member of the Fornax I cluster.

 

8" (10/13/81): faint, small, round, bright core.

 

JH discovered NGC 1379 = h2561 on 25 Dec 1835 and reported a "Globular cluster, pB, R, gpmbM, 70 arcsec."  His position corresponds with ESO 358-027 = PGC 13299 and he also described a few other galaxies in the Fornax cluster as globulars.

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NGC 1380 = ESO 358-028 = MCG -06-09-002 = PGC 13318

03 36 27.5 -34 58 31

V = 9.9;  Size 4.8'x2.3';  Surf Br = 12.4;  PA = 7d

 

18" (12/17/11): extremely bright, large, elongated ~5:3 N-S, ~3.0'x1.8'.  Sharply concentrated with an intense, elongated core that brightens to the center, though there was no evident nucleus.  A mag 13.5 star is superimposed ~0.9' SW of center.  This is one of the brightest Fornax cluster galaxies.

 

13.1" (12/22/84): very bright, elongated 2:1 N-S, bright core, faint elongated halo.  A very faint mag 14 star is SW of the core 1.2' from the center.  Member of Fornax I cluster.

 

8" (10/13/81): fairly bright, moderately large, elongated, bright core.

 

James Dunlop discovered NGC 1380 = D 574 = h2559 on 2 Sep 1826 with his 9" reflector from Parramatta and recorded "a rather faint pretty well-defined elliptical nebula, about 1' long, and 50" broad, a little brighter to the centre." Dunlop made a single observation and his position is well off, 19.5' ESE of ESO 358-028 = PGC 13318.  JH made a single observation on his sweep of 19 Oct 1835 and logged "very bright; large; round; pretty suddenly brighter towards the middle; A fine nebula." He added: "The obs. of the place like that of Dunlop 591 above was lost by setting the instrument on the place given in Mr Dunlop's Catalogue, and relying on his RA (3h 31m) which is too great, instead of sweeping over them, when they could not have escaped being regularly taken."

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NGC 1381 = ESO 358-029 = MCG -06-09-003 = PGC 13321

03 36 31.6 -35 17 43

V = 11.5;  Size 2.7'x0.7';  Surf Br = 12.1;  PA = 139d

 

18" (12/17/11): fairly bright, fairly large, very elongated 3:1 NW-SE, 1.6'x0.5'.  Sharply concentrated with a small, very bright core that increases to the center.  A mag 14 star lies 1.8' SE and a similar star is 3' NW.  Situated nearly at the midpoint of a line connecting NGC 1382 10' NE and NGC 1379 10' SW.  NGC 1374/1375 pair is ~15' WNW.

 

13.1" (12/22/84): fairly bright, edge-on 3:1 NW-SE, bright core, faint elongated halo.  A mag 14 star is 1.8' SE of center.  Member of the Fornax I cluster with NGC 1379 10' SW and NGC 1387 14' SSE.

 

8" (10/13/81): faint, small, elongated.

 

Julius Schmidt discovered NGC 1381 on 19 Jan 1865 with the 6.2-inch refractor at the Athens Observatory during his survey of the Fornax Cluster (nebula "e" in his table).  His position is an excellent match with ESO 358-029 = PGC 13321.  Of the 11 "new" objects listed by Schmidt in his table, two are clearly duplicates (object "a" = NGC 1318 = NGC 1317 and object "c" = NGC 1375).  Of the remaining 9, only 4 have accurate positions that can be matched up with certainty.

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NGC 1382 = NGC 1380B = ESO 358-037 = MCG -06-09-009 = PGC 13354

03 37 09.0 -35 11 42

V = 12.9;  Size 1.5'x1.3';  Surf Br = 13.5;  PA = 179d

 

18" (12/17/11): fairly faint, moderately large, round, 0.8' diameter.  Fairly low surface brightness with only a broad, mild concentration and no core or zones.  NGC 1381 lies 9.6' SW.

 

13.1" (12/22/84): very faint, round, fairly small, very diffuse.  On a line with NGC 1381 9.5' SW and NGC 1379 20' SW.  Member of the Fornax I cluster.

 

Julius Schmidt discovered NGC 1382 on 19 Jan 1865 with the 6.2-inch refractor at the Athens Observatory during his survey of the Fornax Cluster (nebula "f" in his table).  There is nothing at his position, but Schmidt's position is 37 sec of RA east and 1.7' S is ESO 358-037 = PGC 13354 and there are no other nearby candidates.  His position for NGC 1381, the previous object is his list, is accurate so this identification is not 100% certain as Schmidt did not provide visual descriptions. de Vaucouleurs called this galaxy NGC 1380B in the RC1. See Harold Corwin's notes for more.

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NGC 1383 = ESO 548-053 = MCG -03-10-015 = PGC 13377

03 37 39.2 -18 20 22

V = 12.5;  Size 1.9'x0.9';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 91d

 

17.5" (12/11/99): moderately bright, moderately large, elongated 3:2 E-W, 1.0'x0.6', well concentrated.  Situated between two mag 13/14.5 stars 1.5' SW and NE.  First in a group of 7 NGC galaxies including NGC 1400 and NGC 1407.

 

JH discovered NGC 1383 = h2562 on 11 Dec 1835 and recorded "pF, vS, R, psmbM." His position is accurate.

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NGC 1384 = MCG +03-10-003 = CGCG 465-004 = PGC 13448

03 39 13.5 +15 49 08

V = 14.4;  Size 0.8'x0.4';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 145d

 

17.5" (11/2/91): very faint, very small, round.  A mag 13.5 star is 1.2' WNW of center.  Located 3.5' WSW of mag 8.6 SAO 93537.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 1384 = m 90 on 20 Oct 1864 with William Lassell's 48" on Malta and noted a "neb * 13."  His position falls very close to a faint, unequal double star but Harold Corwin notes that 1.6' S is CGCG 465-004 = PGC 13448 and this galaxy has a mag 13.5 star superimposed (mentioned in my visual notes) that matches Marth's description.

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NGC 1385 = ESO 482-016 = MCG -04-09-036 = PGC 13368

03 37 28.8 -24 30 07

V = 10.9;  Size 3.4'x2.0';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 165d

 

17.5" (11/26/94): fairly bright, moderately large.  Dimensions are 2.5'x2.0' slightly elongated N-S, but with an irregular appearance.  A bright bar appears to extend through the galaxy WNW-ESE surrounded by an irregular patchy halo more elongated N-S.  Spiral structure is strongly suggested with a spiral arm on the NE side.  The galaxy appears more extensive north of the bar.  Located within a 10' string of four mag 11-12 stars oriented SW-NE.

 

8" (10/13/81): faint, fairly small, brighter core.

 

WH discovered NGC 1385 = H II-263 = h2563 on 17 Nov 1784 (sweep 321) and recorded "F but less bright than the last [NGC 1371], bM, about 1.5' dia."  His position is 4' too far north-northwest.  JH called it "B, R, gpmbM, 40 arcsec" and measured an accurate position.

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NGC 1386 = ESO 358-035 = MCG -06-09-005 = PGC 13333

03 36 46.2 -35 59 58

V = 11.2;  Size 3.4'x1.3';  Surf Br = 12.7;  PA = 25d

 

18" (12/17/11): bright or very bright, large, elongated 5:2 SW-NE, 2.5'x1.0'.  Gradually brighter outer halo, then sharply concentrated with a very bright, elongated core that increases towards the center.  NGC 1389 lies 16' NNE.

 

13.1" (1/1/84): moderately bright, elongated 2:1 SW-NE, bright core.  NGC 1389 lies 16' NNE and NGC 1369 15' S (not observed).  Located 5.2' NNW of mag 9.5 SAO 194401.  Member of the Fornax I cluster.

 

8" (1/1/84): fairly faint, bright core, almost round.

 

Julius Schmidt discovered NGC 1386 on 19 Jan 1865 with the 6.2-inch refractor at the Athens Observatory during his survey of the Fornax Cluster (nebula "g" in his table). His position is at the east edge of ESO 358-035 = PGC 13333.

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NGC 1387 = ESO 358-036 = MCG -06-09-007 = PGC 13344

03 36 56.8 -35 30 24

V = 10.7;  Size 2.8'x2.8';  Surf Br = 12.8

 

18" (12/17/11): at 285x appeared bright to very bright, fairly large, round, 2' diameter.  Sharply concentrated with a very bright 25"-30" core that increases to a stellar or quasi-stellar nucleus.  Bracketed at low power by NGC 1379 11.5' WNW and NGC 1399 19' ENE.

 

13.1" (12/22/84): moderately bright, small, round, possible faint stellar nucleus.  Member of Fornax I cluster.  NGC 1381 lies 14' NNW and NGC 1379 11.5' WNW.

 

8" (10/13/81): faint, small, round, broad concentration.

 

JH discovered NGC 1387 = h2564 on 25 Dec 1835 and described a "globular cluster, vB, R, gmbM, 90 arcseconds, A globular cluster in all probability identical with this, was also seen in Sweep 636, while searching beyond the meridian for Dunlop 562."  His position is accurate.  He also described a few other galaxies in the Fornax cluster as globulars (NGCs 1310, 1379, 1399 and 1436).

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NGC 1388 = PGC 13402

03 38 12.0 -15 53 58

V = 13.9;  Size 0.7'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.1

 

17.5" (12/9/01): very faint, small, round, 20" diameter.  Forms the eastern vertex of a triangle with a mag 11.5 star 4.5' W and a mag 13 star 3' SW.  NGC 1372 lies 17' W.

 

Francis Leavenworth discovered NGC 1388 = LM I-109 on 12 Nov 1885 with the 26" refractor at the Leander McCormick Observatory.  His rough position (nearest min of RA) happens to be fairly accurate in this case, falling 2.4' SE of PGC 13402.

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NGC 1389 = ESO 358-038 = MCG -06-09-010 = PGC 13360

03 37 11.7 -35 44 46

V = 11.5;  Size 2.3'x1.4';  Surf Br = 12.6;  PA = 30d

 

18" (12/17/11): fairly bright, moderately large, elongated 3:2 SW-NE, 60"x40".  Moderately concentrated with a brighter core and a thin fainter halo.  Forms the SW vertex of a trapezoid with a mag 10 star 3' N, and two mag 12 stars 3' E and 3.7' NE.

 

13.1" (1/1/84): moderately bright, small, almost round, weak concentration.  Member of Fornax I cluster.

 

8" (1/1/84): faint, small, round.

 

Julius Schmidt discovered NGC 1389 on 19 Jan 1865 with the 6.2-inch refractor at the Athens Observatory during his survey of the Fornax Cluster (nebula "h" on his list).  His position is accurate.

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NGC 1390 = ESO 548-054 = MCG -03-10-017 = LGG 095-003 = PGC 13386

03 37 52.1 -19 00 30

V = 13.7;  Size 1.4'x0.5';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 19d

 

17.5" (1/12/02): fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 5:2 SSW-NNE, 1.0'x0.4'.  Very weak concentration along the major axis.  Situated 6' N of a mag 9.8 star and ~40' SW of the NGC 1407 group.

 

Frank Muller discovered NGC 1390 = LM II-372 in 1886 with the 26" refractor at the Leander McCormick Observatory and noted "mag 14.0, 1.0'x0.6', E 260”."  There is nothing at his position but 16 sec of RA west and 2' N is ESO 548-054 = PGC 13386, the only nearby candidate.  His PA was measured incorrectly, though (should read 20”).

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NGC 1391 = ESO 548-059 = MCG -03-10-020 = PGC 13436

03 38 52.9 -18 21 15

V = 13.3;  Size 1.1'x0.5';  Surf Br = 12.6;  PA = 65d

 

17.5" (12/11/99): faint, fairly small, elongated 4:3 ~E-W, very weak concentration.  Located between NGC 1393 5.6' SW and NGC 1394 5.0' NE in the NGC 1407 group.

 

Francis Leavenworth discovered NGC 1391 = LM II-373 in 1886 with the 26" refractor at Leander McCormick Observatory.  His description reads "mag 15.4, 0.4' dia, R, gbMN, 1st of 3, one of which is GC 742 [NGC 1383].  There is nothing at his position, but 28 tsec of RA east is ESO 548-059 = PGC 13436 and Ormond Stone's micrometrically measured RA matches this galaxy.  Leavenworth described NGC 1391 as the "1st of 3, one of which is GC 742 [NGC 1383]", but it should read "2nd of 3" as NGC 1393 is further west.  Herbert Howe caught this error in his NGC visual survey.

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NGC 1392

03 37 30 -37 08

 

=Not found, Corwin.  =ESO 358-G40, ESO.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 1392 = Sw VI-15 on 13 Feb 1887 with a 16" refractor and recorded "vF; pS; R."  There is nothing at his position, though Swift noted the declination was uncertain.  Swift has a long note at the end of his 6th list about his entries VI-14 and VI-15, as he assumed VI-14 referred to the Great Comet 1887-I, though not at the expected position, and VI-15 = NGC 1392 was roughly 4' north of it.  ESO misidentifies ESO 358-040 (one degree north of Swift's position) as NGC 1392.  RNGC misidentifies ESO 358-034 (53' SSE of Swift's position) as NGC 1392.  Corwin concludes NGC 1392 is lost as these other candidates are merely guesses. See Corwin's notes.

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NGC 1393 = ESO 548-058 = MCG -03-10-019 = PGC 13425

03 38 38.5 -18 25 41

V = 12.0;  Size 1.9'x1.3';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 170d

 

17.5" (12/11/99): moderately bright, moderately large, slightly elongated ~N-S, 1' diameter, bright core.  Member of the NGC 1407 group. First of three on a line with NGC 1391 5.6' NE and NGC 1394 10' NE.

 

WH discovered NGC 1393 = H III-451 = h2565 on 6 Oct 1785 (sweep 459) and recorded "vF, S, R."  JH logged "pF, R, glbM, 30".", and measured an accurate position.  Both Herschels missed nearby NGC 1391 and NGC 1394 to the northeast.

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NGC 1394 = ESO 548-060 = MCG -03-10-021 = PGC 13444

03 39 06.9 -18 17 32

V = 12.8;  Size 1.3'x0.4';  Surf Br = 12.1;  PA = 5d

 

17.5" (12/11/99): fairly faint, elongated 2:1 SSW-NNE, 0.8'x0.4', small bright core.  A mag 13 star lies 1.6' N.  Third of three on a line with NGC 1393 and NGC 1391.

 

Francis Leavenworth discovered NGC 1394 = LM II-374 in 1886 with the 26" refractor at the Leander McCormick Observatory and recorded "mag 14.5, 0.4'x0.2', E 170”, sbMN, 3rd of 3."  There is nothing at his position, but 30 sec of RA east is ESO 548-060 = PGC 13444 and his description matches this galaxy (PA should read 10”).  Ormond Stone's corrected position in the IC 1 notes is accurate.

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NGC 1395 = ESO 482-019 = MCG -04-09-039 = PGC 13419

03 38 29.8 -23 01 41

V = 9.6;  Size 5.9'x4.5';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 126d

 

13.1" (10/10/86): bright, fairly small, oval 4:3 ~E-W, very bright core, fainter halo.  Two faint mag 14 stars lie on the west and north edges 1.0' from center.  Brightest in a group of five with NGC 1401, NGC 1403, NGC 1415 and NGC 1416.

 

8" (10/13/81): fairly bright, small, round, small bright core.

 

WH discovered NGC 1395 = H I-58 = h2566 on 17 Nov 1784 (sweep 321) and logged "B, S, lE, mbM."  JH recorded "vB, pmE, psmbM, 60" long", and measured an accurate position (2 sweeps).

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NGC 1396 = LGG 098-006 = PGC 13398

03 38 06.5 -35 26 24

V = 13.8;  Size 0.7'x0.4';  Surf Br = 12.3;  PA = 90d

 

18" (12/17/11): extremely faint, small, slightly elongated, ~20" diameter, low surface brightness.  Requires averted vision and no details visible.  Located just 4.7' W of NGC 1399 (second brightest galaxy in the Fornax cluster).

 

18" (12/30/08): extremely faint, very small, slightly elongated, 20"x15".  Required averted to glimpse though the observation may have been affected by clouds or contrails.  Located 4.7' W of NGC 1399 in the Fornax I cluster.

 

Due to a poor position by Julius Schmidt (14' due south) and the faintness of this galaxy (discovered with a 6-inch refractor), the identification is uncertain.

 

Julius Schmidt discovered NGC 1396 on 19 Jan 1865 with the 6.2-inch refractor at the Athens Observatory during his survey of the Fornax Cluster (nebula "i" in his table).  There is nothing at his position of 03 38 01 -35 40 17 (2000), and the RNGC classifies NGC 1396 as nonexistent.  The Southern Galaxy Catalogue and RC3, though, identify PGC 13398 as NGC 1396.  This galaxy is 14' due north of Schmidt's location and places NGC 1396 just 5' WNW of the bright elliptical NGC 1399.  Harold Corwin feels this galaxy is a reasonable match and the only faint candidate in the vicinity.  See Harold Corwin's historical notes and my RNGC Corrections #6.  But I'm not convinced that Schmidt could have picked up this galaxy with a 6" refractor as it was quite faint in my 18-inch, at least from northern California.

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NGC 1397 = MCG -01-10-017 = PGC 13485

03 39 47.2 -04 40 12

V = 13.7;  Size 1.5'x1.5';  Surf Br = 14.4

 

17.5" (11/25/87): fairly faint, small, slightly elongated NW-SE, weak concentration.

 

WH discovered NGC 1397 = H III-569 on 30 Sep 1786 (sweep 608) and recorded "eF, lE, easily resolvable."  His position (re-reduced by Auwers) is just 1.3' NE of MCG -01-10-017 = PGC 13485.  JH thought his observation of h305 applied to this galaxy, but actually he discovered IC 344.

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NGC 1398 = ESO 482-022 = MCG -04-09-040 = PGC 13434

03 38 52.0 -26 20 13

V = 9.7;  Size 7.1'x5.4';  Surf Br = 13.5;  PA = 100d

 

17.5" (11/26/94): very bright, moderately large, elongated 2:1 N-S, 2.2'x1.1', well concentrated with a very bright 30" rounder core and a stellar nucleus.  NGC 1360 lies 1.3” NW.

 

8" (10/13/81): fairly bright, moderately large, round, bright core.

 

Wilhelm Tempel discovered NGC 1398, along with an independent discovery of NGC 1360, on 9 Oct 1861 using his own 4-in Steinheil refractor from Marseille.  Tempel didn't announce the discovery until May 1882 and in the meantime it was independently found by August Winnecke on 17 Dec 1868 with a 4.5" refractor at Karlsruhe and Eugen Block (AN 2287) on 18 Oct 1879 with a 4" refractor at Odessa.  This is the brightest galaxy discovered by Tempel (V = 9.7) and the most southerly.

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NGC 1399 = ESO 358-045 = MCG -06-09-012 = PGC 13418

03 38 29.0 -35 27 04

V = 9.6;  Size 6.9'x6.5';  Surf Br = 13.7

 

18" (12/17/11): very bright, large, round, 3' diameter.  The outer halo has a fairly low surface brightness but the central portion is sharply concentrated with a very bright 35" core.  The core continues to brighten significantly to a quasi-stellar nucleus.  A star is superimposed less than 20" NNE of center.  Brighter of a pair with NGC 1404 10' SSE.

 

13.1" (12/22/84): bright, large faint halo is broadly concentrated, brighter core.  A star is superimposed 0.3' N of the center.  This galaxy is the second brightest and second largest in the core of the Fornax I cluster.  NGC 1404 is 10' SE.

 

8" (10/13/81): fairly bright, round, bright core.

 

JH discovered NGC 1399 = h2569 on 22 Oct 1835 and recorded a "globular cluster, vB, pL, psbM, resolvable or resolved, 2'."  He also described a few other galaxies in the Fornax cluster as globulars (NGCs 1310, 1379, 1387 and 1436).

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NGC 1400 = ESO 548-062 = MCG -03-10-022 = PGC 13470

03 39 30.8 -18 41 17

V = 11.0;  Size 2.3'x2.0';  Surf Br = 12.5;  PA = 40d

 

17.5" (12/11/99): fairly bright, moderately large, slightly elongated, brighter core, stellar nucleus. Smaller and fainter than NGC 1407 11' NE.

 

13" (1/18/85): moderately bright, small, round, bright core, stellar nucleus, small faint halo.  Forms a wide pair with NGC 1407 11.6' NE. 

 

8" (10/13/81): faint, very small, round.  Situated 11' SW of NGC 1407.

 

WH discovered NGC 1400 = H II-593 = h2567 on 20 Sep 1786 (sweep 597) and recorded "pB, pS, R, resembling the following [NGC 1407], but much less."  JH noted "B, R, psmbM, 30"."

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NGC 1401 = ESO 482-026 = MCG -04-09-042 = PGC 13457

03 39 21.9 -22 43 29

V = 12.3;  Size 2.4'x0.6';  Surf Br = 12.6;  PA = 130d

 

13.1" (10/10/86): faint, small, edge-on 4:1 NW-SE, bright core.  A mag 13.5 star is just 0.4' N of center.  NGC 1403 lies 20' N.

 

WH discovered NGC 1401 = H III-247 = h2568 on 9 Dec 1784 (sweep 331) and noted "eF, vS."   His position is 23 sec of RA too far east, but JH measured an accurate position.  I'm surprised neither noted the elongation.

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NGC 1402 = ESO 548-061 = MCG -03-10-023 = PGC 13467

03 39 30.5 -18 31 37

V = 13.6;  Size 0.8'x0.6';  Surf Br = 12.6;  PA = 88d

 

17.5" (12/11/99): fairly faint, small, round, gradually increases to a small brighter core.  Located 10' S of NGC 1400 in a group.

 

Francis Leavenworth discovered NGC 1402 = LM II-376 in 1886 with the 26" refractor at the Leander McCormick Observatory.  His position essentially matches ESO 548-061 = PGC 13467.

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NGC 1403 = ESO 482-025 = MCG -04-09-041 = PGC 13445

03 39 10.8 -22 23 18

V = 12.7;  Size 1.3'x1.0';  Surf Br = 13.0;  PA = 175d

 

17.5" (11/2/91): fairly faint, small, 40" diameter, small bright core surrounded by a very faint halo, almost stellar nucleus.  A mag 14.5 star is just off the west edge 30" from the center.  A bright wide double star mag 8/10.5 at 30" is located 4' NNE.  NGC 1401 lies 20' S.

 

Francis Leavenworth discovered NGC 1403 = LM II-375 in 1886 with the 26" refractor at the Leander McCormick Observatory.  His position is 0.2 min of RA due east of ESO 482-025 = PGC 13445.

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NGC 1404 = ESO 358-046 = MCG -06-09-013 = PGC 13433

03 38 52.1 -35 35 38

V = 10.0;  Size 3.3'x3.0';  Surf Br = 12.5

 

18" (12/17/11): very bright, moderately large, round, 1.5' diameter.  The outer halo gradually increases then brightens fairly rapidly to a small, very bright core.  The core increases to the center but there a stellar nucleus was not seen.  A mag 12-12.5 star is 45" SE, at the edge of the halo.  Mag 8.1 HD 22862 lies 2.8' SE.  NGC 1404 is smaller but has an overall higher surface brightness than NGC 1399, located 10' NNW.  NGC 1396 lies 4.6' W.

 

At 285x, supernova 2011iv, discovered on Dec 2, was easily visible just 7" W and 8" N of center.  The supernova was similar in brightness to the mag 12-12.5 star at or just off the southeast edge of the halo.

 

13.1" (12/22/84): bright, fairly small, round, bright core.  Located just 2.8' NNW of mag 8.1 SAO 194428.  NGC 1399 lies 10' NW.  Member of Fornax I cluster.

 

8" (10/13/81): fairly bright, small, round, bright core.  A mag 8 star is close SSE.

 

JH discovered NGC 1404 = h2571 on 28 Nov 1837 and recorded (the following night) "vB, R, psmbM, 40", has a star N.f."  His position is accurate, though the star is south following.

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NGC 1405 = MCG -03-10-028 = PGC 13512

03 40 18.9 -15 31 48

V = 15.6;  Size 1.5'x0.5';  Surf Br = 15.1;  PA = 153d

 

17.5" (12/9/01): extremely faint, fairly small, elongated 2:1 NNW-SSE, 0.6'x0.3'.  Requires averted to glimpse.  Located 5' NNE of brighter NGC 1413.

 

Francis Leavenworth discovered NGC 1405 = LM I-110 (along with NGC 1413 = I-111) on 26 Dec 1885 with the 26" refractor at Leander McCormick and logged "mag 16.0, pL, vE 150”, glbM, sev vF st inv."  His rough position (nearest minute of RA) is accurate and the position angle matches, though no are stars involved (noted first by Herbert Howe in 1900).  Howe measured an accurate RA in 1899-00 at Denver.

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NGC 1406 = ESO 418-015 = MCG -05-09-020 = UGCA 83 = PGC 13458

03 39 23.1 -31 19 18

V = 11.8;  Size 3.8'x0.8';  Surf Br = 12.8;  PA = 15d

 

13.1" (1/18/85): fairly faint, edge-on 5:1 SSW-NNE, moderately large, 3.0'x0.6, brighter core, dims at ends of extensions.  Located 16' ESE of mag 7.4 SAO 194416.

 

JH discovered NGC 1406 = h2572 on 18 Nov 1835 and accurately recorded "F, vmE, vglbM, 2' l, 20" br; *7 mag precedes in parallel."

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NGC 1407 = ESO 548-067 = MCG -03-10-030 = PGC 13505

03 40 11.8 -18 34 48

V = 9.7;  Size 4.6'x4.3';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 35d

 

17.5" (12/11/99): bright, moderately large, round, 1.5' diameter, bright core, nearly stellar nucleus.  Brightest in the NGC 1383-1407 Group, which includes 8 NGC galaxies and IC 343.

 

13" (1/18/85): bright, fairly small, bright core, stellar nucleus.  Forms a wide pair with NGC 1400 11.6' SW. 

 

8" (10/13/81): bright, small, round, small bright core.

 

WH discovered NGC 1407 = H I-107 = h2570 on 6 Oct 1785 (sweep 459) and recorded "B, R, mbM or large nucleus, about 1.5' diameter." JH logged it as "vB, L, R, first vg then vs, vmbM; 3'."

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NGC 1408 = ESO 358-?048

03 39 24 -35 31

 

=Not found, RNGC, Corwin and ESO.

 

Julius Schmidt discovered NGC 1408 on 19 Jan 1865 with the 6.2-inch refractor at the Athens Observatory during his survey of the Fornax Cluster (nebula "k" in his table).  There is nothing near his position, though a 20" pair of mag 14.5/15.5 stars is 1.6' NW and a slightly close pair of mag 13.5/15 star is 4' SE.  Either might apply, so this number is considered lost.  See Corwin's notes.

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NGC 1409 = VV 729 = III Zw 55 = MCG +00-10-011 = CGCG 391-028 = PGC 13553

03 41 10.4 -01 18 08

V = 13.9;  Size 0.9'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 130d

 

17.5" (10/24/87): faint, small, oval SSW-NNE.  This is a contact pair with NGC 1410 - just 14" between centers.  At high power appears faint, small, round, small bright core.  NGC 1410 is just 15" NE in a common halo.  Located on the Eridanus border.

 

WH discovered NGC 1409 = H III-263 = h304 on 6 Jan 1785 (sweep 351) and logged "Suspected, eF, stellar or lE, 240x power rather confirmed it, but left a doubt."  His position is 2' south of this double system (with NGC 1410).

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NGC 1410 = VV 729 = III Zw 55 = MCG +00-10-012 = CGCG 391-028 = PGC 13556

03 41 10.7 -01 17 55

V = 13.7;  Size 1.2'x1.2';  Surf Br = 13.9;  PA = 120d

 

17.5" (10/24/87): faint, very small, round, small bright core.  Forms a very close contact pair with NGC 1409 on the Eridanus border.

 

R.J. Mitchell discovered NGC 1410 on 17 Jan 1855  using Lord Rosse's 72" and recorded a "Double neb [with NGC 1409], north and south, both vS, bM.  Cannot make out whether there is a connexion between them."

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NGC 1411 = ESO 249-011 = MCG -07-08-004 = IC 1943? = PGC 13429

03 38 44.9 -44 06 02

V = 11.3;  Size 2.3'x1.7';  Surf Br = 12.6;  PA = 6d

 

24" (11/18/12 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): very bright, fairly large, elongated 4:3 ~N-S, ~2'x1.5'.  Very sharply concentrated with an intensely bright 20" core and fairly even surface brightness halo that gradually fades out.  IC 1970 lies 25' WNW.  One of the brighter members of the NGC 1433 subgroup of the Dorado Group complex.

 

13.1" (10/10/86): moderately bright, fairly small, round, bright core.  One of farthest southern galaxies easily viewed from Northern California.

 

JH discovered NGC 1411 = h2573 = Sw XI-55? on 24 Oct 1835 and recorded "B, R, vsvmbM, 20 arcsec."  His position is accurate.  Harold Corwin suggests Lewis Swift may have independently found the galaxy on 3 Oct 1897 at Echo Mountain, but made an error in recording the RA, placing it 9 min of RA too small (his dec matches).  If so, then NGC 1411 = IC 1943.  See Corwin's notes for IC 1943.

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NGC 1412 = ESO 482-029 = MCG -05-09-021 = IC 1981 = PGC 13520

03 40 29.3 -26 51 44

V = 12.5;  Size 1.9'x0.8';  Surf Br = 12.8;  PA = 131d

 

17.5" (1/12/02): moderately bright, moderately large, elongated nearly 2:1 NW-SE, 1.3'x0.7', bright core.  Situated in a group of three mag 11/12 stars with a mag 12 star 1.6' SE.  Located 38' SE of NGC 1398 in northeast Fornax.  Classified as nonexistent in the RNGC due to a poor declination by John Herschel.

 

JH found NGC 1412 = h2574 on 20 Nov 1835 and recorded "F, S, E, gpmbM, 15"; has a * S.f. distance 2'."  There is nothing at his position and the RNGC classifies this number as nonexistent.  But 40' due south of Herschel's position is ESO 482-029 = PGC 13520 and ESO-LV and RC3 identify this galaxy as NGC 1412.  This galaxy is a good match in description; the galaxy is elongated NW-SE and there is a mag 12 star 1.6' SSE.  The poor declination probably resulted from a copying error.  Swift (XI-58) independently found this galaxy on 26 Dec 1897, placed it 37 sec of RA too far west (declination matches) and it was recatalogued as IC 1981.  So, NGC 1412 = IC 1981.  ESO and MCG identify this galaxy as IC 1981.  Included in my RNGC Corrections #6 and Corwin's notes.

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NGC 1413 = PGC 13504

03 40 11.5 -15 36 39

V = 14.3;  Size 1.0'x0.8';  Surf Br = 14.1

 

17.5" (12/9/01): very faint, small, round, 20" diameter.  A mag 14.5 star is located 1.7' W.  Forms a pair with NGC 1405 5' NNE.

 

Francis Leavenworth discovered NGC 1413 = LM I-111 (along with NGC 1405 = I-110) on 26 Dec 1885 with the 26" refractor at the Leander McCormick Observatory and recorded "mag 15.0, vS, R, lbM."  His rough position (nearest minute of RA) is 0.8 min of RA east of PGC 13504.  Herbert Howe measured an accurate position in 1898-99 using the 20" refractor at Chamberlin Observatory (repeated in the IC 2 notes).

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NGC 1414 = ESO 548-071 = MCG -04-09-045 = LGG 097-014 = PGC 13543

03 40 57.0 -21 42 48

V = 14.0;  Size 1.4'x0.3';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 172d

 

17.5" (1/12/02): faint, fairly small, very elongated 3:1 N-S, 1.0'x0.3'.  Collinear with two mag 13 stars 6' S.  Forms a pair with NGC 1422 8' ENE.

 

Francis Leavenworth discovered NGC 1414 = LM II-377 on 19 Nov 1886 with the 26" refractor at the Leander McCormick Observatory and recorded "mag 15.8, 1.6'x0.1', E 0” (N-S), bMN.  His description and position is accurate (just off the south side).  Herbert Howe corrected position, measured in 1899-00 using the 20" refractor at Chamberlin Observatory, matches NGC 1422.

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NGC 1415 = ESO 482-033 = MCG -04-09-047 = IC 1983 = PGC 13544

03 40 56.8 -22 33 50

V = 11.9;  Size 3.5'x1.8';  Surf Br = 13.7;  PA = 148d

 

17.5" (11/2/91): moderately bright, moderately large.  Contains a bright core with a bright almost stellar nucleus and a much fainter halo elongated 2:1 NW-SE.  A mag 11 star is 2.7' NNW of center.  Forms a wide pair with NGC 1416 9' S.  Located 8.5' ESE of mag 8.6 SAO 168726.

 

13" (10/10/86): moderately bright, elongated NW-SE, fairly small, bright core, faint elongated halo. 

 

8" (11/28/81): faint, small.

 

WH discovered NGC 1415 = H II-267 = h2575 on 9 Dec 1784 (sweep 331) and logged "F, vS, R, lbM." JH made 3 observations from the CGH, recording it first as "pF, E, pslbM, 40" long."

 

Lewis Swift probably independently found the galaxy on 8 Oct 1896 from Echo Mountain in Southern California and recorded it in list XI-55 as "vF; pS; R; not [NGC] 1426."  His position is 3.4' SE of NGC 1415, but given his many poor positions in his later years, this equivalence is not certain.  See Harold Corwin's discussion for IC 1983.

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NGC 1416 = ESO 482-034 = MCG -04-09-048 = PGC 13548

03 41 02.9 -22 43 08

V = 12.9;  Size 1.3'x1.3';  Surf Br = 13.5

 

17.5" (11/2/91): faint, small, round, weak concentration.  Located almost on line with mag 9.2 SAO 168733 1.5' SSW and mag 9.3 SAO 168734 3.7' S.  A mag 13.5 star is 1' SE.  Forms a pair with NGC 1415 9' N.  Slightly misplotted 5' too far south on U2000.

 

Frank Muller discovered NGC 1416 = LM II-378 in 1886 with the 26" refractor at the Leander McCormick Observatory and recorded "mag 15.5, 0.5' dia, R, *8.7 nr; *8.6 north 2'."  His position 3' south of ESO 482-034 but the mag 8.6 star is 2' south-southeast (the other mag 8.7 star is 2.2' further south).  Herbert Howe measured an accurate position in 1898-99 using the 20" refractor at Chamberlin Observatory (repeated in the IC 2 notes).  The RNGC and the first edition of the Uranometria 2000.0 Atlas placed the galaxy 3' too far south.  See Corwin's notes for more on the story.

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NGC 1417 = MCG -01-10-021 = Holm 70a = LGG 103-004 = PGC 13584

03 41 57.4 -04 42 18

V = 12.1;  Size 2.7'x1.7';  Surf Br = 13.6;  PA = 175d

 

17.5" (11/25/87): moderately bright, moderately large, elongated 5:2 NNW-SSE, bright core.  A mag 11 star is 1.3' SE of center.  Brightest in a group with NGC 1418 4.9' ESE and IC 344 7.3' WNW.

 

13" (12/7/85): moderately bright, slightly elongated ~N-S, small bright core.  A mag 10.5 star is close SSE.  Second of three in a group.

 

WH discovered NGC 1417 = H II-455 = h306, along with NGC 1418, on 5 Oct 1785 (sweep 457) and recorded both as "Two. The preceding [NGC 1417] F, S, E, lbM. The following [NGC 1418] eF, vS, E, hardly to be seen but 240 verified it; about 6 or 7' south following the first."  His position is accurate.  JH remarked "R; north-preceding a star.  The second of 3 [with NGC 1418].  His position is 19 sec of RA too far west, but the description applies (the star is 1.3' SE).  He has one accurate measure for the position but it is listed under h307 = NGC 1418.  See notes for IC 344 = h305.

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NGC 1418 = MCG -01-10-022 = Holm 70b = LGG 103-005 = PGC 13606

03 42 16.2 -04 43 50

V = 13.6;  Size 1.3'x0.9';  Surf Br = 13.6;  PA = 15d

 

17.5" (11/25/87): fairly faint, fairly small, oval ~N-S, almost even surface brightness.  A mag 12.5 star is 1.4' S.  Forms a pair with NGC 1417 4.9' WNW.

 

13" (12/7/85): faint, small, oval ~N-S.  A mag 12 star is 1' S.  Third of three in a group.

 

WH discovered NGC 1418 = H II-456 = h307, along with NGC 1417 = II-455 on 5 Oct 1785 (sweep 457) and recorded both as ""Two. The preceding [NGC 1417] F, S, E, lbM. The following [NGC 1418] eF, vS, E, hardly to be seen but 240 verified it; about 6 or 7' south following the first."  His position is 2.6' too far NE, but the identification is certain.  JH had problems with his observation, and one description and position applies to NGC 1417!

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NGC 1419 = ESO 301-023 = MCG -06-09-017 = AM 0338-374 = LGG 096-027 = PGC 13534

03 40 42.1 -37 30 40

V = 12.6;  Size 0.9'x0.9';  Surf Br = 12.4

 

18" (1/21/04): faint, small, round, 0.5' diameter.  Increases to a very small, brighter core.  An occasional stellar nucleus was glimpsed when the seeing steadied up at 215x.  Located 28' SW of mag 4.7 SAO 194475.  Outlying member of the Fornax I cluster.

 

JH discovered NGC 1419 = h2576 on 22 Oct 1835 and recorded "pB, vS, psbM, 15" (clouded)."  His position (from two sweeps) matches ESO 301-023 = PGC 13534.

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NGC 1420

03 42 39.8 -05 51 09

 

=***, Corwin.

 

Heinrich d'Arrest discovered NGC 1420 on 28 Oct 1865 with the 11" refractor at Copenhagen.  At his single position is a close triple star and he noted a mag 13 star precedes by 10.5 seconds of time in approximately the same declination.  This clinches the identity with this close triple.

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NGC 1421 = MCG -02-10-008 = PGC 13620

03 42 29.4 -13 29 20

V = 11.4;  Size 3.5'x0.9';  Surf Br = 12.5;  PA = 179d

 

18" (1/13/07): fairly bright, fairly large, very elongated N-S, ~3.2'x1.0', broad concentration with a brighter bulging core.  The surface brightness is noticeably irregular and mottled with the impression of several brighter patchy knots.  Most noticeable is a brighter northern end that appears to contains a small brighter spot.  This end also seems to contain a small knot or extension that bulges out and angles towards the northwest. [This feature was verified on the DSS].  A mag 13 star is close west of the north end. 

 

17.5" (11/2/91): fairly bright, fairly large, very elongated 4:1 N-S, 3.0'x0.7', broad weak concentration, fades towards tips.  The surface brightness has a patchy or mottled appearance.  The southern tip is slightly fainter than the northern edge.  A mag 13 star is 2.8' NE of center. 

 

8" (11/28/81): very faint, moderately large, elongated N-S.  A distinctive 6.5' collinear string consisting of four stars mag 10-12 oriented NW-SE begins 8' S.

 

WH discovered NGC 1421 = H II-291 = h2577 on 1 Feb 1785 (sweep 364) and noted "pF, mE in the direction of the meridian, between 3 and 4' l and about 1' broad, resolvable."  JH observed this galaxy on 8 Dec 1835 and recorded "F, vmE, vlbM, 3' l, 20" br; pos. = 184.2 degrees."  Dreyer and Lord Rosse made a detailed observation with the 72" on 14 Oct 1876: "F, mE 178.7”, about 4' long; F* (17m +/- ) p near the on end, 38.7" distant, the brighter part of the neb seems abruptly terminated just foll the star, towards which it also appears curved; eF* or knot in neb foll the *17m."

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NGC 1422 = ESO 548-077 = MCG -04-09-051 = LGG 097-015 = PGC 13569

03 41 31.1 -21 40 53

V = 13.2;  Size 2.5'x0.6';  Surf Br = 13.5;  PA = 65d

 

17.5" (1/12/02): extremely faint, very small, round, 20", low surface brightness.  Based on the DSS image, I only viewed the brighter core as this galaxy is very extended SW-NE.  Forms a pair with NGC 1414 8' WSW.  Located 30' NW of NGC 1426.

 

Francis Leavenworth discovered NGC 1422 = LM II-379 on 19 Nov 1886 with the 26" refractor at the Leander McCormick Observatory and recorded "mag 15.5, 0.8'x0.2', E 80 deg."  There is nothing at his position, but roughly 1 min of RA west is ESO 548-077 = PGC 13569 and his description is a good match with this galaxy.  DeLisle Stewart's corrected position in the IC 2 notes is accurate and he also corrected the PA to 65 deg.  Herbert Howe also measured an accurate position in 1899-00, though assumed this nebula was NGC 1414.

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NGC 1423 = MCG -01-10-025 = Mrk 1191 = PGC 13628

03 42 40.1 -06 22 54

V = 13.8;  Size 0.7'x0.5';  Surf Br = 12.5;  PA = 20d

 

18" (1/21/04): faint, small, slightly elongated SSW-NNE, 0.4'x0.3'.  No details but not difficult.  A mag 14.5 star follows by 1.3'.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 1423 = Sw V-55 on 31 Oct 1886 with the 16" refractor at the Warner Observatory.  His position is 29 sec of RA east of MCG -01-10-025 = PGC 13628 = PGC 13629.

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NGC 1424 = NGC 1429? = MCG -01-10-026 = PGC 13664

03 43 13.9 -04 43 48

V = 13.8;  Size 1.7'x0.6';  Surf Br = 13.7;  PA = 10d

 

17.5" (11/25/87): faint, fairly small, slightly elongated ~N-S, even surface brightness.  NGC 1418 lies 14' W and NGC 1417 19' W.

 

13" (12/7/85): faint, fairly small, almost round, diffuse, slightly elongated N-S.  Located 14' E NGC 1418.

 

Bindon Stoney discovered NGC 1424 on 8 Dec 1850 using Lord Rosse's 72" while observing the NGC 1417 field.  He recorded a "faint nova" about 16' following [NGC 1418].  The next month he noted it was "vF, E."  This group was observed 15 times at Birr Castle.  Francis Leavenworth mentions the galaxy in list II-381 [NGC 1429]: "1st of 2, one of which is GC 763 [NGC 1424]; *10, p 15 sec."  There's only one galaxy here, though, so NGC 1429 is considered lost or perhaps he found another pair and made a large error in position.

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NGC 1425 = ESO 419-004 = MCG -05-09-023 = UGCA 84 = PGC 13602 = IC 1988:

03 42 11.3 -29 53 36

V = 10.6;  Size 5.8'x2.6';  Surf Br = 13.4;  PA = 129d

 

13.1" (10/10/86): fairly bright, moderately large, elongated 2:1 NW-SE, bright core.  A pair of mag 12.5/14 stars at 30" separation are 2' NE of center and a mag 11 star lies 2.5' N.

 

WH discovered NGC 1425 = H II-852 on 9 Oct 1790 (sweep 972) and recorded "F, pL, irr R, gbM."  His position is accurate.  Harold Corwin notes that Lewis Swift's IC 1988, found on 14 Oct 1897 at Echo Mountain (list XI-61) and described as "eF, pL, R; 2 sts near f, wide D* np", may be a duplicate observation.  There are two stars "near following" this galaxy, but the wide double star is WSW.  The identification NGC 1425 = IC 1988 requires that Swift made a 10” error in declination, but these types of errors are common in Swift's later observations, particularly from southern California.

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NGC 1426 = ESO 549-001 = MCG -04-09-054 = PGC 13638

03 42 49.1 -22 06 30

V = 11.4;  Size 2.6'x1.7';  Surf Br = 13.0;  PA = 111d

 

13" (10/10/86): fairly bright, small, round, bright core, stellar nucleus.

 

WH discovered NGC 1426 = H III-248 = h2578 on 9 Dec 1784 (sweep 331) and recorded "vF, vS, lE."  JH made two observations from the CGH, first calling it "F" and then "B", probably due to varying sky conditions.

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NGC 1427 = ESO 358-052 = MCG -06-09-021 = LGG 096-020 = PGC 13609

03 42 19.4 -35 23 34

V = 10.9;  Size 3.6'x2.5';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 76d

 

18" (12/17/11): bright, fairly large, elongated 4:3 ~E-W, 2.0'x1.5'.  Well concentrated with a very bright, rounder 25" core that increases to a quasi-stellar nucleus.  A mag 12.5-13 star is 1.7' W, a bit outside the halo.

 

18" (1/21/04): fairly bright, fairly large, oval 3:2 WSW-ENE, 2.0'x1.4'.  Contains a large, prominent core which is rounder than the halo.

 

8" (1/1/84): fairly faint, small, slightly elongated E-W, diffuse.  Member of the Fornax I cluster.

 

JH discovered NGC 1427 = h2579 on 28 Nov 1837 and logged "pF; S; R; psmbM; 20" dia."  His position is accurate.

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NGC 1428 = ESO 358-053 = MCG -06-09-022 = LGG 096-021 = PGC 13611

03 42 22.8 -35 09 16

V = 12.7;  Size 1.6'x0.8';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 118d

 

18" (12/17/11): moderately bright, fairly small, elongated 4:3 WNW-ESE, 0.7'x0.5'.  Contains a faint outer halo, well-concentrated with a bright 20" core that increases somewhat to the center.  A mag 13 star is at the west edge (35" from center).

 

18" (1/21/04): fairly faint, small, oval 2:1 WNW-ESE.  A mag 13 star is just west of the NW edge and the galaxy is elongated in the direction of the star.  Located 14' N of NGC 1427.  Member of the Fornax I cluster.

 

Julius Schmidt discovered NGC 1428 on 19 Jan 1865 with the 6.2-inch refractor at the Athens Observatory during his survey of the Fornax Cluster (nebula "l" in his table).  His position matches ESO 358-053 = PGC 13611.

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NGC 1429

03 44 00 -04 43

 

=Not found, Corwin.  =*, Carlson.

 

Francis Leavenworth discovered NGC 1429 = LM II-381 in 1886 with the 26" refractor at the Leander McCormick Observatory.  He has two listings under this number.  The first reads mag 15.2, 0.2' diameter, R, bgM with the note "1st of 2, one of which is GC 763 [NGC 1424]; *10 p 15s".  The second object is listed at 0.5 min of RA east and described as mag 15.5, 0.3'x0.2', E 180” (N-S) with the note "second of 2".  There is only a single galaxy near his position, namely NGC 1424 (discovered earlier at Birr Castle), which better matches the second entry (elongated N-S).  So, NGC 1429 is nonexistent though Corwin comments his description may apply to a different pair of galaxies!

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NGC 1430

03 43 24 -18 14

 

=Not found, Gottlieb;  =*, Corwin.

 

Francis Leavenworth discovered NGC 1430 = LM II-380 in 1886 with the 26" refractor at the Leander McCormick Observatory and described as "mag 15.4, 0.6'x0.4', E 20”, sbMN."  There is nothing at his position and no reasonable candidates showed up in a quick search of the surrounding fields.  Bigourdan was not able to recover this object.  Harold Corwin identifies this number with a mag 13.3 star near Leavenworth's position but a single star does not fit his description (0.6'x0.4' in PA 20”).  So, I've listed it as lost.

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NGC 1431 = UGC 2845 = MCG +00-10-017 = CGCG 391-033 = PGC 13732

03 44 40.8 +02 50 06

V = 14.1;  Size 1.0'x0.8';  Surf Br = 13.7;  PA = 160d

 

17.5" (1/12/02): very faint, small, round, 0.5' diameter, low surface brightness, requires averted vision.  Located 14' NW of mag 6.7 SAO 111393.  Four mag 9.5-11 stars are in the 220x field including a mag 11 star 4' S.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 1431 = m 91 on 6 Sep 1864 with William Lassell's 48" on Malta and recorded "eF, pL, iR."  His position is 2' N of UGC 2845 = PGC 13732.

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NGC 1432 = Maia Nebula = LBN 771 = vdB 21 = Ced 19f

03 45 49.5 +24 22 05

Size 30'x30'

 

Reflection nebula in Pleaides surrounding Maia.

 

Paul and Prosper Henry (brothers) discovered NGC 1432 on the first plate they took of the Pleiades on 16 Nov 1885 at Paris Observatory using the 33-cm astrograph. The plate showed nebulosity around Maia which they described "appears very clearly and has spiral form...it was impossible to see it in our telescopes."  The discovery was announced in AN 2702, though it didn't include an image of the nebula (first published in 1888).  This is the only object in the NGC discovered photographically!

 

Pickering noted on 21 Jan 1886 that he had already photographed the Pleiades on 3 Nov 1885 with an 8-inch lens and stated it only showed "certain irregularities...due merely to defects in the photographic process."  However, a comparison revealed that these "irregularities" included a patch west of Maia, pointing to the north, and a diffuse remnant near Merope pointing south.  As Pickering interpreted these as plate flaws, the discovery priority remains with Paul and Prosper Henry.  The first visual observation was made by Otto Struve on 5 Feb 1886 with the new 30-inch refractor at Pulkovo.  On 23 Feb 1886 he made another observation and sketch with the nebula stretching from Maia to the east.  E.E. Barnard also observed it visually in 1890.

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NGC 1433 = ESO 249-014 = AM 0340-472 = PGC 13586

03 42 01.5 -47 13 20

V = 9.9;  Size 6.5'x5.9';  Surf Br = 13.7

 

13.1" (2/18/04 - Costa Rica): fairly bright, large, oval 3:2 WNW-ESE, broad concentration with a large halo.  The overall dimensions are ~3.5'x2.2'.  I had a strong impression of extensions or the beginnings of two spiral arms (sketch made and verified); one arm begins at the west end and starts to curve towards the east on the south side while the other is symmetrically placed on the following end and hooks west on the north side.  A mag 12 star lies 2.8' SW of center, beyond the halo.  This barred spiral is the brightest member of the NGC 1433 group and part of the Dorado Cloud complex that includes NGC 1512, 1448, 1493 and 1411.

 

James Dunlop discovered NGC 1433 = D 426 on 28 Sep 1826 with his 9-inch f/12 speculum reflector and described "a very faint nebula, about 1' diameter, rather elliptical in the parallel of the equator; with a brightish point or condensation of the nebulous matter, a little to the preceding side of the centre."  JH first logged the galaxy on 14 Dec 1835 and recorded (h2580), "B, L, pmE, smbM; 100" long, 60" broad".   His second sweep noted "vB, L, mE, vsmbM to nucleus = 10th mag star."

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NGC 1434 = PGC 13804

03 46 12.8 -09 40 57

V = 14.3;  Size 0.8'x0.4';  Surf Br = 13.0;  PA = 165d

 

17.5" (11/17/01): extremely faint and small, round, 10" diameter.  Situated between mag 8.6 SAO 130713 6' SE and a mag 11 star 5.5' NW.  Incorrectly listed as nonexistent in the RNGC.  NGC 1445 lies 21' SW.

 

Frank Muller discovered NGC 1434 = LM II-382 in 1886 with the 26" refractor at the Leander McCormick Observatory and recorded "mag 15.3, 0.4' dia, R, *8.5, follows 25 sec and 3' N. " There is nothing at his position, but 1.8 min of RA due east is PGC 13804. The bright star he mentions follows by 21 sec of RA and is 2.6' south, instead of north.  Classified as nonexistent in the RNGC.

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NGC 1435 = Merope Nebula = Tempel's Nebula = Ced 19j = vdB 22

03 46 10 +23 45 54

Size 30'x30'

 

18" (1/26/11): at 73x (unfiltered), the Merope Nebula was immediately visible as a huge wedge-shape or comet-shaped glow with Merope near the focus on the NE end and the nebula spreading out generally to the south and west.  The most striking feature of the nebula is the well-defined and approximately eastern edge oriented N-S that heads south from Merope, passing through a 1' pair of mag 10/11 stars as well as a 1' pair of mag 10/12.5 star.  The nebulosity can be traced a bit over 20' along this side.  On the west side of Merope the border is more ill-defined but roughly heads southwest for ~20'.  The southern border is also ill-defined but is roughly oriented NW to SE and nearly extends nearly as far as mag 9 HD 23326.

 

17.5" (3/2/02): at 100x, the Merope Nebula is the brightest of the reflection nebulae that encase the Pleiades.  It appears as a moderately bright, very large, fan-shaped cone of light extended in a wedge SW to SE from  Merope.  The boundary of the nebulosity is straighter and better defined along the SE edge where it follows a string of mag 10-11 stars.  The SW border is not as well defined but extends beyond a trio of mag 13 stars.  The fan is broadest at its southern extremity which is roughly 15' from Merope.

 

16x80 (12/22/84): the Merope nebula was faint but definite in the 16x80 finder using a Deep Sky filter.  Also, nebulosity surrounding other stars were confirmed with confidence at full aperture in the 13.1" at 62x.

 

8" (10/4/80): very large, faint, very elongated tear-drop shaped nebulosity extending SW away from Merope.  Has a sharper edge along the eastern side.  Best view using the Rich Field Adapter at 37x-50x.

 

Wilhelm Tempel discovered NGC 1435, the Merope Nebula, on 19 Oct 1859 from Venice with his personal 4-inch Steinheil refractor using 45x.  The following historical summary is from Wolfgang Steinicke's book "Observing and Cataloguing Nebulae and Star Clusters".

 

The Merope Nebula was the first deep sky object Tempel discovered and initially he thought it was a comet, but the next night (20th) he checked and found no movement.  The discovery was published on 23 Dec 1860 (AN 1290).  Peters, the editor of Astronomische Nachricten, confirmed the observation using a 7-inch refractor.  Auwers first observed it on 14 Jan 1861, but d'Arrest was unsuccessful using the 11-inch Merz refractor at Copenhagen in Aug 1862.  Based on his negative results on several attempts, he reported "I have hitherto been able positively to see nothing. ...I therefore, even yet, am of opinion that this nebula is variable, otherwise the original announcement of the discovery ... must be looked upon as been greatly exaggerated.  This report began a heated interchange involving many of the world's most prominent visual observers over the next 30 years (see NGC 1555 = Hind's Variable Nebula for a similar situation).

 

In September 1862, Julius Schmidt supported d'Arrest, claiming if it was not variable he would have noticed it while carefully observing the Pleiades since 1841.  He first reported a sighting on 5 Feb 1861, describing it as "very large, very pale and quite shapeless."  Auwers responded critically to d'Arrest, claiming neither Tempel's (Merope) nebula nor NGC 1333 were variable but that "large, blurred, faint objects are much more easily visible in small instruments than in large ones" and d'Arrest's failure was due to "a small field of view, completely filled by the 15' large nebula".  Charcornac at Paris Observatory also reported the nebula was difficult to see at high power.  Schšnfeld wrote that the nebula "instantly stuck out in the local telescope (6.5-inch refractor in Mannheim, Germany) on Sept 20, 1862 when I pointed it freely towards Merope, without knowing the exact place, looking like a blurred nebula with the shape and size described by Auwers."  

 

d'Arrest responded to the attack on 12 Nov 1862 (AN 1393) stating "after a long effort I actually set eyes on Tempel's Nebula", though it was "the faintest object which I remember ever having seen in the refractor".  He was "still convinced that the nebula was variable; otherwise the discovery report ["large, bright nebula"] must be seen as highly exaggerated."  In March 1862, Winnecke viewed the nebula with a 4.1-inch refractor at low power and asked Otto Struve to take a look in the 15-inch Merz refractor, convinced that it would be difficult to see in the larger scope.  Winnecke noted "Indeed, we were not convinced about its existence until the telescope was moved quickly back and forth".  Winnecke concluded there was no reason to invoke variability to explain the observations.  In 1863, Tempel wrote a letter to the French magazine Le Monde asserting that nebulae, in general, are unchanging (otherwise their constituent stars would have to be vary simultaneously) and that atmospheric conditions were the source of different observational results.

 

Reverend Webb observed the nebula on 6 Oct 1863 with his 5.5-inch Clark refractor, stating "on turning the telescope upon the group at 29x and 64x, though I probably should not have it discovered unknown, I found it with ease, as a very ill-defined, but on the whole egg-shaped haze, encompassing a brilliant star with its smaller but rather brighter end." As far as the variability "he [Schšnfeld] thinks this and other suspected nebulae, being very feeble, large and diffuse, are influenced in visibility by magnifying power, varying transparency of the air, and practice of the eye, so that aperture is less concerned in their case than in that of minute stars."  Although he never observed the nebula, John Herschel catalogued the Merope Nebula as GC 768 and his description stated "VAR" [variable].

 

The controversy about the variability and GC entry caused Lawrence Parsons (4th Earl of Rosse) to take a look with the 36-inch and 72-inch reflectors at Birr Castle, but he found no nebulosity in five observations from Feb 1871 to Sep 1873!  Dreyer, himself, was unsuccessful (on a "misty" night) on 24 Dec 1875.  The first (marginal) successful observation at Birr Castle was not made until 10 Dec 1877 and confirmed later that month.

 

The debate over variability wasn't settled.  In 1875 Charles Wolf at Paris Observatory reported he was unable to see the Merope Nebula from Nov 1874 to Feb 1875 and Stephan at Marseille confirmed this. Wolf concluded, "This nebula is truly variable and its period seems to be rather short".  But Tempel published another report in Jan 1877 (AN 2139) concluding, "the invisibility of the Merope Nebula in a large telescope is due to the eyepiece and its field of view. If d'Arrest had used an eyepiece of lower power than 95x, giving a field of 20 to 25'; he would have seen the nebula very easily."  Tempel also made disparaging remarks about the large reflectors at Birr Castle, claiming the 36-inch and 72-inch didn't show more stars than his 11-inch Amici refractor (Tempel and Dreyer had a bitter dispute in 1878 about the "spiral form of nebulae", which Tempel couldn't see in his 11-inch).

 

On 6 Mar 1877, Maxwell Hall drew the nebula with his 4-inch refractor at 100x and was amazed it was invisible to Lord Rosse and Robert Newall, who had a 25-inch Cooke refractor.  Hall was also critical of Schiaparelli's description of the orientation of the nebula.  Hall's article touched off another debate between Wolf, Common, Hough, Tempel, Swift, Barnard and Burnham.

 

Charles Wolf published his work on the Pleiades and included a sketch made in Nov 1875.  He saw nebulosity extending to Electra and Celaeno, by masking Merope with the micrometer bar.  A much earlier report by Hermann Goldschmidt to Leverrier in Paris on 21 Sep 1863, claimed he saw not only the Merope nebula but that the Pleiades were completely surrounded by diffuse nebulosity, extending over an area of 5”.

 

In 1880, Ainslie Common published a drawing of the Pleiades nebulosity using his 36-inch reflector.  It showed a large, elongated patch SE of Merope (the wrong direction!) and two additional patches; one north of Merope and another to the NW of Alcyone.  This caused some more controversy.

 

Tempel published an excellent drawing of the nebula in 1880 using Amici I, with accurate form and brightness levels, along with a large number of nearby faint stars.  He mentioned the various astronomers who confirmed the object, including Schmidt, Winnecke Auwers and Schšnfeld, and also opponents such as d'Arrest, Secchi and the Birr Castle observers.  He concluded with satisfaction "It is now ascertained beyond question that the nebula exists...and anyone publishing statements about its non-existence merely uses vain words, and proclaims himself wanting in knowledge of the history and nebulae and the management of telescopes."  He also criticized Goldschmidt's observation of the Pleiades surrounded by nebulous clouds and the drawing of Common saying the sketch must have "evidently been executed with a telescope of insufficient power to show the Merope Nebula."  Common was offended and responded the "three-foot telescope" mentioned in his report was of three-foot aperture!  Hall wrote one more report on 13 Dec 1880, claiming the nebula had changed shape, now "extending as far as Electra, and the parabolic form of the Nebula, as seen 1877, was destroyed."  He wondered why Tempel had overlooked the "extension of the nebula in the direction of Electra."

 

Amazingly, the controversy of the existence of the Merope Nebula wasn't over.  At Dearborn Observatory in Chicago, Hough and Burnham had previously been critical of earlier reports, because of their discordant descriptions and their negative results in 1879 and 1880 using the 18.5-inch Clark refractor at 120x and higher.  After Tempel's paper, they made a concerted effort from 29 Nov 1880 to 22 Mar 1891 with various eyepieces, stopping down the refractor to 12-inch, even masking Merope.  But they came up empty and decided the previous positive observers were misled by the glare from Merope and the neighboring stars!  Dreyer immediately responded, criticizing the large exit pupil used and furthermore he didn't see anything unusual about or contradictory about previous published reports of a "large and diffused nebulosity".  Also, the theory about the glare from Merope causing an illusion was rejected.  Swift also responded on 2 Dec 1881, that he independently ran across the Merope Nebula in 1874 while searching for comets with his 4.5-inch refractor and strongly suspected it was a new comet.  His analysis was that Hough and Burnham used too high of a power as he could see the nebula even at 2-inch aperture at 25x.

 

Barnard observed and drew the Merope Nebula and nearby stars with his 5-inch refractor in 1883.  He wrote "it is plainly visible in my 5-inch refractory, it has been seen with a 2.5-inch telescope, in the presence of a quarter-full moon."  He criticized Common's sketch but felt his sketch agreed with Tempel's (though it extended further west past Electra).  Barnard also mentioned that Trouvelot reported that it is variable and has become very faint  (he described the nebula as changing to a dim purplish color) and "can now be seen only by those acquainted with its former appearance"!

 

Paul and Prosper Henry first photographed the Pleiades on 16 Nov 1885 and revealed additional nebulosity around Maia, later catalogued as NGC 1432 (the only photographic discovery in the NGC) as well as faint nebulosity near Electra.  In 1886 Charles Wolf published a comparison between the photographic image and the visual observations that showed significant changes in the Merope Nebula.  Morever, the separate nebula observed by Goldschmidt and Wolf had disappeared but he concluded that photographic and visual observations can never be reconciled as objects invisible on photographs can exist visually.  Surprisingly, the image most closely resembled the ridicules drawing of Common.  Common wrote that his sketch showed the Maia Nebula, however the connection is poor - his placement is closer to Alcyone than Maia.

 

The image encouraged others to search for addition nebulae in the Pleiades. On 26 Feb 1886, Spitaler and Palisa in Vienna reported the Maia nebula appeared as a "small flaky nebulosity, completely separated from Maia" and on 3 Mar, the former was "only the brightest knot of an extended nebulosity, completely covering Maia." Spitaler wrote "one can hardly refrain from thinking that at least the whole Pleiades region west and north of Alcyone is covered by an extended nebulosity, of which all previously perceived, apparently isolated nebulae, are merely bright knots of light."

 

On 23 Oct 1886 Isaac Roberts took a 3 hour exposure which revealed "not only are the stars [Alcyone, Maia, Electra, Merope] surrounded by nebulae, but the nebulosity extends in streamers and fleecy masses, till it seems almost to fill the spaces between the stars, and to extend far beyond them."  Common again felt vindicated and repeated his treatment by Tempel, "who thought I had not used a sufficiently large telescope" (a misunderstanding by Tempel).

 

Another image was taken by the Henry brothers in 1888 showing extensive nebulosity. At an RAS meeting on 8 Jun 1888, Common says "I immediately compared my sketches with it and found that every star I had seen, except one, was there, and, of course, in their proper places."  Robert Newall, who also attended the meeting, stated he was certain that his observations differed from Common with Merope appearing as an oval comet with Merope at the focus and he had not seen the additional patches claimed by Common.

 

In an 1888 issue of Knowledge, English astronomer Arthur Ranyard wrote an article titled "Great Nebula in the Pleiades" and stated "The observations are worth examining, as they throw some light on the differences which are always likely to exist when observations are pushed into the border-land of vision, where by reason of the extreme faintness or minuteness of the objects examined, the eye begins to fail, and the imagination begins to play a larger and larger part in filling up the gaps where the senses of the eye-straining observer fail him."

 

Maxwell Hall made a late interesting set of observations in 1889 in Jamaica.  He compared the view of the Merope Nebula using a 9-inch reflector with a glass mirror and his 4-inch Cook refractor.  He reported "a glance through the refractor showed the well-known nebula projected against the dark background or field of view; but in the reflector there was so much light scattered around the field of view that the nebula was invisible."  He concluded this explained the positive sightings in smaller refractors and vice versa, the failure with larger reflectors (especially Lord Rosse's initial failures).  In 1891, Spitaler reviewed the major observations of the Pleiades nebulae in a 20-page paper and created a remarkable map of the region, showing extensive nebulosity surrounding the Pleiades.  He argues his map shows the main structures were correctly drawn and generally only the boundaries vary.

 

IC 349 is a knot of nebulosity just 0.6' SSE of Merope discovered and sketched by Barnard in 1890 using the 36-inch refractor at Lick.  The discovery was published in AN 3018.  See WSQJ July 1992.  In terms of distance, Steinicke notes this is the closest NGC object.

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NGC 1436 = NGC 1437 = ESO 358-058 = MCG -06-09-02 = PGC 13687

03 43 37.1 -35 51 12

 

See observing notes for NGC 1437.

 

James Dunlop discovered NGC 1436 = D 562 = h2581 = h2582 with his 9" reflector at Parramatta and described "a pretty large faint round nebula, about 3.5' diameter, gradual slight condensation to the centre, very faint at the margin."  His position is 22' too far SSE.  John Herschel logged it on 9 Jan 1836 (sweep 636) as "very bright, and evidently a globular cluster." He only gave the rough place from Dunlop.  JH (h2582) observed this object again on 28 Nov 1837 (sweep 801), assumed it was new and measured an accurate position.  It later received a GC (770) and NGC (1437) designation.  So, NGC 1436 = NGC 1437.   Dorothy Carlson and RNGC list NGC 1436 as "Not Found".  See Corwin's notes for the full story.

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NGC 1437 = NGC 1436 =ESO 358-058 = MCG -06-09-025 = AM 0341-360 = LGG 986-022 =  PGC 13687

03 43 37.1 -35 51 12

V = 11.7;  Size 3.0'x2.0';  Surf Br = 13.4;  PA = 150d

 

18" (1/21/04): large, low surface brightness glow with just a weak concentration.  Appears slightly elongated NNW-SSE, perhaps 2.5'x2.0', but edges fade into the background so difficult to determine the outline of the halo.  A mag 9.7 star lies 11' NE.  Member of the Fornax I cluster.

 

JH discovered NGC 1437 = h2582 on 28 Nov 1837 and logged "F, vL, glbM, R, 4" dia."  His position matches ESO 358-058 = PGC 13687.  h2581 = NGC 1436 is a duplicate observation, made while searching for Dunlop 562.  So NGC 1437 = NGC 1436.  Dunlop 562 may apply to this galaxy or perhaps NGC 1365, with a 10 tmin error in RA.

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NGC 1438 = ESO 482-041 = MCG -04-09-058 = PGC 13760

03 45 17.2 -23 00 09

V = 12.4;  Size 2.0'x0.9';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 69d

 

17.5" (11/2/91): fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 5:2 WSW-ENE, halo gradually brightens but no nucleus.  A mag 11 star just 20" off the east edge detracts from viewing and a very faint mag 14.5 star lies 1.7' S.

 

Ormond Stone discovered NGC 1438 = LM I-112 on 11 Dec 1885 with the 26" refractor at the Leander McCormick Observatory and recorded "mag 15.0, vmE 60”, *10 follows 1.0'."  His rough position (nearest minute of RA) and description matches ESO 482-041 = PGC 13760.  DeLisle Stewart's corrected position in the IC 2 Notes is accurate.

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NGC 1439 = ESO 549-009 = MCG -04-09-056 = PGC 13738

03 44 49.9 -21 55 14

V = 11.4;  Size 2.5'x2.3';  Surf Br = 13.3

 

13" (10/10/86): moderately bright, fairly small, bright core, stellar nucleus, round, large faint halo.

 

WH discovered NGC 1439 = H III-249 = h2584 on 9 Dec 1784 (sweep 331) and recorded "vF, vS."  JH made 3 observations from the CGH, first logging it as "pF, S, R, bM, 20" dia."

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NGC 1440 = NGC 1442 = NGC 1458: = ESO 549-010 = MCG -03-10-043 = PGC 13752

03 45 02.9 -18 15 59

V = 11.5;  Size 2.1'x1.6';  Surf Br = 12.8;  PA = 28d

 

13.1" (1/18/85): moderately bright, small, small faint halo, bright core, stellar nucleus.  Located 7' ENE of mag 10 SAO 149139.  Member of the NGC 1332 group.

 

WH discovered NGC 1440 = H II-458 = h2583 on 6 Oct 1785 (sweep 459) and recorded "pB, R, bM." JH made two observations at the CGH, logging it on 11 Dec 1835 as "pB; R; vsmbM to a nucleus = *13' 60" dia."  WH also made an observation on 20 Sep 1786 with a 1” error in declination, with the designation II-594.  JH included this observation in the GC (773), although he noted that Auwers considered it identical to II-458.  Dreyer added it as NGC 1142, also noting it was probably identical to NGC 1440.

 

Finally, Francis Leavenworth found this galaxy again in 1886, recorded it in list II-387, but made a 2 min error in RA (too far east).  Dreyer assumed it was new and was catalogued as NGC 1458.  So, NGC 1440 = NGC 1442 = NGC 1458.

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NGC 1441 = MCG -01-10-029 = PGC 13782

03 45 43.0 -04 05 31

V = 12.9;  Size 1.6'x0.6';  Surf Br = 12.8;  PA = 70d

 

13.1" (12/18/82): faint, small, slightly elongated.  Largest and brightest of three with NGC 1449 5.7' SE and NGC 1451 6.2' ENE.  Brighter NGC 1453 lies 13' NE.

 

WH discovered NGC 1441 = H II-597 on 30 Sep 1786 (sweep 608) and recorded "F, E in a row with some stars."  His position is just 0.8' north of MCG -01-10-029 = PGC 13782 and the description of the row of stars matches.

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NGC 1442 = NGC 1440 = NGC 1458: = ESO 549-010 = MCG -03-10-043 = PGC 13752

03 45 02.9 -18 15 59

 

See observing notes for NGC 1440.

 

WH found NGC 1442 = H II-594 on 20 Sep 1786 (sweep 597) and logged "pB, vS, R, bM."  There is nothing at his position but exactly one degree north is NGC 1440 = H II-458, which he earlier discovered on 6 Oct 1785.  The equivalence was noted by Auwers but JH still included the observation in the GC (774) as well as Dreyer in the NGC, although Dreyer added the comment that II-594 is probably identical to II-458 = NGC 1440.  Leavenworth (list II-387) found this galaxy again in 1886, but made a 2 min error in RA (too far east), and it was catalogued as NGC 1458 with a 2 min error in RA.  So, NGC 1440 = NGC 1442 = NGC 1458.

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NGC 1443

03 45 53.1 -04 03 09

 

=*, Corwin.  =NF, Carlson.

 

Wilhelm Tempel discovered NGC 1443 in 1882, and described in paper V (AN 2439) "class III and forms with NGC 1441 and the two d'Arrest nebulae (NGC 1449 and  NGC 1451) a trapezoid, so the second northernmost in this group".  There is nothing at his position, but Corwin identifies a single mag 14.5 that fits Tempel's description.  See Corwin's identification notes.

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NGC 1444 = Cr 43 = OCL-394 = Lund 119

03 49 26 +51 39 18

V = 6.6;  Size 4'

 

17.5" (11/2/91): at 220x, about 20 mag 7-14 stars scattered in a 5' diameter, not rich or impressive.  The group mainly consists of a bright double star (·446 = 7/9 at 9") with a third fainter mag 13 star 12" NE of the bright mag 7 star.  Close northwest is a line of four mag 10-12 stars oriented SW-NE.

 

The bright star (B-type HD 23675) is a member of the Cam OB1 Association in a dusty portion of the Milky Way, but the "cluster" may be an unrelated group of field stars.

 

8" (1/1/84): consists of a mag 7.5 star with 7 faint stars just west.  The brightest star is ·446 = 7.5/9.0 at 10".

 

WH discovered NGC 1444 = H VIII-80 = h308 on 18 Dec 1788 (sweep 894) and recorded "a cluster of small stars, containing one large one, 9-10 mag; 2 or 3' diam. not rich."  JH called it a "cluster of about 20 st; place that of a superb double star (· 446); the rest 12m."

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NGC 1445 = PGC 13742

03 44 56.1 -09 51 20

V = 14.0;  Size 0.8'x0.5';  Surf Br = 13.1

 

17.5": faint, small, slightly elongated, 0.4'x0.3', weak concentration.  Located 2.2' SE of a mag 12 star and 25' ESE of mag 3.5 Delta (35) Eridani.  NGC 1434 lies 21' NE.

 

Frank Muller discovered NGC 1445 = LM II-383 in 1886 with the 26" refractor at the Leander McCormick Observatory and reported "mag 14.5, 0.3' dia, R, *9, position 330” at 2'."  His position is 0.8 min of RA east of PGC 13742 and the description of the nearby star clinches the identification.  Herbert Howe measured an accurate position in 1898-99 using the 20" refractor at Chamberlin Observatory (repeated in the IC 2 notes).

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NGC 1446

03 45 57.5 -04 06 44

 

=*?, Corwin.

 

John Dreyer discovered NGC 1446 on 8 Jan 1877 observing with the 72" at Birr Castle.  He commented "perhaps a vF neb f [NGC 1441]" with no micrometric offsets and the sketch only shows two stars following NGC 1441, so it's unclear what object Dreyer had in mind. (in 1882).  Wilhelm Tempel independently recorded a new object in 1882 with the 11-inch refractor at the Arcetri Observatory and placed it 16 seconds of RA east of NGC 1441 and +3/4' in declination.  There is nothing at this exact separation and Harold Corwin lists a possible star if the +3' to 4' should read -3' to 4'.  Dreyer assumed both observations referred to the same object, so he and Tempel are credited in the NGC.

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NGC 1447 = PGC 13786

03 45 47.1 -09 01 07

V = 14.4;  Size 0.7'x0.4';  Surf Br = 13.5;  PA = 105d

 

17.5" (1/12/02): faint, very small, round, 20" diameter, very small brighter nucleus.  Located 2.7' WSW of mag 7.9 SAO 130711 which detracts from viewing.  NGC 1450 lies 13' S.

 

Francis Leavenworth discovered NGC 1447 = LM II-384 in 1886 with the 26" refractor at the Leander McCormick Observatory and recorded "mag 14.5, 0.4' dia, R, neb?; *9.5 at 3.2' separation in PA 240” (WSW) ."  His position is 3' S of PGC 13786 and the star is ENE.

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NGC 1448 = NGC 1457 = ESO 249-016 = MCG -07-08-005 = PGC 13727

03 44 32.0 -44 38 38

V = 10.7;  Size 7.6'x1.7';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 41d

 

18" (12/30/08): moderately bright, large, edge-on ~6:1 SW-NE, ~4.5'x0.8'.  Contains a brighter, elongated core that increases to the center.  A brighter star is close southeast of the core (1.4' from center) and a fainter star is near the northeast end.  Situated at the midpoint of two mag 9.2/9.7 stars located 7.5' N and 7.5' S.  Viewed at only 8” elevation.

 

JH discovered NGC 1448 = h2585 on 14 Dec 1835 and recorded "pB, vL, vmE, 3' l, 20" br, position = 221.6 degrees."  There is nothing at his position but 50 sec of RA east is ESO 249-016 = PGC 13727, which matches his description.  He also recorded h2586 = NGC 1457 (observed on 3 different sweeps; the first on 24 Oct 1835), which all point exactly to this galaxy.  I'm surprised he didn't notice there was only a single bright galaxy here!   By priority, NGC 1457 should be the primary designation, instead of NGC 1448 which is commonly used.  The IC 2 notes state "1448 = 1457 (DeLisle Stewart); h on different nights".  ESO labels this galaxy as NGC 1448 = NGC 1457 and MCG calls it NGC 1448.

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NGC 1449 = MCG -01-10-032 = PGC 13798

03 46 03.0 -04 08 17

V = 13.5;  Size 0.7'x0.5';  Surf Br = 12.2;  PA = 20d

 

13.1" (12/18/82): faint, very small, round.  Located 5.7' SE of NGC 1441 and forms a trio with NGC 1451 4.2' NNE in a group.

 

Heinrich d'Arrest discovered NGC 1449, along with NGC 1451, on 9 Oct 1864 with an 11" refractor at Copenhagen.  His position, measured on 4 nights, matches MCG -01-10-032 = PGC 13798.  WH probably saw NGC 1449 and 1451 in an observation of NGC 1441 on 26 Nov 1786 (sweep 638).  He mentions, "I suspected two more following; but quite uncertain, not having been out long enough."

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NGC 1450 = PGC 13775

03 45 36.5 -09 14 04

V = 14.4;  Size 0.8'x0.6';  Surf Br = 13.5;  PA = 15d

 

17.5" (11/17/01): fairly faint, fairly small, slightly elongated, 0.7'x0.5' SSW-NNE.  Several faint galaxies are situated nearby.  2MASXi J0345396-091149 is 2.4' N and I plotted a very faint star or galaxy at or near this position.  But even closer (1.7' W) is the brighter edge-on PGC 993557, which I apparently missed.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 1450 = Sw V-56 = LM I-113 = LM I-114 on 22 Oct 1886 with the 16" refractor at Warner Observatory.  His position is 16 sec of RA due east of PGC 13775.  Ormond Stone independently found this galaxy on 31 Dec 1886 at the Leander McCormick Observatory and described a double nebula with separation 0.5' (only one galaxy is listed in NED and LEDA).  Dreyer combined Swift's and Leavenworth's entries into NGC 1450.  Herbert Howe measured an accurate position in 1899-00 using the 20" refractor at Chamberlin Observatory (repeated in the IC 2 notes).

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NGC 1451 = MCG -01-10-033 = PGC 13801

03 46 07.1 -04 04 10

V = 13.3;  Size 0.7'x0.4';  Surf Br = 11.9;  PA = 45d

 

13.1" (12/18/82): faint, very small, round.  In a trio with NGC 1441 6.2' WSW and  NGC 1449 4.2' SSW within a group.  Located 7.9' SW of NGC 1453.

 

Heinrich d'Arrest discovered NGC 1451, along with NGC 1449, on 9 Oct 1864.  His position (measured on 4 nights) matches MCG -01-10-033 = PGC 13801 and he measured a mag 12 star that precedes by 12 seconds of time.  WH probably saw NGC 1449 and 1451 in an observation of NGC 1441 on 26 Nov 1786 (sweep 638).  He mentions "I suspected two more following; but quite uncertain, not having been out long enough."  Due to his uncertainty, they were not assigned internal discovery numbers.

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NGC 1452 = NGC 1455 = ESO 549-012 = MCG -03-10-044 = PGC 13765

03 45 22.3 -18 38 01

V = 11.8;  Size 2.2'x1.5';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 113d

 

13.1" (1/18/85): moderately bright, small, round, broad weak concentration, faint stellar nucleus, small faint halo.  Appears similar to NGC 1440 25' NNW but slightly fainter.  Member of NGC 1332 group.

 

WH discovered NGC 1452 = H II-459 on 6 Oct 1785 (sweep 459) and recorded "F, R, lbM."  His position is 3.2' north of ESO 549-012 = PGC 13765.  Francis Leavenworth (II-386) independently found the galaxy in 1886 with the 26" refractor at Leander McCormick Observatory but his position is 40 sec of RA east of NGC 1452.   So Dreyer assumed it was new and catalogued it again as NGC 1455.  But Leavenworth's position angle ("lE in 30 deg") matches the bar of NGC 1452, so NGC 1452 = NGC 1455, with NGC 1452 the primary designation.  Herbert Howe measured an accurate position in 1899-00 using the 20" refractor at Chamberlin Observatory (repeated in the IC 2 notes).

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NGC 1453 = MCG -01-10-034 = PGC 13814

03 46 27.2 -03 58 09

V = 11.5;  Size 2.4'x1.9';  Surf Br = 13.2

 

13.1" (12/18/82): bright, fairly small, slightly elongated, very small bright core.  Brightest of four with a faint trio of galaxies NGC 1441, NGC 1449 and NGC 1451 roughly 10' SW.

 

WH discovered NGC 1453 = H I-155 = h309 on 30 Sep 1786 (sweep 608) and recorded "cB, S, mbM."  On 26 Nov 1786 (sweep 638) he noted "pB; gmbM."

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NGC 1454 = ESO 549-?013

03 45 59.3 -20 39 08

 

=*, Gottlieb.  =NF, ESO.

 

Frank Muller discovered NGC 1454 = LM II-385 in 1886 with the 26" refractor at the Leander McCormick Observatory and reported a "*?; *9.5, P 240” [SW] distance 3'.2."  There is nothing at his position.  ESO 549-011 is 12' NW of Muller's position and has a mag 8 star 2.5' NE.  It's possible that Muller reversed the orientation with the mentioned star, although his magnitudes are usually too bright.  I feel a more likely match is the mag 15.3 star listed here.  With respect to this star there is a mag 12.3 star at a distance of 3.4' in PA 240 degrees, which is an excellent match with the description.  Corwin concurs that NGC 1454 is a star.  ESO and RNGC state "not found".

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NGC 1455 = NGC 1452 = ESO 549-012 = MCG -03-10-044 = PGC 13765

03 45 22.3 -18 38 01

V = 11.8;  Size 2.2'x1.5';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 113d

 

See observing notes for NGC 1452.

 

Francis Leavenworth discovered NGC 1455 = LM II-386 in 1886 with the 26" refractor at the Leander McCormick Observatory amd recorded "mag 14.7, 0.5', lE 30”, sbMN."  There is nothing at his position but 40 sec of RA west is NGC 1452 = H II-459, and his position angle matches the bar of NGC 1452.  NGC 2000 and the Southern Galaxy Catalogue equate NGC 1455 with NGC 1452.  RNGC misidentifies PGC135094 at 03 46 09.4 -18 39 26 (2000) as NGC 1455 while PGC and ESO misidentify ESO 549-014 as NGC 1455.

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NGC 1456

03 48 08.3 +22 33 31

 

=**, Gottlieb.

 

Gerhard Lohse discovered NGC 1456 in 1886 with a 15.5-inch refractor at the private Wigglesworth Observatory in Scarborough, England and noted a "double star mag 10-12, companion nebulous at 130”, 9''.  At his position is a wide pair of stars with the southwest component a "fused" double star (both components visible) on the DSS at 03 48 08.3 +22 33 31 (2000).  The single mag 10 star is 1.4' NE.  Lohse's description matches this pair although there is no involved nebulosity.  Listed as nonexistent in RNGC.

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NGC 1457 = NGC 1448 = ESO 249-016 = MCG -07-08-005 = PGC 13727

03 44 32.0 -44 38 38

V = 10.7;  Size 7.6'x1.7';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 41d

 

See observing notes for NGC 1448.

 

JH discovered NGC 1457 = h2586 on 24 Oct 1835 and recorded "pB, vmE, glbM, a ray nebula, 4' l, 20" br, pos = 38 degrees.".  His position (observed on 3 sweeps) is accurate.  He also picked up this galaxy on a separate sweep in 14 Dec 1835, but placed this galaxy 50 sec of RA too far west.  He apparently missed the equivalent descriptions and it was also catalogued as NGC 1448.  The IC 2 notes notes this number is identical to NGC 1448 (DeLisle Stewart).  The primary designation should be NGC 1457 (earlier discovery), but this galaxy is generally referred to NGC 1448.

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NGC 1458 = NGC 1440 = NGC 1442 = ESO 549-010 = MCG -03-10-043 = PGC 13752

03 45 02.9 -18 15 59

 

See observing notes for NGC 1440.

 

Francis Leavenworth found NGC 1458 = LM II-387 in 1886 with the 26" refractor at the Leander McCormick Observatory.  There is nothing at his position, but 2.0 min of RA west is NGC 1440 (discovered earlier by William Herschel).  NGC 1442 (also from Herschel) is probably another observation of this galaxy with a 1” error in declination (see these entries for more).  So, NGC 1440 = NGC 1442 = NGC 1458.

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NGC 1459 = ESO 482-043 = MCG -04-10-001 = PGC 13832

03 46 57.9 -25 31 18

V = 12.8;  Size 1.7'x1.1';  Surf Br = 13.4;  PA = 167d

 

17.5" (11/2/91): very faint, fairly small, elongated 2:1 NNW-SSE, low almost even surface brightness.  A mag 12 star is 2.9' S of center.

 

Ormond Stone discovered NGC 1459 = LM I-115 in 1886 with the 26" refractor at the Leander McCormick Observatory.  His rough position (nearest minute of RA) is a good match with ESO 482-043 = PGC 13832.

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NGC 1460 = ESO 358-062 = MCG -06-09-031 = AM 0344-365 = LGG 096-025 = PGC 13805

03 46 13.7 -36 41 48

V = 12.6;  Size 1.4'x1.0';  Surf Br = 12.8;  PA = 60d

 

18" (1/21/04): faint, fairly small, irregularly round, 1.0' diameter.  This Fornax I cluster member has a fairly low surface brightness.  A mag 12.8 star is very close off the SE side [38" from center].  Located 2.7' S of a mag 10.6 star.  Member of the Fornax I cluster.

 

JH discovered NGC 1460 = h2587 on 28 Nov 1837 and described "F; S; R; 15"; attached to a star 14 mag."  His position and description is accurate.

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NGC 1461 = MCG -03-10-047 = PGC 13881

03 48 27.1 -16 23 36

V = 11.8;  Size 3.0'x0.9';  Surf Br = 12.8;  PA = 155d

 

17.5" (12/28/94): fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 5:2 NNW-SSE, 1.2'x0.5'.  Strong concentration with a small bright core.  Located 3.3' SE of a mag 10.5 star.

 

8" (11/28/81): faint, small, elongated 2:1 NNW-SSE, bright core.

 

WH discovered NGC 1461 = H II-460 = h2588 on 6 Oct 1785 (sweep 459) and noted "pB, S, lE, mbM or a nucleus."   His position is 2' south of MCG -03-10-047 = PGC 13881, and accurate in RA.  JH logged "pB, vlE, pmbM, 25" dia.", but was off by 21 sec in RA (too far east).  Schšnfeld measured an accurate position (used in the NGC).

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NGC 1462 = MCG +01-10-010 = CGCG 417-007 = PGC 13945

03 50 23.5 +06 58 22

V = 14.1;  Size 0.9'x0.5';  Surf Br = 13.0

 

17.5" (11/2/91): extremely faint, small, elongated 3:2 SSW-NNE (orientation uncertain), very low surface brightness.  A faint double star lies 1' WNW.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 1462 = m 92 on 13 Sep 1864 with William Lassell's 48" on Malta and noted "vF, S, vlE".  Marth's position is accurate.

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NGC 1463 = ESO 117-009 = PGC 13807

03 46 15.5 -59 48 37

V = 13.5;  Size 1.4'x1.2';  Surf Br = 13.9;  PA = 45d

 

24" (4/4/08 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): moderately bright and large at 200x, round, even concentration to a small, brighter core and occasional stellar nucleus.  Quite a number of brighter stars are nearby including a group of 7 bright mag 10-11 stars that lie just to the north and two additional mag 11 stars that flank the galaxy 1.8' SSW and 2.5' ENE.  In addition, the galaxy is 8.5' NNW of mag 9.7 HD 24060.  IC 2010 lies 43' ESE.

 

JH discovered NGC 1463 = h2589 on 6 Oct 1834 and recorded "F, S, R, bM, 15", one of a constellation with 7 bright stars." JH's position (h2589) and description is accurate.

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NGC 1464 = NGC 1471 = PGC 13976

03 51 24.4 -15 24 08

V = 13.8;  Size 0.7'x0.5';  Surf Br = 12.5;  PA = 44d

 

18" (11/22/03): faint, small, round, 40"x35", fairly low even surface brightness with just a weak concentration.  A mag 12.5 star lies 1.9' SSE.  Located 16' NE of mag 8.3 SAO 149206.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 1464 = Sw V-57 on 1 Nov 1886 with the 16" refractor at the Warner Observatory and reported "pF; S; R; forms equilateral triangle with 2 stars."  His position is 2' NW of PGC 13976 and the description applies.  Leavenworth also found the galaxy in 1886 and it was catalogued as LM I-116 = NGC 1471. So NGC 1464 = NGC 1471 (discovery priority unknown).

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NGC 1465 = UGC 2891 = MCG +05-10-003 = CGCG 508-004 = PGC 14039

03 53 32.0 +32 29 33

V = 13.7;  Size 1.7'x0.5';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 165d

 

13.1" (1/1/84): fainter extensions visible oriented ~N-S.

 

13.1" (11/5/83): faint, small, round, but not difficult.  Mag 6.6 SAO 56775 lies 12' SW.  Located 40' N of Zeta Persei (V = 2.9).

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 1465 = Sw V-58 on 25 Sep 1886 with the 16" refractor at the Warner Observatory and recorded "pF; pS; R; pB* near p[receding]."  His position is 8 tsec east and 39" north of UGC 2891 = PGC 14039.  His "pB * nr p" probably refers to a mag 11 star 2' W.

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NGC 1466 = ESO 054-SC016 = S-L 1

03 44 32.4 -71 40 16

V = 11.6;  Size 2.3'

 

30" (11/4/10 - Coonabarabran, 264x): bright, moderately large, round, 2.5' diameter.  Appeared mottled with some extremely faint stars resolved in the halo.  The only brighter resolved star is on the south side of the halo.  The view is somewhat hampered by mag 6.3 CT Hydri just 4' ENE and a mag 9 star 2.3' SSE.

 

18" (7/9/02 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): this outlying globular of the LMC is known to be one the oldest LMC clusters.  At 128x it appeared moderately bright, fairly small, round, 2' diameter.  There was no resolution except for a single faint star at the south edge but the surface brightness was high.  This cluster was fairly prominent and very easy to find as it is situated 4' WSW of mag 6.3 HD 241888 (CT Hydri) and 2.2' NNW of a mag 9 star.

 

JH discovered NGC 1466 = h2590 on 26 Nov 1834 and recorded "F, irregularly round, glbM, 30", has a * 7th mag foll, and others near." On a second sweep he notes "Viewed past meridian; found in place; pB, R, gbM, 30" dia."

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NGC 1467 = MCG -02-10-015 = PGC 13991

03 51 52.7 -08 50 17

V = 13.5;  Size 1.4'x1.1';  Surf Br = 13.8;  PA = 115d

 

17.5" (2/11/96): very faint, small, round, 0.6' diameter, slightly brighter core.  Slightly brighter of a pair with NGC 1470 10' SSE.

 

17.5" (2/8/91): very faint, small, very small bright core surrounded by a very low surface brightness halo.  Located 4.3' NNE of a mag 10 star.

 

Frank Muller discovered NGC 1467 = LM II-388 in 1886 with the 26" refractor at the Leander McCormick Observatory and recorded "mag 15.0, 0.3' dia, R, *9 at 4.2' in PA 185” [SSW]."  His position is just 0.2 min of RA west of MCG -02-10-015 = PGC 13991, along with the matching star.

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NGC 1468 = MCG -01-10-045 = PGC 14004

03 52 12.5 -06 20 56

V = 13.2;  Size 1.2'x0.8';  Surf Br = 13.0;  PA = 135d

 

17.5" (2/11/96): very faint, very small, round, 30" diameter, weak even concentration to an occasional stellar nucleus.  A mag 14.5 star is 1.0' ENE of center.  Located ~3' N of a 1' pair of mag 11/12 stars.

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 1468 = St XII-27 on 14 Dec 1881 using the 31" reflector at the Marseille Observatory.  HIs position is accurate.

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NGC 1469 = UGC 2909 = MCG +11-05-004 = CGCG 305-003 = PGC 14261

04 00 28.0 +68 34 40

V = 12.7;  Size 1.9'x0.8';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 153d

 

17.5" (11/2/91): moderately bright, fairly small, elongated 5:2 NNW-SSE, 1.5'x0.6', very bright core surrounded by fainter elongated halo.  A mag 10 star is just off the west edge 0.6' WSW from the center.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 1469 = Sw III-27 on 24 Feb 1886 with the 16" refractor at the Warner Observatory and recorded "vF; vS; R; B* nr."  His position is 6' NW of UGC 2909 = PGC 14261 and the "B * nr" refers to a mag 10.5 star at the SW edge.

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NGC 1470 = MCG -02-10-016 = PGC 14002

03 52 09.7 -08 59 57

V = 14.2;  Size 1.3'x0.4';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 169d

 

17.5" (2/11/96): very faint, fairly small, very elongated 3:1 NNW-SSE, 1.0'x0.3', slightly brighter core.  Forms a faint pair with NGC 1467 10' NNW.

 

Frank Muller discovered NGC 1470 = LM II-389 in 1886 with the 26" refractor at the Leander McCormick Observatory and recorded "mag 15.0, 0.8'x0.2', E 180” [N-S], *9.5 precedes 20s, 2' S."  There is nothing at his position but 1.0 min of RA west is MCG -02-10-016 = PGC 14002, along with the described star at his offset.

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NGC 1471 = NGC 1464 = PGC 13976

03 51 24.4 -15 24 08

 

See observing notes for NGC 1464.

 

Francis Leavenworth discovered NGC 1471 = LM I-116 in 1886 with the 26" refractor at the Leander McCormick Observatory and recorded "mag 14.5, vS, pE 45”."  His rough RA (to the nearest min) is about 1.5 min east (same dec) of NGC 1464, which was found by Lewis Swift (V-57) on 1 Nov 1886 and the position angle of 45” matches. RNGC equates the numbers.  See Corwin's notes.

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NGC 1472 = PGC 14050

03 53 47.3 -08 34 06

V = 14.4;  Size 0.6'x0.6';  Surf Br = 13.1

 

17.5" (2/8/91): very faint, small, round.  A mag 13 star is 1' SE.  FIrst and brightest of three with NGC 1477 4' E and NGC 1478.

 

Ormond Stone discovered NGC 1472 = LM I-117 in 1886 with the 26" refractor at the Leander McCormick Observatory and described "mag 14.0, 0.1' dia, 1st of 3 [with NGC 1477 and 1478]."  His rough position (nearest minute of RA) essentially matches PGC 14050 and the other two galaxies are appropriately placed in his list.

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NGC 1473 = ESO 054-019 = LGG 107-001 = PGC 13853

03 47 26.8 -68 13 13

V = 12.9;  Size 1.5'x0.8';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 36d

 

24" (4/4/08 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): at 200x appears moderately bright and large, elongated 3:2 SW-NE, weakly concentrated with a slightly brighter core.  This galaxy has a slightly mottled or clumpy appearance (the SGC notes a "large knot 0.3' NE of center").  Elongated in the direction of a star 3' SW.  Situated within a string of 4 stars - one star to the NW and three to the SE.  Member of a small group that includes NGC 1511 and NGC 1511A.

 

JH discovered NGC 1473 = h2592 on 2 Nov 1834 and recorded "pF; R; glbM; 25" dia."  His position (from two sweeps) corresponds with ESO 054-019 = PGC 13853.

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NGC 1474 = UGC 2898 = MCG +02-10-003 = CGCG 442-005 = IC 2002 = PGC 14065

03 54 30.3 +10 42 24

V = 13.8;  Size 1.1'x1.0';  Surf Br = 13.8;  PA = 0d

 

17.5" (2/11/96): faint, fairly small, round, 40" diameter, weak concentration to a slightly brighter 15" core.  A mag 13.5 star is just 1.0' N of center.  Located 12' WSW of mag 9 SAO 93675.

 

This galaxy is identified as IC 2002 in UGC, MCG, CGCG and RC3 due to a poor declination by Marth. RNGC reverses the sign of the declination.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 1474 = m 93 on 5 Oct 1864 with William Lassell's 48" on Malta and logged "vF, S, R."  His position is 8' S of UGC 2898 = PGC 14065, but this is the only nearby galaxy he could have seen. Several objects discovered by Marth that evening have poor positions including NGC 1141 and NGC 1142 (dec error of 40').  Stephane Javelle (III-983) independently found the galaxy on 21 Dec 1903, measured an accurate position and Dreyer catalogued it again as IC 2002.  So, NGC 1474 = IC 2002.  UGC, MCG, CGCG and RC3 all use the IC designation, as the position is unambiguous, but NGC 1474 should take priority.  In addition, the RNGC and PGC reversed the sign of the declination of NGC 1474 (as well as Roger Sinnott's NGC 2000.0 and amateur software including Megastar).  See my RNGC Corrections #6 and Corwin's notes.

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NGC 1475 = PGC 1007783

03 53 49.8 -08 08 15

Size 0.6'x0.6'

 

18" (10/16/09): not seen initially at 275x but referring to the exact position an extremely faint glow was quickly seen with averted.  Appears very small, round, 12" diameter.  Visible ~2/3 of the time with averted once it was acquired.

 

18" (1/1/08): extremely faint and small, round, 10"-15" diameter.  Requires averted vision to glimpse.  Located 9' SE of mag 8 HD 24485 and 4.5' S of a mag 11.5 star.  A couple of other similar stars are within 5' to the SW and NE.  The RNGC lists this number as nonexistent.

 

Francis Leavenworth discovered NGC 1475 = LM II-390 in 1886 with the 26" refractor at the Leander McCormick Observatory and recorded "mag 15.3, 0.1' dia, R, *14 4' north-preceding."  His position is close to PGC 1007783, though the mag 14 star is 5' southwest, instead of northwest.  RNGC classifies this number as nonexistent.  See Corwin's notes.

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NGC 1476 = ESO 249-024 = MCG -07-09-001 = AM 0350-444 = PGC 14001

03 52 08.9 -44 31 57

V = 13.1;  Size 1.4'x0.6';  Surf Br = 12.6;  PA = 86d

 

24" (11/18/12 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): fairly faint to moderately bright, moderately large, very elongated 4:1 ~E-W, 0.8'x0.2', broad concentration.  Located 15' SE of a mag 8 star.

 

JH discovered NGC 1476 = h2591 on 14 Dec 1835 and recorded "F, S, pmE in the parallel; gbM, 15" long." On a second sweep he described it "vF, lE, gbM, 25" long". His position is accurate.

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NGC 1477 = PGC 14060

03 54 02.9 -08 34 30

V = 14.8;  Size 0.6'x0.5';  Surf Br = 13.3

 

17.5" (2/8/91): extremely faint, very small, round.  A mag 15 star is 1' NE.  Located in a trio with NGC 1472 4' W and NGC 1478 2' NE.

 

Ormond Stone discovered NGC 1477 = LM I-118 in 1886 with the 26" refractor at the Leander McCormick Observatory and logged "mag 15.0, 0.2' dia, 2nd of 3 [with NGC 1472 and 1478]."  His rough position (nearest minute of RA) is essentially accurate, along with the companions.

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NGC 1478 = PGC 14062

03 54 07.3 -08 33 20

V = 15.5;  Size 0.5'x0.3';  Surf Br = 13.3

 

17.5" (2/8/91): extremely faint and small, round, at visual threshold.  Faintest of a trio with NGC 1477 2' SW and NGC 1472 5' WSW.

 

Ormond Stone discovered NGC 1478 = LM I-119 in 1886 with the 26" refractor at the Leander McCormick Observatory and noted "mag 15.0, 0.2' dia, 3rd of 3 [with NGC 1472 and 1477]."  His rough position (nearest minute of RA) is essentially accurate, along with the companions.

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NGC 1479

03 54 24 -10 12

 

=Not found, RNGC and Corwin.

 

Frank Muller discovered NGC 1479 = LM II-391 in 1886 with the 26" refractor at the Leander McCormick Observatory recorded "mag 16.0, 0.6'x0.1', 1st of 2 [with NGC 1480 = LM II-392]; nebulous **, in PA 170”."  There is nothing near his position which matches this description and no discovery sketch was found to aid in the identification.  Neither of these objects could be recovered by Harold Corwin.  See his identification notes.

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NGC 1480

03 54 30 -10 16

 

=Not found, RNGC.

 

Frank Muller discovered NGC 1480 = LM II-392 (along with NGC 1479 = LM II-391) in 1886 with the 26" refractor at the Leander McCormick Observatory, but there is nothing at his position. Muller mentions a "*10 following 30s" but no discovery sketch was found to aid in the identification and Harold Corwin's search came up empty. The RNGC has an obvious typo in the position as the RA is off by over 8 hours.

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NGC 1481 = ESO 549-032 = MCG -03-10-053 = KTS 22A = PGC 14079

03 54 28.9 -20 25 38

V = 13.4;  Size 1.0'x0.7';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 133d

 

24" (12/1/13): fairly faint, fairly small, oval 3:2 NW-SE, 30"x20", broad concentration.  Fainter of a pair with NGC 1482 5.0' SE.  Between the two galaxies is mag 8.6 HD 24672 and a mag 12.5 star is less than 1' SE.  ESO 549-035 lies 8.6' ENE.

 

17.5" (2/1/92): very faint, very small, slightly elongated NW-SE, even surface brightness.  Located 2.5' NW of mag 8.7 SAO 168936.  Continuing on this line is NGC 1482 5' SSE.

 

JH discovered NGC 1481 = h2593 on 13 Nov 1835 and described "eF, S, R, precedes two bright stars and the nebula III.962 [NGC 1482].".  His single position is 2' S of ESO 549-032 = PGC 14079 and the description applies perfectly.

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NGC 1482 = ESO 549-033 = MCG -03-10-054 = KTS 22B = PGC 14084

03 54 38.9 -20 30 09

V = 12.1;  Size 2.5'x1.4';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 103d

 

24" (12/1/13): moderately bright to fairly bright, fairly large, oval 5:3 WNW-ESE, ~1.5'x0.9'.  Contains a large bright core that increases to a very small, bright nucleus.  Surrounding the core is a very low surface brightness halo.  Forms a right triangle with two bright stars; mag 8.6 HD 24694 2.3' ENE and mag 8.6 HD 24672 2.6' NNW.  Brightest in a triplet (KTS 22) with NGC 1481 5.0' NW and ESO 549-35 9' NE.  The dust lane in this IR-luminous starburst galaxy was not seen.

 

17.5" (2/1/92): faint, fairly small, elongated 4:3 ~E-W, broad concentration.  Forms the southern vertex of an isosceles triangle with mag 8.7 SAO 168936 2.5' NW and mag 8.6 SAO 168941 2' NE!  Forms a pair with NGC 1481 5' NNW..

 

WH discovered NGC 1482 = H III 962 = h2594 on 19 Dec 1799 (sweep 1091) and recorded "vF; vS; near 2 bright stars, south preceding of them."  JH observed the galaxy from the Cape of Good Hope on 13 Nov 1835 and logged "F, S, R; makes an obtuse angled triangle with two bright stars, the one preceding, the other following it." A week later he called it "eF, S; makes an obtuse angled nearly isoceles triangle with two stars 10th mag north of it." His third observation on 11 Dec was recorded as "pB, lE, gbM (newly polished mirror); makes an obtuse angled triangle with two stars 10th mag to its north."

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NGC 1483 = ESO 201-007 = PGC 14022

03 52 47.7 -47 28 40

V = 12.7;  Size 1.6'x1.3';  Surf Br = 13.4;  PA = 125d

 

24" (11/18/12 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): moderately bright and large, slightly elongated NW-SE, 1.2'x0.9', broad concentration, slightly irregular or patchy surface brightness but no clear spiral structure.  Located 15' SE of mag 6.7 HD 24500.  Member of the Dorado Group.

 

JH discovered NGC 1483 = h2595 on 14 Dec 1835 (and possibly earlier by Dunlop) and recorded "pretty faint; round; very little brighter in the middle; 20". (Newly polished mirror, but the sky dull and haze forming; so that this may very possibly be Dunlop 428.)".  His second observation reads "very faint; pretty large; round; very gradually a little brighter in the middle; 80" across. I feel convinced that this nebula is too faint to have been seen by Mr Dunlop. Put on the 9 inch aperture, could not discern the least trace of it.  Mirror polished yesterday and in high beauty. Sky superb."

 

James Dunlop discovered D 427 on 2 Sep 1826 with his 9" reflector from Parramatta and reported "a pretty large nebula, round figure, 2' or 3' diameter".  D 428 was described as "An extremely faint ill-defined small nebula.  A pretty large nebula (D 427) precedes this."  Despite Herschel's comments, Dunlop's position for D 428 lands very close to NGC 1483, although there is only a single object here, so perhaps this is a coincidence.

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NGC 1484 = ESO 359-006 = MCG -06-09-036 = PGC 14071

03 54 17.9 -36 58 14

V = 13.1;  Size 2.5'x0.6';  Surf Br = 13.4;  PA = 80d

 

18" (12/30/08): faint, thin edge-on ~6:1 E-W, 1.5'x0.25', low even surface brightness with no noticeable core.  Located at the SE edge of the Fornax I cluster.

 

JH discovered NGC 1484 = h2596 on 28 Nov 1837 and recorded "vF, L, E, vgvlbM, 2'."  His position is 1' S of ESO 359-006 = PGC 14071.

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NGC 1485 = UGC 2933 = MCG +12-04-010 = CGCG 327-014 = PGC 14432

04 05 03.6 +70 59 46

V = 12.6;  Size 2.1'x0.7';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 22d

 

17.5" (2/8/91): fairly faint, moderately large, very elongated 3:1 SSW-NNE, even surface brightness.  A mag 15 star is just following the SSW end.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 1485 = Sw III-28 on 24 Feb 1886 with the 16" refractor at the Warner Observatory and logged "eF; pS; R."  His position is 2.6' NW of UGC 2933 = PGC 14432 and the identification is certain, though the galaxy is quite elongated.

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NGC 1486 = ESO 549-037 = MCG -04-10-008 = PGC 14132

03 56 18.6 -21 49 17

V = 14.2;  Size 0.9'x0.6';  Surf Br = 13.4;  PA = 2d

 

17.5" (2/22/03): very faint, fairly small,, 0.6'x0.4', weak concentration with a roundish, brighter core, requires averted vision.  The halo appears elongated SSW-NNE although difficult to pin down a consistent orientation.  Located 10' E of mag 9.7 SAO 168958 and 9' ENE of mag 9.4 SAO 168962.

 

Francis Leavenworth discovered NGC 1486 = LM II-393 in 1886 with the 26" refractor at the Leander McCormick Observatory.  His position is about 25 sec of RA east of ESO 549-037 = PGC 14132.  Herbert Howe measured an accurate position in 1898-99 using the 20" refractor at Chamberlin Observatory (repeated in the IC 2 notes).

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NGC 1487 = VV 78 = ESO 249-003 = MCG -07-09-0021 = LGG 108-001 = PGC 14117

03 55 45.3 -42 22 05

V = 11.9;  Size 3.3'x2.1';  Surf Br = 13.9;  PA = 55d

 

18" (1/17/09): fairly faint, moderately large, irregularly round, 1.8'x1.5', slightly elongated E-W, weak central brightening.  Appears to have an irregular surface brightness, though viewed at a very low elevation from Lake Sonoma.  Two mag 12.5-13 stars form an isosceles triangle with the galaxy 1.2' N and 1.2' W.  On the DSS this is a distorted interacting system with two brighter condensations and long, faint tidal plumes.  This object should be viewed from a more southerly latitude to see detail.

 

James Dunlop discovered NGC 1487 = D 480 = h2597 on 29 Oct 1826 with his 9" reflector and described "a very faint ill-defined nebula, with two or three very small stars in it, and a small star following."  There is nothing at his position, but 83 sec of RA west is the interacting system VV 78 = PGC 14117.  Glen Cozens notes this is probably the faintest galaxy discovered by Dunlop (V = 11.9).  JH observed this galaxy on 3 sweeps, first recording "pB, pL, R, 90"; makes a triangle with two stars 13th mag about 1 radius of nebula (by diagram) from its edge." NGC 1487 is a distorted triple system.

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NGC 1488

04 00 04.3 +18 34 02

 

=**, Thomson.  Incorrect ID in RNGC, CGCG, RC3.

 

Edward Cooper discovered NGC 1488 = Au 19 at the Markree Observatory in Ireland, and noted as a nebulous mag 12 star while compiling the Markree ecliptic Catalogue.  At his position is a 9" pair of stars.  Bigourdan reported finding only a 13th mag double star with no nebulosity.  Engelhardt also made a micrometric measurement of the components of this double star.

 

RNGC, CGCG and RC3 misidentify CGCG 466-003 = PGC 14181 as NGC 1488.  This galaxy is located 1m 55s of time west of Cooper's position.  All of the other six objects discovered at Markree Observatory have been shown to be stars.  See Thomson's Catalogue Corrections and Corwin's notes.

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NGC 1489 = ESO 549-042 = MCG -03-11-003 = PGC 14165

03 57 38.2 -19 12 58

V = 13.8;  Size 1.4'x0.6';  Surf Br = 13.4;  PA = 12d

 

17.5" (2/22/03): very faint, fairly small, elongated ~2:1 SSW-NNE, 0.9'x0.4', nearly uniform surface brightness.  Situated between a mag 10.8 star 2.7' W and a mag 11.4 star 4' NE.

 

Frank Muller discovered NGC 1489 = LM II-394 in 1886 with the 26" refractor at the Leander McCormick Observatory and recorded "mag 15.0, 1.0'x0.6', E 190” (SSW-NNE)."  His position is 40 sec of RA east of ESO 549-042 = PGC 14165 and the position angle is a perfect match.  Herbert Howe measured an accurate position in 1898 using the 20" refractor at Chamberlin Observatory (repeated in the IC 2 notes).  MCG does not label this galaxy as NGC 1489.

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NGC 1490 = ESO 083-011 = PGC 14040

03 53 34.4 -66 01 05

V = 12.4;  Size 1.3'x1.1';  Surf Br = 12.8;  PA = 142d

 

24" (4/4/08 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): at 280x appeared bright, moderately large, round, 1.2' diameter.  Sharply concentrated with a very bright 20" core that increases to the center, surrounded by a diffuse 1.2' halo.  A faint star is embedded at the east edge of the halo.  NGC 1503 lies 18' E and ESO 083-012 is 9.5' NE.  Located 1.5 degrees SE of mag 3.8 Beta Reticuli and 4' N of mag 9.3 HD 24957.

 

JH discovered NGC 1490 = h2599 on 2 Nov 1834 and recorded "pB, S, lE, pmbM, 18" dia."  His position is accurate.

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NGC 1491 = LBN 705 = Ced 25 = Sh 2-206

04 03 13.6 +51 18 58

Size 3'x3'

 

18" (1/20/07): at 115x and 174x and OIII filter appears as a bright, large, elongated HII region on the west side of an 11th magnitude star.  Appears roughly 4'x2', extending SSW to NNE and brighter on the south end.  The west side has a fairly hard, well-defined edge while the east side is more irregular and fades into the background.  Four faint stars are involved on the northern end and a pair of fainter stars are at the south end.

 

17.5" (3/2/02): at 100x, this is a moderately bright, roundish glow, ~3' diameter.  Extends mostly west of a mag 11 star, wrapping around the star, particularly on the north side.  Excellent contrast gain with an OIII filter as it appears bright with an irregular surface brightness.  There is a subtle bite cut out of the nebulosity on the east side that creates a darker hollow extending just west of the star.  At 220x (unfiltered), about a half dozen stars are involved or at the edges.  The nebulosity is quite irregular with a high surface brightness region preceding the star.  Faint, elongated haze extends from this patch to the NE past the star giving an elongated appearance.  A pair of mag 13-14 stars is at the northern end and another pair is just off the western edge.

 

17.5" (12/8/90): at 140x with OIII filter appears as a bright, moderately large, circular nebulosity involving a mag 11 star.  The brightest portion lies to the west of the star and is elongated 3:2 ~N-S.  There appears be a dark gap just west of the mag 11 star.  Two very faint stars are superimposed near the edges.

 

13" (1/18/85): bright emission nebula just west of a mag 10.5 star, extends SW-NE, interesting shape.

 

8" (11/14/80): bright, large, ~6' diameter.  A mag 10.5 star is at the east side.

 

WH discovered NGC 1491 = H I-258 on 28 Dec 1790 (sweep 989) and recorded "vB, iF, resolvable, bM, 5' l, 3 or 4' br. A pL star in it towards the following side, but unconnected."  His position is fairly accurate, though Dreyer used a micrometric position of an involved star by Engelhardt.  See Corwin's notes.

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NGC 1492 = ESO 359-012 = AM 0356-353 = PGC 14186

03 58 13.1 -35 26 48

V = 13.5;  Size 0.8'x0.7';  Surf Br = 12.8;  PA = 10d

 

18" (1/21/04): faint, small, round, 0.4' diameter, fairly even surface brightness.  Located 1.5' N of a mag 13 star.

 

JH discovered NGC 1492 = h2598 on 28 Nov 1837 and logged "vF, vS, R, 10'."  His position is accurate, though, his size of 10' is probably a typo for 10".

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NGC 1493 = ESO 249-033 = AM 0355-462 = PGC 14163

03 57 28 -46 12 36

V = 11.3;  Size 3.5'x3.2';  Surf Br = 13.7

 

24" (11/18/12 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): fairly bright, fairly large, round, 3.0' diameter, broad concentration.  Contains a brighter, elongated core or "bar" oriented ~E-W.  The halo contains a strong suggestion of irregular spiral structure.  A mag 15 star is at the east edge of the halo.  This face-on SBcd galaxy is a member of the Dorado Group.

 

James Dunlop discovered NGC 1493 = D 438 = h2600 with his 9-inch reflector on 2 Sep 1826 and described "a very faint nebula, about 1' diameter, round figure".  JH first logged it on 14 Dec 1835 and noted "F, vL, R, vglbM, 3'; sky dull, a haze forming."  On a second sweep he was critical of Dunlop's discovery and commented "faint; large; round; very gradually a little brighter in the middle; 2.5' across. With 9" aperture, and a mirror newly polished yesterday, and in high beauty, it is barely possible to discern with the utmost attention that this nebula exists; but to have discovered it with that aperture and power 180 would have been quite out of the question; possibly, however, 90 might show it better."  Despite Herschel's skepticism, Dunlop's position is unusually accurate.

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NGC 1494 = ESO 201-012 = PGC 14169

03 57 42.5 -48 54 32

V = 11.7;  Size 3.2'x1.9';  Surf Br = 13.5;  PA = 179d

 

24" (11/18/12 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): fairly bright, fairly large, oval 3:2 N-S, 2.4'x1.5'.  Contains an elongated bar-like core with a suggestion of spiral structure and mottling (HII regions) in the halo.  A distinctive trio of mag 12-12.5 stars (separations 30"-45") lie 3.5' N.  Located 14' W of mag 7.9 HD 25315.  Possible member of the Dorado Group.

 

JH discovered NGC 1494 = h2601 on 28 Dec 1834 and described "F, L, R, vgvlbM, 70" dia."  On a second sweep he called it "F, L, R, vglbM, 2.5'; has north of it a triangle of stars 12th mag."  His position and description is accurate.

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NGC 1495 = ESO 249-034 = MCG -07-09-004 = AM 0356-443 = PGC 14190

03 58 21 -44 28 00

V = 12.6;  Size 3.0'x0.5';  Surf Br = 13.0;  PA = 104d

 

24" (11/18/12 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): moderately bright or fairly bright, fairly large, very thin edge-on 8:1 WNW-ESE, 2.5'x0.3', broad concentration but no well-defined core, slightly mottled or uneven appearance, fades at tips with the ESE tip fainter.  A mag 11.8 star lies 1.9' SE of center and a mag 9.4 star is 5.9' ESE, nearly collinear with the major axis.  Possible member of the Dorado Group (NGC 1433 subgroup?).

 

JH discovered NGC 1495 = h2602 on 24 Oct 1835 and logged "F, E in the parallel, vgvlbM, 60" l, 40" br."  His position (measured on 3 sweeps) is accurate.

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NGC 1496 = Cr 44 = OCL-396 = Lund 122

04 04 32 +52 39 42

Size 6'

 

17.5" (12/28/94): 20 stars mag 12-15 in a 5' region elongated E-W.  The stars are mainly arranged in a semicircle open to the east with several nice close pairs!  The brightest mag 11 star is on the NE end of the semicircle and the SE end is a very close double.  An isolated mag 10 star is 4' SW and 0.8' NE of this star is an evenly matched mag 14 pair at 7" separation.

 

JH discovered NGC 1496 = h310 on 8 Nov 1831 and recorded a "curious knot of stars forming a cluster in form the segment of an elliptic ring."  His position and and description accurates describes this cluster.

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NGC 1497 = UGC 2929 = MCG +04-10-008 = CGCG 487-009 = PGC 14331

04 02 06.8 +23 07 59

V = 13.1;  Size 1.8'x1.2';  Surf Br = 13.8;  PA = 60d

 

48" (10/31/13): moderately bright to fairly bright, moderately large, oval 3:2 SW-NE, 45"x30", contains a bright core.  A mag 12.7 star is 1.1' SW of center.  Brightest in a group with UGC 2927 6' WSW ("fairly faint, small, round, 24" diameter, very small bright nucleus.  A mag 15 star is attached at the east side of the core") and UGC 2928 7.4' NW ("fairly faint, small, slightly elongated, 20" diameter").

 

17.5" (11/14/87): fairly faint, small, round, bright core, forms a triangle with two stars to the south.  UGC 2927 lies 6' WSW.  Located 15' E of ·479 = 7.0/7.9 at 7" and about 3.5” SE of the Pleiades.

 

13.1" (1/28/84): faint, small, roundish, slightly brighter middle, a pair of stars are just south.

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 1497 = St VIIIb-13 on 11 Dec 1876 using the 31" reflector at the Marseille Observatory.  His position matches UGC 2929 = PGC 14331.

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NGC 1498

04 00 19.4 -12 01 11

Size 0.7

 

17.5" (12/30/99): at 220x, this is an easily resolved trio of mag 13.5-14 stars forming a small isosceles triangle (separations of 30", 30", 45").  This triple star or asterism is the closest object to William Herschel's position but it's difficult to see how he confused it with a poor cluster.

 

WH discovered NGC 1498 = H VII-3 on 8 Feb 1784 (sweep 136) and recorded "a small cluster of compressed stars, containing some pretty large."  Dreyer notes in his 1912 "Scientific Papers of William Herschel", that "there is no very pronounced cluster near the place."  Herschel's reference star is 3 Leporis with an offset of -72m 30s and -30' dec.  This places NGC 1498 at 03 59 54 -12 01 (J2000) and Auwer's reduction gives the same position.  A close trio of mag 13/14 stars lies at 04 00 19.4 -12 01 11 (mean of three stars with a maximum separation of ~45"), which is a plausible candidate although doesn't qualify as a "small cluster of compressed stars."  See Corwin's notes for more of the story.

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NGC 1499 = California Nebula = LBN 756 = Ced 26 = Sh 2-220

04 03 14 +36 22 06

Size 145'x40'

 

17.5" (1/16/02): Despite its reputation as a challenging target, this was an easy, fascinating object at 64x with a H-beta filter. The California Nebula is HUGE and extended a full two eyepiece fields even using a 31 Nagler for a total length of over 2.5 degrees and with a varying width of 15'-30', extended WNW-ESE.  The E-W border is well-defined with a filter, particularly in the general vicinity of Xi Persei (middle of three naked-eye stars in the leg of Perseus collinear with the Pleiades) on the southern border and a long straight stretch on the northern edge.  Along the northern edge, there is some filamentary, wispy structure similar to the view of the Veil nebula in a small scope!

 

The nebulosity is weaker and more disorganized, though, close to the preceding and following ends. The nebula tapers towards the eastern end where there are some additional brighter streaks and dark intrusions near a group of stars.  Portions of the central region are clearly fainter with no evident structure.  At the west end the structure is also chaotic with an irregular mix of weak nebulosity and darker voids.  There is much to view here even at 64x, and I spent 30 minutes scanning the entire length for structure.

 

17.5" (10/28/89): the California Nebula requires very low power and visibility is best using an H-beta filter.  At 82x appears very large, faint, very elongated, irregular low surface brightness with darker lanes and some wispy structure along the edges.  The most well-defined section of the border is near a mag 8.5 star bordering the southern edge.  Located roughly 30' N of mag 4.0 Xi Persei.

 

13.1" (1/18/85): definite contrast gain with H-beta filter as only the section NW of Xi was definite using a Daystar 300 filter (siimlar to UHC), but the H-beta shows the full extent easily.

 

13x80mm (1/13/07): excellent view in my 80mm finder using a 24mm Panoptic and an H-beta filter as a huge, elongated bar of fairly high contrast stretching across the field.  The glow is generally brightest in the broad middle section between Xi Persei and the 6th magnitude star off the central north side.  The nebula noticeably tapers towards the southeast end as the northern side of this end squeezes inward.  Similarly, the northwest end also tapers as the northern boundary narrows towards the southern side.

 

16x80mm (7/27/84): very large and faint, very elongated WNW-ESE, sharper and brighter on WNW edge, very low surface brightness.  Improved contrast with an H-beta filter.

 

15x50mm IS binoculars (8/27/11): very faintly visible as a large, elongated glow near Xi Persei using a pair of 2" H-beta filters over the objectives.

 

E.E. Barnard discovered NGC 1499, the California Nebula, on 3 Nov 1885 while searching for comets with the 6-inch Cooke Equatorial refractor at Vanderbilt University Observatory.  In Sidereal Messenger, Vol 5 (page 27) he reported "this requires the lowest power and cannot be seen by direct vision. It is only by directing the vision slightly to one side of its place that it is pssible to see it, then flashes out feebly."  The NGC position is near the following end.

 

Simon Archenhold produced the first photograph on 27 Oct 1891.  He quickly published an article with a sketch of the outline (nearly 2”) and apparently felt it was too large photographically to be identical to Barnard's intended object.  Barnard responded in an 1894 article that he discovered this object visually.

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NGC 1500 = ESO 201-013 = PGC 14187

03 58 13.9 -52 19 42

V = 13.8;  Size 1.1'x0.9';  Surf Br = 13.8;  PA = 88d

 

24" (11/18/12 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): at 260x, fairly faint, fairly small, slightly elongated ~E-W, 0.6'x0.5', weak concentration.  Nearly on a line between a mag 11.2 star 2.6' WNW and a mag 10.2 star 4.7' ESE.  Brightest member of AGC 2193 with several cluster members in the field including PGC 14176 2.6' SW, PGC 128672 3.1' SE and PGC 14188 6.3' SSE.

 

JH discovered NGC 1500 = h2603 on 24 Dec 1837 and logged "F, vS, R, pmbM, 12"; has a star 8th mag 15.5 tsec preceding in RA, to northward." Herschel noted this nebula might be equivalent to James Dunlop's D 369, which was described as "a faint nebula, elliptical in the parallel of the equator, about 30" long and 12" broad".  Dunlop's position is 2 min 30 sec of RA east of this galaxy and not nearly as elongated as Dunlop's description.  This equivalence is not given by Glen Cozens or Wolfgang Steinicke. 

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NGC 1501 = PK 144+6.1 = PN G144.5+06.5 = Oyster Nebula

04 06 59.4 +60 55 15

V = 11.9;  Size 56"x48"

 

18" (11/7/07): superb view at 450x in good seeing.  The 1' diameter disc is slightly elongated ~E-W, ~60"x50" with a very narrow, brighter rim and darker center.  The mag 14.4 central star was steadily visible.  On closer inspection the thin rim was clearly irregular in surface brightness and slightly brighter along the southwest and northeast sides with a couple of tiny knots embedded in the rim.  The slightly darker interior was weakly mottled or patchy with subtle variations in surface brightness.

 

17.5" (1/8/00): at 100x, this moderately bright PN was irregularly round, 1' diameter, weakly annular with a faint glimpse of the central star.  There was a good contrast gain with the OIII filter and the image was crisp-edged, slightly elongated SW-NE and the small, darker center was more evident.  Excellent view at 220x with the faint central star (mag 14.4) clearly visible.  The surface brightness was irregular with an unevenly brighter outer rim.  The central star was visible steadily at 280x and the overall surface brightness was mottled or "clumpy" (brighter on west and NE rim), darkening in the center.

 

17.5" (9/14/85): bright, moderately large, almost round, 1' diameter, high surface brightness.  An easy mag 14.2 central star is visible.  Appears darker near the central star with a brighter rim.

 

13" (1/28/84): slightly annular, very faint mag 14 central star visible. 

 

8": fairly faint, moderately large, bluish, slightly elongated, sharp-edged.

 

WH discovered NGC 1501 = H IV-53 on 3 Nov 1787 (sweep 774) using the front-view (no secondary) design with a power of 157.  He described "a very curious planetary nebula of nearly 1' in diameter; it is round, pretty well defined of a uniform light and pretty bright."  Just 6 nights later, he reported "with 360 much magnitified, but still the borders pretty abruptly defined, irregularly elliptical."

 

On 15 Jan 1868 Lawrence Parsons, the son of Lord Rosse, reported "a bright ring and inside it a dark annulus, very decided.  A star in the centre seen very clearly and continuously with various powers; suspect variable [unequal?] brightness in the ring, perhaps a dark spot in it nearly on the p side.  The f side of the ring appears broadest and to approach the central star nearer than the preceding side does.  The n and s sides of the ring seem rather brighter than the p and f sides.  Suspect other bright points in it, but am not at all certain.  It is slightly elliptical, its major axis being nearly p and f."

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NGC 1502 = Cr 45 = OCL-383 = Lund 124

04 07 49 +62 19 54

V = 5.7;  Size 8'

 

13.1" (1/28/84): bright, striking cluster, 40 stars visible in a trapezoidal outline.  The brightest is the striking double ·485 = 7.0/7.1 at 18" and the cluster also includes ·484 = 9.0/9.5 at 5".  Located near the SE end of the chain of stars "Kemble's Cascade".

 

WH discovered NGC 1502 = H VII-47 on 3 Nov 1787 (sweep 774) and recorded "a cluster of stars, pretty rich and considerably compressed, slightly extended, 3' or 4' diameter, irregular figure."

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NGC 1503 = ESO 083-013 = PGC 14137

03 56 33.5 -66 02 28

V = 13.4;  Size 0.9'x0.7';  Surf Br = 12.7;  PA = 140d

 

24" (4/4/08 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): fairly faint to moderately bright, small, round, 25" diameter.  Contains a very small brighter core and occasional stellar nucleus.  Located 18' E of brighter NGC 1490.

 

JH discovered NGC 1503 = h2604 on 2 Nov 1834 and logged "eF, S, R, (a doubtful object) Has a * on p, 10th mag 3' dist."  His position is 1' N of ESO 083-013 = PGC 14137.

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NGC 1504 = MCG -02-11-008 = PGC 14336

04 02 29.7 -09 20 07

V = 14.5;  Size 0.7'x0.4';  Surf Br = 13.0

 

17.5" (12/30/99): very faint, very small, round, 20" diameter.  Appears as a low surface brightness spot sandwiched between NGC 1505 1.8' NE and a mag 12 star 1.6' W.

 

Ormond Stone discovered NGC 1504 = LM I-120 (along with NGC 1505 = LM I-121) on 31 Dec 1885 with the 26" refractor at the Leander McCormick Observatory.  His rough positions (nearest min of RA) correspond with MCG -02-11-008 = PGC 14336 and MCG -02-11-009 = PGC 14339.

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NGC 1505 = MCG -02-11-009 = PGC 14339

04 02 36.4 -09 19 21

V = 14.2;  Size 1.0'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.7

 

17.5" (12/30/99): fairly faint, fairly small, slightly elongated E-W, 40"x30".  Increases to a small bright core and stellar nucleus.  Forms the vertex of an isosceles triangle with two mag 11.5-12.5 stars 3.5' WSW and SSW.  Brighter of a close pair with NGC 1504 1.8' SW (inside the triangle).

 

Ormond Stone discovered NGC 1505 = LM I-121 (along with NGC 1504 = LM I-120) on 31 Dec 1885 with the 26" refractor at the Leander McCormick Observatory.  His rough position (nearest min of RA) matches MCG -02-11-009 = PGC 14339.  MCG does not label this galaxy NGC 1505.

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NGC 1506 = ESO 156-027 = PGC 14256

04 00 21.6 -52 34 25

V = 13.5;  Size 1.2'x0.9';  Surf Br = 13.4;  PA = 80d

 

24" (11/18/12 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): fairly faint, fairly small, oval 3:2 ~SW-NE, 35"x25", weak concentration, gradually increases to a faint stellar nucleus.  Situated between a mag 13 star 1.8' SW and a mag 13.5 star 1.1' NE.  Member of AGC 3193 with brighter member NGC 1500 24' NW.

 

JH discovered NGC 1506 = h2605 on 23 Dec 1837 and logged "eeeF, S, R.".  On the next sweep (when brighter NGC 1500 was also discovered) he added "between two stars 12th and 13th mag."  His position and description matches.

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NGC 1507 = UGC 2947 = MCG +00-11-009 = CGCG 392-002 = Mrk 1080 = PGC 14409

04 04 27.1 -02 11 21

V = 12.3;  Size 3.6'x0.9';  Surf Br = 13.4;  PA = 11d

 

13.1" (12/18/82): fairly faint, edge-on 4:1 N-S, even surface brightness.  A mag 10.5 star is 3.4' SSE and a mag 13 star is 1.2' W.

 

WH discovered NGC 1507 = H II-279 on 6 Jan 1785 (sweep 351) and recorded "mE, easily resolvable, about 4' long, some of the stars [in it] visible."  On 1 Feb 1786 (ssweep 518) he noted "vF, mE, vlbM, about 3' l."

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NGC 1508 = MCG +04-10-021 = CGCG 487-021 = PGC 14454

04 05 47.6 +25 24 31

V = 14.3;  Size 0.5'x0.4';  Surf Br = 12.4

 

17.5" (11/14/87): fairly faint, small, round, bright core.  UGC 2949 lies 15' SW.

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 1508 = St VIIIb-14 on 15 Dec 1876 with the 31" reflector at the Marseille Observatory.  His position matches CGCG 487-021 = PGC 14454.

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NGC 1509 = MCG -02-11-013 = Mrk 1079 = IC 2026 = PGC 14393

04 03 55.2 -11 10 44

V = 13.7;  Size 0.9'x0.6';  Surf Br = 12.9

 

17.5" (12/30/99): faint, very small, round, 20" diameter.  This is a very compact galaxy with a fairly high surface brightness.  A mag 14.5 star is 1' E.  Forms a close pair with MCG -02-11-012 = PGC 14389 just 1.2' W.  At first I thought it was a very faint mag 15-15.5 star, but with extended viewing, a 15" knot was seen.  The companion is often misidentified as IC 2026.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 1509 = Sw V-59 = LM 1-122 on 22 Oct 1886 with the 16" refractor at the Warner Observatory and logged "vF; vS; lE; F* nr p."  His position is 9 sec of RA following MCG -02-11-013 and it's possible his "F* nr p" refers to PGC 14389 (as I almost thought).  Ormond Stone also found this galaxy the same year with the 26" refractor at the Leander McCormick Observatory and listed it as #122.  Stone's rough position (to the nearest min of RA) is close enough to be unambiguous.  Bigourdan reobserved the galaxy in 1897 but assumed it was a nova and it received the number IC 2026.  So, NGC 1509 = IC 2026, with priority to Swift and Stone.  Howe also observed the field in 1899-00 and measured an accurate position with the 20" refractor at Denver. See Corwin's identification notes.

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NGC 1510 = ESO 250-003 = MCG -07-09-006 = LGG 108-002 = PGC 14375

04 03 32.6 -43 24 01

V = 13.0;  Size 1.3'x0.7';  Surf Br = 12.8;  PA = 90d

 

13.1" (2/18/04 - Costa Rica): faint, very small, round, only 20" diameter.  Forms an equilateral triangle with two mag 13.5 stars ~1.8' S and 1.7' WSW.  Located 5' SW of NGC 1512.

 

13.1" (11/29/86): not seen although far south from northern California.  Forms a pair with brighter NGC 1512.

 

JH discovered NGC 1510 = h2606 on 4 Dec 1836 and recorded "F; R; vgpmbM, 80" dia.  Not resolved.  A companion to Dunlop 466 [NGC 1512]."  His position is accurate.

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NGC 1511 = ESO 055-004 = AM 0359-674 = KTS 23A = LGG 107-002 = PGC 14236

03 59 36.9 -67 38 03

V = 11.3;  Size 3.5'x1.2';  Surf Br = 12.7;  PA = 125d

 

24" (4/4/08 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): at 200x appeared fairly bright, fairly large, elongated 3:1 NW-SE, ~2.5'x0.8'.  Contains a bright, elongated core with a small very bright nucleus.  Two stars mag 14-15 stars bracket the galaxy just 54" E and 1.3' W of center and just north of the center.  The northeast flank of the galaxy appears slightly brighter and more sharply defined and there is an impression of a dust lane on the south side.  At 260x the galaxy has a mottled appearance and is slightly warped or asymmetric at the tips.  A mag 10.8 star lies 3.5' SSE and a fainter edge-on, NGC 1511A, is in the field 11' SSE, and appeared as a fairly faint, moderately large, edge-on 7:2 WNW-ESE, 1.5'x0.4', broadly concentrated with a slightly bulging core.  NGC 1511 is a member of a small group that includes NGC 1473, NGC 1511A and NGC 1511B.

 

JH discovered NGC 1511 = h2608 on 2 Nov 1834 and described "pB; mE; vgbM; 90" l; pos 125.5”."  His position and description matches ESO 055-004 = PGC 14236.

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NGC 1512 = ESO 250-004 = MCG -07-09-007 = AM 0402-433 = LGG 108-003 = PGC 14391

04 03 54.2 -43 20 56

V = 10.3;  Size 8.9'x5.6';  Surf Br = 14.4;  PA = 90d

 

13.1" (2/18/04 - Costa Rica): fairly bright, fairly large, oval 3:2 SW-NE.  Sharply concentrated with a bright, 30" core.  The tightly bound spiral "ring" was not seen, although there was some brightening at the southwest and northeast ends of the major axis, where the spiral arms emerge from the central bar.  Forms a pair with NGC 1510 5' SW.

 

13.1" (11/29/86): faint, small, slightly elongated.  Forms a pair with NGC 1510 5' SW.  Very far south for viewing from Northern California.

 

James Dunlop discovered NGC 1512 = D 466 = h2607 on 29 Oct 1826 and described "a small faint round nebula, about 25 arcseconds diameter, a little brighter in the centre: a star of 10th or 12th magnitude preceding the nebula."  Dunlop made a single observation and his position is 10' SE of the galaxy (typical error).

 

JH made 3 observations:  On 24 Oct 1835 he logged "bright, large, slightly elongated, pretty suddenly brighter in the middle, 3' diameter; it is just north of a great group of large stars 6, 7 and 8th mag, scattered over two or three fields."  On a second sweep he noted "Globular.  bright, pretty large, round, 3' diameter. Resolved into stars barely perceptible." Finally, on a third sweep he recorded "B, R, gpmbM."  Based on the second description, Herschel identified this object as a globular cluster in the GC and Dreyer copied this classification into the NGC description.  The IC 2, though, has a note from DeLisle Stewart "Not a globular cl, but an eF ring nebula".

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NGC 1513 = Cr 46 = OCL-398 = Lund 125

04 09 55 +49 31 00

V = 8.4;  Size 9'

 

13.1" (1/18/85): about 60 stars mag 11 and fainter over unresolved background glow.  Located 50' SE of Lambda Persei (V = 4.3).

 

WH discovered NGC 1513 = H VII-60 on 28 Dec 1790 (sweep 989) and recorded "A L cl of considerable L stars, pretty compressed and very rich, iR, about 7' dia."  His position is accurate.

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NGC 1514 = PK 165-15.1 = PN G165.5-15.2 = Crystal Ball Nebula

04 09 17.0 +30 46 33

V = 10.9;  Size 136"x121"

 

48" (10/25/14): at 610x unfiltered; very bright and large; very irregular surface brightness, the rim varies greatly in thickness and brightness.  The relatively thick rim is very bright in the northwest quadrant, along roughly a 70” arc.  A second enhanced portion of the rim is along the southeast end (~35” arc) and a third slightly smaller, bright region (more circular) is on the east end.  The rim is weak on the south or south-southwest end.  A mag 17 star is at the edge of the rim on the southwest end.  The rim is also weaker on the north and northeast side.  The rim bulges out on the southeast side (near the two enhancements on this end) and to a lesser extent on the northwest end and the south end.  The mag 9.5 star at the center and a very faint companion to its southeast are surrounded by a darker central hole.

 

18" (2/4/08): at 175x, appears as a large, roundish glow (~2.5'x2.2) surrounding a bright mag 9.4 central star.  Excellent response to UHC and OIII filters.  The surface brightness is clearly irregular with subtle brighter and darker regions.  The SW and NE ends were slightly dimmer, while the NW and SE portions of the rim were brighter.  The region around the central star was also slightly darker.

 

17.5" (12/30/99): at 100x, moderately bright, round, ~2' halo surrounding a prominent mag 9.5 star.  Displayed an excellent response to UHC and OIII blinking while the H-beta filter killed the PN (OIII/H-beta = 12).  Using the OIII filter, the surface brightness was noticeably uneven, with the NW quadrant of the rim clearly brighter.  The SE end was also weakly enhanced while the center and ends of the minor axis were slightly darker.  At 220x using a UHC filter, the halo appeared nearly 2.5' in diameter.  There was a small, darker "hole" surrounding the central star and the halo was clearly irregular with a brighter "knot" on the SE side, while the NW portion of the halo was brighter along the rim.

 

17.5" (9/14/85): very bright, large, round, 2' diameter.  Contains a very bright mag 9.5 central star surrounded by a fairly bright halo with an irregular surface brightness.  Located midway between mag 8.3 SAO 57017 8' NNW and mag 9 SAO 57021 8' S.

 

13" (12/22/84): bright, fairly large, round, dominated by a mag 9.5 central star.

 

WH discovered NGC 1514 = H IV-69 = h311 on 13 Nov 1790 (sweep 980) and described "A most singular phenomenon. A star of about 8th magnitude with a faint luminous atmosphere of a circular form, and about 3' in diameter. The star is perfectly in the center and the atmosphere is so diluted, faint and equal throughout that there can be no surmise of its consisting of stars; nor can there be a doubt of the evident connection between the atmosphere and the star. Another star, not much less in brightness and in the same field with the above, was perfectly free from any such appearance."  The striking symmetry of NGC 1514 caused Herschel to rethink his idea of planetary nebulae.  He previously assumed all nebulae were unresolved stellar clusters of some kind, disguised by their great distance. After this point, he was convinced of the existence of pure nebulosity, out of which individual stars or planets were born and he no longer expected every nebula to be resolved with enough aperture.  This essentially destroyed his interest in the 40-foot telescope (48-inch aperture), although the difficulty in using this unwieldy scope was also a major factor.

 

A total of 20 observations were made with the 72" at Birr Castle with one of the earliest (13 Jan 1852) by Bindon Stoney describing NGC 1514 as a "new spiral of an annular form round the star, which is central; Brightest part is sf the star, spirality is very faint, but I have no doubt of its existence".  Stoney and later R.J. Mitchell sketched an irregular rim with brighter and dimmer sections.  Samuel Hunter made a sketch on 9 Jan 1858 with a brighter reversed "S" shape within an oval halo.  A version of this sketch was chosen (over Stoney and Mitchell's sketches) for LdR's 1861 publication (plate XXV, figure 7).  Resolving spiral structure was a major theme at Birr Castle but irregularities in the rim was likely the cause of this illusion.

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NGC 1515 = ESO 156-036 = PGC 14397

04 04 03.0 -54 06 10

V = 11.2;  Size 5.2'x1.1';  Surf Br = 13.0;  PA = 18d

 

24" (11/18/12 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): showpiece galaxy with a close companion at 260x.  Very bright and large, very elongated at least 4:1 SSW-NNE, ~4.5'x1' with a bulging core -- similar to a smaller version of NGC 7331.  The overall surface brightness is high with a very high surface brightness elongated core.  NGC 1515A lies 2.0' SW of center.  The companion appeared faint, fairly small, round, 30" diameter with a small brighter core and a very low surface brightness halo.  Despite the closeness, the companion is more than 10 times as distant as NGC 1515.  Member of the Dorado Group.

 

James Dunlop discovered NGC 1515 = D348 = h2609 on 5 Nov 1826 using his 9-inch f/12 reflector from Parramatta.  He found "a very faint nebula, about 35 arcseconds diameter. This precedes a group of small stars."  His position is 1 min 15 sec of RA too far east (typical error) and a group of mag 12 stars follows. JH first observed this galaxy on 5 Dec 1834 and logged "B, L, vmE, gbM; 3' l, 40" br".

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NGC 1516 = NGC 1524 = MCG -02-11-017/018 = PGC 14515

04 08 07.4 -08 49 46

Size 0.5'x0.4'

 

17.5" (2/11/96): at first view (fairly poor seeing) appeared as a single but irregular galaxy elongated 2:1 NNW-SSE, 1.0'x0.5'.  In periods of better seeing, the system resolved into an extremely close contact pair with the brighter component at the SSE end, round, 25" diameter.  The fainter component is attached at the NNW end, round, 20" diameter.  A mag 15 star lies 1' S.

 

WH discovered NGC 1516 = H III-499 = h2610 on 30 Jan 1786 (sweep 516) and recorded "vF, S, E, easily resolvable." JH observed this double system twice from the CGH, logging it (on his second sweep) as "vF; first vg then psvmbM, 20" diameter".  Ormond Stone (I-113 and I-114) independently found this system again on 31 Dec 1885 with the 26" refractor at Leander McCormick Observatory.  He resolved the individual members, noting a separation of 0.5' in PA 340” [NNW-SSE], but his rough position (nearest min of RA) is over two minutes of RA too large.  Dreyer assumed these were new nebulae and assigned the numbers NGC 1524 and NGC 1525.   So, NGC 1516 should apply to the entire double system found by Herschel, while NGC 1524 and NGC 1525 should apply to the individual members found by Stone.  But the components are generally labeled NGC 1516A and NGC 1516B.  The RNGC declination is 3' too far south.  See Corwin's notes.

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NGC 1517 = UGC 2970 = CGCG 418-013 = PGC 14564

04 09 11.9 +08 38 56

V = 13.4;  Size 1.1'x1.0';  Surf Br = 13.3

 

13.1" (1/28/84): faint, small, round, weak concentration.  Located just 1.0' NW of a mag 10 star.

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 1517 = St XIII-25 on 23 Dec 1884 with the 31" reflector at the Marseille Observatory.  His position matches UGC 2970  = PGC 14564.

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NGC 1518 = ESO 550-007 = MCG -04-10-013 = PGC 14475

04 06 49.1 -21 10 35

V = 11.8;  Size 3.0'x1.3';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 35d

 

18" (1/21/04): fairly bright, fairly large, elongated 3:1 SW-NE, ~2.8'x1.0', broad concentration with a large bulging core and tapered ends.  Irregular, mottled surface brightness and fades on the SW end.  Located 2.6' NE a mag 10 star.

 

17.5" (12/28/94): fairly faint, very elongated 3:1 SW-NE, 2.7'x0.9', weak concentration.  Located 2.5' NE of a mag 9.5 star.  Appears asymmetric with the SW end close to the bright star much fainter than the main body.

 

8" (1/1/84): faint, very elongated 3:1 streak SW-NE.  A mag 10 star 2.5' SW interferes with viewing.  NGC 1521 lies 22' ENE.

 

JH discovered NGC 1518 = h2611 on 6 Jan 1785 and recorded "B; L; pmE; gbM; has a *8 mag south-preceding 3' or 4' dist."  His position is exactly 1.0 min of RA east of ESO 550-007 = PGC 14475, but the description applies.  Herbert Howe measured an accurate position in 1898 using the 20" refractor at Chamberlin Observatory (repeated in the IC 2 notes) and gave the position angle as 200”.  Sir Robert Ball, observing with Lord Rosse's 72" on 25 Jan 1867, wrote "I have little doubt that there are interesting details in the form of this object but the altitude is low (15”) and the night was bad.  The middle part is bright but apparently excentric if (as was suspected) there is a branch proceeding south and somewhat curved towards the preceding side."

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NGC 1519 = ESO 550-009 = MCG -03-11-013 = PGC 14514

04 08 07.5 -17 11 34

V = 12.9;  Size 2.1'x0.5';  Surf Br = 13.0;  PA = 107d

 

17.5" (2/8/91): fairly faint, fairly small, very elongated 3:1 ~E-W, broad concentration.  Located 4.6' WNW of mag 8.8 SAO 149397.

 

Wilhelm Tempel discovered NGC 1519 = T I-14 = T V-2 on 2 Jan 1878 with the 11" refractor at the Arcetri Observatory.  His ring micrometer position in list V is an exact match with ESO 550-009 = PGC 14514.

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NGC 1520 = ESO 032-SC005

03 57 51 -76 48 20

Size 5'

 

14" (4/7/16 - Coonabarabran, 184x): fairly small and poor cluster of a dozen stars mag 9.6 and fainter in a 5' region.  Not impressive but detached in the field. Viewed through thin clouds.

 

JH discovered NGC 1520 = h2615 on 8 Nov 1836 and described "a poor cluster of about a dozen stars 9...12m within a space of about 5', the largest taken." His position corresponds with a mag 9 star surrounded by a small group of stars.

 

Lindsay reported in 1964IrAJ....6..286L: "Not found. Centred on CPD -77”154. Star distribution seems normal."  RNGC repeated this, although ESO classifies the object as an open cluster.

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NGC 1521 = ESO 550-011 = MCG -04-10-015 = PGC 14520

04 08 18.9 -21 03 07

V = 11.4;  Size 2.8'x1.7';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 10d

 

18" (1/21/04): moderately bright, fairly small, slightly elongated N-S, ~1.2'x1.0', fairly well concentrated with a small bright core and stellar nucleus.  Mag 8.4 SAO 169161 lies 4.6' SSE.

 

8" (1/1/84): faint, very small, round, weakly concentrated.  Located 5' NNW of mag 8.5 SAO 169161.  Forms a pair with NGC 1518 22' WSW.

 

JH discovered NGC 1521 = h2612 on 21 Nov 1835 and logged "pB; R; bM; barely in time and too late for a good observation."  Nevertheless, his position is good and matches ESO 550-011 = PGC 14520.

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NGC 1522 = ESO 156-038 = AM 0404-524 = PGC 14462

04 06 07.7 -52 40 12

V = 13.6;  Size 1.2'x0.8';  Surf Br = 13.4;  PA = 42d

 

24" (11/18/12 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): fairly faint to moderately bright, fairly small, oval 3:2 SW-NE, 30"x20", very small brighter core. A mag 15.8 star is just off the NW side, 30" from center.  A mag 13.5 star lies 1.3' NE of center.  Located 14' SW of mag 8.6 HD 26354.  Member of the Dorado Group (NGC 1566 subgroup).

 

JH discovered NGC 1522 = h2613 on 27 Dec 1834 and described "eeF, vS, R, 12". In a very dark field, no star 13th mag within 5'." On a second sweep he called it "vF, vS, R, vlbM, 12" dia". His position matches ESO 156-038 = PGC 14462.

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NGC 1523 = ESO 156-**39

04 06 11 -54 05 24

 

=4*, Dreyer and HC.

 

JH discovered NGC 1523 = h2614 on 6 Dec 1834 and logged "vF, R."  His position is roughly 2 min of RA east of NGC 1515 (recorded on the same sweep) and just north are four mag 14/15 stars.  DeLisle Stewart reported "Only 3 vF st, not a nebula" in the Harvard College Observatory NGC Correction list.  See Corwin's notes.

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NGC 1524 = NGC 1516a = MCG -02-11-017

04 08 07.4 -08 49 47

 

See observing notes for NGC 1516.

 

Ormond Stone discovered NGC 1524 = LM I-123 (along with NGC 1525 = LM I-124) on 31 Dec 1885 with the 26" refractor at the Leander McCormick Observatory.  He described a double system at 0.5' separation in PA 340” (NNW-SSE).  There is nothing at the published position, but 2 min of RA west is NGC 1516, discovered by WH (III-499), and his sketch confirms the intended objects.  Neither William or John resolved the close pair of galaxies.  So, NGC 1516A = NGC 1524 and NGC 1516B = NGC 1525.  The RNGC classifies this number as nonexistent.  See Corwin's notes.

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NGC 1525 = NGC 1516b = MCG -02-11-018

04 08 08.2 -08 50 08

 

See observing notes for NGC 1516B.

 

Ormond Stone discovered NGC 1525 = LM I-124 (along with NGC 1524 = LM I-123) on 31 Dec 1885 with the 26" refractor at the Leander McCormick Observatory.  He reported finding a double system at 0.5' separation in PA 340” (NNW-SSE).  NGC 1525 = NGC 1524B.  See notes for NGC 1524 for the story. 

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NGC 1526 = ESO 084-003 = PGC 14437

04 05 12.3 -65 50 23

V = 13.8;  Size 0.8'x0.5';  Surf Br = 12.8;  PA = 36d

 

14" (4/7/16 - Coonabarabran, 184x): very faint, small, slightly elongated SW-NE, ~25"x20", even surface brightness.  Situated just south of a 10' x 1.5' group of 8 stars including a mag 9.8 star just 3.3' NNE.  Viewed in poor conditions.

 

JH discovered NGC 1526 = h2617 on 2 Nov 1834 and logged "F, R, glbM, among B stars; one = 9th mag, 3' north."  His position and description matches ESO 084-003 = PGC 14437.

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NGC 1527 = ESO 201-020 = PGC 14526

04 08 24.4 -47 53 50

V = 10.8;  Size 3.7'x1.4';  Surf Br = 12.4;  PA = 78d

 

24" (11/18/12 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): very bright, fairly large, elongated nearly 3:1 WSW-ENE, 3.2'x1.2'.  Very sharply concentrated with a blazing core that is elongated 2:1, increasing to a very small, intense nucleus.  A mag 14 star lies 1.2' N of center and a mag 15.3 star is a similar distance south of center.  Probable member of the Dorado Group.

 

James Dunlop discovered NGC 1527 = D 409 on 28 Sep 1826 and described as "a very small and very faint round nebula, about 20" diameter."  His position is 10' too far NE.  JH independently found this galaxy (h2612) on 28 Dec 1834 while searching for D 409 and recorded "B, E, spmbM, growing more round internally; 60" long, 30" broad; pos 77”." On a second sweep he called it "pB, E, vsbM to a roundish nucleus." His third observation logged it as "pB, pmE, vsvmbM; seen in sweeping in vain for Dunlop 409." Herschel tentatively suggested this object corresponded with Dunlop 409 in the Cape Catalogue though the equivalence is not mentioned in the NGC.  It's also possible that D 429 is a duplicate observation with a 1” error in declination (too far north).

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NGC 1528 = Cr 47 = Mel 23 = OCL-397

04 15 19 +51 12 42

V = 6.4;  Size 24'

 

13.1" (1/18/85): 80-100 stars in a 20' diameter.  There are three bright stars on the west side including mag 8.5 SAO 24496 and mag 9.0 SAO 24501, includes many faint stars.  Extremely faint naked-eye object!

 

WH discovered NGC 1528 = H VII-61 on 28 Dec 1790 (sweep 989) and described "a beautiful cluster of large stars, very rich, and considerably compressed, about 15' diameter."  His position is near the center of this cluster.

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NGC 1529 = ESO 084-004 = PGC 14495

04 07 19.7 -62 53 57

V = 13.4;  Size 1.2'x0.3';  Surf Br = 12.0;  PA = 164d

 

24" (11/18/12 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 5:2 NNW-SSE, 45"x18", very small bright core gradually increasing to a stellar nucleus.  Forms a pair with brighter NGC 1534 11' NE.  Located 55' WSW of mag 3.3 Alpha Reticuli.

 

JH discovered NGC 1529 = h2619 on 9 Dec 1836 and commented "vF, S, R, gbM, 15" dia.". His position matches ESO 084-004 = PGC 14495, though the galaxy was clearly elongated in the 24".

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NGC 1530 = UGC 3013 = MCG +13-04-004 = CGCG 327-017 = VII Zw 12 = PGC 15018

04 23 26.7 +75 17 44

V = 11.5;  Size 4.6'x2.4';  Surf Br = 13.9;  PA = 17d

 

24" (12/28/13): at 200x, appeared fairly bright, large, elongated nearly 3:2 N-S, ~3.5'x2.2'.  Contains a large, brighter circular core within a very large, elongated halo. A low contrast, thin spiral arm is attached on the west side of the core and sweeps north at the edge of the halo and a similar enhancement is visible on the east side extending due south.  Two mag 15 stars [22" separation] are superimposed on the NW side [1.1' from center] and a mag 12.8 star lies 2.5' N.

 

13.1" (1/18/85): fairly faint, fairly large, very diffuse, almost round, gradual weak concentration, no nucleus.

 

Wilhelm Tempel discovered NGC 1530 = T I-15 in 1876 with an 11" refractor at the Arcetri Observatory and included in the GC Supplement (GCS 5334).  His matches UGC 3013 = PGC 15018.

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NGC 1531 = ESO 359-026 = MCG -05-11-001 = PGC 14635

04 11 59.3 -32 51 05

V = 12.2;  Size 1.3'x0.9';  Surf Br = 12.3;  PA = 122d

 

48" (10/22/11): very bright, moderately large, oval ~2:1 NW-SE, 1.2'x0.7', well concentrated with a very bright core.  Forms a beautiful pair with the stunning edge-on NGC 1532 and situated just 1.7' NW of the core of the larger galaxy.  In addition, the major axis of NGC 1531 is angled directly perpendicular to the core of NGC 1532.  Several stars surround the galaxy.

 

13.1" (12/22/84): moderately bright, small, slightly elongated.  Forms a close pair with larger and brighter NGC 1532 1.6' SE.

 

JH discovered NGC 1531 = h2620 on 19 Oct 1835 and recorded "faint, round, brighter in the middle, 60". The preceding of two [with NGC 1532]."  His position (measured on 3 sweeps) is accurate.

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NGC 1532 = ESO 359-027 = MCG -05-11-002 = PGC 14638

04 12 04.3 -32 52 29

V = 9.9;  Size 12.6'x3.3';  Surf Br = 13.8;  PA = 33d

 

48" (10/22/11): this showpiece edge-on stretches 7'x1.2', tilting SW-NE.  The galaxy is sharply concentrated with a large, elongated, very bright core that is mottled and increases to the center. The surface is knotty, streaky and mottled.  A striking dust lane runs along the major axis, slicing the galaxy asymmetrically into two parts to the south of the core.  The dust lane expands to a larger, elongated (dark) patch on the NE side of the core.  The section to the south of the dust lane is much thinner and brightens to a prominent, very bright knotty 1.5' streak on the SW end [brightest part of a tidal tail extending towards NGC 1531].  A very faint star (B = 18.2) is close to the southwest tip of the bright streak.  The fainter strip of galaxy south of the dust lane near the core appears patchy, probably due to dust and star-forming knots.  Just northwest of the core is NGC 1531, a bright elliptical that angles perpendicular to the core and forms a striking pair.

 

IC 2041 lies 7' NE of center, close following the NE tip of NGC 1532.  It appeared fairly bright, fairly small, oval 3:2 NW-SE, ~35"x24", small bright core.

 

13.1" (12/22/84): bright, large, pretty edge-on 5:1 SW-NE, very bright nucleus, thin extensions.  Forms a close pair with NGC 1531 1.6' NW.

 

James Dunlop discovered NGC 1532 = D 600 = h2621 on 29 Oct 1826 with his 9" reflector from Parramatta, NSW, and described "an extremely faint ill-defined nebula, rather elongated in the direction of the meridian, gradualy a little brighter towards the centre."  Dunlop's position (single observation) is 7' too far east.  JH observed this showpiece galaxy on 3 differents sweeps, recording it first on 19 Oct 1835 as "B, vL, vmE, 5' long; A fine and curious object. The following and brighter of two [with NGC 1531]. In the ray is either a vF * or a knot in the nebula."

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NGC 1533 = ESO 157-003 = PGC 14582

04 09 51.8 -56 07 06

V = 10.7;  Size 2.8'x2.3';  Surf Br = 12.6;  PA = 151d

 

13.1" (2/19/04 - Costa Rica): fairly bright, moderately large, 2.0' diameter, round, contains a small bright core.  Collinear with two 11.5 magnitude stars 1' and 2' NE of center.  Member of the Dorado group with NGC 1536 24' SSE, NGC 1546 40' E and the NGC 1549/1553 pair less than a degree NE.

 

JH discovered NGC 1533 = h2622 on 5 Dec 1834 and recorded "vB, pL, R, smbM to a stellar nucleus.  Has two stars 10th mag N.f." His position and description matches ESO 157-003 = PGC 14582.

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NGC 1534 = ESO 084-006 = AM 0408-625 = LGG 110-002 = PGC 14547

04 08 46.2 -62 47 49

V = 12.8;  Size 1.7'x0.8';  Surf Br = 13.0;  PA = 76d

 

24" (11/18/12 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): moderately bright, fairly small, elongated 2:1 WSW-ENE, 0.8'x0.4'.  A mag 13.7 star is at the SE edge, 25" from center and mag 8.9 HD 26524 is 6.6' NW.  Forms a wide pair with fainter NGC 1529 11.6' SW.  Located 43' WSW of mag 3.3 Alpha Reticuli.  Images show a dust lane on the south side.

 

JH discovered NGC 1534 = h2623 on 26 Dec 1834 and recorded "F, S, R. Has a vS star following. Distance 1.5x radius of nebula (by diagram)."  His position and description matches ESO 084-006 = PGC 14547.

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NGC 1535 = PK 206-40.1 = PN G206.4-40.5 = Cleopatra's Eye

04 14 15.8 -12 44 22

V = 9.4;  Size 48"x42"

 

48" (11/1/13): at 813x, this gorgeous planetary displayed an extremely bright, green double-shell structure.  The 20" diameter inner ring was quite striking with slight irregularities in thickness and brightness and a very slight elongation.  The darker interior of the inner ring is mottled with subtle darker and brighter patches around the mag 12.5 central star.  The outer shell doubles the diameter and is slightly elongated ~N-S, 40"x35", with a mag 14.5-15 star superimposed on the NW side [16" from the central star].  With extended viewing there appeared to be subtle variations in brightness, almost like radial striations in the outer and inner shell.  Similar view on 10/23/14.

 

24" (11/24/14): I didn't take notes, but at 500x a mag 14.5-15 star was faintly visible near the northwest edge of the outer shell [16" from center].

 

18" (1/1/08): In good seeing at 565x the complex double shell structure of this gorgeous planetary was remarkable.  The bright mag 12.5 central star is surrounded by a well-defined dark central hole with subtle mottling.  This is surrounded by a striking, bright inner ring that is relatively narrow and sharply defined. The ring has a clumpy appearance, particularly on the north side and it dims slightly on the southeast side.  This 20" diameter ring is encased within an outer shell of fainter nebulosity that doubles the diameter.  Although the inner ring is round, this outer envelope is slightly elongated SSW-NNE.  At 807x the view was stunning with brighter knots within the inner ring appearing to sparkle at times.

 

17.5" (12/30/99): this planetary has beautiful, bluish double-shell structure which was very evident at 100x surrounding a bright central star.  The view at 380x and 500x was superb in good seeing. The double shell envelope was very prominent with a bright inner ring, ~20" diameter, with a fairly sharp edge embedded in a fainter roundish halo roughly doubling the diameter.  The inner shell was irregularly darker surrounding the central star.

 

17.5" (2/8/91): very bright, fairly small, high surface brightness, mag 12.5 central star visible, blue color.  This planetary has a double shell structure with inner shell slightly elongated and a faint rounder outer shell.  Small dark gaps are visible around the central star.

 

13" (12/22/84): at 360x the central star visible surrounded by two shells. The bright inner shell has a small dark annulus surrounding the central star and the outer envelope is fainter and more diffuse.

 

8": bright, greenish, fairly small, round.

 

13x80mm finder (1/15/07): fairly bright stellar object at 13x in my 80mm finder and very easy to identify with blinking.  Appears as a soft bluish star at 25x and definitely non-stellar at 32x and  54x.

 

WH discovered NGC 1535 = H IV-26 = h2618 on 1 Feb 1785 (sweep 364) and recorded "a very curious planetary, vB of a uniform brightness all but the edges which are ill defined; about half a minute in diam.  With 240 proportionally magnified, perfectly R or perhaps a little elliptical."  On a second observation he called it resolvable on the borders, and probably a very compressed cluster of stars at an immense distance.  JH recorded from the CGH, "B; S; R; first pretty suddenly, then very gradually brighter in the middle; 20" across. A mottled disc, but so hazy at the borders that I have no doubt of its being a very distant and highly compressed globular cluster. It is not a planetary nebula, though a near approach to one: does not bear magnifying. A power of 320 is of no use. A very remarkable and interesting object."  Possibly irregularities in the rim influenced JH to believe it was a GC.

 

Ralph Copeland, made a detailed observation with Lord Rosse's 72" on 19 Dec 1873: "blue planetary nebula.  A small stellar nucleus with a bright atmosphere surrounded by a fainter one [double-shell structure].  There is a very small vacuity close to and sf the nucleus - power 414.  Outside diam np and sf = 45.1"; diameter of bright atmosphere = 18.4".  With power 625 the nucleus seems quite granular and surrounded by a narrow dark ring extending quite round.  Position of two of the most conspicuous central granules = 81.2”."

 

Sherburne Wesley Burnham, observing with the Lick 36-inch refractor, commented "besides the central star, there are other fainter stars within the nebula.  The most prominent of these is near the northern edge of the circular disc... The 14.5m star does not seem to have been seen by other observers."  He measured the position of this star at 16" in PA 324” (NW) of the central star. See my 48-inch observation.

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NGC 1536 = ESO 157-005 = PGC 14620

04 11 00.0 -56 28 55

V = 12.5;  Size 2.0'x1.4';  Surf Br = 13.5;  PA = 155d

 

24" (11/18/12 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): moderately bright, fairly large, oval 5:3 NNW-SSE, 1.7'x1.1', broad concentration.  Appears to have a bar oriented N-S containing a small, bright nucleus and enhancements in the halo give an impression of two spiral arms.  Forms the western vertex of a triangle with a mag 10.6 star 2.8' WNW and a mag 12.7 star 3' SSE.  NGC 1533 lies 24' NNW and NGC 1546 is 39' NE.  Member of the NGC 1566 subgroup of the Dorado Group of galaxies.

 

JH discovered NGC 1536 = h2625 on 4 Dec 1834 and described "vF, R, pL, vlbM, 60" dia."  His position matches ESO 157-005 = PGC 14620.

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NGC 1537 = ESO 420-012 = MCG -05-11-005 = PGC 14695

04 13 40.7 -31 38 43

V = 10.6;  Size 3.9'x2.6';  Surf Br = 13.0;  PA = 98d

 

13.1" (1/18/85): fairly bright, moderately large, elongated 3:2 ~E-W, prominent elongated core, stellar nucleus.

 

JH discovered NGC 1537 = h2624 on 18 Nov 1835 and recorded "vB, lE, psvmbM, 50" l, 40" br." His position is 5' N of ESO 420-012 = PGC 14695, but the identification is secure.

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NGC 1538 = IC 2047? = PGC 941480

04 14 56.1 -13 11 30

Size 0.8'x0.6';  PA = 108d

 

24" (12/22/14): faint, small, round, 12" diameter (core only), very faint stellar nucleus.  Holmberg 73 (double system) lies 3.3' SE and IC 2045 is 5.0' WNW.

 

Holm 73a = PGC 3093623 appeared faint, extremely small, round, 6" diameter (core).  Forms a close pair with Holm 73b = PGC 940994 45" NE.  The companion is extremely to very faint, also just 6" diameter (core).

 

IC 2045 (identified as NGC 1538 in RNGC and PGC) appeared fairly faint, small, slightly elongated, 20" diameter, very small slightly brighter core. IC 2045 is the brightest in a small group including IC 2047 5' ESE and Holmberg 73 (pair) 8' ESE.  With my 17.5" on 12/30/99, IC 2045 was logged as faint, very small, round, 20" diameter, weak concentration.  Situated between a mag 10 star 3' NE and a mag 9 star 5.5' SW.

 

Ormond Stone discovered NGC 1538 = LM I-125 on 31 Dec 1885 with the 26" refractor at the Leander McCormick Observatory and noted "mag 16.0, 0.1' dia, R, gbM."  His rough position (nearest minute of RA) is very close southeast of Holmberg 73A = PGC 3093623, but could easily apply to other nearby galaxies given the inaccuracy of the Leander McCormick positions.

 

Harold Corwin remarks that Herbert Howe assumed Ho 73A was NGC 1538 when he observed the field on 20 Jan 1900 with the 20" refractor in Denver and also discovered IC 2045 and IC 2047.  Stone's rough position is 8' southeast of IC 2045 = PGC 14722, described by Howe as "eF, eS, almost stellar; near [NGC] 1538." and 4' southeast of IC 2047 = PGC 941480, noted as "eF, eS, difficult, near [NGC 1538]."

 

RNGC, PGC and HyperLeda identify IC 2045 (the brightest of these galaxies) as NGC 1538.   But Corwin examined Stone's discovery sketch and NGC 1538 appears to be a better match with IC 2047.  So, we are left with three possible candidates for NGC 1538 and the identification is uncertain.

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NGC 1539 = CGCG 488-001 = V Zw 373 = PGC 14852

04 19 02.0 +26 49 38

V = 14.6;  Size 0.5'x0.5'

 

18" (12/10/07): faint, small, slightly elongated ~SW-NE, 0.4'x0.35', moderate concentration with a small brighter core.  Appears a little brighter than the catalogued magnitude.  Located ~ 4' W of a NNW-SSE string of three mag 12-13 stars with another mag 12 star 3' W enclosing the galaxy with this triangular asterism.  The identification of NGC 1539 is uncertain.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 1539 = m 94 on 6 Sep 1864 with William Lassell's 48" on Malta and reported "vF, vS, gbM."  There is nothing at his position, though CGCG 488-001 = PGC 14852 lies 1 min of RA east and 5' N (nearly 15' ENE).  Harold Corwin notes this would be a fairly large error for Marth, so the identification is uncertain, though there are no other candidates within at least 30' he might have picked up instead.  See Corwin's notes.

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NGC 1540 = ESO 420-014 = AM 0413-283 = PGC 14733

04 15 10.6 -28 29 21

V = 13.5;  Size 0.8'x0.5';  Surf Br = 12.3;  PA = 5d

 

18" (1/21/04): fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 3:2 ~N-S, ~0.8'x0.5'.  Appears to have a star or quasi-stellar knot at the north tip -- this is actually an interacting galaxy [NGC 1540B]!  Located 8' SW mag 9.4 SAO 169272 (wide double).

 

JH discovered NGC 1540 = h2626 on 6 Nov 1834 and recorded "vF; E; resolvable.  Rather a doubtful object.  He confirmed the object, though, on sweep 643 and his position matches ESO 430-014 = PGC 14733.  This is an interacting pair (AM 0413-283) with separation 0.55'.  My visual observation recorded the southern galaxy as brighter and larger and Harold Corwin concurs that the southern object is probably the one viewed by Herschel.  He suggests, though, assigning NGC 1540 to the entire system.

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NGC 1541 = UGC 3001 = MCG +00-11-040 = CGCG 392-013 = PGC 14792

04 17 00.2 +00 50 06

V = 13.5;  Size 1.3'x0.5';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 77d

 

17.5" (2/1/92): faint, small, elongated 2:1 WSW-ENE, small bright core.  Located 7' SW of mag 8.8 SAO 111720.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 1541 = m 95 on 14 Nov 1863 with William Lassell's 48" on Malta and noted "vF, S".  His position is 1' S of UGC 3001 = PGC 14792.

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NGC 1542 = UGC 3003 = MCG +01-11-016 = CGCG 418-017 = PGC 14800

04 17 14.2 +04 46 55

V = 13.9;  Size 1.3'x0.5';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 128d

 

17.5" (2/11/96): very faint, small, elongated 2:1 NW-SE, 40"x20", very weak concentration.  A mag 14.5 star is 0.9' ENE of center.  Collinear with a 1' pair of mag 11 stars about 5' SE.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 1542 = m 96 on 18 Nov 1863 with William Lassell's 48" on Malta and logged "vF, S, E."  His position matches UGC 3003 = PGC 14800.

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NGC 1543 = ESO 118-010 = PGC 14659

04 12 43.0 -57 44 17

V = 10.5;  Size 4.9'x2.8';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 93d

 

24" (11/18/12 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): bright, large, oval halo 2:1 E-W, at least 3'x1.5'.  Sharply concentrated with a brilliant and bulging 1' round core that brightens slightly to a small, intense nucleus. The large halo is relatively fainter and fairly uniform.  9th magnitude HD 26942 lies 5' SW.  Member of the NGC 1566 subgroup of the Dorado Group of galaxies.  Deep images reveal a detached outer ring, which was not seen.

 

James Dunlop discovered NGC 1543 = D 306 = h2627 on 5 Nov 1826 with his 9" reflector and described as "a small round pretty well defined nebula, 10" or 12" diameter, slightly bright to the centre, a bright star in the field south following." Dunlop's position is 11' south of ESO 118-010 = PGC 14659.  JH independently found this galaxy on 4 Dec 1834 (no reference to Dunlop) and recorded it as "B, pL, pmE, smbM to a round nucleus = star 11th mag."  Herschel's position is accurate.

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NGC 1544 = UGC 3160 = MCG +14-03-006 = CGCG 361-011 = CGCG 370-001 = PGC 16608

05 02 36.0 +86 13 20

V = 13.2;  Size 1.3'x0.9';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 130d

 

18" (8/1/11): fairly faint, small, round, sharply concentrated with a very small, bright nucleus.  A 10" pair of mag 14.5 stars is at the north edge and a second wider pair at 18" separation (mag 13.6/14.4) is off the NW side.  Located 10' WNW of a very distinctive 2' string of equally spaced mag 9.5/10/11 stars (SAO 785/786).

 

17.5" (3/19/88): fairly faint, small, round.  Several faint stars are near including an evenly matched mag 14.5 pair with 10" separation at the north edge 20" from center.  This is the second closest NGC galaxy to the north celestial pole.

 

Wilhelm Tempel discovered NGC 1544 = T I-16 in 1876 with an 11" refractor at the Arcetri Observatory.  He reported it as a "very small nebula, surrounded by many faint stars but as bright as II. 704 [NGC 1184]." His position is close west of UGC 3160 = PGC 16608.  This galaxy is the 2nd closest galaxy to the pole (next to "Polarissima") in the NGC or IC.

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NGC 1545 = Cr 49 = OCL-399 = Lund 131

04 20 56 +50 15 18

V = 6.2;  Size 18'

 

17.5" (12/28/94): about 50 stars scattered evenly over a 20' field with no dense areas or central concentration.  A pretty pair of mag 7/8 stars are near the center (South 445 = 7.3/8.2 at 72") with a blue mag 9 star to the west (SAO 24549) forming an isosceles triangle.  A number of mag 11/12 stars are arranged in a curving stream oriented SW-NE which passes through the bright pair.  At the north side of the cluster is a pretty colored pair ·519 = 7.9/9.4 at 18".  Off the east side is a small circular group of five faint stars and one brighter star in a clump.

 

8": about two dozen stars in the cluster.  The three brightest stars are mag 7.5-8.5.  Includes chains of faint stars with double star ·519 = 7.9/9.4 at 18" at the north edge.

 

WH discovered NGC 1545 = H VIII-85 on 28 Dec 1790 (sweep 989) and recorded "a coarsely scattered cluster of large stars, pretty rich."  His position corresponds with the brightest star in the cluster.

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NGC 1546 = ESO 157-012 = LGG 112-002 = PGC 14723

04 14 36.5 -56 03 39

V = 10.9;  Size 3.0'x1.7';  Surf Br = 12.5;  PA = 147d

 

13.1" (2/19/04 - Costa Rica): fairly bright, fairly small, elongated 2:1 NNW-SSE, 1.1'x0.5', even surface brightness except for a small brighter core.  Located 8' NE of mag 7.5 HD 27142.  A trio of 11-12th magnitude stars trail to the SW (nearest is HJ 3635 = 8.8/10.9 at 12" just 1.7' W).  Located in the Dorado Group ~25' SW of the NGC 1553/1549 pair.  NGC 1533 lies 40' W.

 

JH discovered NGC 1546 = h2628 on 5 Dec 1834 and logged "pB, lE, gbM to an extended nucleus. A double star precedes." His position (two consecutive nights) matches ESO 157-012 = PGC 14723 and the double is HJ 363.

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NGC 1547 = ESO 550-018 = MCG -03-11-020 = PGC 14799

04 17 12.4 -17 51 27

V = 13.6;  Size 1.3'x0.6';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 133d

 

17.5" (11/10/96): fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 4:3 NW-SE, 0.8'x0.6'.  Contains a faint stellar nucleus offset to the south side or a mag 15.5 star is superimposed [DSS image appears to show a superimposed star].  A mag 13 star lies 1.2' NE.

 

Francis Leavenworth discovered NGC 1547 = LM I-126 on 17 Oct 1885 with the 26" refractor at the Leander McCormick Observatory and recorded a "cl? or neb with sev vF st and one *(mag) 11.5 north of center inv."  There is nothing at his rough position (nearest minute of RA), but 43 sec of RA west is ESO 550-018 = PGC 14799, which matches his description.  Herbert Howe measured an accurate position in 1898-99 using the 20" refractor at Chamberlin Observatory (repeated in the IC 2 notes), although he adds he "had no such suspicion" it was a cluster", probably due to the nearby stars.  RNGC classifies the number as nonexistent and MCG does not label their entry as NGC 1547.

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NGC 1548 = OCL-415

04 20 59 +36 34 00

Size 20'

 

18" (2/14/10): at 175x there was nothing that looked remotely cluster-like in the 35' field or that I felt might have caught Herschel's attention -- just a random scattered star field with no denser groupings.  At 73x (67' field), though, my attention was drawn to mag 7.7 HD 27403 on the south side of the eyepiece field.  Extending to the west and southwest of this brighter star was an elongated group highlighted by an oval ring, roughly 10' diameter with several mag 10 stars.  A collection of fainter stars that follows the oval ring extends the overall dimensions to 20' x 10'.

 

Still, the asterism I described was unimpressive and not rich enough to mimic a cluster, but seemed the best fit in the nearby area to Herschel's object.  If this group is Herschel's h312, then his position for the brightest star is exactly 20' N of HD 27403 and matches in RA, so a single digit error in dec would explain the discrepancy.

 

JH discovered NGC 1548 = h312 on 3 Feb 1832 and described "The chief * of a very loose poor cluster 30' diam; little comp; stars 10...12m."  There is nothing near his position and Karl Reinmuth states in his 1926 photographic survey "Die Herschel-Nebel nach Aufnahmen der Kšnigstuhl-Sternwarte" that "no CL found; many st in milky way".  Brian Skiff calls this object "just a sparse, unconcentrated group of stars slightly brighter than the background."  But 20' south of Herschel's position I noticed that mag 7.7 HD 27403 and the surrounding field is probably the best match for Herschel's object.  See Corwin's notes.

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NGC 1549 = ESO 157-016 = LGG 112-003 = PGC 14757

04 15 44.0 -55 35 30

V = 9.8;  Size 4.9'x4.1';  Surf Br = 13.0;  PA = 135d

 

13.1" (2/19/04 - Costa Rica): bright, moderately large, round, 1.5' diameter.  Strongly concentrated with an intense 30" core and a bright stellar nucleus with direct vision.  Cradled by a distinctive group of 5 stars including mag 8.7 SAO 233458 to the SSE.  This member of the Dorado Group forms an interacting pair w/NGC 1553 12' SSE.

 

JH discovered NGC 1549 = h2629 on 6 Dec 1834 and noted "B, R, 40 arcseconds." (single sweep).  Wolfgang Steinicke originally credited James Dunlop with the discovery, though Glen Cozens states D 331 applies to NGC 1553 with a 1 hr error in RA and that Dunlop missed NGC 1549 for some reason (possibly poor conditions b/c of dew on optics).  Steinicke now credits JH with the discovery.  Innes (MN 59, 339, 1899) and DeLisle Stewart's corrected position in the IC 2 Notes section is accurate (Herschel's RA was uncertain).

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NGC 1550 = NGC 1551 = UGC 3012 = MCG +00-11-055 = CGCG 393-001 = PGC 14880

04 19 37.9 +02 24 36

V = 12.0;  Size 2.2'x1.9';  Surf Br = 13.5;  PA = 30d

 

24" (12/22/14): moderately bright, fairly small, round, sharply concentrated with a very small, very bright core.  An uncatalogued double star lies 1.7' S (components 13.7/14.7 at 7").  Form a pair with IC 366 3.1' SSE.  The companion appeared faint (B Å 15.7), small, round, 12" diameter.

 

UGC 3011, located 12' NNW, appeared very faint, fairly small, elongated 3:2 NW-SE, 21"x14", low surface brightness.  UGC 3008, located 17' NW, appeared fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 3:2 WSW-ENE, 24"x18", slightly brighter core.  Three stars are nearby: a mag 11 star is 1.5' SSW, a mag 13 star 1' SW and a mag 14 star 1.5' ESE.

 

13.1" (1/18/85): faint, small, round, bright core, faint stellar nucleus.

 

Heinrich d'Arrest found NGC 1550 on 29 Dec 1861 with the 11" refractor at Copenhagen.  His micrometric position (measured on two nights) corresponds with UGC 3012 = PGC 14880.  WH discovered this galaxy on 8 Oct 1785, but made a 1 degree error in recording his declination (too far south) and it was catalogued as H II-464 = NGC 1551.  d'Arrest searched unsuccessfully for NGC 1551 and suspected WH made an error in his declination.  So, NGC 1550 = NGC 1551. Nearby IC 366 was missed by d'Arrest and discovered by Sherburne Burnham with the 36-inch at Lick.

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NGC 1551 = NGC 1550 = UGC 3012 = MCG +00-11-055 = CGCG 393-001 = PGC 14880

04 19 37.9 +02 24 36

 

See observing notes for NGC 1550.

 

WH discovered NGC 1551 = H II-464 on 8 Oct 1785 (sweep 462) and recorded "F, vS, r[esolvable]."  There is nothing at his position and Dreyer comments in the NGC Notes "Not found at Copenhagen [by d'Arrest], not at Birr Castle.  GC 835 [NGC 1550] is exactly 1” north; they are probably identical."  NGC 1550 was found by Heinrich d'Arrest on 29 Dec 1861 and accurately placed.  By historical precidence, WH's II-464 = NGC 1551 should be the primary designation but modern catalogues identify this galaxy as NGC 1550 because of the unambiguous positional match.  See Corwin's notes.

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NGC 1552 = UGC 3015 = MCG +00-12-007 = CGCG 393-005 = PGC 14907

04 20 17.6 -00 41 36

V = 12.9;  Size 1.8'x1.2';  Surf Br = 13.7;  PA = 110d

 

17.5" (2/1/92): fairly faint, faint extensions 3:2 WNW-ESE, even concentration to a small bright core, stellar nucleus.  A mag 11 star is 2.8' WSW.

 

WH discovered NGC 1552 = H III-490 = h313 on 1 Jan 1786 (sweep 506) and noted "vF, vS, lE, 240 showed it better, but left a bare possibity of deception."  His position is 10 sec of RA west of UGC 3015 = PGC 14907. JH's mean position (2 sweeps) is accurate.

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NGC 1553 = ESO 157-017 = LGG 112-004 = PGC 14765

04 16 10.5 -55 46 48

V = 9.4;  Size 4.5'x2.8';  Surf Br = 12.0;  PA = 150d

 

13.1" (2/19/04 - Costa Rica): very bright, oval, elongated 5:2 NNW-SSE, 2.25'x1.0', very bright core, fairly high surface brightness halo.  With averted vision the halo increases to nearly 3' in length.  A mag 12 star is just west of the NNW tip and a slightly fainter star is off the SSE edge.  Forms a bright pair with NGC 1549 12' NNW in the center of the Dorado Group.  IC 2058 lies 17' SE.

 

James Dunlop discovered NGC 1553 = D 331 on 5 Nov 1826 and described "a rather bright nebula about 1' diameter, very faint at the margin, gradually bright to the centre: a small star north, and another south, both involved in the margin of the nebula. A group of very small stars north."  Dunlop made a 1 hr copying error in his RA (verified by Glen Cozens after examining Dunlop's original observations), and his corrected position is 10' S of this galaxy, a typical error.  Wolfgang Steinicke equates D 331 = NGC 1549, but that seems less likely, as Dunlop's description of two stars involved and a group of stars to the north (near NGC 1549) applies to NGC 1553.  But it is surprising that Dunlop apparently missed NGC 1549.  On his first sweep (5 Dec 1834), JH recorded "vB, R, gmbM, 60", between three stars."

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NGC 1554 = Struve's Lost Nebula

04 21 43.5 +19 31 14

 

17.5" (11/10/96): at the position of Struve's Lost Nebula (reported by Otto Struve in 1868) is a mag 14 star noted in the observation of NGC 1555 (Hind's Variable Nebula).  This star is 4' WSW of T Tauri and is not involved with nebulosity.

 

Otto Struve discovered NGC 1554 = "Struve's Lost Nebula" on 14 Mar 1868 with the 15-inch Merz refractor at Pulkovo Observatory in St. Petersburg and placed it 4' WSW of the star T Tauri (which illuminates NGC 1555 = Hind's Variable Nebula).  It was confirmed and measured by Heinrich d'Arrest on 23-25 Mar 1868 after being notified by Struve.  d'Arrest described it, using an 11" refractor at Copenhagen, as "pretty small, nearly round, with an eccentric core like a star of 14th magnitude".  After that date, it was not observed again and may have just been a spurious observation of a close pair of mag 14 and 15.5 stars, considering the fascination at the time with nearby Hind's Variable Nebula.

 

Dreyer comments in the Notes section of NGC that he was unable to perceive any nebulosity near Struve's position at Birr Castle in 1877 (Lawrence Parsons was previously unsuccessful in 1872, 1876 and 1877) and it was not found by Tempel with the 11-inch Amici refractor at the Arcetri Observatory or Copeland at Dun Echt.  Engelhardt was unsuccessful on 30 Dec 1884 and 8 Jan 1885.  E.E. Barnard and Sherburne Burnham couldn't see it with the 36-inch Lick refractor on 15 Oct 1890.  In the IC 2 notes and corrections section, Dreyer also mentions Struve's nebula was not found by Barnard in 1895 or by James Keeler on plates taken in 1899.

 

Several sources, including  Sky Catalogue 2000.0 and RNGC, group NGC 1554 and NGC 1555 together as a single object.  NGC 1554 doesn't exist now and Steinicke doubts it ever existed.  The RNGC position for NGC 1554/1555 is 1 min of RA too far east.  Steinicke mentions the nickname "Struve's Lost Nebula" was probably introduced by Cederblad in his 1946 catalogue.

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NGC 1555 = Hind's Variable Nebula = Ced 32b = vdB 28 = HH 155 = PP 17

04 21 56.8 +19 32 04

Size 1'

 

24" (1/12/13): at 200x unfiltered, Hind's Variable Nebula was immediately seen as a very faint, fairly small, elongated haze, roughly 40" in length and slightly curved or bowed out to the west.  The variable reflection nebula seemed unevenly lit, though it was too faint to see any specific details.  This famous nebula is illuminated by T Tauri (mag 10-10.5), just 35" to the east.  T Tauri is perfectly collinear with mag 8.4 HD 27560 5.6' SW and a mag 12 star 4.7' SW.  The nebula has likely brightened since the view in 1996 with my 17.5".

 

17.5" (11/10/96): this is Hind's Variable (reflection) Nebula, illuminated by T Tauri (9-13).  At 100x and 140x (unfiltered) an extremely faint haze was highly suspected on the west or west-southwest side of T Tauri (mag 9) in the direction of a mag 14 star to the west or slightly south (this star is at the position of NGC 1554 = "Struve's Lost Nebula").  No details in the nebula were visible at 100x (it did not appear as an arc) but a sketch made at 100x exactly matched the orientation of the nebulosity with respect to T Tauri.  Nebulosity was not visible at 220x and no nebulosity was noted following T Tauri.

 

Hind's Variable Nebula was discovered (along with T Tauri) by John Russell Hind on 11 Oct 1852 with a 7-inch refractor. Because of it's variability, disappearance in the early 1860's, and eventual recovery by Barnard in 1890, it was a subject of fascination and numerous journal reports by most of the major great visual observers of the time including d'Arrest, Tempel, Charconac, Auwers, Secchi, Lassell, Struve, Winnecke, Lawrence Parsons, Dreyer, Barnard and Burnham.

 

John Russell Hind discovered NGC 1555 = Au 20 = Hind's Variable Nebula, which surrounds the variable star T Tauri, on 11 Oct 1852 with the 7-inch Dollond refractor of George Bishop.  He reported in AN 839 a "very small nebulous-looking object...; it was south-preceding a star of 10th mag, which to my surprise, has escaped insertion on the map for 4h R.A. recently published - possibly it may be variable."  Hind had discovered the young variable T Tauri and the variable reflection nebula NGC 1555.  The following summarizes the visual history of this object as told by Wolfgang Steinicke in his "Observing and Cataloguing Nebulae and Star Clusters".

 

Jean Charcornac confirmed the existence of the nebula in 1854 at Marseilles, likely using a 4-inch refractor.  It was probably independently found by James Breen with a 12-inch refractor at Cambridge in 1855.  Heinrich d'Arrest first observed the nebula on 3 Nov 1855 in Leibniz and described "a pretty bright nebula, 4' diameter, star 10 at its northern end" and made several additional observations in 1856. Arthur Auwers made 7 observations between 7 Jan and 3 Mar 1858 with a 4.3-inch refractor.  He noted the nebula "was visible quite easily and without difficulty, but much fainter than it must have been appearing [to d'Arrest] in 1855 and 1856.  He later concluded that it reached its maximum brightness in 1856.  He listed it as #20 in his 1862 catalogue of new nebulae and reported the observations in his notes section.

 

By 1858, though, there was some fading as Charcornac could not recover it at Paris with the 10-inch refractor.  It was not seen with confidence by Eduard Schšnfeld in Feb 1861 using the 6.5-inch Steinheil refractor at Mannheim Observatory.  Auwers was unsuccessful in 1861 with a 6-inch Fraunhofer and so was d'Arrest with the 11-inch Merz refractor in 1861-62.  Leverrier and Charcornac failed to see nebula with the 12.4-inch refractor at Paris Observatory or the new 31.5-inch silver-on-glass reflector in Jan-Feb 1862.  Father Angelo Secchi also failed in Rome using the 9.4-inch Merz refractor in Jan 1862.  His report suggested a connection between the fading of the variable star and the nebula, shining by reflected light.  William Lassell made an unsuccessful attempt with his 48-inch from Malta in Mar-Apr 1862.  Hind made another attempt on 12 Dec 1863 in excellent conditions, but failed.

 

The only reported (barely) successful sighting of the nebula during 1861-62 was by Struve and Winnecke using the 15-inch Merz refractor in Pulkovo on 29 Dec 1861 and more easily on 22 Mar 1862, when a sketch was made.  When Struve visited Lassell on Malta, they took a look again on 10 Oct 1863 with the 48-inch and could discern "three or four individual masses separated from each other by black sky", so Struve felt Lassell may have previously looked in the wrong place.  "Hind's wonderful nebula in Taurus" was reported to the general public by Thomas Webb in 1864 in the popular magazine Intellectual Observer and the same year it was catalogued by John Herschel (who never saw it) as GC 839 and he reported on the history in the Notes section.  In 1865 and 1866, Vogel made several observations (both positive and negative) in Leibniz with 4.6-inch and 6.5-inch refractors and reported very different degrees of visibility.  But during the same time frame and into 1867 it was not seen by Schšnfeld in Mannheim and was completely invisible to Struve on 14 Mar 1868 at Pulkovo.  Winnecke made a marginal observation in 1875 and sketched it with certainty in 1877.  Tempel observed the field in 1877, made a map of the region including his and others observations, but apparently included nonexistent stars and nebulosity which he recorded.

 

Hind's Variable Nebula wasn't seen again until 1890 when it was barely recovered by E.E. Barnard and S.W. Burnham using the Lick 36-inch refractor.  Barnard confirmed a very small, but "conspicuous and definite" glow (only 4" diameter) surrounding T Tauri, which he assumed was NGC 1555, and an excessively faint, round, larger nebula close south that they took as new, but was actually the real NGC 1555.  The larger glow was observed again in 1891 by Burnham in 1891 and by Barnard in February 1895, when he finally realized that the faint object just south of T Tauri was actually Hind's Variable Nebula, (barely) visible again.  But on three attempts in Sep 1895 ("under the finest conditions") he could find no trace of the nebula.  Three years later in Sep 1898, Barnard made additional observations with the 40-inch Yerkes refractor and reported a tiny nebula attached southeast of T Tauri.  The first photograph showing nebulosity was made by Keeler on 6 Dec 1899 and three patches were recorded (two corresponding with Barnard's sketches), but no sign of Struve's Lost Nebula.  Carl Wirtz was unsuccessful in 1906 seeing either NGC 1554 or 1555 in a visual attempt using the 19-inch Merz refractor at Strausberg as well as by S.W. Burnham in 1907 using the 40-inch Yerkes refractor.   Dreyer discussed many of the visual observations in the NGC, IC 1 and IC 2 Notes section.

 

Modern sources often group NGC 1554 and 1555 (discovered by Struve) together, although there is no nebulosity visible on the Sky Survey at Struve's position for NGC 1555.  The RNGC RA for NGC 1554 and NGC 1555 is 1.0 min of RA too far east.

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NGC 1556 = ESO 202-004 = AM 0416-501 = PGC 14818

04 17 44.7 -50 09 50

V = 13.1;  Size 1.7'x0.5';  Surf Br = 12.8;  PA = 167d

 

24" (11/18/12 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): at 260x appeared moderately bright and large, very elongated 3:1 NNW-SSE, 1.1'x0.35'.  Fairly high surface brightness with a brighter core but no distinct zones.  Member of the Dorado Group.  Viewed with 4.5 day moon up.

 

JH discovered NGC 1556 = h2631 on 28 Dec 1834 and recorded "vF, S, R, vglbM, 20" dia."  His position matches ESO 202-004 = PGC 14818.  Using Harvard College Observatory plates, DeLisle Stewart noted "Not round but elongated 165 deg."  The RNGC position is nowhere close and falls on a blank piece of sky.

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NGC 1557 = ESO 55-**15

04 13 12 -70 32 24

Size 17'

 

14" (4/7/16 - Coonabarabran, 142x and 184x): very large, scattered group of 3 dozen stars mag 6.0 and fainter

(the next three are mag 9-10).  Not rich but detached int the field. This possible cluster is projected onto the outer parts of the LMC.

 

JH discovered NGC 1557 = h2633 on 24 Nov 1834 and described "A star 7m chief of a cluster 8th class- about 20 in number, loose and struggling."  His position corresponds with mag 7.0 SAO 256073 at 04 13 14.9 -70 25 14.  There is a scattered group of brighter stars mostly south of this star.

 

Eric Lindsay in "Some NGC objects in the Large Magellanic Cloud", (1964IrAJ....6..286L) reports, "Not found. Centered on CPD -70”287. This star is supposedly the chief of a cluster, about 20 in number, loose and straggling. Star distribution seems normal."  Hodge and Wright marks a smaller group of stars to the northwest of Herschel's cluster.  RNGC classifies this number as nonexistent (repeating Lindsay) as well as Kontizas, et al in the 1990 "The Cluster System of the Large Magellanic Cloud".  But Bica et al (2001A&A...366..827B) call it a  possible open cluster remnant."

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NGC 1558 = ESO 250-017 = PGC 14906

04 20 16.2 -45 01 52

V = 12.5;  Size 2.5'x1.0';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 72d

 

24" (11/18/12 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): fairly bright, fairly large, elongated 3:1 WSW-ENE, 1.7'x0.6'.  Contains a large, brighter elongated core that gradually brightens somewhat to the center.  A mag 13.2 star lies 1.3' SSE of center.  Located 10' E of mag 7.7 HD 27805.  ESO 250-018, with a similar redshift, lies 8' ESE.  Viewed with 4.5 day moon up.

 

JH discovered NGC 1558 = h2632 on 14 Dec 1835 and recorded "pF, pmE, gpmbM, 25" long, 15" broad".  There is nothing at his position, but exactly 1 min of RA east is ESO 250-017 = PGC 14906.

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NGC 1559 = ESO 084-010 = PGC 14814

04 17 35.8 -62 47 01

V = 10.6;  Size 3.5'x2.0';  Surf Br = 12.6;  PA = 64d

 

13.1" (2/18/04 - Costa Rica): moderately bright, fairly large, elongated 2:1 WSW-ENE, 3.0'x1.5', broad weak concentration, slightly mottled.  A mag 13.5 star is off the southwest end, 2' from center and a brighter mag 12 star is 4.7' from center.  Located 30' SE of mag 3.3 Alpha Reticulum and 28' N of the mag 6.1/7.8 double star Theta Reticulum.

 

NGC 1559 is a member of the NGC 1672 Group in the Dorado Cloud complex that includes NGC 1672, NGC 1688, NGC 1796 and NGC 1703.  Images reveal a number of HII knots, though other than some mottling I didn't note these.

 

James Dunlop discovered NGC 1559 = D 264 = h2634 on 6 Nov 1826 with his 9" reflector and described a "faint round nebula, about 40" diameter, slightly bright to the centre; this is north preceding Theta Rhomboidis".   His position, though, is 18' too far south (accurate in RA).  JH observed the galaxy twice but didn't mention an equivalence with D 264, so Dunlop is not credited with the discovery in the GC or NGC.  On his first sweep of 9 Dec 1836, Herschel noted "B, L, mE, vg pmbM; 90" l; 40" br; has a * 14m at the southern edge."

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NGC 1560 = UGC 3060 = MCG +12-05-005 = CGCG 328-006 = FGC 71A = PGC 15488

04 32 48.9 +71 52 59

V = 11.4;  Size 9.8'x1.7';  Surf Br = 14.3;  PA = 23d

 

17.5" (2/20/95): fairly faint, very large, 6'x1', low surface brightness edge-on SSW-NNE.  Broad weak concentration with no distinct core but there a central 2' brightening.  A mag 13 star is embedded on the preceding side of the NNE extension.  The galaxy appears to extend very faintly beyond this towards a mag 12 star further north.  Another mag 13 star is superimposed at the SSW end and a brighter mag 11.5 star is just following the tip of this extension.  Member of the IC 342/Maffei I group, a nearby but obscured group of galaxies.

 

8" (1/1/84): very faint, fairly large, edge-on SSW-NNE, low even surface brightness.  Appears as a ghostly streak.

 

Wilhelm Tempel discovered NGC 1560 = T IX-1 on 1 Aug 1883 with an 11" refractor at the Arcetri Observatory.  His position is 1 min of RA preceding UGC 3060 = PGC 15488, though at this high declination this amounts to 5'.  UGC 3060 is misidentified as IC 2062 in RC2, UGC and CGCG.  According to Harold Corwin, IC 2062 is a faint star found by Guillaume Bigourdan on the same night he observed NGC 1560.

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NGC 1561 = MCG -03-12-006 = Holm 75a = PGC 15005

04 23 01.1 -15 50 45

V = 14.4;  Size 0.6'x0.5';  Surf Br = 12.9

 

17.5" (12/30/99): faint, small, irregularly round, 0.4' diameter, small brighter center.  Located 2' NE of mag 9 SAO 149593.  Brightest of six faint galaxies with NGC 1562 (18' WNW), NGC 1563 (7.0' NNW), NGC 1564 (6.4' N), NGC 1565 (8' NE) and IC 2063 (12' NNW).

 

17.5" (11/10/96): faint, small, round, weak concentration.  Located 2.1' NE of a mag 9 star.

 

17.5" (2/8/91): very faint, small, round, broad mild concentration.  Located 2' NE of a mag 8.8 SAO 149593.  Brightest in a very faint group including NGC 1563, NGC 1564, NGC 1565 and IC 2063.

 

Francis Leavenworth discovered NGC 1561 = LM I-127 with the 26" refractor at the Leander McCormick Observatory and noted "mag 14.0, vS, lE 170”, glbM, *8, precedes 6 seconds."  His rough position (nearest minute of RA) is a good match with MCG -03-12-006 = PGC 15005, and the bright star is 2' SW.  Herbert Howe measured an accurate position in 1898-99 using the 20" refractor at Chamberlin Observatory (repeated in the IC 2 notes) for NGC 1561, 1562, 1563, 1564 and 1565.

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NGC 1562 = PGC 14956

04 21 47.6 -15 45 20

V = 14.3;  Size 0.8'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.5

 

17.5" (12/30/99): very faint, very small, round, 20" diameter, very little concentration.  A mag 14.5 star is close W.  First of six in the NGC 1561 group (18' following).

 

17.5" (2/8/91): very faint, very small, round.  A mag 15.5 star is 1' W.  Located 20' W of the center of the NGC 1561 group.

 

Francis Leavenworth discovered NGC 1562 = LM I-128 with the 26" refractor at the Leander McCormick Observatory.  His rough position (nearest minute of RA) is 1 min of RA east of PGC 14956.   Herbert Howe measured an accurate position in 1898-99 using the 20" refractor at Chamberlin Observatory (repeated in the IC 2 notes) and noted that "1562 precedes the rest of the group over a minute [of RA]."

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NGC 1563 = PGC 15000

04 22 53.9 -15 43 58

Size 0.45'x0.4'

 

17.5" (12/30/99): this member of the NGC 1561 group was a marginal object -- requiring averted vision and only glimpsed ~10% of the time as a 15" featureless knot just 1.7' WNW of NGC 1564 and 7' NNW of NGC 1561.

 

17.5" (2/8/91): Not found.

 

Francis Leavenworth discovered NGC 1563 = LM I-129, along with NGC 1564, on 12 Nov 1885 with the 26" refractor at the Leander McCormick Observatory.  Leavenworth gives a single (rough) position for the pair (separated by 1.7'), which is 3'-4' too far north.  Herbert Howe measured an accurate position in 1898-99 using the 20" refractor at Chamberlin Observatory (repeated in the IC 2 notes).  RNGC and MCG misidentify IC 2063 = MCG -03-12-005 as NGC 1563.  PGC misidentifies MCG -03-12-005 as NGC 1563 but gives the correct position.

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NGC 1564 = PGC 15004

04 23 00.9 -15 44 20

Size 0.7'x0.5'

 

17.5" (12/30/99): very faint, very small, round, 20" diameter, low surface brightness.  Two mag 13.5/14 stars are close NE.  Located 6.4' due north of NGC 1561 in a group.  Forms a close pair with NGC 1563 1.7' W.

 

17.5" (2/8/91): extremely faint, very small, round.  A trio of mag 13/14 stars lie 2'-3' NE.  Member of the NGC 1561 group.  Nearby NGC 1563 not seen.

 

Francis Leavenworth discovered NGC 1564 = LM I-130 (along with NGC 1563 = I-129) on 12 Nov 1885 with the 26" refractor at the Leander McCormick Observatory.  Herbert Howe measured an accurate position in 1898-99 using the 20" refractor at Chamberlin Observatory (repeated in the IC 2 notes). The PGC magnitudes for NGC 1563 and 1564 appear to be reversed.

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NGC 1565 = MCG -03-12-007 = PGC 15015

04 23 23.4 -15 44 40

V = 14.2;  Size 0.8'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.4

 

17.5" (12/30/99): very faint, fairly small, round, 30".  This galaxy has a low surface brightness with no central brightening but may be the largest in the group.  A mag 14 star lies 1.5' NE of center.  Located 8' NE of NGC 1561 in a group of faint galaxies (last of six).

 

17.5" (2/8/91): Not found.

 

Francis Leavenworth discovered NGC 1565 = LM I-131 on 12 Nov 1885 with the 26" refractor at the Leander McCormick Observatory.  His rough position (nearest minute of RA) is 2' N of MCG -03-12-007 = PGC 15015.  Herbert Howe measured an accurate position in 1898-99 using the 20" refractor at Chamberlin Observatory (repeated in the IC 2 notes).

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NGC 1566 = ESO 157-020 = LGG 114-003 = PGC 14897

04 20 00.4 -54 56 16

V = 9.7;  Size 8.3'x6.6';  Surf Br = 13.9;  PA = 60d

 

24" (11/18/12 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): at 260x, this gorgeous spiral was a showpiece treat even with a 4.5-day moon well up in the west.  NGC 1566 is strongly concentrated with a very bright, elongated 1' core region that increases to an intense, round, 20" nucleus.  The two spiral arms were easily visible with direct vision. The "southern" arm is attached on the north side of the core, wrapping around the core counterclockwise on the east side (passing directly between the core and a mag 12 star 2' E of center) and spiraling around 180” to the south side of the halo.  On the south end, the arm passes just north of a mag 15 star and ends at a slightly brighter mag 14.5 star.  The "northern" arm is attached on the south side of the core and wraps around the west side, gradually unfurling towards the north side and ending over 2' NNE of center.

 

With careful viewing, the northern arm "resolved" into 4 distinct extended HII regions, identified as NGC 1566:[HP80] I, II, IV and VI in Hawley and Phillips 1980 paper "Spectrophotometry of H II regions and the nucleus of NGC 1566" in ApJ, 235, 783.  NGC 1566:[HP80] VI is a 12" knot in the arm, 45" due west of center and is clearly resolved from [HP80] IV, a slightly larger 15" knot which is 50" WNW of center.  [HP80] II is a distinct 10" knot, just over 1' NNW of center and the faintest is [HP80] I, just to its north.  The arm passes just south of a mag 14 star 2' N of center.  With averted vision, the outer halo extends beyond the main arms, increasing the size to 5'x3' SSW-NNE.  Mag 8.7 HD 27713 lies 5.4' NW.  NGC 1566 is the largest and most luminous member of the Dorado Group, which contains three subgroups: NGC 1433 group, NGC 1672 group and NGC 1566 group.

 

13.1" (2/19/04 - Costa Rica): this Seyfert galaxy is a member of the Dorado Group and appears bright, large, elongated 3:2 ~N-S.  With careful viewing the halo extends to ~3'x2'.  A spiral arm is attached on the west side and curves towards the north beyond the main body of the galaxy.  On the eastern side a low surface brightness arm is attached (on an E-W line with a mag 12 star close following the galaxy) and extends a little to the south on the eastern side of the main body.  I was surprised to see the spiral arms so clearly!  Mag 8.2 HD 27713 lies 5.4' NW of center and a mag 9.9 star lies in the field 9' W.  NGC 1581 lies 40' E.

 

James Dunlop discovered NGC 1566 = D 338 = h2635 on 28 May 1826 with his 9" reflector from Parramatta and described "a pretty large round nebula, about 4' diameter, moderately and gradually condensed to the centre. A very small star near the following edge, not involved."  His position is 11' too far south but the identification is certain.

 

JH observed the galaxy twice from the CGH, recording on 5 Dec 1834, "B, vL, first very gradually then suddenly much brighter to the middle, to a stellar nucleus. Diameter in RA = 15". A star 11th mag involved, N.p. gives it a distorted appearance. A curious object." JH noted this nebula could be Dunlop 338.

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NGC 1567 = ESO 202-010 = AM 0419-482 NED02 = PGC 14934

04 21 08.7 -48 15 18

V = 12.2;  Size 1.3'x1.3';  Surf Br = 12.8

 

24" (11/18/12 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): fairly bright, fairly small, round, 40"-45" diameter.  Sharply concentrated with a small bright core.  A mag 10.5 star lies 5' SW.  NGC 1567 forms a pair (same redshift) with ESO 202-009 3' SSW.  The companion appeared very faint, fairly small, thin edge-on SSW-NNE, 40"x12", low surface brightness.  Viewed with a 4.5-day moon up.

 

JH discovered NGC 1567 = h2636 on 28 Dec 1834 and described "vF, S, R, glbM, 20" (hazy)". A later observation adds "found in place and viewed past meridian; not vF, S, R."  His position matches ESO 202-010 = PGC 14934.

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NGC 1568 = NGC 1568B = UGC 3032 = MCG +00-12-027 = CGCG 393-016 = II Zw 10 = VV 809 = PGC 15034

04 24 25.4 -00 44 47

V = 13.6;  Size 1.1'x0.8';  PA = 135d

 

24" (12/22/14): at 375x; moderately bright, fairly small, slightly elongated, well concentrated with a small bright core that increases occasionally to a stellar nucleus.  A mag 12 star lies 1' NE.  Forms an interacting double system (II Zw 10) with NGC 1568A = UGC 3031 1.2' WNW.

 

NGC 1568A appeared extremely or very faint, very small, round, 12"-15" diameter, low surface brightness glow with averted vision.  A mag 14.5-15 star is less than 30" N.  On the SDSS, this galaxy has a striking set of tidal tails; it is connected to brighter to NGC 1568B with a delicate, curving bridge and a long tidal plume extends to the northwest.

 

17.5" (2/1/92): fairly faint, fairly small, dominated by small bright core, fainter extensions NW-SE, faint halo.  Two mag 12/13 stars are 1' NE and 1.5' NW.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 1568 = Sw V-60 on 2 Oct 1886 with the 16" refractor at the Warner Observatory and reported "eF; vS; R; nearly betw 2 stars."  His position is 21 sec of RA west and 19" south of UGC 3032.  His comment "nearly betw 2 stars" may apply to two stars 1' northeast and 4' southwest.  Most likely the companion (NGC 1568A) is too faint to be seen by Swift.

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NGC 1569 = Arp 210 = UGC 3056 = MCG +11-06-001 = CGCG 306-001 = VII Zw 16 = LGG 104-002 = PGC 15345

04 30 48.6 +64 50 56

V = 11.0;  Size 3.6'x1.8';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 120d

 

48" (10/23/11): at 488x, three very compact knots (luminous super-star clusters) are closely lined up from NW to SE in the central region (total length ~15") with the brightest knot NGC 1569-A in the middle of the trio.  NGC 1569-A was flanked by 1569-C 7" NW and 1569-B 7" SE.  NGC 1569-C appeared very small but was also clearly non-stellar.  NGC 1569-B, very close to the geometric center, was very compact and symmetrical, like a slightly bloated star.  SIMBAD lists a V mag of 15.3 for 1569-A.

 

18" (1/17/09): at 380x this unusual starburst galaxy appeared as a high surface brightness streak, elongated ~5:2 WNW-ESE.  The brightest region is NW of center and contains two stellar or quasi-stellar knots (super-star clusters) within the glow.  One of these "stars" was fairly easy (NGC 1569-A) and the other was occasionally visible.  A very faint stellar object (SSC NGC 1569-B) is close to the geometric center.  The ESE side of the galaxy is fairly uniform though the position angle is slightly offset.  A mag 9.8 star is less than 1' N of center.

 

17.5" (3/1/03): at 380x this is a bright, very elongated galaxy with an unusual asymmetric appearance, situated less than 1' S of a mag 9.5 star!  Extended nearly 5:2 NW-SE, 2.0'x0.8'.  The bright core is offset to the NW side of the glow with a tail extending SE, possibly bending at a slight angle to the core.  Two stellar "nuclei" are visible in good seeing.  The brighter "star" is embedded within the core, possibly just slightly north of center.  A second fainter "star" is close SE, near the edge of the core and is visible intermittently.  These "stars" are actually SSC's (luminous super-star clusters).  NGC 1569 was recently determined to be a member of the IC 342 galaxy group.

 

17.5" (1/12/02): very bright, elongated 5:2 WNW-ESE, 2.5'x1.1', high but irregular surface brightness with an asymmetric appearance.  The very bright core is mottled and irregular and is offset to the NW side of the galaxy!  At 380x, there are two stellar "nuclei" within this glow.  The brighter stellar nucleus is fairly easy and a fainter stellar point is close SE.  There is also a strong impression of a third stellar spot close west of the central nucleus.  These faint "stars" are actually luminous super-star clusters, the most massive known type of star clusters (color image at http://www.lowell.edu/users/dah/papers/n1569hst.html).  A mag 10 star is close off the north side, 1' from center and a mag 13 star is just off the SE end. 

 

13.1" (1/18/85): very bright, elongated 2:1 WNW-ESE, high surface brightness, elongated bright core, mottling suspected.  Located just 1' S of a mag 10 star.

 

8" (11/28/81): fairly bright, small, elongated.  Located just south of a mag 9 star.

 

WH discovered NGC 1569 = H II-768 on 4 Nov 1788 (sweep 881) and noted "pB, S, lE, BN, just south of a pretty bright star."  Ralph Copeland observed this galaxy on 17 Jan 1873 using Lord Rosse's 72" and recorded "Decidedly cometic in appearance, with the head north-preceding.  Position of elongation 111.2”.  Has an 11 mag reddish star in PA 359”, Dist 45".  This star is the south member of a double stars.  There is also a 15m star following in the direction of the axis of the nebula.  This object, although of the second class, is 3 or 4x as bright as H I-258 [NGC 1491]."

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NGC 1570 = NGC 1571 = ESO 250-019 = MCG -07-10-001 = PGC 14971

04 22 08.9 -43 37 47

V = 12.3;  Size 2.0'x1.5';  Surf Br = 13.5;  PA = 172d

 

See observing notes for NGC 1571.

 

JH discovered NGC 1570 = h2637 on 4 Dec 1836 and recorded "F; S; R; gbM; 20" dia."  His position is 10' N of ESO 250-019 = PGC 14971.  This galaxy was found again by JH on 1 Dec 1837, accurately placed, and it was catalogued again as h2638 = GC 848 = NGC 1571.  Although NGC 1570 is the earlier discovery, this galaxy is referred to as NGC 1571.  RNGC labels NGC 1570 as nonexistent.

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NGC 1571 = NGC 1570 = ESO 250-019 = MCG -07-10-001 = PGC 14971

04 22 08.9 -43 37 47

V = 12.3;  Size 2.0'x1.5';  Surf Br = 13.5;  PA = 172d

 

18" (1/17/09): at 175x appeared faint, small, elongated 3:2 or 4:3 N-S, ~25"x18", very small brighter core.  A mag 10.6/10.8 double star (h3648) at 12" separation lies 3' ENE.  Located 47' NW of a mag 6.4 star and 49' NE of a mag 5.3 star.  Viewed at only 7 degrees elevation from Lake Sonoma.

 

JH found NGC 1571 = h2638 on 1 Dec 1837 and recorded as "vF; S; R; 15"; gbM; has a double star north-following."  His position and description (the double star is HJ 3648) applies to ESO 250-019 = PGC 14971. Herschel discovered the galaxy a year earlier but placed it 10' too far north and it was catalogued as h2637 = NGC 1570.  Apparently neither Herschel or Dreyer suspected the two observations referred to the same nebula.  Although NGC 1570 is the earlier discovery, this galaxy is generally designated NGC 1571.

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NGC 1572 = ESO 303-014 = MCG -07-10-003 = PGC 14993

04 22 42.8 -40 36 03

V = 12.4;  Size 2.5'x1.2';  Surf Br = 13.5;  PA = 0d

 

18" (12/30/08): fairly faint, fairly small, very elongated 3:1 NNW-SSE, ~0.9'x0.3', slightly brighter core.  A mag 12 star is just off the east side, 0.9' NE of center.

 

JH discovered NGC 1572 = h2639 on 23 Oct 1835 and recorded "pF; S; R; 15"; has a * 13m, 1' nf."  His position and description applies to ESO 303-014 = PGC 14993.

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NGC 1573 = UGC 3077 = MCG +12-05-008 = CGCG 328-009 = VII Zw 18 = PGC 15570

04 35 04.1 +73 15 45

V = 11.7;  Size 1.9'x1.3';  Surf Br = 12.7;  PA = 35d

 

24" (2/22/14): fairly bright, moderately large, oval 4:3 SSW-NNE, sharply concentrated with a very bright core.  The large halo extends to at least 1.6'x1.2' with averted as the outer portion has a very low surface brightness.  A mag 15-15.5 star is at the NNW edge [32" from center].  Several stars follow, including a mag 10.5 star 2.2' E.  Brightest in a trio with CGCG 328-007 4.7' NW ("fairly faint, fairly small, slightly elongated, 25"x20", low even surface brightness") and UGC 3069 4.3' SW ("fairly faint, fairly small, slightly elongated SW-NE, 25"x20", gradually increases to the center, faint stellar nucleus"). 

 

17.5" (1/23/93): moderately bright, fairly small, elongated 3:2 SSW-NNE, gradually brighter halo, very small brighter core.  A mag 10.5 star is just 2.2' E of core.  CGCG 328-007 lies 4.5' NW.

 

Wilhelm Tempel discovered NGC 1573 = T IX-2 on 1 Aug 1883 with the 11" refractor at the Arcetri Observatory.  His position is 2' SW of UGC 3077 = PGC 15570.

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NGC 1574 = ESO 157-022 = PGC 14965

04 21 59 -56 58 24

V = 10.4;  Size 3.4'x3.1';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 35d

 

24" (11/18/12 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): at 260x, fairly bright, fairly large, round, 2' diameter.  Sharply concentrated with a well defined core.  A mag 9.7 star is near the SE edge of the halo (1.1' from center).  A much fainter star is at the edge of central core on the SE side, ~20" from center.  Two mag 11/12 stars are 4' and 4' 6, respectively.  Located 19' NW of Rmk 4 = 6.8/7.2 at 5".  Member of the Dorado Group.

 

JH discovered NGC 1574 = h264