NGC 1 = UGC 57 = MCG +04-01-025 = CGCG 477-054 = Holm 2A = PGC 564

00 07 15.9 +27 42 29

V = 12.8;  Size 1.6'x1.2';  Surf Br = 13.5;  PA = 120d

 

17.5" (11/14/87): moderately bright, slightly elongated ~E-W, bright core, stellar nucleus.  Forms a pair with NGC 2 just 1.8' S.

 

17.5" (9/19/87): fairly faint, oval 3:2 ~E-W, small, bright core, stellar nucleus.  A mag 12 star lies 1.9' NNE and a mag 13 star is 1.5' NNW of center.

 

13" (8/24/84): fairly faint, very small, small bright core.

 

13" (11/5/83): faint, very small.  Forms a pair with NGC 2 2' SSE.

 

Heinrich d'Arrest discovered NGC 1 on 30 Sep 1861 while testing the 11-inch f/17.5 Merz refractor of the Copenhagen Observatory, though he missed nearby NGC 2.  This was his first deep sky discovery, though d'Arrest was uncertain if his object was identical to h4 or h5 (both of which refer to NGC 16).  He described (combination of 4 observations) NGC 1 as "faint, small, round, 20", no concentration.  In a straight line connecting two stars 11 and 14 mag."  Herman Scultz also observed NGC 1 three times in 1866 and 1868 with a 9.6-inch refractor at Upsala and both observers missed fainter NGC 2.  The NGC 1 and 2 visual pair are not physically related. NGC 1 lies at a distance of ~200 million l.y. with NGC 2 at roughly 320 million l.y.

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NGC 2 = UGC 59 = MCG +04-01-026 = CGCG 477-055 = Holm 2B = PGC 567

00 07 17.1 +27 40 41

V = 14.2;  Size 1.0'x0.6';  Surf Br = 13.6;  PA = 115d

 

17.5" (11/14/87): very faint, very small, slightly elongated, even surface brightness.  A mag 12.5 star lies 1.1' W of center.  Forms a pair with brighter and larger NGC 1, just 1.8' N.

 

17.5" (9/19/87): faint, small, elongated ~E-W.  A mag 13 star lies 1' W.

 

13" (8/24/84): very faint, very small, low surface brightness.  Forms a close pair with NGC 1.

 

Lawrence Parsons, the 4th Earl of Rosse, discovered NGC 2 on 20 Aug 1873 using Lord Rosse's 72-inch and recorded a "vF companion [to NGC 1] south".  Dreyer confirmed the observation on 29 Oct 1877 Dreyer and noted, "Nova 2' ssf easily seen, vF, eS stellar."

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NGC 3 = UGC 58 = MCG +01-01-037 = CGCG 408-035 = PGC 565

00 07 16.8 +08 18 06

V = 13.3;  Size 0.9'x0.6';  Surf Br = 12.6;  PA = 111d

 

48" (10/24/11): at 610x appeared fairly bright, elongated 5:2 WNW-ESE, 30"x12", well concentrated with a very small bright core and stellar nucleus.  A mag 11.5 star lies 1.3' SW.  Brightest in a group with the other members much fainter.  These include NGC 4 4.7' NE, NGC 7840 5.3' NNW and 2MASX J00074110+0814053 7.2' SE.

 

18" (10/21/06): faint, very small, elongated 3:2 WNW-ESE, 0.4'x0.25', very small slightly brighter core, faint stellar nucleus with direct vision.  A mag 11.5 star lies 1.2' SW.  Brightest in a group of faint galaxies.

 

17.5" (8/2/86): fairly faint, small, bright core, slightly elongated.  A mag 11.5 star is 1.2' WSW.  Brightest in the NGC 3 group with NGC 7838 6.3' NW, NGC 7837 6.9' NW, NGC 7835 10' NW, NGC 7834 11' WNW and NGC 4 5' NNE.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 3 = m 1 on 29 Nov 1864 with Lassell's 48" on Malta and recorded "F, vS, R, alm stellar."  NGC 3 is the brightest in a small group of faint galaxies (NGC 7834, 7835, 7837, 7838, 7840, 3, 4) all discovered by Marth on the same night.

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NGC 4 = PGC 212468

00 07 24.4 +08 22 23

V = 15.9;  Size 0.4'x0.2';  Surf Br = 13.0;  PA = 30d

 

48" (10/24/11): at 610x appeared fairly faint, very small, round, 10" diameter, high surface brightness.  This description applies to the core as the faint thin extensions on the DSS were not noticed.  Located 2.9' W of mag 9.5 SAO 109022 and 4.7' NE of NGC 3 in a group.

 

18" (10/21/06): extremely faint and small, round.  This threshold object appeared virtually stellar, perhaps 4" diameter and only visible occasionally with averted vision.  Located 3' due west of a mag 9 star.  Another very difficult galaxy, NGC 7840, lies 4' WNW.

 

17.5" (8/2/86): faintest member of the NGC 3 group.  Extremely faint and small, at visual threshold.  Located 2.9' W of mag 9 SAO 109022 and 4.8' NNE of NGC 3.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 4 = m 2 on 29 Nov 1864 with Lassell's 48" on Malta and simply noted "eF".  Marth's position is 10 tsec of RA following and 5' N of NGC 3 (discovered on the same night, along with 5 other faint galaxies).  The galaxy listed here (PGC 212468) is situated 4.7' NNE of NGC 3, so is a close match in position.  RNGC and PGC misidentify NPM1G +07.0004 = PGC 620 as NGC 4.  PGC 620 is located 15' SE of NGC 3, so is much too far away to be a reasonable candidate.

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NGC 5 = UGC 62 = MCG +06-01-013 = CGCG 517-017 = PGC 595

00 07 48.9 +35 21 44

V = 13.3;  Size 1.2'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 115d

 

17.5" (10/17/87): faint, very small, round, small bright core.

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 5 = St XII-1 on 21 Oct 1881 using the 31" reflector at the Marseille Observatory and recorded "Small core of 13 to 14 mag, surrounded by a very small and faint nebula."  His position matches UGC 62 = PGC 595.

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NGC 6 = NGC 20 = UGC 84 = MCG +05-01-036 = CGCG 498-082 = PGC 679

00 09 32.6 +33 18 31

 

See observing notes for NGC 20.

 

Lewis Swift found NGC 6 = Sw II-3 on 20 Sept 1885 with the 16" Clark refractor at Warner Observatory and recorded "eF; cE; vS; one of 5 stars which point to it is pretty near."  There is nothing at his position, but 75 seconds of RA east and 47' north is NGC 20 = UGC 84.  The RA offset is shared by several other objects discovered this night (NGC 19, 21, 7831, 7836) though the declination error is much larger (8' for the other objects).  But his description matches the chain of five stars just following NGC 20.  So, NGC 6 = NGC 20, discovered by R.J. Mitchell using LdR's 72" on 18 Sep 1857. The RNGC misidentifies NGC 6 as identical to NGC 7831.  Kobold misidentified NGC 7831 as NGC 6. See Corwin's notes for more info.

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NGC 7 = ESO 409-022 = MCG -05-01-037 = PGC 627

00 08 20.8 -29 54 55

V = 13.9;  Size 2.2'x0.5';  Surf Br = 14.0;  PA = 29d

 

17.5" (8/20/88): extremely faint, moderately large, edge-on 4:1 SW-NE.  Requires averted vision due to low surface brightness and elevation.

 

JH discovered NGC 7 = h4014 on 27 Sep 1834 and logged "vF, pL, vmE, gvlbM, 2' long."  The next night he observed the galaxy again and noted "vF, mE, vgvlbM."  On a third sweep he called it "eeF, L, mE, requires the utmost attention to perceive though the sky is perfectly pure."   His position matches ESO 409-022 = PGC 627.

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NGC 8 = Holm 3b = PGC 648

00 08 46 +23 50 16

 

=**, Corwin.

 

Otto Struve discovered NGC 8 on 29 Sep 1865 with the 15-inch refractor at Pulkovo Observatory in St. Petersburg.  He described it as fainter than NGC 9 (found 2 nights earlier) and placed it 3' northwest (10 sec of RA west and 1' north).  At this exact separation is a close, faint double star at 00 08 46 +23 50 16 (2000) with components mag 15/17. MCG misidentifies MCG +04-01-030 as NGC 8.  Although the RNGC New Description reads "looks like double star", the classification is a galaxy.  HyperLeda (as of 2016) also misclassifies this object as a galaxy.

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NGC 9 = UGC 78 = MCG +04-01-030 = CGCG 477-059 = Holm 3a = PGC 652

00 08 54.6 +23 49 03

V = 13.6;  Size 1.3'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 155d

 

17.5" (11/14/87): faint, small, slightly elongated ~N-S, weak concentration.  Located at the western vertex of an isosceles triangle with two mag 9 stars 6' E and 6.5' NE.

 

Otto Struve discovered NGC 9 on 27 Sep 1865 with the 15-inch refractor at Pulkovo Observatory in St. Petersburg while unsuccessfully searching for comet Biela.  Struve's position is 15 sec of RA west and 2' south of UGC 78 = PGC 652, though he noted the mag 9 star that follows by 26 seconds in RA.  So the identification is certain.  See NGC 8.

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NGC 10 = ESO 349-032 = MCG -06-01-024 = PGC 634

00 08 34.5 -33 51 30

V = 12.5;  Size 2.5'x1.3';  Surf Br = 13.5;  PA = 25d

 

17.5" (8/20/88): fairly faint, fairly small, bright core, oval 3:2 SSW-NNE.  A mag 13 star follows by 2.9'.  Located 21' SSE of mag 5.7 SAO 192367.

 

JH discovered NGC 10 = h4015 on 25 Sep 1834 and recorded "Not vF, L, lE, glbM, 1'.".  On a later sweep he logged it "F, pL, R, bM, 40"."  His mean position matches ESO 349-032 = PGC 634.

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NGC 11 = UGC 73 = MCG +06-01-015 = CGCG 517-020 = PGC 642

00 08 42.5 +37 26 53

V = 13.7;  Size 1.6'x0.2';  Surf Br = 12.5;  PA = 111d

 

17.5" (10/17/87): faint, fairly small, edge-on WNW-ESE.  A close double star with mag 11/12 components lies 3' N.

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 11 = St XII-2 on 24 Oct 1881 with the 31" silvered-glass reflector at the Marseille Observatory and described "vF; vS; little irregular oval SE to NW; two very faint stars involved."  Although Stephan did not record this object as an edge-on (very elongated), his position clearly matches UGC 73 = PGC 642.

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NGC 12 = UGC 74 = MCG +01-01-040 = CGCG 408-038 = PGC 645

00 08 44.8 +04 36 45

V = 13.1;  Size 1.7'x1.5';  Surf Br = 14.0;  PA = 125d

 

17.5" (12/19/87): very faint, fairly small, round, weak concentration, diffuse.

 

WH discovered NGC 12 = H III-868 = h1 on 6 Dec 1790 (sweep 984) and logged "eF, pS, irr F."  The 4 Nov 1850 observation using Lord Rosse's 72" reads "Some stars seen in it, it is vF. Nothing further remarkable."

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NGC 13 = UGC 77 = MCG +05-01-034 = CGCG 498-081 = PGC 650

00 08 47.7 +33 25 59

V = 13.2;  Size 2.5'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.5;  PA = 53d

 

17.5" (10/17/87): fairly faint, very small, round, small bright core.  A mag 13 star is 30" S and a mag 12 star lies 1.2' SSW of center.  First of three with NGC 20 12' SE.

 

WH discovered NGC 13 = H III-866 = h2 on 26 Nov 1790 (sweep 981) and logged "vF, vS. 300 verified and showed 3 stars and the nebula placed in the form of a square; the nebula being the np corner."  R.J. Mitchell, using Lord Rosse's 72" on 18 Sep 1857, recorded "2 neb. nearly in line p. and f; about 14' apart; the p one [NGC 13] is of irregular outline; F; bM. The f. one [NGC 13] is S; R; pB; bM."  The pair was observed 5 times up to 1873.  The NGC position is accurate.

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NGC 14 = Arp 235 = VV 80 = UGC 75 = MCG +03-01-026 = CGCG 456-034 = PGC 647

00 08 46.1 +15 48 56

V = 12.1;  Size 2.8'x2.1';  Surf Br = 13.9;  PA = 25d

 

17.5" (12/19/87): fairly faint, fairly small, oval SSW-NNE, broad concentration, faint extensions.  Located 1.4” ESE of NGC 7814.

 

WH discovered NGC 14 = H II-591 = h3 on 18 Sep 1786 (sweep 590) and recorded "F, pL, iF, unequally bright."  His position is at the west edge of Arp 235 = VV 80.

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NGC 15 = UGC 82 = MCG +03-01-027 = CGCG 456-035 = PGC 661

00 09 02.5 +21 37 28

V = 13.8;  Size 1.0'x0.6';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 30d

 

17.5" (11/14/87): faint, small, very elongated SSW-NNE, brighter core, faint stellar nucleus.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 15 = m 3 on 30 Oct 1864 with Lassell's 48" on Malta and recorded "vF, vS, R, bM".  His position is reasonably match with UGC 82 = PGC 661.

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NGC 16 = UGC 80 = MCG +04-01-032 = CGCG 477-061 = PGC 660

00 09 04.3 +27 43 46

V = 12.0;  Size 1.8'x1.0';  Surf Br = 12.4;  PA = 16d

 

17.5" (11/14/87): moderately bright, fairly small, oval SSW-NNE, small bright core, stellar nucleus.

 

17.5" (9/19/87): fairly bright, moderately large, elongated ~N-S, bright core, stellar nucleus.  NGC 22 lies 12' NE.

 

13" (8/24/84) : moderately bright, small, bright stellar nucleus, small fainter lens SSW-NNE.

 

8" (8/16/82): fairly faint, small, elongated N-S, bright nucleus at 200x.

 

8" (6/19/82): fairly faint, small, slightly elongated N-S, weak concentration.

 

WH probably discovered NGC 16 = H IV-15 = h4 = h5 on 8 Sep 1784.  He recorded "Stellar, or rather like a faint star with a small chevelure and two burs [sic].  F, S." His RA is 1 min 24 seconds east (using a different star Corwin found an error of 1 min 6 seconds) of UGC 80.  JH observed this object on 5 Sep 1828 and logged "pB; R; bM; 30" (? if not IV. 15)"  Due to the difference in position he wasn't sure if his object was new, but listing it as a Nova.  JH swept the area again 11 nights later and found h5, which he assumed was his father's IV-15: "a star 15m with a burr, RA from Cat.", though without an RA the identification of h5 is unknown.  In the NGC, Dreyer equates h4 = h5 = H IV-15 = NGC 16 and Corwin favors this interpreation. Wolfgang Steinicke feels H IV-15 more likely applies to NGC 22 than NGC 16.  His RA is off by 40 sec (too far east) and 7' too far south and the description "F, S, Stellar, or rather like a faint star with a small chevelure and two burs." may be a better fit.

 

John Dreyer, using the 72" at Birr Castle on 29 Oct 1877, recorded "pB nucl with vF neby; round; E sp nf; 2 st 13 and 12 mag preceding in the parallel about 4' and 5' distant."

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NGC 17 = NGC 34 = MCG -02-01-032 = PGC 781

00 11 06.7 -12 06 27

 

See observing notes for NGC 34.

 

Frank Muller discovered NGC 17 = LM II-276 in 1886 and logged "mag 13.5, 0.1' dia, iR, two stars mag 9.5, 2.0' in PA 280”."  Muller's position was 2.0 min of RA west of PGC 781 (typical error found in Leander McCormick observations) and his description of the nearby double star 2' west clinches the identification.  This galaxy was independently found by Lewis Swift (VI-1) on 21 Nov 1886 (same year) at Warner Observatory and catalogued as NGC 34.  Herbert Howe noted the identity NGC 17 = NGC 34 (Mon. Not. LXI) based on the descriptions, and Dreyer copied the correction in the IC II Notes section.  I've used the primary designation NGC 34.

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NGC 18

00 09 23.0 +27 43 56

 

=**, Carlson and Corwin.

 

Herman Schultz discovered NGC 18 on 15 Oct 1866 with the 9.6-inch refractor at Uppsala Observatory.  Schultz's micrometric position is 19 sec of RA following NGC 16 (at 00 09 04.2 +27 43 46) and corresponds precisely with a double star at 00 09 23.0 +27 43 55 (2000).  Dreyer noted that Heinrich d'Arrest and Lord Rosse could not find NGC 18 and neither could ƒdouard Stephan (notes section of his 11th list).

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NGC 19 = UGC 98 = MCG +05-01-046 = CGCG 499-065 = PGC 759

00 10 40.9 +32 58 59

V = 13.2;  Size 1.2'x0.6';  Surf Br = 12.6;  PA = 42d

 

17.5" (10/17/87): faint, fairly small, slightly elongated SW-NE, diffuse.  A mag 15 star is 1' W.  Located 9' S of mag 6.8 SAO 53694.  This galaxy is misidentified as NGC 21 in RNGC and UGC and NGC 19 is listed as nonexistent in RNGC.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 19 = Sw II-4 on 20 Sep 1885 with the 16" refractor at Warner Observatory and recorded "eeF; lE; in [the] center of 3 vF st forming an equilateral triangle, two of them double."  There is no obvious candidate at Swift's position but 74 seconds of RA east and 8' north is UGC 98.  Similar offsets in RA and Dec yield identities for NGC 21, 7831 and 7836, all discovered the same night (NGC 6 also shares the same offset in RA).  Furthermore, his description of the surrounding stars matches this galaxy.  Kobold's position for NGC 19 made in 1898 at Strassburg corresponds with UGC 98.

 

NGC 19 is mislabeled as NGC 21 in RNGC, PGC and UGC and not assigned a NGC designation in MCG and CGCG.  Finally, RNGC misclassifies NGC 19 as nonexistent because of the error in Swift's position.  See Corwin's Notes.

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NGC 20 = NGC 6 = UGC 84 = MCG +05-01-036 = CGCG 498-082 = LGG 001-008 = PGC 679

00 09 32.6 +33 18 31

V = 13.0;  Size 1.5'x1.5';  Surf Br = 13.8;  PA = 140d

 

17.5" (10/17/87): fairly faint, very small, round, small bright core, stellar nucleus.  A mag 11 star is just 30" E and a brighter mag 10 star lies 2.4' E.  Second of three with NGC 13 12' NW.

 

R.J. Mitchell discovered NGC 20 using Lord Rosse's 72" on 18 Sep 1857 and recorded as "S; R; pB; bM").  Although no position was measured it was catalogued as GC 6 (Rosse nova) and later by Dreyer as NGC 20.  Herman Schultz independently found the galaxy on 16 Oct 1866 with the 9.6" refractor at Uppsala and it was entered by Dreyer in the GC Supplement as GC 5086, though Dreyer added the comment "Query = GC 6".  Schultz's micrometric position matches UGC 84.

 

Lewis Swift later independently found this galaxy on 20 Sept 1885 and published it in List II-3.  Based on this entry this galaxy was catalogued as NGC 6, but Swift's position for the galaxy was 1.1 tmin W and 47' S of UGC 84.  Swift's RA offset is identical, though, to the error in his positions for NGC 19, NGC 21, NGC 7831, NGC 7836 all found the same evening.  Although the dec error is large, his description ("one of 5 st which point to it is p nr") matches the chain of 5 stars just following, so NGC 6 is a duplicate of NGC 20 (primary designation).

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NGC 21 = NGC 29 = UGC 100 = MCG +05-01-048 = CGCG 499-066 = PGC 767

00 10 46.9 +33 21 11

 

See observing notes for NGC 29.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 21 = Sw II-5 on 20 Sept 1885 and recorded "eF; S; lE."  His positions for NGC 19, 7831 and 7836 from the same evening are all offset ~70 seconds in RA and 8' in declination.  The offset position for NGC 21 lands on NGC 29.  So, NGC 21 is a duplicate of NGC 29.  RNGC, UGC and PGC misidentify UGC 98 = NGC 19 as NGC 21.  See NGC 19.

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NGC 22 = UGC 86 = MCG +05-01-039 = CGCG 499-055 = PGC 690

00 09 48.2 +27 49 57

V = 13.6;  Size 1.8'x1.4';  Surf Br = 14.3;  PA = 160d

 

17.5" (11/14/87): faint, fairly small, diffuse, slightly elongated, broad concentration.  Located 2.5' S of a mag 10 star.  Forms a wide pair with NGC 16 12' SW.

 

13" (8/24/84): very faint, fairly small, roundish, very diffuse, even surface brightness.

 

13" (11/5/83): extremely faint, small, round.  A mag 9 star 3' N interferes with viewing.  Located 12' NE of NGC 16.

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 22 = St XIII-1 on 2 Oct 1883 with the 31" reflector at the Marseille Observatory and described "eF; pS; R; lbM, resolvable".  His position matches UGC 86 = PGC 690 and he is credited with the discovery in the NGC.

 

WH possibly discovered this galaxy on 8 Sep 1784 (H IV-15, sweep 260) and recorded "F, S, Stellar, or rather like a faint star with a small chevelure and two burs."  His position is poor -- 40 sec too far east and 7' too far south -- but the description is a reasonable fit.  Dreyer assumed the observation referred to NGC 16, which is 1 min 25 sec of RA to the west and he commented in the NGC notes "Some error in recording the transit, probably simply of 1 min; reductions correct."  Wolfgang Steinicke feels H IV-15 refers to NGC 22 and WH never observed brighter NGC 16 but Corwin favors Dreyer's interpretation.

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NGC 23 = UGC 89 = MCG +04-01-033 = CGCG 477-062 = Mrk 545 = PGC 698

00 09 53.3 +25 55 26

V = 12.0;  Size 2.2'x1.6';  Surf Br = 13.0;  PA = 8d

 

17.5" (11/14/87): fairly faint, fairly small, elongated NNW-SSE, diffuse.  Unusual appearance as a mag 14 star is superimposed 26" SE of center.  Forms a pair with NGC 26 9' SE.

 

8" (7/24/82): faint, small, elongated NW-SE, stellar nucleus.  A star is at the SE end.

 

WH discovered NGC 23 = H III-147 on 10 Sep 1784 (sweep 264) and recorded as "2 or 3 stars in a line, with seeming nebulosity between them."  I only noted a single superimposed star, though the second "star" may be the nucleus.  Dreyer observed the galaxy on 21 Nov 1875 using LdR's 72" and described a "vS neb, with a starlike nucl = 11-12 mag and a *13 in PA 135.2”. Dist 26.2"."  The NGC position matches UGC 89 (Englemann measured an accurate position, in Astronomische Nachrichten 2485).

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NGC 24 = ESO 472-016 = MCG -04-01-018 = UGCA 2 = PGC 701

00 09 56.4 -24 57 49

V = 11.6;  Size 5.5'x1.6';  Surf Br = 13.7;  PA = 46d

 

17.5" (8/2/86): moderately bright, pretty edge-on 5:1 SW-NE, 4.0'x0.8', large bright core.  A mag 12 star is just east of the NE edge.  This is a little-known striking spiral.

 

WH discovered NGC 24 = H III-461 = h2308 on 27 Oct 1785 (sweep 467) and logged it as "vF, cL, lE, glbM, 4 or 5' long."  JH logged it from the Cape as "F; vL; vmE; vgbM; 4' l; 1' br."  Herbert Howe, using the 20" refractor at Chamberlin Observatory, reported the length as 3' and PA = 45”.

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NGC 25 = ESO 149-019 = PGC 706

00 09 59.4 -57 01 14

V = 13.0;  Size 1.4'x0.8';  Surf Br = 14.0;  PA = 85d

 

30" (11/4/10 - Coonabarabran, 264x): fairly bright, moderately large, elongated 3:2 E-W, 0.8'x0.5', fairly well concentrated with a brighter core.  Flanked by a mag 15 star 0.6' NE and a similar star 1' S.  Located 2.7' SE of a mag 10.5 star.  NGC 28 lies 4' NE, NGC 31 5.7' ENE, 2MASX J00101851-5700419 2.5' ENE and Fairall 1 3.0' SSE.  NGC 25 is a member of AGC 2731 (distance ~420 million l.y.) and the first (SW end) in a distinctive string of galaxies oriented WSW-ENE that includes four NGCs.  A total of 9 members were logged in the cluster.

 

JH discovered NGC 25 = h2309 on 28 Oct 1834 and recorded as "F; R; 30" across."  His position matches ESO 149-019 = PGC 706.

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NGC 26 = UGC 94 = MCG +04-01-034 = CGCG 477-064 = PGC 732

00 10 25.8 +25 49 55

V = 12.7;  Size 1.9'x1.4';  Surf Br = 13.6;  PA = 100d

 

17.5" (11/14/87): fairly faint, fairly small, slightly elongated, broad concentration.  Two mag 13.5 stars are 1.0' NE and 1.2' N of center.  Forms a pair with NGC 23 9' NW.

 

13" (12/18/82): very faint, fairly small, oval.

 

Heinrich d'Arrest discovered NGC 26 on 14 Sep 1865 with an 11" refractor at Copenhagen and made a total of 3 observations.  His position and descriptions (combined in the NGC as "vF, pL, R, 2 F stars north) matches UGC 94  = PGC 732.  Dreyer independently found this galaxy using LdR's 72" on 28 Sep 1875 and recorded "eF, pL, R.  Clouds came on."

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NGC 27 = UGC 96 = MCG +05-01-044 = CGCG 499-063 = PGC 742

00 10 32.7 +28 59 46

V = 13.5;  Size 1.2'x0.5';  Surf Br = 12.8;  PA = 117d

 

17.5" (10/8/94): fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 5:2 WNW-ESE, 1.0'x0.4', broad concentration to a brighter core.  Located 1.5' N of mag 9.5 SAO 73786.  A wide pair of mag 13.5 stars are 1.4' NNW and 2.0' NNW.  Forms a pair with UGC 105 10' SE.  Alpheratz (Alpha Andromedae, V = 2.1) lies 28' WNW.

 

17.5" (10/17/87): faint, small, roundish, very small brighter core.  Situated between two mag 13 and 14 stars.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 27 = Sw I-1 on 3 Aug 1884 with a 16" refractor at Warner Observatory and recorded as "vvF; vS; E; B* nr."  His position matches UGC 96 = PGC 742.

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NGC 28 = PGC 730

00 10 25.2 -56 59 21

V = 13.8;  Size 0.8'x0.6';  Surf Br = 12.9

 

30" (11/4/10 - Coonabarabran, 264x): moderately bright, fairly small, irregularly round, 30"x25", fairly high surface brightness, steadily increases to a very small bright core and stellar nucleus.  Located in the core of AGC 2731 with NGC 31 1.8' E, NGC 25 4' SW and PGC 394784 2.4' SSE.

 

JH discovered NGC 28 = h2310 on 28 Oct 1834 and described as "eF, preceding of 2. Requires attention, but no doubt remains." The 2nd object is h2311 = NGC 31.  His position matches PGC 730.  This galaxy is missing from ESO and RC3, but is included in the Southern Galaxy Catalogue (0007.9-5716) with the correct identification.  The data in RC3 for NGC 28 refers to NGC 31 and PGC reverses the identifications of NGC 28 and 31.  See Corwin's notes.

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NGC 29 = NGC 21 = UGC 100 = MCG +05-01-048 = CGCG 499-066 = PGC 767

00 10 46.9 +33 21 10

V = 12.7;  Size 1.7'x0.8';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 154d

 

17.5" (10/17/87): fairly faint, fairly small, oval NNW-SSE, weak concentration.  A mag 15 star is at the north edge.  Located 13' N of mag 6.8 SAO 53694.  Third of three with NGC 13 and NGC 20.

 

WH discovered NGC 29 = H II-853 = h6 on 26 Nov 1790 (sweep 981) and noted "F, S, E nearly in the meridian."  Lewis Swift independently found this galaxy on 20 Sep 1885 and recorded it in list II-5.  His position was offset 1m 10 sec of RA too far west and 8' in declination, and Dreyer, assuming it was a new discovery, catalogued the galaxy again as NGC 21.  But Swift's position for NGC 19, 7831 and 7836, all discovered on the same night, carry this same offset.  So, NGC 21 is a duplicate observation of NGC 29, with the discovery priority going to NGC 29.  This galaxy was observed 8 times using Lord Rosse's 72" and recorded on 16 Oct 1854 as "Elongated on and s, * at on end of neb inv, and another rather fainter s of center."

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NGC 30

00 10 50.8 +21 58 37

 

=**, Carlson and Corwin.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 30 = m 4 on 30 Oct 1864 with Lassell's 48" on Malta and recorded "Neb * 13."  SDSS shows a very close double 1' N of Marth's position at 00 10 50.8 +21 58 37 (J2000).  Karl Reinmuth, in his 1926 survey based on Heidelberg plates, states "*14 and ? neb *15 nf alm att; *13.3 nff 2.9'.  Dorothy Carlson, in her 1940 lists of NGC/IC corrections, identifies NGC 30 as a double star.

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NGC 31 = ESO 149-020 = PGC 751

00 10 38.5 -56 59 11

V = 13.6;  Size 1.1'x0.6';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 5d

 

30" (11/4/10 - Coonabarabran, 264x): this is the largest of 9 members of AGC 2731 viewed.  Appeared moderately bright, moderately large, oval 3:2 N-S, 1.2'x0.8', broad concentration, bright core.  Situated in the center of the cluster with NGC 28 1.8' W, NGC 25 5.7' SW and NGC 37 6.3' ENE.  A mag 12 star lies 1.7' NNE.

 

JH discovered NGC 31 = h2311 on 28 Oct 1834 and logged "eeF; the following of 2. Requires attention, but leaves no doubt" and on a later sweep as "eeF; S; R." The preceding object is h2310 = NGC 28.  JH's positions clearly establishes NGC 28 = PGC 730 and NGC 31 = ESO 149-020 = PGC 751.  Nevertheless, the PGC reverses the identifications of NGC 28 and 31.  The galaxy identified in the RC2 as NGC 28 is actually NGC 31. The ESO entry (149- G20) for NGC 31 does not give the NGC equivalence. The SGC (Southern Galaxy Catalogue) identifications are correct although the PGC errata paper claims the SGC reverses the identifications.

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NGC 32

00 10 53.5 +18 47 46

 

=wide **, Corwin.  =several stars, RNGC.

 

Julius Schmidt discovered NGC 32 = Au 1 on 10 Oct 1861 while observing Comet Encke with the 6.2-inch Plšssl refractor at Athens Observatory.  Although it wasn't Schmidt's first discovery, it was published (AN 1355) in time to be included in Auwers' 1862 list in new nebulae and by JH as GC 16.  His position corresponds precisely with a pair of mag 13.6/14.7 stars at 27" separation in PA = 200.  Harold Corwin identifies Schmidt's object as a double star and RNGC calls it several stars.

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NGC 33

00 10 56.6 +03 40 33

 

=**, Corwin.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 33 = m 5 on 9 Sep 1864 with Lassell's 48" on Malta and recorded "eF, vS, or neb st."  Karl Reinmuth, in his 1926 survey based on Heidelberg plates, describes NGC 33 as a "? Neb *13.7, eS, R; *9.5 sp 2.0', *13.0 ssf 1.8'."  The POSS shows a faint evenly matched double star at 00 10 58 +03 40.5 located 2.0' NW of a mag 10 star.  This appears to be Reinmuth's object although the *9.5 is sf 2.0' not "sp".  Corwin also identifies NGC 33 as a double star near Marth's position. 

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NGC 34 = NGC 17 = MCG -02-01-032 = PGC 781

00 11 06.7 -12 06 27

V = 13.0;  Size 2.3'x0.9';  Surf Br = 13.6;  PA = 30d

 

17.5" (8/20/88): moderately bright, small, round, bright core, stellar nucleus.  A close double star (WZ 1 = 12.4/13.9 at 7") is 2' W.  Forms a pair with NGC 35 6' NNE.

 

This infrared-luminous galaxy is in an advanced stage of merger with a tidal tail to the NE.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 34 = Sw VI-1 on 21 Nov 1886, along with NGC 35, with a 16" refractor at Warner Observatory.  His position and description ("equilateral triangle with 2 stars, one a close double") matches MCG -02-01-032 = PGC 781.  Frank Muller (II-276) independently found this galaxy in 1886.  His position is 2.0 minute of RA too far west (description matches) and the galaxy was catalogued again as NGC 17.  So, NGC 34 = NGC 17 (discovery priority unknown).  Herbert Howe, searched for NGC 17 unsuccessfully with the 20" refractor at Denver, and concluded it was equivalent to NGC 34 based on the similar descriptions.

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NGC 35 = MCG -02-01-033 = PGC 784

00 11 10.5 -12 01 15

V = 12.5;  Size 0.8'x0.5';  Surf Br = 11.4

 

17.5" (8/20/88): faint, very small, round, fairly even surface brightness.  A mag 15 star is at the NE edge.  Forms a pair with NGC 34 6' SSW.

 

Lewis Swift independently discovered NGC 35 = Sw VI-2 (along with NGC 34) on 21 Nov 1886. Frank Muller also found NGC 35 = LM II-277 in 1886 with the 26" refractor at the Leander McCormick Observatory.  Swift's position is 48" N of MCG -02-01-033 = PGC 784.  The discovery priority is unknown.

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NGC 36 = UGC 106 = MCG +01-01-043 = CGCG 408-040 = PGC 798

00 11 22.3 +06 23 21

V = 13.2;  Size 2.2'x1.3';  Surf Br = 14.2;  PA = 21d

 

17.5" (8/20/88): fairly faint, fairly small, almost round, bright core.  A mag 14 star lies 1.9' NE.  Forms a close pair with MCG +01-01-044 1.0' E of center (not seen).

 

WH discovered NGC 36 = H III-456 on 25 Oct 1785 (sweep 464) and recorded "vF, pS, irr figure."  His position is 1.0 min of RA too far east, but it was corrected by d'Arrest and Bigourdan and the NGC position is just 1' south of UGC 106 = PGC 798.

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NGC 37 = ESO 149-022 = PGC 801

00 11 23.0 -56 57 26

V = 13.7;  Size 1.1'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 35d

 

30" (11/4/10 - Coonabarabran, 264x): fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 3:2 SSW-NNE, 0.6'x0.4'.  Sharply concentrated with a very bright compact core, surrounded by a low surface brightness halo.  A mag 15 star lies 0.8' E.  2MASX J00111972-5657065, a very compact galaxy, is just off the NW side.  This member of AGC 2731 is located 6.3' ENE of NGC 31.  A couple of faint members lie 2.5' NNE (2MASX J00112633-5655018) and 3' NE (2MASX J00114159-5655469).

 

JH discovered NGC 37 = h2312 on 2 Oct 1836 and recorded as "extremely faint, small, round.".  His position matches ESO 149-022 = PGC 801, though ESO does not label this entry as NGC 37.

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NGC 38 = MCG -01-01-047 = PGC 818

00 11 47.0 -05 35 10

V = 12.7;  Size 1.5'x1.4';  Surf Br = 13.4;  PA = 80d

 

17.5" (8/20/88): fairly faint, small, almost round, small bright core, faint stellar nucleus.  A mag 11 star is 1.4' WNW a mag 12 star 2.6' ENE of center.

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 38 = St XII-3 on 25 Oct 1881 with the 31" reflector at the Marseille Observatory and described as "F; S; R; bM; bright stellar nucleus."  His position matches MCG -01-01-047 = PGC 818.

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NGC 39 = UGC 114 = MCG +05-01-052 = CGCG 499-076 = PGC 852

00 12 19.0 +31 03 42

V = 13.5;  Size 1.1'x1.0';  Surf Br = 13.6

 

17.5" (11/14/87): fairly faint, fairly small, slightly elongated, diffuse.  A mag 14 star is at the south edge.  Forms a pair with NGC 43 12' SE.

 

WH discovered NGC 39 = H III-861 = h7 on 2 Nov 1790 (sweep 975) and noted "eF, S."  JH made three observations as well as two by d'Arrest.

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NGC 40 = PK 120+9.1 = PN G120.0+09.8

00 13 01.0 +72 31 19

V = 10.6;  Size 38"x35"

 

48" (10/23/14): this showpiece, annular planetary was viewed unfiltered (low-excitation) at 488x and 813x and a remarkable amount of detail was visible.  The main section of NGC 40 is nearly round and 42" in diameter but outer extensions on the north and south ends increase the dimensions to roughly 63"x48" SSW-NNE.  The darker interior surrounding the blazing mag 11.5 central star has a very uneven surface brightness and is slightly darker to the southwest of the central star.

 

The irregular rim in much brighter along fairly narrow N-S strips on the west and east side.  The western rim is the brighter one and somewhat patchy with a slightly darker notch to the south of its center.  At its north end is a small, faint extension. The eastern rim is more uniform in brightness, but a very faint, thin outer loop curls north and west at its north end!  A small, detached, elongated patch floats near the north edge, but slightly south of the tip of the outer loop to its east. A very faint star or stellar knot is involved in this patch.

 

The rim is very weak on the south side and an easy star is at the southwest end.  A very small, faint detached glow was easily visible at the southern extremity [32" SSW of the central star] of NGC 40.  This patch forms the eastern vertex of a small triangle with a star ~10" NW (noted earlier) and a fainter star 10" SE. 

 

17.5" (12/30/99): at 100x appeared (unfiltered) as a slightly elongated, moderately bright disc surrounding a bright mag 11.5 central star. A slightly fainter mag 12 star lies 1.0' SW.  This is a low excitation PN with an OIII/H-beta ratio of just 0.4 and at 100x there was a noticeable enhancement using the H-beta filter while it dimmed with an OIII filter.  At 220x, a star was intermittently visible at the SW edge and the PN was slightly elongated SSW-NNE.  The best filter response with this power was using the UHC.  The surface brightness appeared irregular -- darker around the central star and slightly brighter along the west and east side of the rim.  At 280x, the faint star I noted earlier was barely off the SW edge and the PN was weakly annular with a brighter rim along the west and east side and a darker center.  The SW and NE ends of the halo were clearly weaker, though.  380x provided a nice view with subtle irregularities in the interior.

 

17.5" (11/1/86): bright, moderately large, round.  Contains a prominent mag 11.5 central star surrounded by a fairly bright halo.

 

13" (12/7/85): at 166x, bright central star visible centered within a fairly small prominent disc.

 

13" (10/12/85): moderately large, bright central star surrounded by a moderately bright halo at 166x-214x using a UHC filter.

 

8": the bright central star is surrounded by an easy halo.

 

WH discovered NGC 40 = H IV-58 = h8 on 25 Nov 1788 (sweep 886) and recorded "a star about 9th mag, surrounded with vF milky nebulosity; other stars of the same size are perfectly clear from that appearance. The star is either not round or double; but I am in the north and above the pole, I could not view it sufficiently to determine it. Less than 1' in diameter."  On 20 Nov 1829 (sweep 228), JH logged "a star 11m with a luminous atmosphere 30" to 40" diameter."  On 29 Oct 1831 he noted "a * 10m with strong nebulous atmosphere 15" diameter.  Exactly round and pretty suddently fading away makes a double star class 5 with a star preceding."

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NGC 41 = MCG +04-01-039 = CGCG 478-042 = PGC 865

00 12 48.0 +22 01 25

V = 13.6;  Size 0.8'x0.6';  Surf Br = 12.6

 

17.5" (11/14/87): faint, small, round, broad concentration.  Forms a pair with NGC 42 5' NNE.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 41 = m 6 on 30 Oct 1864 with Lassell's 48" on Malta (along with m 7  = NGC 42) and logged as "pF, S, lE, gbM."

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NGC 42 = UGC 118 = MCG +04-01-041 = CGCG 478-043 = PGC 867

00 12 56.3 +22 06 02

V = 13.8;  Size 1.1'x0.6';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 115d

 

17.5" (11/14/87): fairly faint, very small, round, bright core, stellar nucleus, compact.  Forms a pair with NGC 41 5' SSW.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 42 = m 7 (along with NGC 41) on 30 Oct 1864 with Lassell's 48" on Malta and logged "F, vS, stell."

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NGC 43 = UGC 120 = MCG +05-01-054 = CGCG 499-079 = PGC 875

00 13 00.8 +30 54 55

V = 12.6;  Size 1.6'x1.5';  Surf Br = 13.4

 

17.5" (11/14/87): fairly faint, very small, round, bright core, stellar nucleus.  A mag 13 star is 49" NW of center.  Forms a pair with NGC 39 12' NW.

 

JH discovered NGC 43 = h9 on 11 Nov 1827 and logged as "eF; has a 12m star 45" dist; pos 325”."  His position is 2' N of UGC 120 = PGC 875 (nearby NGC 39 is also offset 1.5' too far N).

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NGC 44

00 13 13.4 +31 17 11

 

=**, Corwin.  =NF, RNGC.

 

JH discovered NGC 44 = h10 on 22 Nov 1827 and logged as "eF, vS; not to be seen but in the clearest night."  There is a faint, very close double star at JH's position (00 13 13.4 +31 17 11) on the SDSS.  Karl Reinmuth, in his 1926 survey based on Heidelberg plates, appears to identify this double star as NGC 44: "cF, eS, E, ident doubtful; BD +30d17 npp 6.6'; double star 16 and 12.5 nf 1.5', *14 sf 1.3'."  Corwin's confirms the identification as a double star.

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NGC 45 = ESO 473-001 = MCG -04-01-021 = UGCA 4 = PGC 930

00 14 03.9 -23 10 52

V = 10.6;  Size 8.5'x5.9';  Surf Br = 14.7;  PA = 142d

 

17.5" (8/2/86): faint, large, almost round, very diffuse.  A mag 10 star is attached at the south end.  Located 4' ENE of mag 7 SAO 166132!  Both stars interfere with viewing.

 

13" (12/7/85): extremely faint, fairly large.  A mag 7 star 4' WSW detracts from observation.

 

13" (8/24/84): only suspected at visual threshold.  The nearby mag 7 star interferes with viewing.

 

JH discovered NGC 45 = h 2313 on 11 Nov 1835 and logged "extremely faint; large; round; very gradually very little brighter in the middle; attached to and nearly involving a large star; the following of two. A very faint object of singular appearance, 3 or 4' diameter; forms a kind of cometic appendage to the star, which, however, is quite at the edge."  His position is 9 sec of RA west of ESO 473-001 (error corrected by Herbert Howe in 1900).

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NGC 46

00 14 09.8 +05 59 16

 

=*, Carlson and Corwin.

 

Edward Cooper discovered NGC 46 = Au 2 on 22 Oct 1852 at the Markree Observatory, and noted as a nebulous star while compiling the Markree Ecliptic Catalogue.  There is only a mag 12.2 star at his position.  Auwers reported only finding a sharp, nebulous star on 28 and 30 Sep 1861, but included it in his 1862 list of new nebulae. Bigourdan also reported he could not find a nebula at the Markree position.

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NGC 47 = NGC 58 = MCG -01-01-055 = PGC 967

00 14 30.7 -07 10 04

V = 13.0;  Size 2.0'x2.0';  Surf Br = 14.4

 

17.5" (8/20/88): fairly faint, fairly small, oval WNW-ESE, bright core.  Collinear with mag 9 SAO 128650 5.4' WSW and a mag 10 star 4.5' WSW.  In a group with NGC 54 10' ENE and NGC 50 11' SSE.

 

Wilhelm Tempel discovered NGC 47 in 1886 with the 11-inch refractor at the Arcetri Observatory.  There is no published record on his observation, so the discovery must have been communicated directly to Dreyer, but Tempel's position matches MCG -01-01-055 = PGC 967.  Lewis Swift (list V-3) likely independently discovered this galaxy on 21 Oct 1886, though his position is 1 min of RA east of PGC 67.  The discovery priority is unknown.

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NGC 48 = UGC 133 = MCG +08-01-031 = CGCG 549-027 = PGC 929

00 14 02.1 +48 14 05

V = 13.6;  Size 1.4'x0.9';  Surf Br = 13.7;  PA = 15d

 

17.5" (8/31/86): third and largest of six in a group (first of three NGC galaxies with NGC 49 and NGC 51 along with the IC trio 1534/1535/1536!).  Fairly faint, slightly elongated SSW-NNE, even surface brightness, diffuse.  Lower surface brightness than NGC 49 and NGC 51 but larger.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 48 = Sw II-6, along with NGC 49 and 51, on 7 Sep 1885 with the 16" refractor at Warner Observatory.  His position is 0.7 min of RA east of UGC 1337.   Bigourdan measured an accurate position on 13 Oct 1890 (repeated in the IC 2 Notes) and as well as E.E. Barnard, who found them without prior knowledge (AN 4136).

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NGC 49 = UGC 136 = MCG +08-01-033 = CGCG 549-029 = PGC 952

00 14 22.4 +48 14 48

V = 13.7;  Size 1.1'x1.0';  Surf Br = 13.7;  PA = 165d

 

17.5" (8/31/86): fifth of six in the NGC 51 group.  Fairly faint, small, almost round, bright core.  Second of three NGC galaxies and situated between NGC 48 and 51.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 49 = Sw II-7, along with NGC 48 and 51, on 7 Sep 1885 with the 16" refractor at Warner Observatory.  His position is 0.5 min of RA east of UGC 136, though his description "middle one of 3 in line" pins downs the identification.  Bigourdan measured an accurate position on 13 Oct 1890 (repeated in the IC 2 Notes) and as well as Barnard (AN 4136).  Barnard's sketch of the field was published in AN 4136.

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NGC 50 = MCG -01-01-058 = PGC 983

00 14 44.7 -07 20 43

V = 11.6;  Size 2.3'x1.8';  Surf Br = 13.0;  PA = 155d

 

17.5" (8/20/88): fairly bright, fairly small, elongated 3:2 NNW-SSE.  Rises to a small, very bright core.  Brightest in a group with MCG -01-01-057 3' NNW (logged as "faint, very small, round") and NGC 47 11' NNW.

 

Gaspare Ferrari discovered NGC 50 = Nova #13 = Sw V-1 on 8 Jan 1866 while searching for Biela's Comet.  He was using the 9.5-inch Merz equatorial at the College Romain as an assistant to Father Angelo Secchi (see AN 1571).  His position matches MCG -01-01-058 = PGC 983.  Lewis Swift found this galaxy again on 21 Oct 1886 and reported it as new in his 5th discovery list.  His position is 12 sec of RA too large and 25" too far south.  Swift noted in the errata to list VI, that V-1 was identical to GC 5092. Ferrari missed NGC 47 just 11' NNW, which was independently found by Wilhelm Tempel and Swift.  Only two out of the 14 objects found by Ferrari (Dreyer instead attributed discoveries to the director Angelo Secchi) can be identified with certainty!

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NGC 51 = UGC 138 = MCG +08-01-035 = CGCG 549-031 = PGC 974

00 14 34.9 +48 15 20

V = 13.1;  Size 1.3'x1.0';  Surf Br = 13.2

 

17.5" (8/31/86): fairly faint, fairly small, round, small bright core.  A faint star is superimposed on SE edge (or a companion galaxy).  Brightest and last of six in the group.  Also the third of three NGC galaxies in the NGC 51 group.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 51 = Sw II-8 on 7 Sep 1885, along with NGC 48 and 49, with the 16" refractor at the Warner Observatory.  His RA is 0.5 min too large (similar offset as the other two).  Bigourdan measured an accurate position on 13 Oct 1890 (repeated in the IC 2 Notes) and as well as Barnard (AN 4136).

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NGC 52 = UGC 140 = MCG +03-01-030 = CGCG 456-042 = PGC 978

00 14 40.1 +18 34 54

V = 13.3;  Size 2.1'x0.4';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 127d

 

17.5" (11/14/87): fairly faint, small, thin edge-on 5:1 WNW-ESE, weak concentration.

 

WH discovered NGC 52 = H III-183 = h11 on 18 Sep 1784 (sweep 277) and recorded "eF, S, irr E." The NGC position is 0.4 min of RA east of UGC 140 = PGC 978.  Bigourdan measured an accurate RA on 13 Nov 1889 (repeated in the IC 2 Notes section).

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NGC 53 = ESO 111-020 = PGC 982

00 14 42.8 -60 19 44

V = 12.6;  Size 2.0'x1.4';  Surf Br = 13.6;  PA = 160d

 

30" (11/6/10 - Coonabarabran, 264x): moderately bright and large, elongated 5:3 N-S, 1.2'x0.7'.  Broadly concentrated then suddenly condenses to a sharp stellar nucleus.  A mag 11 star lies 1.7' W of center.  A faint star lies 1' NE of center [on the DSS it appears to be a very close double].  Several mag 10-12 stars are in the field.

 

JH discovered NGC 53 = h2314 on 15 Sep 1836 and recorded "extremely faint; round; very little brighter in the middle; 30" across."  His position matches ESO 111-020 = PGC 982.

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NGC 54 = MCG -01-01-060 = PGC 1011

00 15 07.7 -07 06 25

V = 13.8;  Size 1.2'x0.5';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 93d

 

17.5" (8/20/88): fairly faint, small, very elongated 3:1 E-W, even surface brightness.  Located 10' ENE of NGC 47 in a group.

 

Wilhelm Tempel independently discovered NGC 54 in 1886 with the 11-inch refractor at the Arcetri Observatory, along with Lewis Swift (V-2) on 21 Oct 1886 with the 16" refractor at the Warner Observatory.  Tempel's observation doesn't appear in any of his lists so the discovery must have been communicated directly to Dreyer and the discovery priority is unknown.  Swift's published position is 10 sec of RA east and 27" S of MCG -01-01-060 = PGC 1011, but the RA is accurately stated in the NGC (probably from Tempel).

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NGC 55 = IC 1537 = ESO 293-050 = MCG -07-01-013 = PGC 1014

00 15 05.9 -39 13 01

V = 7.9;  Size 32.4'x5.6';  Surf Br = 13.4;  PA = 108d

 

30" (11/4/10 - Coonabarabran): NGC 55 nearly filled the 37' field of the 21mm Ethos at 264x, extending close to 30' in length WNW-ESE and roughly 4' in width.  The structure was fascinating at 429x with a highly irregular surface brightness due to dusty patches and rifts along with bright clumps and knots.  The "bright" central section, which is offset WNW of center, spans ~9' in length.  At the west end of the central section, the surface brightness dims significantly and the galaxy tapers, extending several arc minutes further WNW.  At the ESE side of the central portion is a bright, elongated, mottled core, roughly 1' in length and bulging slightly.  Just ESE of the core are two noticeable knots; the first is small but elongated, the second knot is very bright and elongated.  With careful viewing the second knot resolved into two individual pieces or clumps.  Continuing further ESE, the surface brightness drops significantly very quickly and a large, elongated dark wedge appears to take a bite out of the galaxy.  Just as the galaxy begins to brighten again towards the ESE end, there is another bright round knot and a second very small piece just detached to the ENE.  At the ESE tip the galaxy brightens a bit more and has an irregular, patchy appearance with a couple of brighter stars superimposed.

 

20" (7/8/02 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): viewed at nearly 60” elevation at 212x, this huge galaxy was an amazing sight and overfilled the 23' field (at least 25' in length).  Near the core were two small, prominent HII knots.  A couple of additional low surface brightness knots were visible further east along the mottled extensions.  The appearance was asymmetric with the brighter WNW section bulging slightly.

 

17.5" (11/1/86): very large, edge-on 6:1 WNW-ESE, 16'x3'.  Very asymmetric with a bright, elongated western portion, darker center and a faint eastern section (IC 1537).  Faint stars are involved at the west side.  The eastern portion appears tilted at a slight angle to the main western portion. 

 

13" (11/5/83): fairly bright.  The very faint eastern portion is near detached from the bright WNW section.

 

8" (9/25/81): very large, very elongated, brighter to the west, very faint eastern section.

 

15x50 IS binoculars (10/21/06): although very low in the southern sky, visible as a faint, relatively large elongated patch using handheld IS binoculars.  Easy to locate 3.8” NW of Alpha Phe as the galaxy is exactly collinear with three mag 7 stars to the east that are aligned east to west.

 

James Dunlop discovered NGC 55 = D 507 = h2315 on 7 Jul 1826 from Parramatta, New South Wales.  Using his 9-inch f/12 speculum reflector, he described it as "a beautiful long nebula, about 25' in length; position N.p. and S.f., a little brighter towards the middle, but extremely faint and diluted to the extremities. I see several minute points or stars in it, as it were through the nebula: the nebulous matter of the south extremity is extremely rare, and of a delicate bluish hue. This is a beautiful object." Dunlop sketched the galaxy and observed it on four occasions.

 

JH first observed this galaxy from the Cape on 3 May 1834: "bright; very large; very much elongated in a long irregular train, the preceding end being much the brightest. Whole length = 1.5 diam. of field, or 22' The nucleus is either a double star or a much more sharply terminated nebulous mass, elongated in a different position (146.5 ) from that of the nebula (109.8 )." He observed it again on 23 October 1835, recording it as "very bright; very large; very much elongated; at least 25' long and 3' broad. The following part is faint, the preceding and shorter trinuclear the 2d, nucleus taken. A strange object." His final observation on 4 October 1836 reads: "very bright, very large; a very long irregular crooked ray with 3 nuclei, the second of which appears to consist of stars." His sketch of the galaxy (fig. 8, plate IV) clearly shows its convoluted form and three brighter sections. In his discussion, he grouped it together with the galaxy NGC 300 and the star cluster NGC 1950 as "nebulae of irregular forms having a tendency to several centres of condensation; in the case of [NGC 1950] but little conspicuous - in that of [NGC 55] (otherwise remarkable for its extravagant length and crooked shape) much more so, while in [NGC 300], the formation of separate nuclei is decided, the intermediate faint nebula barely sufficing to mark them as forming a connected system."

 

Corwin notes that Sw XI-2 = IC 1537, found by Swift on 23 Sep 1897 and described as "eeeF; vL; eE; close f NGC 55; f of 2." is actually the ESE arm of NGC 55, which was first seen and sketched by Dunlop.  Joseph Turner sketched NGC 55 using the 48" Great Melbourne Telescope at http://www.docdb.net/history/texts/1885osngmt________e/lithograph_m_1_2.php

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NGC 56

00 15 24 +12 26

 

=no neb, Carlson and Corwin.

 

JH found NGC 56 = h12 on 13 Oct 1825 and logged "about this place a considerable space seems affected by nebulosity."  Neither Guillaume Bigourdan nor ƒdouard Stephan found anything near Herschel's position.  Also nothing was found on Mount Wilson or Lick photographs.  Listed as nonexistent in RNGC.

 

Karl Reinmuth, in his 1926 survey based on Heidelberg plates, states "vF, pL, pmE, ph, =neb Wolf XIII No. 112; neb Wolf XIII No. 111 np 9'."   Dorothy Carlson, in her 1940 paper on NGC corrections, notes that Wolf XIII No. 112 is 1m.6 f and 5' S of Dreyer positions of NGC 56 and is pL (1.7' in dia) instead as "eL" as Herschel described it. See Corwin's notes for more.

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NGC 57 = UGC 145 = MCG +03-01-031 = CGCG 456-046 = PGC 1037

00 15 30.9 +17 19 43

V = 11.6;  Size 2.2'x1.9';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 40d

 

17.5" (11/14/87): moderately bright, fairly small, round, bright core, stellar nucleus.

 

WH discovered NGC 57 = H II-241 = H II-243 = h13 on 8 Oct 1784 (sweep 286) and recorded (for II-241) "pS, cometic, but hazy weather." A couple of nights later he logged this galaxy again as II-243, "faint, small, irregularly round."  In the GC, JH notes that Auwers misidentified H II-243, which is identical to H II-241 (the confusion was caused by an omitted offset star).  This galaxy was observed 7 times at Birr Castle and the 26 Oct 1854 observation reads "vF, I think it is resolvable [mottled]."

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NGC 58 = NGC 47 = MCG -01-01-055 = PGC 967

00 14 30.7 -07 10 04

 

See observing notes for NGC 47.

 

Lewis Swift found NGC 58 = Sw V-3 on 21 Oct 1886, in a trio with NGC 50 and NGC 54, with a 16" refractor at Warner Observatory.  There is nothing at Swift's position but his description reads "vF, pS, R, wide D * near sp"; 3rd of 3. Herbert Howe, using the 20" refractor at Chamberlin Observatory, was unable to find NGC 58 on two nights and suggested that NGC 58 is a duplicate of NGC 47, discovered earlier by Wilhelm Tempel in 1886.  This requires that Swift's RA for NGC 58 was 1.1 minutes too large.  Despite Swift's comment "3rd of 3", his description of a "wide D[ouble] star nr sp" applies to NGC 47, making this equivalence very likely.  Dreyer repeats Howe's efforts in the IC II Notes and adds "probably = [NGC] 47".  See Corwin's notes for the full story.

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NGC 59 = ESO 539-004 = MCG -04-01-026 = PGC 1034

00 15 25.3 -21 26 42

V = 12.4;  Size 2.6'x1.3';  Surf Br = 13.7;  PA = 127d

 

17.5" (8/20/88): fairly faint, fairly small, oval WNW-ESE, large bright core.  There are four mag 13-14 stars to the west.

 

Ormond Stone discovered NGC 59 = LM I-1 on 10 Nov 1885 and recorded "pS, iR, lE 120”".  His very rough RA (to nearest tmin) is coincidentally just 0.2 tmin E of ESO 539-004 = PGC 1034 and the position angle matches.  In the paper "Southern Nebulae" from Leander McCormick Observatory, the position was micrometrically measured and pinpoints ESO 539-004.

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NGC 60 = UGC 150 = MCG +00-01-048 = CGCG 382-037 = PGC 1058

00 15 58.4 -00 18 13

V = 14.1;  Size 1.3'x1.2';  Surf Br = 14.4;  PA = 155d

 

17.5" (8/20/88): extremely faint, small, round.  A mag 15 star is off the west edge.  Located 17' due east of mag 8 SAO 128658.

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 60 = St XII-4 on 2 Nov 1882 with the 31" reflector at the Marseille Observatory and recorded "eeF; vS; R; lbM."  His position matches UGC 150 = PGC 1058.

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NGC 61 = (R)NGC 61A = MCG -01-01-062 = PGC 1083

00 16 24.5 -06 19 21

V = 13.6;  Size 1.1'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.2

 

17.5" (8/20/88): this is a double system with the brighter component (NGC 61A = MCG -01-01-062) at the SSE end appearing faint, very small, contains a small bright core.  In a common halo with NGC 61B = MCG -01-01-063 at the NNW edge.  The fainter component appeared very faint, extremely small, round. Located near the Cetus border. MCG -01-01-065 lies 10' ESE.

 

WH discovered NGC 61 = H III-428 = h14 on 10 Sep 1785 (sweep 435) and logged "vF; vS; irr figure."  On 5 Oct 1785, he noted "vF, S, vlbM."  The declination in RNGC (copied from MCG) is 5' too large.  The correct dec is given in RC3.  This galaxy is identified as NGC 61A in RC3 and MCG.

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NGC 62 = MCG -02-01-043 = Holm 5a = PGC 1125

00 17 05.5 -13 29 13

V = 11.5;  Size 1.3'x1.0';  Surf Br = 11.6;  PA = 130d

 

17.5" (8/20/88): fairly faint, small, oval WSW-ENE, weak concentration.  Located between mag 7.2 SAO 147195 9' WNW and mag 6.5 SAO 147208 13' E.

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 62 = St XIII-2 on 8 Oct 1883 with the 31" reflector at the Marseille Observatory and logged as "F, vS, R, glbM."  His position matches MCG -02-01-043 = PGC 1125.  This is the southernmost galaxy discovered by Stephan.  Francis Leavenworth independently found this nebula in 1886 and included it in list I-2.  His rough position was 1.5 tmin too far W (typical error).

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NGC 63 = UGC 167 = MCG +02-01-030 = CGCG 433-042 = PGC 1160

00 17 45.4 +11 27 01

V = 11.6;  Size 1.7'x1.1';  Surf Br = 12.2;  PA = 108d

 

17.5" (12/19/87): fairly bright, fairly small, very elongated ~E-W, bright core, stellar nucleus.

 

Heinrich d'Arrest discovered NGC 63 = Sf 96 on 27 Aug 1865 with an 11" refractor at Copenhagen and recorded (combining two observations) "class II, round, 35", mag 16 nucleus; lying between two mag 12 and 13 stars, the first precedes the nebula by 9.7 sec."  His position and description matches UGC 167.

 

Truman Safford made an independent discovery on 30 Sep 1867 with the 18.5" refractor at the Dearborn Observatory as well as Hermann Vogel on 16 Aug 1868 (he credited d'Arrest).  Dreyer observed NGC 63 with the 72" on 30 Oct 1877 and logged, "pB, pS, oval p f, smbM.  Inside a triangle of 3 st 12, one of them in PA 268.9 (W), Dist 143.7", the 2 others about the same distance np and f."

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NGC 64 = MCG -01-01-068 = PGC 1149

00 17 30.3 -06 49 30

V = 13.2;  Size 1.5'x1.1';  Surf Br = 13.6;  PA = 30d

 

17.5" (10/8/88): faint, fairly small, elongated SW-NE, weak concentration.  An anonymous galaxy (2MASXi J0018358-070255) lies 21' SE.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 64 = Sw V-4 on 21 Oct 1886 with the 16" refractor at Warner Observatory.  His position is 17 sec of RA east and 1.6' south of MCG -01-01-068  = PGC 1149.  Herbert Howe measured an accurate position in 1899-00 using the 20" refractor at Chamberlin Observatory (repeated in the IC 2 notes).

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NGC 65 = ESO 473-010A = MCG -04-02-001 = PGC 1229

00 18 58.7 -22 52 50

V = 13.4;  Size 1.2'x0.8';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 178d

 

17.5" (8/20/88): faint, small, round.  Located 2.6' WNW of mag 8.8 SAO 166184.  Forms a pair with NGC 66 3.6' SSE.

 

Frank Muller discovered NGC 65 = LM II-278 (along with NGC 66 = LM II-279) in 1886.  His position is 1.0 minute of RA west of ESO 473-010A = PGC 1229.  Herbert Howe measured an accurate position in 1899-00 using the 20" refractor at Chamberlin Observatory (repeated in the IC 2 notes). The MCG entry for this galaxy (-04-02-001) gives the NGC designation as "uncertain".

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NGC 66 = ESO 473-010 = MCG -04-02-002 = PGC 1236

00 19 05 -22 56 18

V = 13.4;  Size 1.2'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.0;  PA = 32d

 

17.5" (8/20/88): faint, small, slightly elongated SSW-NNE, even surface brightness.  Located 1.4' S of mag 8.8 SAO 166184.  Forms a pair with NGC 65 3' NNW.

 

Frank Muller discovered NGC 66 = LM II-279 (along with NGC 65 = LM II-278) in 1886.  His position is 1 min of RA west and 1' south of ESO 473-010 = PGC 1236.  His description of a mag 9 star 1.2' NNE matches this galaxy.  Herbert Howe measured an accurate position in 1899-00 using the 20" refractor at Chamberlin Observatory (repeated in the IC 2 notes).  The MCG entry for this galaxy (-04-02-002) gives the NGC designation was  "uncertain".

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NGC 67 = Arp 113 = VV 166g = Holm 6e = PGC 138159

00 18 12.2 +30 03 19

V = 15.6;  Size 0.45'x0.3';  PA = 112d

 

24" (9/15/12): very faint, very small, round, 12"-15" diameter, just visible continuously. This galaxy is at the west end of the NGC 68 group and on a line extending northeast with PGC 1185, NGC 68 and NGC 70 with each galaxy separated from the next by less than 1'.  PGC 1185, misidentified in most catalogues as NGC 67 and the faintest galaxy in the central region, is situated just 44" NE.  PGC 1185 appeared extremely faint and small, 8" diameter.

 

18" (11/14/09): this galaxy and PGC 1185 were the faintest members viewed in the NGC 68 group.  NGC 67 appeared as a mag 16 threshold glow 1.7' SW of NGC 68.  It required averted to occasionally glimpse, though a few times I could tell it was elongated.  In a 22" scope, I was able to hold this galaxy continuously at over 400x.

 

PGC 1185 was occasionally glimpsed as a threshold "star" sandwiched between this galaxy and NGC 68 (0.8' from both galaxies).  Most sources identify PGC 1185 as NGC 67 and this galaxy as NGC 67A or anonymous although it was clearly shown on Rosse's sketch of the field.  The identification is corrected on the NGC/IC Project site.

 

17.5" (8/27/87): extremely faint and small.  First in the NGC 68 group of 9 with NGC 68 0.9' NE, NGC 69 1.8' SE and NGC 71 1.9' E.  This observation may apply to NGC 67 or PGC 1185 very close NE.

 

R.J. Mitchell discovered NGC 67 using LdR's 72" on 7 Oct 1855, while observing and sketching the NGC 68 group (plate XXV, fig 1 in the 1861 publication).  PGC 1185 (close northeast) is misidentified as NGC 67 in various sources including Megastar.  See Corwin's notes.

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NGC 68 = Arp 113 = VV 166b = Holm 6a = UGC 170 = MCG +05-01-065 = CGCG 499-106 = WBL 007-008 = PGC 1187

00 18 18.5 +30 04 18

V = 12.9;  Size 1.2'x1.1'

 

24" (9/15/12): at 322x appeared fairly faint to moderately bright, fairly small, round, 25" diameter, high surface brightness though contains a brighter nucleus.  One of the brighter members in a dense group of galaxies and forms a tight trio with NGC 70 1.0' NE and NGC 71 1.3' SE.  In addition, CGCG 499-104 is just 57" SW.  In total, 10 galaxies were logged in a 5' circle!

 

18" (11/14/09): fairly faint, small, round, 25" diameter.  Appears as a compact knot (like a core) of moderate surface brightness with no outer halo.  Forms the southwest vertex of a tight trio with NGC 70 and NGC 71 in a dense group.

 

17.5" (8/27/87): faint, small, slightly elongated WNW-ESE, weak concentration.  This galaxy is the brightest in a compact group and first in an interconnected trio with NGC 70 1.0' NE and NGC 71 1.2' SE.  An extremely difficult galaxy, NGC 67, is just 0.9' SW.

 

WH discovered NGC 68 = H V-16 = h15 on 11 Sep 1784 (sweep 266) and recorded "eF, 5 or 6' dia, 3 or 4 stars in it; but they seem to have connection with it."  This is the only galaxy Herschel discovered in the group, but he listed it in his fifth class of "large" nebulae, and Corwin comments it's likely he saw the merged light of NGC's 68, 70, and 71 (3 brightest in a small triangle in the core).  R.J. Mitchell, using LdR's 72" on 7 Oct 1885, made a sketch of NGC 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 74, and it was included in the 1861 Rosse publication.  The NGC position matches UGC 170 = PGC 1187.

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NGC 69 = Arp 113 = VV 166e = Holm 6f = MCG +05-01-066 = CGCG 499-105 = WBL 007-007 = PGC 1191

00 18 20.5 +30 02 24

V = 14.8;  Size 0.5'x0.3'

 

24" (9/15/12): faint, very small, round, 15" diameter, bright quasi-stellar nucleus.  Member of the compact NGC 68 group and first in a string with NGC 72 1.8' E and NGC 72A 3.0' E.

 

18" (11/14/09): very faint, extremely small, round, 15" diameter.  Located 1.6' SSE of NGC 71 and a similar separation due west of NGC 72.

 

17.5" (8/27/87): extremely faint and small, faint stellar nucleus.  In the core of the NGC 68 group with NGC 67 1.8' NW, NGC 71 1.6' NNE, NGC 72 1.8' E.

 

R.J. Mitchell discovered NGC 69 on 7 Oct 1855 using LdR's 72", while observing the NGC 68 group.  It's clearly shown on the sketch on plate XXV in the 1861 publication. The NGC position matches CGCG 499-105 = PGC 1191.

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NGC 70 = Arp 113 = VV 166a =  Holm 6c = UGC 174 = MCG +05-01-067 = CGCG 499-108 = WBL 007-010 = IC 1539 = PGC 1194

00 18 22.6 +30 04 47

V = 13.5;  Size 1.4'x1.2';  Surf Br = 13.9;  PA = 0d

 

24" (9/15/12): fairly faint to moderately bright, fairly small, slightly elongated ~N-S.  Extends between two mag 14 stars separated by 42".  Sharply concentrated with a small, high surface brightness core and a much fainter halo.

 

18" (11/14/09): fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 3:2 N-S, sandwiched between two mag 13.5-14 stars at the NNE and SW ends [42" separation].  Sharply concentrated with a very small bright core and a diffuse, low surface brightness halo that might extend to 0.8'x0.6', though the stars confuse the extent of the halo.  Forms the northern member of a very tight trio with NGC 71 1' SSE and NGC 68 1' SW.  A total of 9 members were viewed within a 7' circle!

 

17.5" (8/27/87): very faint, very small, round, small bright core.  Located in the core of NGC 68 group and nearly between two mag 13.5 stars 25" NE and 20" SSW.  In an interconnected trio with NGC 68 1.0' SW and NGC 71 1.0' SSE.

 

R.J. Mitchell discovered NGC 70 on 7 Oct 1855 while observing the NGC 68 group.  It was accurately placed on the sketch (plate XXV, fig 1) in the 1861 publication.  The NGC position matches UGC 174 = PGC 1194.  Bigourdan found the galaxy again on 19 Dec 1897, while misidentifying a star as NGC 70, and it was catalogued as IC 1539.  So, NGC 70 = IC 1539.  See Corwin's notes

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NGC 71 = Arp 113 = VV 166c = Holm 6b = UGC 173 = MCG +05-01-068 = CGCG 499-107 = WBL 007-009 = PGC 1197

00 18 23.5 +30 03 48

V = 13.2;  Size 1.2'x1.1';  Surf Br = 13.4

 

24" (9/15/12): fairly faint to moderately bright, fairly small, round, sharply concentrated with a high surface brightness 0.4' core and a much fainter halo to 40" diameter.  In a tight group of 10 galaxies including NGC 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 74, along with numerous stars mixed in!  A mag 14 star is 40" ENE.

 

18" (11/14/09): fairly faint, small, round, 25" diameter.  Compact appearance with a fairly high uniform surface brightness.  A mag 13.5 star is close following [38" ENE].  Forms the SE vertex of a tight equilateral triangle of galaxies with NGC 68 and NGC 70.

 

17.5" (8/27/87): very faint, small, oval ~E-W, weak concentration.  Member of the NGC 68 group and third in a close trio with NGC 68 1.2' NW and NGC 70 1.0' NNW.

 

R.J. Mitchell discovered NGC 71 on 7 Oct 1855 while observing the NGC 68 group.  It was accurately placed on the sketch (plate XXV, fig 1) in the 1861 publication.  Heinrich d'Arrest independently found the galaxy on 23 Sep 1865.

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NGC 72 = Arp 113 = VV 166d = Holm 6d = UGC 176 = MCG +05-01-069 = CGCG 499-109 = WBL 007-011 = PGC 1204

00 18 28.3 +30 02 26

V = 13.5;  Size 1.1'x0.9';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 15d

 

24" (9/15/12): fairly faint, small, slightly elongated, 30"x24", very small brighter nucleus.  Member of the compact NGC 68 group and in a string with NGC 60 1.7' W and NGC 72A 1.3' ESE.

 

18" (11/14/09): faint, small, slightly elongated, 35"x30" diameter, low even surface brightness.  Located 2-3' SE of a tight trio (NGC 68/70/71).  NGC 72A, an extremely compact galaxy, lies 1.3' E.

 

17.5" (8/27/87): very faint, very small, elongated ~E-W, weak concentration.  Located in the core of the NGC 68 group with NGC 72A 1.3' ESE, NGC 69 1.8' W, NGC 71 1.7' NW.

 

R.J. Mitchell discovered NGC 72 on 7 Oct 1855 while observing the NGC 68 group.  It was accurately placed on the sketch (plate XXV, fig 1) in the 1861 publication.  The NGC position matches UGC 176 = PGC 1204.

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NGC 73 = MCG -03-01-026 = PGC 1211

00 18 39.0 -15 19 20

V = 12.7;  Size 1.8'x1.4';  Surf Br = 13.6;  PA = 145d

 

17.5" (8/20/88): fairly faint, small, slightly elongated, small bright core.  A mag 14/15 double star is close following (separation of 24" oriented SW-NE).

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 73 = Sw V-5 on 21 Oct 1886 with a 16" refractor at Warner Observatory and logged "vF; S; R; vF D* close following."  His position is 30" N of MCG -03-01-026 = PGC 1211 and his comment about the "vF D * close f" applies.

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NGC 74 = MCG +05-01-071 = PGC 1219

00 18 49.3 +30 03 42

V = 14.5;  Size 0.8'x0.4';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 130d

 

24" (9/15/12): faint or fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 5:2 NW-SE, 0.6'x0.25', broad weak concentration.  On the east side of the NGC 67-72 group, 5.6' due east of NGC 71.

 

18" (11/14/09): extremely faint, fairly small, very elongated 3:1 NW-SE, 0.6'x0.2'.  Appears as a phantom streak with averted vision.  Located ~6' E of the NGC 68/70/71 triple and furthest east member of the group.

 

17.5" (8/27/87): very faint, small, elongated NW-SE, diffuse, even surface brightness.  Located 6' E of NGC 71 at the east edge of the NGC 68/NGC 70 group.

 

R.J. Mitchell discovered NGC 74 on 7 Oct 1855 while observing the NGC 68 group.  It was accurately placed on the sketch (plate XXV, fig 1) in the 1861 publication.  Bigourdan measured an accurate position on 29 Sep 1886, matching PGC 1219.

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NGC 75 = UGC 182 = MCG +01-01-051 = CGCG 408-048 = PGC 1255

00 19 26.4 +06 26 57

V = 13.2;  Size 1.4'x1.4';  Surf Br = 13.9

 

17.5" (8/20/88): faint, small, round, bright core, stellar nucleus.  Located 5' SE of an isosceles triangle of mag 11/12 stars with sides 1.3', 1.6' and 1.7'.  Mag 7.2 SAO 109145 lies 13' SE.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 75 = Sw V-6 on 22 Oct 1886 with a 16" refractor at Warner Observatory.  His position is 6 sec of RA west and 48" north of UGC 182 = PGC 1255.

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NGC 76 = UGC 185 = MCG +05-01-072 = CGCG 499-111 = Holm 8a = WBL 007-013 = PGC 1267

00 19 37.8 +29 56 01

V = 13.0;  Size 1.0'x0.9';  Surf Br = 12.7;  PA = 80d

 

17.5" (8/27/87): fairly faint, fairly small, elongated ~E-W, small bright core.

 

Guillaume Bigourdan discovered NGC 76 = Big. 1 on 22 Sep 1884 with the 12" refractor at the Paris Observatory.  This was Bigourdan's first discovery of a nebula.

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NGC 77 = ESO 473-015 = PGC 1290

00 20 01.6 -22 31 56

V = 14.6;  Size 0.4'x0.4';  Surf Br = 12.5

 

17.5" (12/20/95): extremely faint spot on the threshold of visibility with averted vision.  Only glimpsed for moments several times although sighting certain.  Located 3.1' ESE of a mag 11.5 star.  Next closest is a 14th mag star 4.0' WSW.  Incorrectly identified in the RNGC as MCG -04-02-003.

 

17.5" (10/21/95): not seen, though viewed through thin clouds.

 

Frank Muller discovered NGC 77 = LM II-280 in 1886 using the 26" refractor at Leander McCormick observatory in Charlottesville, Virginia.  Although the discovery positions at the observatory were generally very imprecise due to poorly calibrated circles (in this case off by 30 tsec in RA), Howe measured an accurate position (given in the IC 2 Notes section), which matches ESO 473-015 = PGC 1290.  Furthermore, Muller stated a mag 9 star lies 2.8' W (in PA 280”) and a mag 11 star is 3.1' WNW in PA 282”.  ESO and SGC correctly identify this galaxy as NGC 77, but the RNGC misidentifies MCG -04-02-003 as NGC 77.  Herbert Howe measured an accurate position in 1899-00 using the 20" refractor at Chamberlin Observatory (repeated in the IC 2 notes).

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NGC 78 = (R)NGC 78A = UGC 193 = MCG +00-02-004 = CGCG 383-001 = Mrk 547 = PGC 1306

00 20 25.8 +00 49 35

V = 13.7;  Size 1.1'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 80d

 

17.5" (8/20/88): this is a double system with the southwestern member appearing faint, very small, round, bright core.  The companion is attached at the northeast end and appears very faint, very small, round, low even surface brightness.  The two components are separated by just 30" and are within a common halo.

 

Frederick PechŸle discovered NGC 78 around 1876 using the 11-inch Merz refractor at the Copenhagen Observatory.  The discovery must have been communicated directly to Dreyer as it was included in the GC Supplement (5094), but there was no published announcement.  The NGC position is 1.5' north of UGC 193 = PGC 1306. This is a double galaxy and identified as NGC 78A in MCG and RC3 .  The RNGC designations are reversed in RA.

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NGC 79 = MCG +04-02-003 = CGCG 479-003 = PGC 1340

00 21 02.9 +22 34 00

V = 14.0;  Size 0.6'x0.6';  Surf Br = 13.0

 

18" (11/22/08): fairly faint, small, round, 25" diameter, broad weak concentration.  This member of the NGC 80 cluster situated between NGC 86 located 6' E and IC 1542 located 5.2' WNW.

 

17.5" (9/19/87): faint, fairly small, almost round, broad concentration.  Located at the NW end of the NGC 80 group 9.1' NW of NGC 83.  NGC 80 lies 13' SSE.

 

13" (9/29/84): faint, very small, slightly elongated.

 

Guillaume Bigourdan discovered NGC 79 = Big. 2, along with NGC 86 and 94, on 14 Nov 1884 with the 12" at the Paris Observatory at the NW end of the NGC 80 group.  His position matches CGCG 479-003 = PGC 1340.  10 days later he also picked up NGC 96.

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NGC 80 = UGC 203 = MCG +04-02-004 = CGCG 479-006 = PGC 1351

00 21 10.9 +22 21 26

V = 12.1;  Size 1.6'x1.6';  Surf Br = 13.0

 

18" (11/22/08): this giant lenticular galaxy is the brightest in a rich group of 20 galaxies viewed in a 25' circle.  At 283x it appeared fairly bright, moderately large, round, 1.0' diameter.  Sharply concentrated with a very bright 30" core that increases to the center and a much fainter outer halo.  The closest cluster members are NGC 81 1.6' NNE, 2MASX J00205474+2222017 3.7' WNW and NGC 83 5.3' NNE.

 

17.5" (9/19/87): moderately bright, fairly small, sharp concentration, very bright core, stellar nucleus.  Brightest in a group with NGC 81, 83, 85, 86, 91, 93, 94, 96, IC 1546 and MCG +04-02-010.  Forms a close pair with extremely faint NGC 81 1.6' NNE and NGC 83 is 5.3' NNE.

 

13" (9/29/84): moderately bright, fairly small, almost round, small bright core.

 

JH discovered NGC 80 = h16 on 17 Aug 1828.  The NGC 80 group was observed 5 times with Lord Rosse's 72" and R.J. Mitchell's observation on 19 Sep 1857 reads "S; R; or nearly so; and lbM."  The NGC position matches UGC 203 = PGC 1351.

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NGC 81 = PGC 1352

00 21 13.2 +22 22 59

V = 15.7;  Size 0.3'x0.2';  Surf Br = 12.5;  PA = 84d

 

18" (11/22/08): this companion to NGC 80 appeared extremely faint and small, round, just 6"-10" diameter.  A mag 15 star lies 0.7' NNW.  Located 1.7' NNE of NGC 80.

 

17.5" (9/19/87): extremely faint and small, slightly elongated.  Two mag 15 stars are close NW, the nearer star is 40" NW.  Located just 1.6' NNE of NGC 80 in a group.

 

Ralph Copeland discovered NGC 81 on 15 Nov 1873 during one of the observations with Lord Rosse's 72" of the GC 38 = NGC 80 group.  Copeland described a "F neb, fairly certain. Pos 212.3”, dist 219.5" from [NGC 83]".  His micrometric offset matches PGC 1352.  Corwin notes that Bigourdan mistook a star NW of the galaxy (mentioned in my visual observation of the galaxy) as NGC 81.

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NGC 82

00 21 17.4 +22 27 42

 

=*, Corwin and Carlson.

 

Guillaume Bigourdan discovered NGC 82 = Big. 3 on 23 Oct 1884 with the 12" at the Paris Observatory.  According to Corwin, Bigourdan's offset matches a star at 00 21 17.4 +22 27 42 (2000).  NGC 82 is incorrectly equated with NGC 83 in the MCG.

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NGC 83 = UGC 206 = MCG +04-02-005 = CGCG 479-008 = PGC 1371

00 21 22.5 +22 26 01

V = 12.5;  Size 1.5'x1.5';  Surf Br = 13.4

 

18" (11/22/08): fairly faint, small, round, 20"-24" diameter, weak concentration.  Cradled by three brighter mag 10-10.5 stars off the following side with the closest 0.9' SSE.  This galaxy is probably the second brightest in the NGC 80 cluster.

 

17.5" (9/19/87): fairly faint, slightly elongated NW-SE, broad concentration.  This is the second brightest member of the NGC 80 group with NGC 80 5.3' SSW and the NGC 91/93 pair 7.0' ESE.  Three mag 10-10.5 stars lie 0.9' SSE, 1.4' ESE and 1.6' E.

 

13" (9/29/84): fairly faint, very small, round.  Three mag 10 stars follow.  Located 5' NE of NGC 80 is a group.

 

JH discovered NGC 83 = h17 on 17 Aug 1828 and recorded "E; perhaps bicentral; makes trapezium with three B stars.".  His position is ~1' N of UGC 206 = PGC 1371 and the description of the nearby stars matches.  Engelhardt measured an accurate micrometric position.  R.J. Mitchell, using Lord Rosse's 72" on 26 Oct 1854, noted "round and brighter in the middle."

 

This galaxy is identified as NGC 82/83 in MCG although NGC 82 refers to a star only.

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NGC 84

00 21 21.3 +22 37 03

 

=*, Thomson and Corwin.  Incorrectly identified in the RNGC as MCG +04-02-010.

 

Guillaume Bigourdan discovered NGC 84 = Big. 4 on 14 Nov 1884 with the 12" at the Paris Observatory.  At his position is a single star.  The RNGC misidentifies MCG +04-02-010 as NGC 84.  The identification was discussed in the Webb Society Quarterly Journal for July, 1991.

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NGC 85 = NGC 85A = MCG +04-02-007 = CGCG 479-009 = PGC 1375

00 21 25.5 +22 30 43

V = 14.8;  Size 0.7'x0.5';  Surf Br = 13.5

 

18" (11/22/08): faint, very small, slightly elongated, ~18"x15".  Forms a very close pair with IC 1546 = NGC 85B just 0.9' SE within the NGC 80 cluster.  Situated between NGC 83 4.7' S and NGC 86 2.8' N.

 

17.5" (9/19/87): very faint, very small, slightly elongated.  Forms a close pair with IC 1546 = NGC 85B 53" ESE and NGC 83 lies 5' S.

 

13" (9/29/84): extremely faint, very diffuse, small, almost round.  Located 5' N of NGC 83.

 

Ralph Copeland discovered NGC 85 on 15 Nov 1873 using Lord Rosse's 72" and recorded "eeF, cL, R neb, was certainly and repeatedly seen.  Pos 7.4”, dist 289.2" or 2.7s f, 4'46" N of [N83].  His micrometric offset points directly at CGCG 479-009 = PGC 1375.  MCG identifies this galaxy as NGC 85A and assigns NGC 85B to IC 1546.

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NGC 86 = MCG +04-02-009 = CGCG 479-011 = PGC 1383

00 21 28.6 +22 33 24

V = 14.8;  Size 0.8'x0.2';  Surf Br = 12.6;  PA = 9d

 

18" (11/22/08): this member of the NGC 80 group appeared faint, very small, elongated 3:2 N-S, ~20"x14".  Elongated in the direction of a mag 12.5 star located just 0.7' S of center.  NGC 85 lies 2.8' S.

 

17.5" (9/19/87): faint, very small, elongated ~N-S.  A mag 12.5 star is 35" S.  MCG +04-02-010 (incorrectly identified in RNGC as NGC 84) lies 2.2' NNE.  Located 4' N of NGC 85 in the NGC 80 group.

 

13" (9/29/84): extremely faint, very small, round.  A mag 13 star is close S.

 

Guillaume Bigourdan discovered NGC 86 = Big. 5 on 14 Nov 1884 with the 12" at the Paris Observatory, along with NGCs 79 and 94.

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NGC 87 = ESO 194-008 = Robert's Quartet = Phoenix Group = Rose 34 = AM 0018-485 = PGC 1357

00 21 14.2 -48 37 42

V = 14.3;  Size 0.9'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.6

 

30" (11/4/10 - Coonabarabran, 429x): fairly faint, fairly small, irregularly round, 0.7' diameter, low even surface brightness.  Westernmost and second faintest in the compact Phoenix Quartet (Rose 34) with NGC 88 1.5' SE, NGC 89 2.8' SE and NGC 92 2.9' E.  The arrangement is distinctive  with the three brighter galaxies (NGC 87/89/92) arranged in an equilateral triangle with NGC 88 in the center, forming a "Y" or propeller shape.  ESO 194-13 lies 12' ENE of the quartet.

 

JH discovered NGC 87 = h2316 (along with NGC 88, 89, 92) on 30 Sep 1834 and recorded "eF, vS, R, gbM, first of four."  The next sweep two nights later he logged "eF; S; R. The first of a group of four nebulae."

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NGC 88 = ESO 194-010 = Robert's Quartet = Phoenix Group = Rose 34 = AM 0018-485 = PGC 1370

00 21 22.0 -48 38 24

V = 14.4;  Size 0.8'x0.5';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 145d

 

30" (11/4/10 - Coonabarabran, 429x): faint, small, slightly elongated NW-SE, very small bright core.  An extremely faint star is attached at the SW end.  This galaxy is the faintest in the Phoenix Quartet (Rose 34) and centered in an equilateral triangle of galaxies with NGC 87 1.5' NW, NGC 92 1.9' NE and NGC 89 1.5' S.

 

JH discovered NGC 88 = h2317 (along with NGC 87, 89 and 92) on 30 Sep 1834 and recorded "eF, vS, R, 2nd of 4, in centre of gravity of the others.".

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NGC 89 = ESO 194-011 = Robert's Quartet = Phoenix Group = Rose 34 = AM 0018-485 = SCG 0018-4854 = PGC 1374

00 21 24.4 -48 39 55

V = 13.5;  Size 1.2'x0.6';  Surf Br = 13.0;  PA = 148d

 

30" (11/4/10 - Coonabarabran, 429x): moderately bright, moderately large, elongated 2:1 NW-SE, 1.0'x0.5', very small slightly brighter core, faint stellar nucleus.  Has a slightly higher surface brightness than NGC 92.  Furthest southern member of the compact Phoenix Quartet (Rose 34) with NGC 87, 88, and 92.  NGC 88 lies 1.5' N and a faint star is 43" N (at the midpoint to NGC 88).

 

JH discovered NGC 89 = h2318 (along with NGC 87, 88 and 92) on 30 Sep 1834 and recorded "vF; S; R; gbM. The 3rd of four."

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NGC 90 = Arp 65 = UGC 208 = MCG +04-02-011 = CGCG 479-013 = PGC 1405

00 21 51.4 +22 24 00

V = 13.7;  Size 1.9'x1.0';  Surf Br = 14.2;  PA = 113d

 

18" (11/22/08): faint, fairly small, elongated 3:2 ~E-W, 0.5'x0.35'; contains a small, round, brighter core.  NGC 93 lies 2.8' ENE and a mag 12 star is 1.4' SW.

 

17.5" (9/19/87): very faint, small (only the central portion of the galaxy observed), slightly elongated, weak concentration.  A mag 12 star is 1.3' SW.  Forms a pair with NGC 93 2.8' E.  Located on the east side of the NGC 80 group 7.0' ESE of NGC 83.

 

13" (9/29/84): very faint, elongated NW-SE.  A mag 13 star is 1' SW.

 

R.J. Mitchell discovered NGC 90 using Lord Rosse's 72" on 26 Oct 1854. The description mentioned "Several S; F neb visible at once in finder" so JH assumed at least 3 objects were discovered, which he catalogued as GC 40, 41, 42.  But a sketch of the NGC 90 field shows only two nebulae labeled as Alpha (now NGC 90) and Beta (now NGC 93).  Herman Schultz observed the field on 17 Oct 1866 with the 9.6" refractor at Uppsala and measured an object he thought was GC 40, but was actually Mitchell's Alpha.  His micrometric position matches UGC 208 = PGC 1405.  Because of an uncertainty in the position and identification, Dreyer catalogued this object as GCS 5096 with the comment "Query = GC 40, 41, 42?". Dreyer equated GC 40 = 5096 in the NGC.   Modern catalogues misidentify UGC 208 as NGC 91 but Schultz's position for NGC 91 falls precisely on a very faint star 1.9' S.  See Corwin's notes for further discussion.

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NGC 91

00 21 51.7 +22 22 06

 

=*, Corwin

 

Herman Schultz discovered NGC 91 on 17 Oct 1866 with the 9.6" refractor at Uppsala Observatory.  Schultz's micrometric position of 00 21 52.1 +22 22 06 (2000) pinpoints NGC 91 as a mag 15.1 star at 00 21 51.7 +22 22 06.  Lord Rosse and Heinrich d'Arrest are credited with this number in the NGC, but Corwin notes this star was not mentioned in the Birr Castle observations of the field nor by d'Arrest.  All modern catalogues misidentify NGC 90 = UGC 208 = PGC 1405 as NGC 91.

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NGC 92 = ESO 194-012 = Robert's Quartet = Phoenix Group = Rose 34 = AM 0018-485 = PGC 1388

00 21 31.6 -48 37 30

V = 13.1;  Size 1.9'x0.9';  Surf Br = 13.6;  PA = 144d

 

30" (11/4/10 - Coonabarabran, 429x): this galaxy is the brightest member and furthest east in the compact Phoenix Quartet (Rose 34).  It appeared moderately bright, moderately large, elongated 2:1 NW-SE, 1.2'x0.6', broad concentration to a bright core.  A faint tidal tail to the SE was not seen.  The nearby members of the quartet are NGC 87 2.9' W, NGC 88 1.9' SW and NGC 89 2.6' SSW.

 

ESO 194-013, a fifth member of the group, lies 11' ENE.  At 429x, it appeared moderately bright, moderately large, elongated 4:3 SW-NE, 0.9'x0.7', broad concentration with a slightly brighter core but no distinct zones.  A distinctive string of three mag 13 stars [length 1.4'] is centered 2' E.

 

JH discovered NGC 92 = h2319 (along with NGC 87, 88 and 89) on 30 Sep 1834 and recorded "F, R, gbM; 20" across. The last of four"."

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NGC 93 = Arp 65 = UGC 209 = MCG +04-02-012 = CGCG 479-015 = PGC 1412

00 22 03.3 +22 24 29

V = 13.3;  Size 1.4'x0.6';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 48d

 

18" (11/22/08): fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 5:2 WSW-ENE, 0.5'x0.2', contains a very small brighter core.  A triangle of mag 13.5-14 stars follows by 1'-2'.  NGC 90 lies 2.8' W.

 

17.5" (9/19/87): faint, very small, oval SW-NE, faint stellar nucleus, bright core.  This is a double system with an anonymous companion 35" S.  Three mag 13.5-14 stars follow at 1.2' E, 1.9' E and 1.9' ESE forming a small right triangle.  Forms a pair with NGC 90 2.8' W at the east side of the NGC 80 group.

 

13" (9/29/84): fairly faint, very elongated.  There is a trio of very faint stars to the east.

 

R.J. Mitchell discovered NGC 93 on 26 Oct 1854 using Lord Rosse's 72" and labeled it as "Beta" on his sketch. The description mentions "Several S; F neb visible at once in finder" so JH assumed at least 3 objects were discovered, which he catalogued as GC 40, 41, 42, but only two are labeled on the sketch. NGC 93 was independently found by Heinrich d'Arrest on 5 Oct 1864 and catalogued by Dreyer as GC(S) 5098, as he was unsure of the positions and identifications.  d'Arrest's position matches UGC 209 = PGC 1412. GC 42 and 5098 entries were combined under NGC 93.

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NGC 94 = CGCG 479-017 = PGC 1423

00 22 13.6 +22 28 59

V = 14.6;  Size 0.6'x0.3';  Surf Br = 12.6;  PA = 25d

 

18" (11/22/08): faint, very small, elongated 4:3, ~20"x15".  This member of the NGC 80 group forms a nearly contact pair with PGC 1670567 just 35" S of center.  The companion appeared extremely faint and small, round.  Located 5' NE of NGC 93.  NGC 96 lies 4' NNE.

 

17.5" (9/19/87): very faint, very small, round, small bright core.  Forms a close pair with an anonymous galaxy (2MASX J00221387+2228242) 35" SSE.  Located on the east edge of the NGC 80 group.

 

Guillaume Bigourdan discovered NGC 94 = Big. 6 on 14 Nov 1884 with the 12" refractor at the Paris Observatory, along with NGCs 79, 86 and 96.  His position is a reasonable match with CGCG 479-017 = PGC 1423.

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NGC 95 = UGC 214 = MCG +02-02-003 = CGCG 434-003 = PGC 1426

00 22 13.6 +10 29 31

V = 12.5;  Size 1.9'x1.1';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 75d

 

17.5" (12/19/87): moderately bright, moderately large, round, bright core, very faint stellar nucleus, diffuse halo.  A mag 12 star is 2.0' NE of center.

 

13" (12/19/87): faint, small, round, weak concentration.

 

WH discovered NGC 95 = H II-257 = h19 on 18 Oct 1784 (sweep 298) and logged "F, S, R, lbM."  He found it again on 23 Nov 1785 (sweep 477) and noted "F, pL, mbM, iR."  JH made a single observation and  noted "vF; pL; R; gbM."

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NGC 96 = MCG +04-02-014 = PGC 1429

00 22 17.8 +22 32 47

V = 14.6;  Size 0.6'x0.6';  Surf Br = 12.6

 

18" (11/22/08): very faint, small, round, 24" diameter, irregular surface brightness.  Occasionally a faint star at the edge or possibly a stellar nucleus sparkles.  Last of 20 galaxies viewed in the NGC 80 group.  The SDSS reveals a faint star is superimposed.

 

17.5" (9/19/87): very faint, very small, slightly larger but more diffuse than NGC 94.  Located at the NE edge of the NGC 80 group.

 

Guillaume Bigourdan discovered NGC 96 = Big. 7 on 24 Oct 1884 with the 12" refractor at the Paris Observatory.  10 days earlier he discovered NGCs 79, 86 and 94 in the NGC 80 group.

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NGC 97 = UGC 216 = MCG +05-02-007 = CGCG 500-009 = PGC 1442

00 22 30.0 +29 44 43

V = 12.3;  Size 1.3'x1.3';  Surf Br = 12.9

 

17.5" (10/17/87): fairly faint, small, round, bright core, stellar nucleus.  A mag 15 star is 30" WSW and a mag 14 star 1.3' WNW.

 

JH discovered NGC 97 = h18 on 16 Sep 1828 and recorded "F; R; g; bM; 15"."  His position matches UGC 216 = PGC 1442.

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NGC 98 = ESO 242-005 = PGC 1463

00 22 49.5 -45 16 09

V = 12.7;  Size 1.7'x1.3';  Surf Br = 13.4;  PA = 0d

 

30" (10/13/15 - OzSky): at 303x; fairly bright, moderately large, round, 1.0' diameter, sharply concentrated with a bright core and very small bright nucleus.

 

JH discovered NGC 98 = h2320 on 6 Sep 1834 and recorded as "very faint; round; brighter in the middle; resolvable."  His position (single observation) matches ESO 242-005 = PGC 1463.

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NGC 99 = UGC 230 = MCG +02-02-006 = CGCG 434-006 = PGC 1523

00 23 59.4 +15 46 12

V = 13.7;  Size 1.4'x1.3';  Surf Br = 14.2

 

17.5" (10/8/88): faint, fairly small, round, weak concentration.  A mag 14 star is 1.4' WNW.  NGC 100 lies 42' N.

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 99 = St XIII-3 on 8 Oct 1883 with the 31" reflector at the Marseille Observatory and logged as "vF, R, 1' dia, gbM."  His position matches UGC 230 = PGC 1523.

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NGC 100 = UGC 231 = MCG +03-02-009 = CGCG 457-012 = FGC 42 = Holm 9a = PGC 1525

00 24 02.6 +16 29 10

V = 13.3;  Size 5.5'x0.7';  Surf Br = 14.6;  PA = 56d

 

48" (11/8/15): bright, extremely large and thin edge-on 10:1 WSW-ENE, extends at least 4.0'x0.4'.  A brighter central region extends ~2' in length and the outer extensions fade significantly and taper towards the tips as they dim out.  A mag 15.3 star is just beyond the east end of the galaxy.  Four mag 15.2-16.2 stars (in an E-W string) lie within 2.5' south of the galaxy.

 

PGC 1509358 is just south of the southwestern tip of the galaxy.  At 488x it appeared very faint (V = 17.2), very small, slightly elongated, ~10"x7".  With careful averted vision, I could just hold the galaxy continuously. A fairly difficult mag 17+ star is 30" SW.  The redshift based light-travel time (based on z = .10) is 1.2 billion years.

 

17.5" (10/8/88): very faint, thin edge-on 7:1 WSW-ENE, moderately large, 2.0'x0.3', weak concentration.  NGC 99 lies 42' S.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 100 = Sw III-1 on 10 Nov 1885 with a 16" refractor at his Warner Observatory.  His description reads "vF; pS; vE" and the position matches UGC 231 = PGC 1525, the flattest galaxy in the NGC.  Guillaume Bigourdan observed the galaxy on 7 Sep 1891 and mentioned its "form and extension are incredible."

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NGC 101 = ESO 350-014 = MCG -05-02-003 = PGC 1518

00 23 54.5 -32 32 12

V = 12.8;  Size 2.2'x2.0';  Surf Br = 14.3;  PA = 84d

 

17.5" (10/8/88): faint, fairly small, oval ~E-W, low surface brightness.

 

JH discovered NGC 101 = h2321 on 25 Sep 1834 and logged as "pretty bright; pretty large; a little elongated; 45"; precedes a star of 14th magnitude."  On a later sweep he noted "very faint; round or very little elongated; gradually brighter in the middle; 15 ".", so the two observation differ significantly in brightness.  His position matches ESO 350-014 = PGC 1518.

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NGC 102 = MCG -02-02-011 = PGC 1542

00 24 36.5 -13 57 22

V = 13.4;  Size 1.1'x0.8';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 140d

 

17.5" (10/8/88): faint, small, round, bright core.

 

Francis Leavenworth discovered NGC 102 = LM I-3 in 1886 with the 26-inch refractor at Leander McCormick Observatory and described as "0.2'.  Round."  His rough position is just 1' S of MCG -02-02-011 = PGC 1542.

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NGC 103 = Cr 1 = OCL-291 = Lund 13

00 25 17 +61 19 18

V = 9.8;  Size 5'

 

24" (1/4/14): at 125x and 260x, ~40 stars were resolved mag 12-15, mostly within or near a distinctive 3.3' string oriented SSW-NNE.  Two brighter mag 11.8/12.3 stars lie at the N end of the string, just detached from the richest clump of stars near the center of the cluster.  Another sparser string of stars is parallel and just 1' W of the main string. A string of stars oriented N-S is detached to the SE of the main string.  Observed with a 4 day moon up.

 

13.1" (10/20/84): 20 faint stars over unresolved haze, very elongated SSW-NNE.  Two mag 11 stars are at the north end.

 

JH discovered NGC 103 = h20 on 5 Oct 1829 and described as a "pS, p compressed cl; 3' diam; st 11...18m in 2 or 3 principal branches.  If this be VI 35 [NGC 136], there must be a mistake in my father's obs or mine of 6m in RA."  Herschel's conjecture was wrong - NGC 136 is a much smaller cluster, 6 tmin E.

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NGC 104 = 47 Tucanae = ESO 050-SC9

00 24 05.2 -72 04 50

V = 3.8;  Size 30.9'

 

30" (10/13/15 - OzSky): at 303x; the core was distinctly orange-yellow.  In addition, I immediately noted a couple of obvious orange supergiants at the south edge of the core and in the outer halo on the east side.

 

30" (11/4/10 - Coonabarabran, 163x and 264x): absolutely stunning view in the 30" at 163x and 264x.  Even in the 37' field of the 21mm Ethos, the stars appeared to fill the entire field, only thinning out near the edge.  The pinpoint stars were amazingly packed, but increased in intensity to a relatively small, blazing core, which was plastered with resolved stars.  The very center of the nucleus contained a small, intense knot overlaid with packed stars giving a strong impression of layers.  I immediately noticed the core had a pale yellowish tint.  

 

18" (7/10/05 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): at low power (76x using a 27mm Panoptic) the blazing core had an unusual, pale yellow hue.

 

20" (7/8/02 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): this was the best view I had of 47 Tucanae during the week.  At 212x, the entire 23' field was packed edge-to-edge with pinpoint stars and the blazing, intense core, which had a yellowish tint, was resolved into a mesmerizing dense mat of stars.  The halo extended to at least 30'.  

 

18" (7/6/02 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): at 171x, this breathtaking globular was viewed at over 50” elevation and was stunningly resolved into several thousand stars out to a diameter of over 25'.  The star density steadily increases towards the center.  The relatively small 4' core was blazing and highly resolved right to the edge of a very small compressed nucleus.  A 3-dimensional affect was very strong with layers of stars forming a dense mat over the core.  Many of the stars in the halo are connected in chains and lanes.  The 9 mm Nagler did a better job of busting apart the stars in the core, although the cluster overfilled the field at this power. Although the total visual magnitude is just slightly fainter than Omega Centauri and the size slightly smaller, 47 Tucanae is certainly equal if not surpassing Omega Centauri in visual impact due to its dazzling central blaze.

 

12" (6/29/02 - Bargo, Australia): While at Bargo, I observed 47 Tucanae for the first time.  Though still very low in the sky the view was thrilling.  At 186x, the globular filled the 26' field with an uncountable number of stars.  Strongly concentrated to an intense, blazing core which was only partially resolved at a low elevation.  The highly resolved outer halo extended ~25' in an irregular outline while the central halo was very symmetric.  This is the most prominent naked-eye GC as so much of its light is concentrated into the central core and it lies in a sparse field with no other rivals other than the SMC.

 

Naked-eye: easy 4th magnitude naked-eye blur just west of the SMC, seen many times from the southern hemisphere.  Visible in a dark sky while very low in the sky and from suburban locations when higher in the sky.

 

Nicolas-Louis de Lacaille discovered the nebulous appearance of NGC 104 = Lac I-1 = D 18 = 47 Tucanae = h2322 in 1751-1752 with a 1/2-inch telescope at 8x during his expedition to the Cape of Good Hope.  It appeared "like the nucleus of a fairly bright comet."  He placed it in group I, consisting of nebulae without stars.  The cluster was noted, though, as a "star" in Bayer's Uranometria, which was first published in 1603. The designation "47 Tuc" comes from Bode's extension of Flamsteed numbers to the southern constellations (these are not used today except for 47 Tuc and 30 Dor). With his 9-inch speculum reflector, Dunlop logged "(47 Toucan, Bode) this is a beautiful large round nebula, about 8' diameter, very gradually condensed to the centre. This beautiful globe of light is easily resolved into stars of a dusky colour.  The compression to the centre is very great, and the stars are considerably scattered south preceding and north following."  His sketch in figure 1 of his catalogue shows a beautifully resolved, elongated cluster.

 

John Herschel observed it for the first time on 11 Apr 1834 and logged "the great cluster preceding the Nubecula Minor. Estimated dia of the denser portion 5'; of the whole (not, however, including loose stragglers) 8'. Stars 14..16 mag. and one of 12th mag N.p. the centre. Excessively compressed. (N.B. In a sweep below the pole, when of course owing to the low altitude much of the light was lost.)"  His observation of 12 Aug 1834 reads: "A most glorious cluster. The stars are equal, 14th mag., immensely numerous and compressed. Its last outliers extend to a distance of 2 min, 16 sec in RA from the centre. It is compressed to a blaze of light at the centre, the diameter of the more compressed part being 30 arcsec in RA. It is at first very gradual, then pretty suddenly very much brighter in the middle. It is completely insulated. After it has passed, the ground of the sky is perfectly black throughout the whole breadth of the sweep. There is a double star 11th mag. preceding the centre (Pos. 226.5 - 6.5 arcsec in RA from centre of neb.)" On 21 Sep 1835 he wrote: "Fills the field with its stragglers, condensation in three distinct stages, first very gradually, next pretty suddenly, and finally very suddenly very much brighter in the middle up to a central blaze whose diameter in RA is 13.5 sec and whose colour is ruddy or orange-yellow, which contrasts evidently with the white light of the rest. The stars are all nearly equal (12..14 mag). A stupendous object."  His final record of the object was on 5 Nov 1836: "A most magnificent globular cluster. It fills the field with its outskirts, but within its more compressed part, I can insulate a tolerably defined circular space of 90" dia wherein the compression is much more decided and the stars seem to run together; and this part I think has a pale pinkish or rose-colour."

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NGC 105 = UGC 241 = MCG +02-02-008 = CGCG 434-009 = PGC 1583

00 25 16.8 +12 53 02

V = 13.2;  Size 1.1'x0.7';  Surf Br = 12.8;  PA = 167d

 

17.5" (12/19/87): fairly faint, small, slightly elongated NW-SE, weak concentration.  Two mag 13.5 star lie 0.7' W and 1.4' ESE.  Situated in a group of six mag 13/14 stars.

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 105 = St XIII-4 on 15 Oct 1884 with the 31" reflector at the Marseille Observatory and described as "eF, S, R, vlbM".  His position matches UGC 241 = PGC 1583.  Lewis Swift independently found the galaxy again on 31 Oct 1886 and reported it in list V-7.  His position is just 5 tsec too far W and his comment "inside of and near [the] preceding corner of equilateral triangle" applies.

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NGC 106 = PGC 1551

00 24 43.8 -05 08 55

V = 14.3;  Size 0.9'x0.6';  Surf Br = 13.5;  PA = 80d

 

17.5" (9/17/88): faint, small, slightly elongated ~E-W, small bright core, faint stellar nucleus.

 

Francis Leavenworth discovered NGC 106 = LM I-4 in 1886 with the 26" refractor at the Leander McCormick Observatory.  His rough position in list I is 1.0 tmin E of PGC 1551. N.M. Parrish corrected the RA with a micrometric offset in "Southern Nebulae" and Dreyer repeated this correction in the IC 1 notes.

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NGC 107 = MCG -02-02-014 = PGC 1606

00 25 42.1 -08 16 59

V = 13.6;  Size 0.9'x0.6';  Surf Br = 12.8;  PA = 140d

 

17.5" (9/17/88): very faint, very small, round, low even surface brightness.  Located 4.9' NW of mag 7.8 SAO 128758.

 

Otto Struve discovered NGC 107 on 14 Jan 1866 with the 15-inch refractor at the Pulkovo Observatory in St Petersburg while unsuccessfully searching for comet Biela.  MCG (-02-02-014) doesn't label this galaxy as NGC 107, although the identity is certain.

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NGC 108 = UGC 246 = MCG +05-02-012 = CGCG 500-020 = PGC 1619

00 25 59.8 +29 12 43

V = 12.1;  Size 2.0'x1.6';  Surf Br = 13.3

 

17.5" (10/17/87): moderately bright, fairly small, small very bright core, faint extensions SSW-NNE.

 

WH discovered NGC 108 = H III-148 = h21 on 11 Sep 1874 (sweep 266) and noted "vF, pL, lbM."  JH made two observations, logging "pB; R; psbM; 20"." on sweep 178.

 

R.J. Mitchell, using Lord Rosse's 72" on 3 Nov 1855, recorded "E sp nf, the arms being vF, and p one rather the brighter, they are perhaps cut off from central Nucl. by dark spaces, but all this is very uncertain.  Night not good."

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NGC 109 = UGC 251 = MCG +04-02-020 = CGCG 479-031 = PGC 1633

00 26 14.6 +21 48 27

V = 13.7;  Size 1.1'x1.0';  Surf Br = 13.8;  PA = 77d

 

17.5" (10/8/88): faint, small, oval ~E-W.  Located about 75' SE of the NGC 80 group.

 

Heinrich d'Arrest discovered NGC 109 = Au 3 on 8 Oct 1861 with the 11-inch Fraunhofer refractor in Copenhagen (early discovery) and described it (combining two observations) as "vF, vS, R.  Forms a quadrilateral with 3 stars."  Auwers included it as #3 in his 1862 list of new nebulae.

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NGC 110 = OCL-300 = Lund 14

00 27 25.4 +71 23 27

 

17.5" (9/2/89): this is a loose group of mag 11-14 stars surrounding a mag 10 star.  Near the bright star are several faint stars in a string.  The status as a cluster is doubtful and this is very possibly a random grouping.

 

JH discovered NGC 110 = h22 on 29 Oct 1831 and recorded "a very loose; p rich cl; *s 9...12m; *9m in middle taken."

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NGC 111 = NGC 113?

00 26 42 -02 38

 

=Not found but ­ NGC 113, Corwin.

 

Francis Leavenworth discovered NGC 111 = LM II-281 in 1886 and recorded "vF, vS, R, lbM, *8.5, preceding 36s and 2' N, RA doubtful".  There is nothing at his position and the RNGC misidentifies MCG -01-02-016 = NGC 113 as NGC 111.  NGC 113 (discovered by Wilhelm Tempel in 1876) is 7.5' N of Leavenworth's position (not an unusual error), but there is no bright nearby star matching Leavenworth's description.  Bigourdan was unable to recover NGC 111.  See Corwin's NGC ID notes.

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NGC 112 = UGC 255 = MCG +05-02-013 = CGCG 500-021 = PGC 1654

00 26 48.8 +31 42 11

V = 13.5;  Size 1.1'x0.5';  Surf Br = 12.7;  PA = 108d

 

17.5" (11/25/87): faint, small, oval WNW-ESE, weak concentration.  A mag 13 star is 1.8' WSW.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 112 = Sw II-9 on 17 Sep 1885 with a 16" refractor at Warner Observatory.  His RA is just 4 sec east of UGC 255 = PGC 1654.

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NGC 113 = MCG -01-02-016 = PGC 1656

00 26 54.6 -02 30 03

V = 12.8;  Size 1.3'x1.0';  Surf Br = 12.8;  PA = 45d

 

17.5" (10/8/88): fairly faint, small, round, bright core, faint stellar nucleus.  Located 43' S of the NGC 114/118 pair.

 

Wilhelm Tempel discovered NGC 113 = T I-1 on 27 Aug 1876 with an 11" refractor at the Arcetri Observatory.  He described it as a "class III nebula, small, mag 14-15 nucleus."  His RA was very round (nearest minute) but he measured an accurate position in his List IV-1.

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NGC 114 = UGC 259 = MCG +00-02-027 = CGCG 383-014 = PGC 1660

00 26 58.2 -01 47 11

V = 13.7;  Size 0.9'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.0;  PA = 165d

 

17.5" (10/8/88): faint, small, round, very small bright core.  Forms a twin of NGC 118 4' E.  NGC 124 lies 14' ESE.

 

Truman Safford discovered NGC 114 = Sf 114, along with NGC 118, on 23 Sep 1867 with the 18.5" refractor at the Dearborn Observatory.  The discovery list was not published until 1887 so Safford is not credited in the NGC. Wilhelm Tempel independently found the galaxy on 27 Sep 1880 with the 11" refractor at the Arcetri Observatory and published the discovery in list IV-2. Tempel's micrometric position matches UGC 259 = PGC 1660 and he is credited with the discovery in the main NGC table.

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NGC 115 = ESO 350-017 = MCG -06-02-006 = PGC 1651

00 26 46.1 -33 40 36

V = 12.9;  Size 1.9'x0.9';  Surf Br = 13.4;  PA = 127d

 

17.5" (12/3/88): extremely faint, fairly small, very elongated WNW-ESE.  An unequal double star is 1' NW.

 

JH discovered NGC 115 = h2323 on 25 Sep 1834 and recorded "faint; large; very little elongated; 60" across; has a double stars 2.5' distant N.p.".  His position and description matches ESO 350-017 = PGC 1651.

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NGC 116 = MCG -01-02-017 = PGC 1671

00 27 05.2 -07 40 07

V = 13.5;  Size 0.9'x0.3';  Surf Br = 11.9;  PA = 99d

 

17.5" (9/17/88): faint, fairly small, oval ~E-W, bright core.  A mag 11 star is 2.5' SSW.  The NGC identification of this galaxy is uncertain.

 

Gaspare Ferrari discovered NGC 116 = Nova #14 on 14 Jan 1866 while searching for Biela's Comet.  He was using the 9.5-inch Merz equatorial at the College Romain as an assistant to Father Angelo Secchi (see AN 1571).  The galaxy (MCG -01-02-017) identified here as NGC 116 is 15' north of Ferrari's position although it matches in RA.  The RNGC and Harold Corwin both equate NGC 116 with MCG -01-02-017.  MCG does not label this galaxy as NGC 116.  PGC 1677 is closer to Ferrari's position but is probably be too faint.   Wolfgang Steinicke classifies this number as lost.

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NGC 117 = MCG +00-02-029 = CGCG 383-015 = PGC 1674

00 27 11.0 +01 20 01

V = 14.3;  Size 0.7'x0.4';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 100d

 

17.5" (10/8/88): very faint, very small, slightly elongated E-W.  A mag 15 star is involved at the west edge 24" from center.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 117 = m 8 on 13 Sep 1863 with Lassell's 48" on Malta and described as "F, vS."  His position matches MCG +00-02-029 = PGC 1674.

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NGC 118 = UGC 264 = MCG +00-02-032 = CGCG 383-016 = PGC 1678

00 27 16.2 -01 46 49

V = 14.0;  Size 0.7'x0.5';  Surf Br = 12.8;  PA = 40d

 

17.5" (10/8/88): faint, very small, round, small bright core.  Forms a twin of NGC 114 4' W.  NGC 124 lies 10' ESE.

 

Truman Safford discovered NGC 118 = Sf 91, along with NGC 114 = Sf 90, on 23 Sep 1867 with the 18" refractor at Dearborn Observatory.  The discovery was not published until 1887 and Dreyer included it in an appendix to the NGC.  Wilhelm Tempel (IV-3) independently found the galaxy on 27 Sep 1880 (along with NGC 114 and NGC 124) with the 11" refractor at the Arcetri Observatory and he is credited with the discovery in the NGC.  Tempel's micrometric position matches UGC 264 = PGC 1678.

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NGC 119 = ESO 150-008 = PGC 1659

00 26 57.6 -56 58 41

V = 13.1;  Size 1.0'x1.0';  Surf Br = 13.0

 

30" (10/13/15 - OzSky): at 303x; moderately bright and large, irregularly round, ~0.9'x0.8', smooth halo, sharply concentrated with a small, very bright nucleus. Sparsely populated star field.

 

JH discovered NGC 119 = h2324 on 28 Oct 1834 and recorded "pB; R; psbM; 25 arcsec."  His position is accurate.

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NGC 120 = UGC 267 = MCG +00-02-033 = CGCG 383-017 = PGC 1693

00 27 30.0 -01 30 48

V = 13.4;  Size 1.5'x0.6';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 73d

 

17.5" (10/8/88): faint, very small, oval WSW-ENE, small bright core, stellar nucleus.  Located 16' NNE of the NGC 114/NGC 118 pair.

 

Wilhelm Tempel discovered NGC 120 = T IV-4 on 27 Sep 1880.  In his description of NGC 124 (4th entry in his 4th discovery list), he mentions he found another nebula 10' north of a mag 9.5 star (about 8' north of NGC 124).  The NGC position is 5' too far north.  Bigourdan measured an accurate mircrometric position on 16 Nov 1890 (repeated in the IC 2 Notes).

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NGC 121 = ESO 050-SC012 = Lindsay 10

00 26 47 -71 32 12

V = 11.2;  Size 1.5'

 

18" (7/6/02 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): at 228x appeared fairly bright, round, 1.3' diameter with a brighter core but this globular showed no resolution.  A mag 12 star lies just 1' W of center, a bit beyond the halo.  In the same low power field with 47 Tucanae and 35' SW of mag 6.1 Theta Tuc.  This object is the oldest and most luminous SMC globular, though still 2-3 Gyr younger than the oldest galactic globulars.

 

12" (6/29/02 - Bargo, Australia): this is one known classical globular in the SMC. At 186x is appeared fairly faint, small, 1.5'x1' diameter, contains a small brighter core.  There was no hint of resolution.  Located 35' NNE of 47 Tucana.

 

JH discovered NGC 121 = h2325 on 20 Sep 1835 and logged as "pretty bright; a little extended; very gradually brighter in the middle; 40" dia."  His position is accurate.

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NGC 122

00 27 38.3 -01 38 26

 

=*15?, Gottlieb and Corwin.  =NF, RNGC

 

Wilhelm Tempel discovered NGC 122 = T IV-4 on 27 Sep 1880 (along with NGC 124) with an 11" refractor at the Arcetri Observatory.  Tempel noted two nebulae 3'-4' north of a mag 9.5 star.  These numbers may refer to a pair of mag 15.5 stars about 5' NW of the star.  If this is the case, then NGC 122 is at 00 27 38.3  -01 38 26 (2000) and NGC 123 at 00 27 40.0 -01 37 39.  See Corwin's NGC ID notes.

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NGC 123

00 27 40.0 -01 37 39

 

=*15?, Gottlieb and Corwin.  =NF, RNGC

 

Wilhelm Tempel discovered NGC 123 = T IV-4 on 27 Sep 1880 (along with NGC 120, 122 and 124) with an 11" refractor at the Arcetri Observatory .  In the observation, Tempel noted two nebulae 3'-4' north of a mag 9.5 star.  These numbers may refer to a pair of mag 15.5 stars about 5' NW of the star. Assuming this identification is correct, then NGC 123 is at 00 27 40.0 -01 37 39 (2000).  See Corwin's NGC ID notes.

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NGC 124 = UGC 271 = MCG +00-02-038 = CGCG 383-018 = PGC 1715

00 27 52.3 -01 48 38

V = 13.0;  Size 1.4'x0.9';  Surf Br = 13.0;  PA = 168d

 

17.5" (10/8/88): fairly faint, moderately large, oval NNW-SSE, weak concentration.  A pair of mag 14 stars are 1.8' W of center.  Located in a group with NGC 114 and NGC 118 12' WNW.

 

Truman Safford discovered NGC 124 = Sf 92, along with NGC 114 and 118, on 23 Sep 1867 with the 18.5-inch refractor at the Dearborn Observatory, but Safford's discovery list was not published until 1887 so his is not credited with the discovery in the NGC.  Wilhelm Tempel independently found the galaxy on 27 Sep 1880 (along with NGC 114 and 118) with an 11" refractor at the Arcetri Observatory, published it in list IV-4, and Tempel is credited in the NGC.  His micrometric position is just 30" south of UGC 271 = PGC 1715.

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NGC 125 = UGC 286 = MCG +00-02-048 = CGCG 383-027 = PGC 1772

00 28 50.3 +02 50 19

V = 12.1;  Size 1.2'x1.2';  Surf Br = 12.4;  PA = 85d

 

18" (12/3/05): fairly faint, fairly small, round, 0.7' diameter.  Sharply concentrated with a very small bright core ~15" diameter surrounded by a faint halo.  A 20" pair of mag 12 stars is less than 1' S of center.

 

17.5" (10/8/88): fairly faint, small, round, very bright core, stellar nucleus.  A mag 12/13 double star at 20" separation oriented NNW-SSE lies 1' SW.  Located 6' WSW of NGC 128 in a compact group.

 

13" (11/5/83): faint, small, round, small bright core.  Two stars close SW are oriented N-S.  Second brightest of three in the NGC 128 group.

 

WH discovered NGC 125 = H III-869 = h23, along with NGC 128, on 25 Dec 1790 (sweep 985) and recorded "vF, vS, bM, N.f. 2 small stars.  300 shewed it very plainly in the field with the following [NGC 128].  The NGC position matches UGC 286 = PGC 1772.  The CGCG (383-027) doesn't label this entry as NGC 125.

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NGC 126 = MCG +00-02-049 = CGCG 383-028 = LGG 006-009 = PGC 1784

00 29 08.1 +02 48 40

V = 14.2;  Size 0.7'x0.4';  Surf Br = 12.7;  PA = 110d

 

18" (12/3/05): faint, very small, elongated 3:2 WNW-ESE, 0.3'x0.2', weak concentration, low surface brightness but easy with averted vision and slightly brighter than the close companions to NGC 128.  Located 3.6' SW of NGC 128 in a group of five.  A mag 12 star lies.1.6' NW.

 

17.5" (10/8/88): very faint, very small, oval ~E-W?.  Located 3.6' SSW of NGC 128 in a group.

 

13" (11/5/83): extremely faint, very small.  Member of the NGC 128 group.

 

John Dreyer discovered NGC 126 using Lord Rosse's 72" on 12 Dec 1874, and recorded "Suspected a nebulous knot between [NGC 125] and [NGC 128], a little south."  Heinrich d'Arrest's position is close to CGCG 383-028 = PGC 1784.

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NGC 127 = MCG +00-02-050 = CGCG 383-029 = LGG 006-010 = PGC 1787

00 29 12.4 +02 52 21

V = 14.8;  Size 0.8'x0.5';  Surf Br = 13.6;  PA = 70d

 

18" (12/3/05): this very close companion to NGC 128 is quite dim, appearing as an extremely faint knot just 12" diameter with no details.  It is fainter and closer than NGC 130 and situated just west of the northern extension, 0.8' from center.  Not noticed initially, but once seen was not difficult with averted vision at 225x.

 

17.5" (10/8/88): very faint, very small, round.  Located just 0.8' NW of NGC 128.  Faintest of five in the NGC 128 group.

 

Bindon Stoney discovered NGC 127 using Lord Rosse's 72" on 4 Nov 1850 and described "2 S objects [NGC 127/130] about equally distant from [NGC 128].  Both Lord Rosse and I thought they were small nebulae, they lie a little below the minor axis of [NGC 128]."

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NGC 128 = UGC 292 = MCG +00-02-051 = CGCG 383-029 = LGG 006-002 = PGC 1791

00 29 15.1 +02 51 51

V = 11.8;  Size 2.5'x0.7';  Surf Br = 12.2;  PA = 1d

 

18" (12/3/05): moderately bright and large, very elongated 7:2 N-S, 1.4'x0.4', sharply concentrated with a very bright core that gradually increases to a stellar nucleus.  The N-S extensions fade out and taper towards the tips.  Flanked on either side of the northern extension by two close companions, NGC 127 and NGC 130, less than 1' NW and 1' NE.

 

17.5" (10/8/88): moderately bright, fairly small, very elongated 3:1 N-S, bright core, stellar nucleus.  Brightest in a group of five with two extremely close companions: NGC 127 0.8' NW and NGC 130 1.0' ENE.  NGC 125 lies 6' WSW.

 

13" (11/5/83): fairly bright, fairly small, spindle N-S.

 

8" (8/16/82): faint, small, elongated N-S.

 

WH discovered NGC 128 = H II-854 = h25, along with NGC 125, on 25 Dec 1790 (sweep 985) and logged "pB, vS, R, vgmbM, pretty well defined on the margin".   Dreyer, using LdR's 72" on 12 Dec 1874, recorded "cE in PA 2.4”, mbM, probably sharp on f side, and a little curved, convex side f; two stars (or eS nebulous knots perhaps?) follow very near."

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NGC 129 = Cr 2 = OCL-294 = Lund 15

00 29 58.5 +60 12 43

V = 6.5;  Size 21'

 

24" (1/4/14): at 125x and 260x, ~100 stars resolved in a 10'x5' region elongated N-S.  The cluster is more compressed on the south side, where three mag 9 stars (HD 236429, HD 236433 and HD 236436), form a near equilateral triangle with sides of 3'-4'.  Fainter stars nearly complete an oval ring with these stars, though several stars are also inside of the ring.  Starting with the mag 9 star at the south end of the triangle, a number of the brighter stars form two strings extending NNW and NNE, so the overall appearance is an elongated wedge. Two mag 9.5/10 stars are at the N tips of these strings and the eastern string is richer and better defined.  Scattered mag 12-15 stars fill the interior of the wedge, with a couple of brighter stars on the south end, which is more eye-catching .

 

17.5" (8/29/92): 60 stars mag 10-15 in the 8'x6' central region of the cluster formed by an isosceles triangle with vertex at the south end.  Each side of this triangle includes a mag 10 star and most cluster members are contained within triangle.  No real boundaries and many mag 15 stars are at the edges of this triangle.  Mag 6.0 SAO 21457 lies 10' S.  Berkeley 2 lies 35' NW.

 

8": ring-shaped open cluster with stars mag 9-13.  There is a line of stars to the north on the east edge.

 

WH discovered NGC 129 = H VIII-79 = h24 on 16 Dec 1788 (sweep 892) and logged "a coarsely scattered cluster of large stars, mixed with smaller ones, not very rich."

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NGC 130 = MCG +00-02-052 = CGCG 383-029 = LGG 00-011 = PGC 1794

00 29 18.5 +02 52 13

V = 14.4;  Size 0.7'x0.4';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 44d

 

18" (12/3/05): very faint, very small, slightly elongated SW-NE, ~0.3'x0.2', weak concentration, easy with averted vision.  Slightly brighter of two companions to NGC 128 and situated just off the NE flank, 1.0' from center.

 

17.5" (10/8/88): very faint, very small, oval ~SW-NE, small bright core.  Located 1.0' ENE of NGC 128.  Second faintest of five in the NGC 128 group.

 

Bindon Stoney and William Parsons (Lord Rosse) discovered NGC 130, along with NGC 126 and 127, on 4 Nov 1850, while observing NGC 128.  Described as "2 small objects about equally distant from [NGC 128].  Heinrich d'Arrest measured an accurate position (3 different nights) with the 11-inch at Copenhagen.

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NGC 131 = ESO 350-021 = MCG -06-02-010 = PGC 1813

00 29 38.3 -33 15 36

V = 13.2;  Size 1.9'x0.6';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 63d

 

17.5" (12/3/88): very faint, very small, oval WSW-ENE, weak concentration.  A mag 14.5 star is off the ENE edge.  Located 9' WSW of much brighter NGC 134.

 

JH discovered NGC 131 = h2326 on 25 Sep 1834 and logged "pretty bright; pretty large; pretty much elongated; very gradually brighter in the middle."  On a later sweep he noted "very faint; the preceding of two. The other [NGC 134] very large and bright."

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NGC 132 = UGC 301 = MCG +00-02-063 = CGCG 383-032 = PGC 1844

00 30 10.6 +02 05 34

V = 12.6;  Size 1.9'x1.4';  Surf Br = 13.6;  PA = 40d

 

17.5" (10/8/88): fairly faint, moderately large, oval SSW-NNE, weak concentration.  A mag 13 star is 1' ENE.

 

WH discovered NGC 132 = H II-855 = h26 on 25 Dec 1790 (sweep 985) and recorded (summary from 2 observations) "pB, cL, iR, resolvable, vgbM, about 1 1/2' sp a vS star."  Bindon Stoney, LdR's assistant on 6 Dec 1850, recorded "R, F nucleus, 40" broad."

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NGC 133 = Cr 3 = OCL-296 = Lund 17

00 31 17 +63 21 12

Size 7'

 

17.5" (10/13/90): about 15 stars including 5 brighter stars forming a "Y" asterism and 10 faint stars.  One of the brightest stars is a very close double star (9.7/11.3 at 6") and a curving lane of very faint stars passes through this double star, not rich.  This is the poorest of three clusters just north of Kappa Cassiopeia. 

 

8" (8/16/82): group of 8 stars in "Y" asterism, in field with open cluster NGC 146 and King 14.

 

Heinrich d'Arrest discovered NGC 133 on 4 Feb 1865 with an 11" refractor at Copenhagen and recorded (single observation) a "double star in a group of scattered stars, mag 10 and fainter.  Found while observing h28 [NGC 146].  The double star is mag 10 and 11 at a separation of 6"."  His position and description matches this weak cluster.

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NGC 134 = ESO 350-023 = MCG -06-02-012 = PGC 1851

00 30 21.5 -33 14 50

V = 10.4;  Size 8.5'x2.0';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 50d

 

17.5" (12/3/88): bright, fairly large, very elongated SW-NE, sharp concentration with a bright core and long faint arms.  Two mag 13.5 stars are nearby; one at the preceding edge 40" NW of center and one on the opposite side of the core, 1.5' SE of center.  NGC 131 is in the field 9' WSW.

 

13" (9/22/84): fairly bright, very elongated SW-NE, small bright core, sharp edge along the west side.  A star is off the preceding side.

 

8" (11/8/80): fairly faint, elongated, low surface brightness.

 

James Dunlop discovered NGC 134 = D 599 = D 590 with his 9" reflector on 7 Jul 1826.  His description for D 599 reads "very faint nebula, about 25" diameter, rather elliptical.  North of Eta Caelae Sculptoris.  There are four small stars south of the nebula in the form of a lozenge."  His position is 22' NNW of the galaxy but the description of the four nearby stars to the south clinches the identification.  For D 590 he simply logged "a faint round nebula, about 2' diameter."

 

John Herschel's position is accurate and he noted that his h2327 could be identical D 590.  He recorded it on 25 Sep 1834 as "vB; vL; vmE; pslbM; 8' long; 1' broad; pos = 47.9”; dies away gradually at both extremities; has a star 10th mag., distance 45", pos = 327.9.  On a second sweep on 19 Oct 1835 he logged "bright; large; vmE; pretty suddenly little brighter middle; 4' long; 1' broad; position = 227”; the following of 2."  He also sketched the galaxy (Plate VI, figure 19), clearly showing its spindle-shape with tapering edges.

 

Joseph Turner sketched NGC 134 with the 48" Melbourne Telescope (http://www.docdb.net/history/texts/1885osngmt________e/lithograph_m_1_1.php) with the notes "The present appearance of nebula is exactly as represented in Herschel's sketch; the centre is sharp and stellar-like with power of 255; but with 420 it is more diffused, and somewhat sparkling. A careful examination leaves the impression that it is practically unchanged since Herschel's time, the only difference between his sketch and present aspect being the position of the North star, which in Herschel's sketch is shown in a straight line with the centre of nebula and s.f. star, whilst at present it is somewhat to the n.f. of that point; this may however be the fault of the engraver."

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NGC 135 = IC 26 = PGC 2010 = PGC 138192

00 31 45.9 -13 20 16

V = 15.2;  Size 0.5'x0.5';  Surf Br = 13.5

 

17.5" (10/21/95): faint, very small, round, weak concentration with a slightly brighter core.  Forms a quadrilateral with three mag 14 stars, all within 2'.  Located 3.5' SW of a mag 9.5 SAO 147324.

 

IC 27, misidentified as NGC 135 in the RNGC and PGC, lies 20' ESE.  It appeared very faint, small, slightly elongated ~N-S, very low surface brightness.  Located 7.9' SSE of mag 8.9 SAO 147331 and 8.6' NW of mag 8.6 SAO 147330.  MCG -02-02-051 lies 13' N.

 

Francis Leavenworth discovered NGC 135 = LM I-5 on 2 Oct 1886 with the 26" refractor at Leander McCormick Observatory.  His rough position is 2 min of RA west (typical error) of PGC 2010.  Javelle rediscovered the galaxy on 4 Nov 1891 assuming it was new, and Dreyer catalogued J. 1-19 as IC 26.  Herbert Howe searched for NGC 135 around 1899 using the 20" refractor at Chamberlin Observatory and measured an accurate position, though Dreyer failed to equate NGC 135 and IC 26 in the IC 2 Notes.  See Corwin's notes.

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NGC 136 = Cr 4 = OCL-295 = Lund 18

00 31 31 +61 30 36

V = 11.6;  Size 1'

 

24" (1/4/14): ~10 faint stars are resolved in a small, circular patch ~1' diameter, over unresolved haze.  A small detached group to the southeast increases the total to 15 stars and the size to 2'.  Most of the resolved stars are mag 14-15.  Located ~6' NE of mag 8.5 SAO 11238.  Observed with a 4 day moon up, so not dark.

 

17.5" (8/16/93): 7-8 faint stars mag 14 resolved in very tight, compact group of 1.5' diameter, over background haze.  A few additional stars trail to the SE so there are about 10 stars in the group.  Located 6' NE of mag 8.3 SAO 11238.

 

13" (10/20/84): 5 or 6 very faint stars 13/14 over haze.  Appears similar to a small, faint gc with no strong concentration.

 

WH discovered NGC 136 = H VI-35 on 26 Nov 1788 (sweep 887) and described a "a small cluster of vF, exceedingly compressed stars about 1' diam.  The next step to an easily resolvable nebula."  He considered this cluster a miniature globular.

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NGC 137 = UGC 309 = MCG +02-02-017 = CGCG 434-019 = PGC 1888

00 30 58.1 +10 12 30

V = 12.8;  Size 1.3'x1.3';  Surf Br = 13.2

 

17.5" (12/19/87): fairly faint, small, irregularly round, small bright core, stellar nucleus.  A mag 15 star is 1' NNW.

 

WH discovered NGC 137 = H II-471 on 23 Nov 1785 (sweep 477) and logged "F, irr figure, lbM."  His position is very accurate.  Heinrich d'Arrest also measured an accurate position.

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NGC 138 = UGC 308 = MCG +01-02-016 = CGCG 409-023 = PGC 1889

00 30 59.2 +05 09 35

V = 13.7;  Size 1.3'x0.6';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 175d

 

17.5" (10/8/88): fairly faint, small, oval N-S, small bright core, stellar nucleus.  A mag 11 star is 1' N.  Brightest in a trio with NGC 141 5' ENE and NGC 139 5' SSE.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 138 = m 9 (along with NGC 139 and NGC 141) on 29 Aug 1864 with Lassell's 48" on Malta and recorded "F, eS, sbM."  Marth's position is accurate.

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NGC 139 = CGCG 409-022 = PGC 1900

00 31 06.4 +05 04 43

V = 14.3;  Size 0.8'x0.5';  Surf Br = 13.0

 

17.5" (10/8/88): very faint, small, almost round.  Located in a group with NGC 138 5' NNW.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 139 = m 10 (along with NGC 138 and NGC 141) on 29 Aug 1864 with Lassell's 48" on Malta and logged "eF, S."  Marth's position is 2' N of CGCG 409-022 = PGC 1900.

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NGC 140 = UGC 311 = MCG +05-02-021 = CGCG 500-038 = PGC 1916

00 31 20.5 +30 47 32

V = 13.2;  Size 1.5'x1.3';  Surf Br = 13.8;  PA = 45d

 

17.5" (10/17/87): faint, fairly small, round, diffuse, broad concentration.  Two faint stars following including a mag 15 star 44" SSE.

 

Truman Safford discovered NGC 140 = Sf 60 = St XII-5 on 8 Oct 1866 with the 18" refractor at Dearborn Observatory and described it as "probably a small cluster".  His discovery list was not published until 1887, too late to be credited in the NGC.  ƒdouard Stephan independently found the galaxy on 5 Nov 1882 and is credited with the discovery in the NGC.

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NGC 141 = CGCG 409-027 = PGC 1918

00 31 17.5 +05 10 47

V = 14.3;  Size 0.8'x0.6';  Surf Br = 13.4;  PA = 0d

 

17.5" (10/8/88): faint, small, round, weak concentration.  Located 5' ENE of NGC 138 in a compact trio.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 141 = m 11 (along with NGC 139 and NGC 138) on 29 Aug 1864 with Lassell's 48" on Malta and logged as "vF, vS, iR."  His position is 0.1 minute east of CGCG 409-027 = PGC 1918.

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NGC 142 = ESO 473-021 = MCG -04-02-014 = PGC 1901

00 31 07.9 -22 37 07

V = 13.8;  Size 1.1'x0.6';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 101d

 

17.5" (10/8/88): first of three with NGC 143 and NGC 144.  Faint, small, round, very weak concentration.  A mag 14/14.5 double star at 20" separation is off the NNW edge.  NGC 143 lies 3' NNE.

 

Frank Muller discovered NGC 142 = LM II-282 (along with NGCs 143 and 144) in 1886 using the 26" refractor at the Leander McCormick Observatory.  His rough position is OK and his note of a double star 0.5' N pins down the identification.  Herbert Howe measured an accurate position in 1899-00 using the 20" refractor at Chamberlin Observatory (repeated in the IC 2 notes).

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NGC 143 = ESO 473-022 = MCG -04-02-015 = PGC 1911

00 31 15.6 -22 33 36

V = 14.4;  Size 1.0'x0.2';  Surf Br = 12.6;  PA = 20d

 

17.5" (10/8/88): second of three with NGC 142 and NGC 144.  Extremely faint, small, oval SSW-NNE.  Located 3' NNE of NGC 142.

 

Frank Muller discovered NGC 143 = LM II-283 (along with NGCs 142 and 144) in 1886 with the 26" refractor at Leander McCormick Observatory.  His rough position is a reasonable match with ESO 473-022 = PGC 1911. Herbert Howe measured an accurate position in 1899-00 using the 20" refractor at Chamberlin Observatory (repeated in the IC 2 notes).

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NGC 144 = ESO 473-023 = MCG -04-02-016 = PGC 1917

00 31 20.6 -22 38 45

V = 13.7;  Size 0.8'x0.8';  Surf Br = 13.0

 

17.5" (10/8/88): third of three with NGC 142 and NGC 143.  Faint, small, round, very weak concentration.  Located 3' SE of identical NGC 142.

 

Frank Muller discovered NGC 144 = LM II-284 (along with NGC 142 and 143) in 1886 with the 26" refractor at Leander McCormick Observatory.  His rough position is a reasonable match with ESO 473-023 = PGC 1917. Herbert Howe measured an accurate position in 1899-00 using the 20" refractor at Chamberlin Observatory (repeated in the IC 2 notes).

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NGC 145 = Arp 19 = MCG -01-02-027 = PGC 1941

00 31 45.7 -05 09 09

V = 12.7;  Size 1.8'x1.3';  Surf Br = 13.5;  PA = 135d

 

48" (11/8/15): at 375x and 488x; fascinating irregular spiral galaxy.  A bright bar extends 30" N-S.  A spiral arm is attached at the north end of the bar and is easily visible extending to the west, and curling clockwise.  The arm has a fairly high contrast and definition.  A small HII knot (~8" diameter) is nearly attached to the north end of the bar where the spiral arm begins.  A fainter, low contrast arm is attached at the south end of bar and extends 30" due east.

 

Two companions were picked up.  PGC 1048844 is 3.1' NE.  At 488x it appeared fairly faint (V = 16.0), small, roundish, 15" diameter.  PGC 1048201 (not catalogued in Megastar) appeared faint (V = 17.1), very small, round, 12" diameter.

 

17.5" (9/17/88): fairly faint, moderately large, oval ~E-W, small bright core.  Located 6' WNW of mag 8.7 SAO 128813.  This star is situated within a string oriented SW-NE with a mag 10 star 7' SSE of NGC 145 forming the southwest end of this string.  The northeast end of the string intersects a shorter line of four mag 11-12 stars.

 

JH discovered NGC 145 = h27 = h2328 on 9 Oct 1828 and recorded "vF; vlE; glbM, 60" long."  His position is accurate.

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NGC 146 = Cr 5 = OCL-299 = Lund 21

00 33 01 +63 18 42

V = 9.1;  Size 7'

 

24" (1/4/14): at 125x and 260x, ~60 stars are resolved in a 7' region that stands out reasonably well at low power.  Near the southeast end of the group is the pair h 1033 = 10/10 at 7".  The cluster is generally elongated NW-SE and includes a dozen or so brighter stars.  A rectangular "void" lacking stars is on the NW side.

 

17.5" (10/20/90): about 30 stars in a fairly large group about 10' diameter.  Includes a close mag 10 pair at 7" separation, 10 stars mag 12-13 and 20 stars mag 14-15.  Third of three open clusters in low power field with King 14 10' SW and NGC 133 10' WNW. 

 

8" (11/28/81): includes a few mag 10 stars, many mag 12 stars and fainter stars over haze.  Located 22' N of a mag 4 star.  NGC 133 is in the field to the WNW and King 14 is close SW.

 

JH discovered NGC 146 = h28 on 27 Oct 1829 and recorded a "loose cl; *s 11 and 12m; 10' diam; place that of a double +* (h 1033) whose RA is erroneously stated in my 4th catalogue."

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NGC 147 = UGC 326 = MCG +08-02-005 = CGCG 550-006 = PGC 2004

00 33 11.7 +48 30 27

V = 9.5;  Size 13.2'x7.8';  Surf Br = 14.5;  PA = 25d

 

17.5" (10/13/90): fairly faint, very large, elongated almost 2:1 SSW-NNE, 5'x3', very low almost even surface brightness.  A mag 13.8 star is superimposed just north of center.  The halo gradually fades into background.

 

17.5" (8/29/92): appears larger (8'x4') using 20mm Nagler in the White Mountains (elevation 12,500 ft). 

 

8" (8/28/81): very faint, moderately large, slightly elongated, diffuse.

 

24" (1/1/16): Hodge III is the brightest globular cluster in NGC 147 at V Å 16.5.  At 450x and 500x it only occasionally popped but was verified at the same position using a detailed finder chart.

 

I first identified two mag 13 stars at 1' separation oriented N-S, which are situated 5' SSE of the center of NGC 147.  These stars are just outside the halo of the galaxy.  A mag 14.7 star is 1' further NW, forming an obtuse isosceles triangle with the two mag 13 stars.  Hodge 3 is 41" N of the mag 14.7 star and nearly forms the 4th vertex of a parallelogram with these three stars.

 

JH discovered NGC 147 = h29 on 8 Sep 1829 and recorded "vF; vL; irr R; 4..5' diam; loses itself insensibly; has a *11m in the centre."  Bindon Stoney, using Lord Rosse's 72" on 25 Oct 1851, logged "L, vF neby, round a * 12m.  I suspect it is a spiral of the faintest class, perhaps h 29."  NGC 147 is a member of the satellite system of M31 at a distance of 2.3 million light years.

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NGC 148 = ESO 410-020 = MCG -05-02-017 = PGC 2053

00 34 15.5 -31 47 10

V = 12.2;  Size 2.0'x0.8';  Surf Br = 12.6;  PA = 90d

 

17.5" (8/2/86): moderately bright, moderately large, elongated E-W, small bright core.

 

13" (9/22/84): fairly bright, small, elongated E-W, very small bright core.

 

JH discovered NGC 148 = h239 on 27 Sep 1834 and recorded "vB; S; lE in parallel; smbM to a * 11m."   His RA is 1.0 min west of ESO 410-020 = PGC 2053, although he notes that his two positions differed by a minute (incorrect position used in NGC).  MCG (-05-02-017) gives the NGC equivalence as uncertain.

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NGC 149 = UGC 332 = MCG +05-02-024 = CGCG 500-044 = PGC 2028

00 33 50.3 +30 43 24

V = 13.7;  Size 1.2'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.5;  PA = 155d

 

17.5" (10/17/87): very faint, very small, round.  Contains a faint stellar nucleus or a mag 15 star is involved.  A mag 13 star is close SW just 0.6' from the center.

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 149 = St XIII-5 on 4 Oct 1883 with the 31" reflector at the Marseille Observatory and recorded "vF, vS, R, gbM, mag 14 stellar nucl, *12 close sp".  His position and description is accurate.

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NGC 150 = ESO 410-019 = MCG -05-02-018 = UGCA 7 = PGC 2052

00 34 16.0 -27 48 16

V = 11.4;  Size 3.9'x1.9';  Surf Br = 13.4;  PA = 118d

 

13.1" (10/20/84): moderately bright, moderately large, elongated 2:1 WNW-ESE, weak concentration, irregular surface brightness, slightly mottled.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 150 = Sw VI-3 on 20 Nov 1886 with a 16" refractor at Warner Observatory.  His position is about 30 sec of RA west of ESO 410-019 = PGC 2052.  Herbert Howe measured an accurate position in 1899-00 using the 20" refractor at Chamberlin Observatory (repeated in the IC 2 notes).  The error was also noted in the Harvard College Observatory NGC correction list.

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NGC 151 = NGC 153 = MCG -02-02-054 = PGC 2035

00 34 02.5 -09 42 20

V = 11.6;  Size 3.7'x1.7';  Surf Br = 13.4;  PA = 75d

 

17.5" (9/17/88): moderately bright, moderately large, oval 5:3 WSW-ENE, 2.5'x1.5', bright nucleus.  A mag 13 star is at the ENE edge, 1.7' from the center.

 

13" (8/24/84): fairly bright, bright core, very bright nucleus, very faint halo elongated ~E-W.  A faint star is at the ENE edge.

 

WH discovered NGC 151 = H II-478 = h30 = h2330 on 28 Nov 1785 (sweep 479) and logged "pB, L, lE, lbM."  JH observed this nebula at Slough and at the Cape, where he recorded "pF; R; gbM; 60"."  JH's two entries were combined in GC 74 and his position matches MCG -02-02-054 = PGC 2035.  Lewis Swift (IV-1) independently found the galaxy again on 9 Aug 1886, but his position was 17 sec of RA too far east and it was catalogued again as NGC 153.  So NGC 151 = NGC 153 with NGC 151 the primary designation.

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NGC 152 = ESO 028-SC024 = Lindsay 15

00 32 55.5 -73 06 59

V = 12.9;  Size 3'

 

18" (7/10/05 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): at 128x this SMC cluster appeared as a fairly faint, fairly large, round glow, ~2' diameter.  At 228x, the cluster has a fairly smooth, fairly low surface brightness with no core and no signs of resolution.  NGC 176 lies 13' ESE.  Located 1.2” SSE of 47 Tucanae.

 

JH discovered NGC 152 = h2331 in the SMC on 20 Sep 1835 and logged "vF; L; R; vglbM; 2'."  His position was 2 min of RA too far west, but the position was corrected in the GC and NGC.

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NGC 153 = NGC 151 = MCG -02-02-054 = PGC 2035

00 34 02.5 -09 42 20

 

See observing notes for NGC 151.

 

Lewis Swift found NGC 153 = Sw IV-1 on 9 Aug 1886 with a 16" refractor at Warner Observatory and logged "pF; pS; R; * near north-following".  There is nothing at his position but 17 sec of RA west is NGC 151 = PGC 2035, a similar offset as other objects observed that night, and his description matches this galaxy. The equivalence NGC 153 = NGC 151 was discussed by Spitaler in AN 3100 and Dreyer mentioned it in the IC 1 Notes.

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NGC 154 = MCG -02-02-053 = PGC 2058

00 34 19.4 -12 39 24

V = 13.1;  Size 1.0'x0.8';  Surf Br = 12.7

 

17.5" (12/3/88): faint, very small, round, weak concentration.  Forms a triangle with two mag 13.5 stars.

 

WH discovered NGC 154 = H III-467 = h31 on 27 Nov 1785 (sweep 478) and recorded "eF, vS, 240 power left some doubt."  His position matches MCG -02-02-053 = PGC 2058 but the RNGC position is 15 tsec of RA too far west.  JH made the single observation "eF; S; R; 15 or 16"."

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NGC 155 = MCG -02-02-055 = PGC 2076

00 34 40.1 -10 45 59

V = 12.7;  Size 1.7'x1.2';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 175d

 

17.5" (9/17/88): fairly faint, very small, oval 4:3 N-S, bright core.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 155 = Sw IV-2 = LM I-6 on 1 Sep 1886 with the 16" refractor at Warner Observatory.  His position is 10 sec of RA west of MCG -02-02-055 = PGC 2076.  Frank Muller independently found the galaxy again in 1886 with the 26" Leander McCormick refractor and reported "mag 13.0, S, R, bsp, *12 in PA 90” at 3.2' separation."  Bigourdan measured an accurate micrometric position on 21 Oct 1890 as well as Howe at Denver near the end of the century.

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NGC 156

00 34 35.8 -08 20 24

 

=**, Carlson and Corwin.

 

Wilhelm Tempel discovered NGC 156 (in list V) in 1882 with an 11" refractor at the Arcetri Observatory, while observing NGC 157 = H II-3.  There is a mag 15.7 star at his position although Corwin and Carlson identify it as a double star (the second star is much fainter).

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NGC 157 = MCG -02-02-056 = PGC 2081

00 34 46.6 -08 23 48

V = 10.4;  Size 4.2'x2.7';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 40d

 

17.5" (9/17/88): bright, large, oval 3:2 SW-NE, broad concentration, small bright core, mottled appearance, sharp edge along the east side.  Two mag 13.5 and 15 stars are near the NE edge.  Located between mag 9.5 SAO 128835 5.5' S and mag 8.6 SAO 12833 6' NNW.

 

8": fairly faint, fairly large, diffuse.  Located between two mag 8.5/9.5 stars to the north and south.

 

WH discovered NGC 157 = H II-3 on 13 Dec 1783 (sweep 44) and recorded "F, L, mE, between two considerably bright stars."  His position was not accurately determined but his description is a perfect match with MCG -02-02-056 = PGC 2081.  Eduard Schšnfeld, Heinrich d'Arrest and Father Secchi provided accurate positions, so the NGC position is correct.  ƒdouard Stephan (IX-1) independently found the galaxy with the 31" reflector at Marseille on 28 Oct 1878.

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NGC 158

00 35 05.3 -08 20 40

 

=*?, Corwin.  =NF, Carlson.

 

Wilhelm Tempel discovered NGC 158 in 1882 with an 11" refractor at the Arcetri Observatory, and recorded in list V while observing the field of NGC 157 = H II-3.  Corwin identifies his object as a single star at 00 35 05.3 -08 20 40.

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NGC 159 = ESO 150-011 = PGC 2073

00 34 35.7 -55 47 24

V = 13.8;  Size 1.4'x0.4';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 95d

 

30" (10/13/15 - OzSky): at 303x; fairly faint to moderately bright, elongated nearly 3:1 E-W, 1.0'x0.3', contains a small bright, round core and a stellar nucleus.  Located 29' SSE of mag 7.3 HD 3075 = HJ 3376 (7.5/10 pair at 7").

 

JH discovered NGC 159 = h2332 on 28 Oct 1834 and logged "vF, S, R, 15", precedes 3 stars."  On a second sweep he noted "vF, R, glbM, 20 arcseconds".  His position is accurate.

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NGC 160 = UGC 356 = MCG +04-02-033 = CGCG 479-043 = PGC 2154

00 36 04.1 +23 57 29

V = 12.6;  Size 3.0'x1.7';  Surf Br = 14.3;  PA = 45d

 

13.1" (10/20/84): moderately bright, almost round.  Located 4.2' SSW of mag 7.5 SAO 74134.  Forms a wide pair with NGC 169 11' ENE.

 

WH discovered NGC 160 = H III-476 = h32 on 5 Dec 1785 (sweep 484) and logged "vF, vS, stellar, a few minutes south preceding a pretty bright star.  240 showed the same."  Lord Rosse's assistants made 7 observations of the field with the 72-inch.

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NGC 161 = MCG -01-02-036 = PGC 2131

00 35 33.8 -02 50 55

V = 13.2;  Size 1.3'x0.7';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 150d

 

24" (11/24/14): fairly faint, fairly small, oval 4:3 SSW-NNE, fairly high surface brightness.  Contains a small bright nucleus that increases to a stellar point.  A mag 12 star is 1.2' N and a mag 12.5 star is 2' SSW.  Forms a close pair with IC 1557 1.7' S.  Located 6' SE of mag 8.8 HD 3205.

 

17.5" (10/8/88): faint, small, round, small bright core.  Bracketed by two mag 12 stars 1.2' N and 1.5' S.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 161 = Sw VI-4 on 21 Nov 1886 with the 16" refractor at Warner Observatory and recorded "eF; eS; R; nearly between 2 equal mag stars."  His position is 18 sec of RA east and 1' north of MCG -01-02-036 = PGC 2131 but his description matches.  Bigourdan measured an accurate micrometric position on 9 Oct 1890 as well as Howe near the turn of the century at Denver.

 

The MCG, PGC, RNGC and Roger Sinnott's NGC 2000.0 incorrectly equate  NGC 161 with IC 1557.  IC 1557 is a separate galaxy discovered by Howe, just 1.7' south.

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NGC 162

00 36 09.2 +23 57 45

 

=* 75" NE of NGC 160, Thomson and Corwin.  Incorrect identification in the RNGC.

 

Lawrence Parsons discovered NGC 162 on 16 Oct 1866 using Lord Rosse's 72" and by Herman Schultz on 5 Sep 1867 with the 9.6" refractor at Uppsala Observatory. Both observers recorded a single star 75" NE of NGC 160.  This star was possibly noted even earlier by Heinrich d'Arrest on 22 Aug 1862.  Schultz assumed this object was GC 82, discovered by R.J. Mitchell at Birr Castle on 18 Sep 1857.  But Mitchell's object is a close companion of NGC 169 (now known as IC 1559), not NGC 162 as JH assumed.  Dreyer also observed this star on 6 Nov 1874 and noted "An eS, F neb point, or probably a F* nf h79 in PA 78"."

 

In the GC Supplement, Dreyer incorrectly decided "Rosse nova does not exist [so GC 82 = IC 1559 did not receive an NGC number].  82 was undoubtedly observed instead of 79, which latter nebula is not double.  The description in PT 1861, agrees perfectly with the appearance of 82"  He added that "Schultz's GC 80 has not been seen in Birr before 1874: I have therefore entered it in the catalogue as a nova."  So, Dreyer assigned Schultz's GC 80 to the single star (the one first seen by Lawrence Parsons in 1866) following NGC 160 and renumbered it as GC 5107.  RNGC misidentifies NGC 162 with an anonymous galaxy close SE of NGC 160 and Dorothy Carlson incorrectly equates NGC 160 = NGC 162 in her NGC errata list.  Wolfgang Steinicke thoroughly covered the identifications of GC 80 and 82 in his book on the history of the NGC. 

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NGC 163 = MCG -02-02-066 = PGC 2149

00 35 59.8 -10 07 18

V = 12.7;  Size 1.5'x1.2';  Surf Br = 13.4;  PA = 85d

 

17.5" (9/17/88): fairly faint, small, round, brighter core, stellar nucleus, diffuse halo.  Forms a pair with NGC 165 6' E.

 

Heinrich d'Arrest discovered NGC 163 on 20 Sep 1865 with the 11-inch refractor at Copenhagen.  His mean position (also measured on the next night) matches MCG -02-02-066 = PGC 2149.  WH's observation of III-953 is equated with NGC 163, but his discovery more likely applies to NGC 165 (see that number).  d'Arrest noted the 32 sec discrepancy between his position of NGC 163 and that of III-953, but surprisingly he didn't record NGC 165, so didn't make the connection between III-953 and NGC 165.

 

Lewis Swift independently found NGC 163 on 9 Aug 1886 and recorded it in list IV-3.  Swift's position was 14 sec of RA east of MCG -02-02-066 = PGC 2149 and falls between NGC 163 and 165. Harold Corwin notes that Swift's positions for three other galaxies he observed on this night (NGC 153, 217 and 7774) are all 10 - 15 seconds of time too large.

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NGC 164 = MCG +00-02-089 = PGC 2181

00 36 32.9 +02 44 59

V = 15.6;  Size 0.5'x0.5';  Surf Br = 13.9

 

17.5" (11/6/88): extremely faint, very small, round.  Located about 30' W of the NGC 182 group.  Sighting not 100% certain but sketch matches POSS.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 164 = m 12 on 3 Aug 1864 with Lassell's 48" on Malta and logged as "eF".  MCG +00-02-089 is a good match with Marth's position.  Bigourdan searched for this object unsuccessfully (too faint for his 11").  Engelhardt's position corresponds with a single star at 00 36 39.0 +02 43 46.

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NGC 165 = MCG -02-02-069 = PGC 2182

00 36 28.8 -10 06 23

V = 13.1;  Size 1.5'x1.3';  Surf Br = 13.7;  PA = 50d

 

17.5" (9/17/88): faint, fairly small, almost round, very weak concentration, low surface brightness.  Slightly larger but fainter than NGC 163 6' W.  A mag 14 star lies 1.5' NE.

 

WH discovered NGC 165 = H III-954 on 10 Dec 1798 (sweep 1086) and recorded "eF, S."  His position is just 1.6' north-northwest of NGC 165 = PGC 2182, and much further from NGC 163 = MCG -02-02-066 = PGC 2149, the galaxy associated with III-954 in the NGC.  In the 1912 "Scientific Papers of WH", Dreyer noted the RA of III-954 was 28 sec too large (for NGC 163).  Wolfgang Steinicke and Harold Corwin agree with the conclusion that III-954 more likely applies to NGC 165.

 

Wilhelm Tempel independently found NGC 165 in 1882 with an 11" refractor at the Arcetri Observatory and reported it in his fifth discovery paper.  In his note on NGC 163, he mentions he found another fainter nebula 30 sec following.  Tempel's second nebula was assumed to be new, so he was credited with the discovery of NGC 165 in the NGC.  Spitaler measured an accurate position in 1891.

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NGC 166 = MCG -02-02-063 = PGC 2143

00 35 48.8 -13 36 38

V = 14.6;  Size 0.8'x0.3';  Surf Br = 12.9

 

17.5" (12/3/88): very faint, very small, oval NW-SE.

 

Francis Leavenworth discovered NGC 166 = LM I-285 in 1886 with the 26" refractor of the Leander McCormick Observatory.   His rough position is just under 1 min of RA preceding MCG -02-02-063.  A mag 12 star is 5' NW, matching Leavenworth's description.  Herbert Howe measured an accurate position in 1899-00 using the 20" refractor at Chamberlin Observatory (repeated in the IC 2 notes).

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NGC 167 = ESO 473-029 = MCG -04-02-022 = PGC 2122

00 35 22.9 -23 22 29

V = 13.6;  Size 1.0'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 171d

 

17.5" (12/3/88): faint, small, oval 3:2 ~N-S, very weak concentration.

 

Francis Leavenworth discovered NGC 167 = LM II-286 with the 26" refractor at Leander McCormick Observatory and noted "0.8', iR, gbM."  His position is 1 min of RA east of ESO 473-029 = PGC 2122.  Frank Muller is incorrectly attributed with the discovery in the NGC.  Herbert Howe measured an accurate position in 1899-00 using the 20" refractor at Chamberlin Observatory (repeated in the IC 2 notes).

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NGC 168 = ESO 474-004 = MCG -04-02-026 = KTS 4A = PGC 2192

00 36 38.7 -22 35 37

V = 13.8;  Size 1.2'x0.2';  Surf Br = 12.3;  PA = 26d

 

24" (10/3/13): first of three edge-ons with NGC 172 8.1' E and NGC 177 13' ENE.  At 375x appeared fairly faint, moderately large, edge-on 5:1 SSW-NNE, 40"x8", broad weak concentration.  A mag 10.4 star is 5.5' N.

 

17.5" (12/3/88): first of three in a group with NGC 172 and NGC 177.  Very faint, very small, slightly elongated.  An extremely faint star is possibly involved.  NGC 172 lies 7' E and NGC 177 13' ENE.

 

Frank Muller discovered NGC 168 = LM II-287 (along with NGC 172 = LM II-288 and NGC 177 = LM II-289) in 1886 with the 26" refractor at the Leander McCormick Observatory. His position and description matches ESO 474-004.  Herbert Howe measured an accurate position in 1899-00 using the 20" refractor at Chamberlin Observatory (repeated in the IC 2 notes).

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NGC 169 = Arp 282 NED1 = UGC 365 = MCG +04-02-035 = CGCG 479-044 = PGC 2202

00 36 51.7 +23 59 27

V = 12.4;  Size 3.2'x1.0';  Surf Br = 13.5;  PA = 88d

 

13.1" (10/20/84): moderately bright, slightly elongated ~E-W.  Located 3.8' WSW of mag 6.4 SAO 74148!  Forms a contact pair with IC 1559 = NGC 169A just 21" S of center (Arp 282).  Similar appearance to NGC 160, which lies 11' WSW.

 

R.J. Mitchell discovered NGC 169 on 18 Sep 1857 with Lord Rosse's 72" and noted "a vS, double nebula, the n one is E sp nf, bM.  A month later he logged "D nebula, alpha [on a diagram] is mE p f, bM.  Beta [IC 1559] is lE nearly n s, bM."  Heinrich d'Arrest independently found this nebula on 22 Aug 1862.  JH credited d'Arrest with the discovery in the GC, but both are listed in the NGC.

 

The brighter northern galaxy is labeled NGC 169B in the MCG (+04-02-035) with IC 1559 = MCG +04-02-034 called NGC 169A.

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NGC 170 = MCG +00-02-091 = CGCG 383-042 = PGC 2195

00 36 45.8 +01 53 11

V = 14.4;  Size 0.4'x0.3';  Surf Br = 12.0;  PA = 85d

 

17.5" (10/8/88): very faint, very small, round.  Located 2.0' NW of mag 9.0 SAO 109310 and 7.5' SW of NGC 173.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 170 = m 13 on 3 Nov 1863 with Lassell's 48" on Malta and recorded "F, S, R."  Marth's position is 1' N of CGCG 383-042 = PGC 2195.

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NGC 171 = NGC 175 = ESO 540-006 = MCG -03-02-024 = PGC 2232

00 37 21.6 -19 56 04

 

See observing notes for NGC 175.

 

WH discovered NGC 171 = H III-223 on 20 Oct 1784 (sweep 303) and recorded "vF; lE or rather oval; roughly 1' dia; np 2 pB stars".  There is nothing at the NGC position, but Dreyer states in the 1912 revision of WH's catalogues that Carolyn Herschel made a one degree error in copying the declination for III-223.  Once corrected, NGC 171 is identical to NGC 175, found by JH on 11 Nov 1834.  This galaxy is generally identified as NGC 175, due to the error in declination for NGC 171.  See Corwin's notes for more. 

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NGC 172 = ESO 474-005 = MCG -04-02-027 = KTS 4B = PGC 2228

00 37 13.6 -22 35 13

V = 13.4;  Size 2.0'x0.3';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 12d

 

24" (10/3/13): fairly faint, moderately large, edge-on SSW-NNE, 0.9'x0.2', irregular surface brightness.  Second of three edge-ons in the KTS 4 triplet with NGC 168 8' W and NGC 177 5.3' NE.

 

17.5" (12/3/88): second of three with NGC 168 and NGC 177.  Faint, edge-on 5:1 SSW-NNE, low even surface brightness.  NGC 168 lies 7' W and NGC 177 5' ENE.

 

Frank Muller discovered NGC 172 = LM II-288 (along with NGC 168 = LM II-287 and NGC 177 = LM II-289) in 1886 with the 26" Clark refractor at Leander McCormick Observatory.  His position is a good match with ESO 474-005 = PGC 2228.  Herbert Howe measured an accurate position in 1899-00 using the 20" refractor at Chamberlin Observatory (repeated in the IC 2 notes) and commented there is mag 13 star close southwest.

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NGC 173 = UGC 369 = MCG +00-02-092 = CGCG 383-043 = PGC 2223

00 37 12.4 +01 56 32

V = 13.0;  Size 3.2'x2.6';  Surf Br = 15.2;  PA = 90d

 

17.5" (10/8/88): fairly faint, fairly large, round, broad concentration.  Located midway between a mag 12 star 1.5' SW and a mag 13 star 1.6' NE.  Forms a pair with NGC 170 7.5' SW.

 

WH discovered NGC 173 = H III-871 = h33 on 28 Dec 1790 (sweep 988) and logged "vF, S, R, vgbM."  CH's reduced position is 4' north of UGC 369.  The On sweep 113, JH recorded "vF; R; bM; 20".  A star 11m pos 225” +/-, dist = 80"." and measured an accurate position.

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NGC 174 = ESO 411-001 = MCG -05-02-028 = PGC 2206

00 36 58.9 -29 28 40

V = 12.8;  Size 1.4'x0.6';  Surf Br = 12.4;  PA = 152d

 

17.5" (12/3/88): fairly faint, small, oval NW-SE, weak concentration.  A mag 13 star is just off the SE edge.  Situated among a group of mag 10-11 stars including mag 9.5 SAO 166412 3' SW.

 

JH discovered NGC 174 = h2333 on 27 Sep 1834 and logged "F, S, lE, among several bright stars."  The next sweep he noted "vF, S, R.". Finally on a third sweep he recorded "vF, R, 25", near one or two stars."  His mean position matches ESO 411-001 = PGC 2206.

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NGC 175 = NGC 171 = ESO 540-006 = VV 791a = MCG -03-02-024 = PGC 2232

00 37 21.6 -19 56 04

V = 12.2;  Size 2.1'x1.9';  Surf Br = 13.5;  PA = 109d

 

17.5" (12/3/88): fairly faint, moderately large, slightly elongated, oval small bright core, diffuse halo.  Forms a right angle with two mag 11 stars 4' SSE and 5' ENE. 

 

8" (10/13/81): faint, small, diffuse, even surface brightness.

 

JH discovered NGC 175 = h2334 on 11 Nov 1834 and recorded "pB, pL, E, gbM, r, 80" long, 60" broad. If this nebula be really III.223 [NGC 171], the P.D. [polar distance] assigned to that nebula by my Father's observations must be 1 degree in error. The error cannot lie in this observation, the 109th degree of Polar distance being beyond the possible reach of the instrument in [this] sweep."  His position and description matches ESO 540-006 = PGC 2232.

 

By historical precedence, the principal designation should be NGC 171, but the galaxy is usually identified as NGC 175 due to the unambiguous position.

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NGC 176 = ESO 029-SC002 = Lindsay16

00 35 54 -73 10 00

V = 13.0;  Size 1.2'

 

18" (7/10/05 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): at 128x this SMC cluster is fairly faint, fairly small, round, ~40" diameter, low surface brightness with a brighter core.  No resolution except for a mag 13 star at the north edge and a mag 14 star at the south edge.  NGC 152 lies 13' WNW.  Located 3.5' NNE of mag 8 HD 3395.

 

JH discovered NGC 176 = h2335 in the SMC on 12 Aug 1834 and recorded "eF; R; near a *8m (At the beginning of the Nubecula Minor."  On a second sweep he logged "eF; S; lE, resolvable."  His position is accurate.

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NGC 177 = ESO 474-006 = MCG -04-02-028 = KTS 4C = PGC 2241

00 37 34.3 -22 32 57

V = 13.2;  Size 2.2'x0.5';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 9d

 

24" (10/3/13): this galaxy is the most prominent of a trio of edge-ons (KTS 4) with NGC 172 5' SW and NGC 168 13' WSW.  Moderately bright, fairly large, edge-on 5:1 nearly N-S, 1.5'x0.3', sharply concentrated with a small, bright elongated core increasing to a stellar nucleus.

 

17.5" (12/3/88): third and brightest of three with NGC 168 and NGC 172.  Faint, edge-on 4:1 N-S, bright core, stellar nucleus.  NGC 172 lies 5' WSW.

 

Frank Muller discovered NGC 177 = LM II-289 (along with NGC 168 = LM II-287 and NGC 172 = LM II-288) in 1886 with the 26" refractor at the Leander McCormick Observatory.  Muller's position is 2' S of ESO 474-006 = PGC 2241, although he was uncertain if this object was a star.  His comment "E 175”" is fairly accurate (actual PA = 9”).  The IC 2 notes remark "Delete the (original) query; it seems to be a nebula (Howe)"

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NGC 178 = IC 39 = VIII Zw 34 = MCG -02-02-078 = PGC 2349

00 39 08.4 -14 10 26

V = 12.6;  Size 2.0'x1.0';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 175d

 

17.5" (11/6/93): moderately bright, fairly large, elongated 5:2 N-S, 1.8'x0.8', broad low concentration but no nucleus.  NGC 207 is in the field 9' ESE and NGC 210 lies 27' NE.

 

13" (8/24/84): fairly faint, fairly small, weak concentration, elongated 2:1 N-S, lies 27' SW of NGC 210.

 

Ormond Stone discovered NGC 178 = LM I-7 on 3 Nov 1885 with the 26" refractor at the Leander McCormick Observatory and recorded "F, S, mE 0”, bM, faint wing south-preceding."  His rough position (nearest min of RA) is 1.5 min of RA west of MCG -02-02-078 = PGC 2349, and his description and sketch (examined by Harold Corwin) matches this galaxy.  Stephane Javelle independently discovered the galaxy on 26 Aug 1892, assumed it was new and recorded J. 1-28 (later IC 39).  Herbert Howe later searched for NGC 178 and measured an accurate position in 1898-99 using the 20" refractor at the Chamberlin Observatory in Denver.  So, NGC 178 = IC 39. See Corwin's notes.

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NGC 179 = ESO 540-007 = MCG -03-02-026 = PGC 2253

00 37 46.1 -17 50 57

V = 13.3;  Size 0.9'x0.8';  Surf Br = 12.8;  PA = 113d

 

17.5" (12/3/88): faint, very small, round.  Forms a double with a mag 14.5 star just 25" NNW of center.

 

Francis Leavenworth discovered NGC 179 = LM II-290 in 1886 with the 26" refractor at the Leander McCormick Observatory.  His position matches ESO 540-007.  Herbert Howe measured an accurate position in 1899-00 using the 20" refractor at Chamberlin Observatory (repeated in the IC 2 notes).

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NGC 180 = UGC 380 = MCG +01-02-039 = CGCG 409-050 = PGC 2268

00 37 57.7 +08 38 06

V = 12.9;  Size 2.4'x1.9';  Surf Br = 14.4;  PA = 160d

 

17.5" (10/8/88): faint, fairly small, very elongated 3:1 NW-SE, bright core.  A mag 11 star is at the NW edge 39" from the center.

 

13" (12/7/85): faint, small, elongated NW-SE.  A mag 10.5 star at the NW edge detracts from viewing.

 

WH discovered NGC 180 = H III-876 on 29 Dec 1790 (sweep 991) and logged "vF, pL, iR, just S.f. a small star which is partly involved in the nebulosity."  Auwers' reduction is 1” off in NPD.  The NGC position is just 2' north of UGC 380 = PGC 2268.

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NGC 181 = MCG +05-02-032 = CGCG 500-055 = PGC 2287

00 38 23.2 +29 28 21

V = 14.7;  Size 0.6'x0.2';  Surf Br = 12.2;  PA = 151d

 

24" (9/15/12): fairly faint, fairly small, edge-on 4:1 NNW-SSE, 0.6'x0.15'.  Located 2.7' SSW of NGC 183.  Second brightest in a trio of NGCs with NGC 184 3.1' SW.  A mag 12.4 is near the midpoint of NGC 181 and 184.  This trio is apparently in the foreground of Abell Galaxy Cluster 71.

 

18" (10/21/06): faint, small, elongated 5:2 NNW-SSE, 0.5'x0.2'.  In a trio with NGC 184 4' ESE and NGC 183 2.7' NE.  A mag 12 star lies 1.5' SE

 

17.5" (10/17/87): very faint, small, round, diffuse.  First of three with NGC 183 2.7' NE.  Located 10' N of 30 Andromedae (V = 4.4).  Member of AGC 71.

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 181 = St XIII-6 on 6 Oct 1883 with the 31" reflector at the Marseille Observatory, along with NGC 183 (originally discovered by Truman Safford) and 184.  His position matches CGCG 500-055 = PGC 2287.

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NGC 182 = UGC 382 = MCG +00-02-095 = CGCG 383-045 = PGC 2279

00 38 12.4 +02 43 43

V = 12.4;  Size 2.0'x1.7';  Surf Br = 13.6;  PA = 75d

 

17.5" (10/8/88): moderately bright, small, round, bright core, faint stellar nucleus.  Located 4' SE of mag 7.6 SAO 128868.  Brightest in the large NGC 182 group including NGC 186, NGC 193, NGC 194, NGC 198, NGC 199, NGC 200, NGC 202, NGC 203, NGC 204, NGC 208.

 

WH discovered NGC 182 = H III-870 on 25 Dec 1790 (sweep 985) and logged "vF, S, iR, vgbM."  The NGC position is accurate.

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NGC 183 = UGC 387a/b = MCG +05-02-035 = CGCG 500-057 = PGC 2298

00 38 29.3 +29 30 40

V = 12.7;  Size 1.7'x1.1';  Surf Br = 13.5;  PA = 130d

 

24" (9/15/12): fairly bright, moderately large, round, 50" diameter, well concentrated with a bright core increasing to a very small bright nucleus.  Brightest and largest in a group including NGC 181 2.7' SSW, NGC 184 4.1' SSE and PGC 1871091 (very low surface brightness edge-on) 5.2' NNE.  A mag 12.4 star lies 3.2' S.  It was easy to locate this group as it is situated just 12' N of mag 4.4 Epsilon And.

 

18" (10/21/06): fairly faint, fairly small, round, very small bright nucleus, 40" diameter.  Based on the listed dimensions, I missed a very low surface brightness halo and viewed the high surface brightness core.  Forms the NW vertex of a triangle with a mag 12 star 3' S and a mag 13 star 3' E.  Brightest in a trio with NGC 181 and NGC 184 close south.  MCG +5-2-31 lies 6' N.

 

17.5" (10/17/87): fairly faint, small, round, bright core.  Located 12' N of 30 Andromedae (V = 4.4).  Brightest of three in AGC 71 with NGC 181 2.7' SW and NGC 184 4.1' SSE.

 

Truman Safford discovered NGC 183 = Sf 65 on 5 Nov 1866 with the 26" refractor at Dearborn Observatory and simply called a "neb. * 13m."  ƒdouard Stephan independently found the galaxy on 6 Oct 1883, recorded it in his list XIII-7 and was credited with the discovery in the NGC as Safford's discovery list was not published until 1887.

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NGC 184 = CGCG 500-059 = PGC 2309

00 38 35.8 +29 26 51

V = 14.7;  Size 0.7'x0.2';  Surf Br = 12.4;  PA = 5d

 

24" (9/15/12): faint, small, elongated 2:1 N-S, 24"x12", slightly brighter core.  Faintest in a trio with NGC 181 3.1' NW and NGC 183 4.1' NNW.  Bracketed by a mag 12.4 star 1.6' WNW and a mag 13.5 star 50" E.

 

18" (10/21/06): very faint, very small, elongated 3:2 N-S, 24"x16".  Situated between a mag 13 star 0.9' E and a mag 12 star 1.6' WNW.  In a trio with NGC 181 3' NW and NGC 183 4' NNW.  Located 8' N of mag 4.4 Epsilon (30) Andromedae.

 

17.5" (10/17/87): very faint, very small, round.  A mag 13.5 star is 1' E.  Third of three in AGC 71 cluster with NGC 183 4.1' NNW.

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 184 = St XIII-8 on 6 Oct 1883 with the 31" reflector at the Marseille Observatory and recorded "eF, eS".  His position matches CGCG 500-059 = PGC 2309.  Stephan also independently found NGC 183 (discovered earlier by Truman Safford) on the same night and NGC 181.

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NGC 185 = UGC 396 = MCG +08-02-010 = CGCG 550-009 = PGC 2329

00 38 57.2 +48 20 15

V = 9.2;  Size 11.7'x10.0';  Surf Br = 14.3;  PA = 35d

 

24" (9/14/12): Hodge V is the brightest globular cluster in NGC 185, first identified by Hodge in his 1974 paper "Photometry of the Globular Clusters of NGC 185" (PASP, 86, 289).  At 325x and 450x it appeared as an extremely faint star (V = 16.7), forming the southern vertex of a small equilateral triangle with a mag 14.5 star 20" N and a mag 15 star 20" NW.  This extragalactic globular was repeatedly glimpsed for brief moments and a couple of times it could be held for a few seconds.  Situated 3.8' NE of the center of NGC 185 and outside the visible halo of the galaxy.

 

17.5" (10/13/90): bright, very large, slightly elongated ~E-W, broad concentration but no nucleus. Three mag 14 stars are at the W, NW and SW ends.  Higher surface brightness than NGC 147.  The brightest globular is located 8' N of center and is a marginal object at high power (see description).  This is a satellite system of M31 and a Local Group member at a distance of 2.15 million light years.

 

8" (10/4/80): fairly faint, fairly large, diffuse, NGC 147 58' WNW.

 

WH discovered NGC 185 = H II-707 = h35 on 30 Nov 1787 (sweep 786) and recorded "pB, vL, irr R, vgmbM, resolvable, 5 or 6' diameter."  The first observation with LdR's 72" on 28 Mar 1848 reads "Resolved by a power of 800, although the night was rather hazy." This is a good example of how preconceptions that nearly all nebulae were resolvable affected the observation.  The NGC position is accurate.

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NGC 186 = UGC 390 = MCG +00-02-098 = CGCG 383-047 = PGC 2291

00 38 25.3 +03 09 59

V = 13.4;  Size 1.4'x0.8';  Surf Br = 13.4;  PA = 23d

 

17.5" (10/8/88): faint, small, elongated NW-SE, stellar nucleus.  Located between mag 6.4 SAO 109315 15' W and mag 7.4 SAO 109348 11' E.  Member of the large NGC 182 group.

 

Bindon Stoney discovered NGC 186 on 6 Dec 1850 using Lord Rosse's 72" and he recorded "beta is much smaller than alpha (NGC 194), and is sbM and I think a nova."  Heinrich d'Arrest independently found this nebula on 23 Sep 1862 with the 11" refractor at Copenhagen.  d'Arrest's position is accurate.

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NGC 187 = MCG -03-02-034 = PGC 2380

00 39 30.3 -14 39 23

V = 12.5;  Size 1.2'x0.4';  Surf Br = 11.6;  PA = 148d

 

17.5" (12/3/88): fairly faint, moderately large, very elongated 5:2 NW-SE, even surface brightness.  Located 30' SSE of NGC 178.

 

Ormond Stone discovered NGC 187 = LM I-8 on 3 Nov 1885 with the 26" refractor at Leander McCormick Observatory and he logged "F, S, mE 150”, bM."  His rough position is 1 min west of MCG -03-02-034 = PGC 2380 and the description matches.  Herbert Howe measured an accurate position in 1899-00 using the 20" refractor at Chamberlin Observatory (repeated in the IC 2 notes).

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NGC 188 = Cr 6 = Mel 2 = OCL-309

00 47 30 +85 14 30

V = 8.1;  Size 14'

 

17.5" (12/26/00): At 100x, ~75 stars within 10'-12', roundish group.  The cluster is fairly rich but unconcentrated with a noticeable void of stars near in the center and a somewhat ill-defined boundary.  The stars appear to be layered with at least a dozen mag 12-13 stars superimposed on a much richer carpet of mag 14-15 stars over unresolved haze.  At 220x, some additional very faint stars are visible bringing the total up to ~85.  Two mag 9.5-10 field stars are just off the west edge and two mag 8.5-9 stars are beyond the eastern border. This is one of the older known open clusters with an age of ~6.3 billion years.

 

13" (8/24/84): about 50 stars at 62x with several mag 7-9 stars in field, appears fully resolved.

 

8": large cluster, many faint stars, not rich, blank areas near center.

 

JH discovered NGC 188 = h34 on 3 Nov 1831 and recorded a "Cl, vL, p Rich, 150-200 stars mag 10-18; more than fills the field. The Sky Catalogue 2000.0 gives a poor position of 00 44.0 +85 20.

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NGC 189 = Cr 462 = OCL-301 = Lund 23

00 39 36 +61 05 42

V = 8.8;  Size 4'

 

24" (1/4/14): well detached, roundish group of stars at 125x.  Using 260x, ~40 stars are resolved in a 5'-6' group.  There are several pairs and tight groupings.  Many of the stars are in a richer 3' inner group, generally arranged in a ring and including h 1043 = 11.6/12.7 pair at 12" (oriented N-S).  A few of the brighter stars, though, form the 6' outline.  A distinctive quadrilateral of stars is ~6' NW.

 

17.5" (11/27/92): 30 stars mag 10-14 in 6' diameter, weakly compressed, no dense areas but appears to have some unresolved background haze.  Elongated E-W due to a couple of strings extending to the west.  A 6'x5' parallelogram of four mag 9 stars in the field to the south.  Not an impressive cluster.

 

8" (11/13/82): about two dozen stars, moderately large, irregular shape, scattered, haze.

 

Caroline Herschel probably discovered NGC 189 = h36 on 27 Sep 1783 although William attributed here with the discovery of NGC 381.  This is unlikely as the object she found preceded Gamma Cas, while NGC 381 follows.  WH made no observations and JH independently rediscovered the cluster on 27 Oct 1829 and described a "Cl, L; p rich; irreg R; 8' diam; straggling; *s 11...15m."

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NGC 190 = UGC 397 = MCG +01-02-041/042 = (CGCG 409-051) = (III Zw 10) = HCG 5A/5B = PGC 2324

00 38 54.7 +07 03 46

V = 14.0;  Size 1.0'x0.8';  Surf Br = 13.6

 

48" (10/25/11): HCG 5A is the brighter northern component of a double system forming NGC 190.  It appeared bright, moderately large, slightly elongated E-W, 50"x40", bright core, stellar nucleus.  Forms a very close double with smaller and fainter HCG 5B just 21" between centers.  The halos of the two galaxies are in contact.  HCG 5C is 0.8' NNE and HCG 5D is 0.9' S.  The entire length of the N-S chain of four galaxies is 1.6'.

 

18" (8/26/06): this double system was just resolved into two very close, small knots, roughly 20" each in diameter with their halos in contact.  Both components have faint stellar nuclei.  The northern component (HCG 5A) was slightly brighter and larger.  HCG 5C is a difficult object 1' NW.  The entire quartet is arranged in a N-S chain with a total length of only 1.6'.

 

18" (11/23/05): NGC 190 is a double system which often appears as an elongated glow, 40"x20", oriented N-S.  With careful viewing, the system just resolves into two very small round knots, just 20" between centers.  The northern component is ~20" diameter and the southern member ~15". The two knots both have faint stellar nuclei and appear virtually tangent.  A third member, HCG 5C, is occasionally visible as an extremely faint knot off the NW side.

 

17.5" (12/11/99): Initially seen as a single faint, elongated glow at 220x.  At 280x in moments of good seeing this object cleanly resolved into two very close, very small knots with the brighter component on the north side.  HCG 5C was only intermittently visible with averted vision as a 15" threshold knot.

 

17.5" (9/5/99): NGC 190 is a challenging double system best viewed at high power.  Using 280x, at first appeared as an elongated irregular glow but with extended viewing, two "knots" oriented N-S were resolved within a common halo.  The brighter and larger component (HCG 5A) is at the north end and appears very faint, very small, round, 20" diameter.  The southern component (HCG 5B) is extremely faint and small, perhaps 15" diameter.  HCG 5C is a threshold knot 1' NW.  The HCG is a subgroup of AGC 76 whose core is ~20' SSE and includes IC 1565, 1566 and 1568.

 

17.5" (10/8/88): very close double system, faint, small, elongated SSW-NNE, irregular.  HCG 5B is a very small companion attached at the south edge just 22" between centers.  In a compact group of four (HCG 5).

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 190 = Sw V-8 on 22 Oct 1886 with the 16" refractor at Warner Observatory.  His position is just 6 sec of RA east of UGC 397.  His description mentions "3 or 4 stars near sp".  There are two mag 13 and 14.7 stars about 2' SW, but perhaps he also noticed the companion at the south edge (HCG 5B) and took it to be stellar.  Herbert Howe, observing with the 20" refractor in Denver, noted a mag 12.5 star lies about 30" due south of the nebula.  But this probably refers to HCG 5B.  MCG identifies M+01-02-042 as NGC 190 instead of both -041 and -042.

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NGC 191 = Arp 127 NED1 = Holm 13a = MCG -02-02-077 = PGC 2331

00 38 59.3 -09 00 09

V = 13.3;  Size 1.5'x1.3';  Surf Br = 13.9;  PA = 125d

 

17.5" (9/17/88): close double system with IC 1563 0.6' SE.  Fairly faint, very small, round.  A mag 14 star is 30" SE of center.  A very faint halo surrounding the core extends to IC 1563 and the mag 14 star.  IC 1563 appeared faint, very small, round.

 

WH discovered NGC 191 = H II-479 = h38 on 28 Nov 1785 (sweep 479) and logged "pB, mE nearly in the meridian, near 2' long".  Sir Robert Ball, using Lord Rosse's 72" on 12 Dec 1866, recorded "One neb, with either 2 stars or B, S, neb knots very closely foll - cB, pL, R, bM, two pB st preceding."  One of these "knots" is IC 1563, although discovery credit is given to Bigourdan in the IC.  The NGC position is accurate.

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NGC 192 = UGC 401 = MCG +00-02-104 = CGCG 383-051 = HCG 7a = LGG 010-002 = PGC 2352

00 39 13.5 +00 51 49

V = 12.6;  Size 1.9'x0.9';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 167d

 

18" (11/23/05): moderately bright, fairly small, very elongated 3:1 NNW-SSE, 0.9'x0.3' or 1.0'x0.3'.  Well concentrated with a small very bright core that increases to a stellar nucleus.  Brightest in the HCG 7 quartet with NGC 196, NGC 197 and NGC 201.

 

17.5" (10/8/88): brightest of four in the HCG 7 group.  Moderately bright, fairly small, very elongated NNW-SSE, bright core.  NGC 197 lies 2.1' NNE, NGC 196 3' N and NGC 201 5' ESE.

 

WH discovered NGC 192 = H III-872 = h39, along with NGC 196 and NGC 201, on 28 Dec 1790 (sweep 988) and logged "vF, vS, bM."  JH made 5 observations and measured an accurate position.

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NGC 193 = UGC 408 = MCG +00-02-103 = CGCG 385-055 = PGC 2359

00 39 18.5 +03 19 52

V = 12.2;  Size 1.4'x1.2';  Surf Br = 12.7;  PA = 55d

 

17.5" (10/8/88): fairly faint, very small, round, sharp concentration.  Located 2.6' WNW of a mag 10 star (9.9/10.6 at 2").  A mag 13 star is off the west edge.  Member of the NGC 182 group with NGC 204 7' ESE.

 

WH discovered NGC 193 = H III-595 = h37 on 21 Dec 1786 (sweep 657) and logged "vF; S; 3 or 4 stars in it, but I have not been out long enough, however I have no doubt."   Herschel's RA was off and JH thought his observation was a new discovery.  WH also recorded nearby NGC 204 and noted "vF, vS, but I have not been out long enough, any may be a deception."  His offset from NGC 193 clearly matches NGC 204, but he didn't assign it an H-designation.

 

R.J. Mitchell observed the galaxy with LdR's 72-inch on 24 Nov 1854 and noted "Not L; R; bM; a bright star close sp; resolvable?".  The NGC position is accurate.

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NGC 194 = UGC 407 = MCG +00-02-105 = CGCG 383-054 = PGC 2362

00 39 18.4 +03 02 14

V = 12.2;  Size 1.5'x1.4';  Surf Br = 13.0;  PA = 30d

 

17.5" (10/8/88): fairly faint, fairly small, round, small bright core, stellar nucleus.  Located 5' S of mag 7.3 SAO 109348!  Member of the NGC 182 group with NGC 199 6' NE and NGC 200 10' SSE.

 

WH discovered NGC 194 = H II-856 = h40 on 25 Dec 1790 (sweep 985) and recorded "F, S, vgbM."  The NGC position matches UGC 407 = PGC 2362.

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NGC 195 = MCG -02-02-079 = PGC 2391

00 39 35.8 -09 11 41

V = 13.4;  Size 1.3'x0.8';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 45d

 

17.5" (9/17/88): faint, very small, elongated ~E-W, weak concentration.

 

Wilhelm Tempel discovered NGC 195 = T I-2 in 1876 with an 11" refractor at the Arcetri Observatory.  His position was 0.4 min of RA west and 5' north of MCG -02-02-079 = PGC 2391.  Bigourdan measured an accurate position on 16 Dec 1897 (repeated in the IC 2 notes).

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NGC 196 = UGC 405 = MCG +00-02-110 = CGCG 383-053 = HCG 7b = LGG 010-003 = PGC 2357

00 39 17.8 +00 54 46

V = 12.9;  Size 1.1'x0.8';  Surf Br = 12.6;  PA = 3d

 

18" (11/23/05): moderately bright, small, fairly high surface brightness.  Sharply concentrated with a bright, very small core surrounded by a much fainter oval halo 3:2 N-S, ~0.6'x0.4'.  Second brightest in the HCG 7 quartet with NGC 192 3' SSW and much fainter NGC 197 1' SSE.

 

17.5" (10/8/88): fairly faint, very small, round, small bright core.  Forms a very close pair with NGC 197 1' SSE in the HCG 7 group.  NGC 192 lies 3' SSW and NGC 201 5' SE.

 

WH discovered NGC 196 = H II-860 = h41, along with NGC 192 and NGC 201, on 28 Dec 1790 (sweep 988) and logged "pF, pS, vgbM."  JH made 4 observations.  MCG misidentifies this galaxy as NGC 197.

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NGC 197 = UGC 406 = MCG +00-02-107 = CGCG 383-053 = HCG 7d = LGG 010-006 = PGC 2365

00 39 18.8 +00 53 31

V = 14.1;  Size 0.7'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.3

 

18" (11/23/05): very faint, very small, round, 20" diameter.  This galaxy is the smallest and faintest in the HCG 7 quartet and was missed by William and John Herschel (discovered by Albert Marth).

 

17.5" (10/8/88): extremely faint, very small, almost round.  Member of the HCG 7 group and located 2.1' NNE of NGC 192.  Forms a close pair with NGC 196 1' NNW and NGC 201 lies 4' SE.  Appears fainter than 14.2z.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 197 = m 14 on 16 Oct 1863 with Lassell's 48" on Malta and recorded "eF, s of 196."  His position matches UGC 406 = PGC 2365.  This galaxy is misidentified as NGC 196 in the MCG (+00-02-107).

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NGC 198 = UGC 414 = MCG +00-02-109 = CGCG 383-057 = PGC 2371

00 39 22.9 +02 47 52

V = 13.2;  Size 1.2'x1.2';  Surf Br = 13.4;  PA = 80d

 

17.5" (10/8/88): fairly faint, fairly small, round, weak concentration.  Located within the NGC 182 group with NGC 200 6' NNE.

 

WH discovered NGC 198 = H II-857 on 25 Dec 1790 (sweep 985) and recorded "F, S, vgbM".  At the same time he found H II-858 = NGC 200 to the northeast.  Herman Schultz, Heinrich d'Arrest and Basilius von Engelhardt measured accurate micrometric positions.

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NGC 199 = UGC 415 = MCG +00-02-111 = CGCG 383-058 = PGC 2382

00 39 33.1 +03 08 19

V = 13.6;  Size 1.2'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.4;  PA = 160d

 

17.5" (10/8/88): faint, small, elongated NNW-SSE, small bright core.  Located 5' E of mag 7.3 SAO 109348 within the NGC 182 group.  NGC 194 lies 6' SW.

 

Heinrich d'Arrest discovered NGC 199 on 24 Sep 1862 with the 11" refractor at Copenhagen and described (from 3 observations) "faint and small. A mag 8 star precedes 27 sec and somewhat south."  His position and description matches UGC 415 = PGC 2382.  Ralph Copeland independently found this galaxy on 11 Dec 1873 at Birr Castle and logged "cF, L neb."

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NGC 200 = UGC 420 = MCG +00-02-112 = CGCG 383-060 = PGC 2387

00 39 34.8 +02 53 15

V = 12.6;  Size 1.9'x1.0';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 161d

 

17.5" (10/8/88): fairly faint, fairly small, oval 3:2 NNW-SSE, weak concentration.  Member of the NGC 182 group with NGC 198 6' SSW.

 

WH discovered NGC 200 = H II-858, along with NGC 198, on 25 Dec 1790 (sweep 985) and recorded "pB, S, vgbM."  Ralph Copeland, LdR's assistant on 17 Sep 1873, logged "cB, L, cE north-south, gbM".  There was a confusion, though, in the orientation with respect to NGC 198.  The NGC position (from Herman Schultz?) is accurate.

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NGC 201 = UGC 419 = MCG +00-02-115 = CGCG 383-059 = HCG 7c = LGG 010-004 = PGC 2388

00 39 34.9 +00 51 35

V = 12.9;  Size 1.8'x1.4';  Surf Br = 13.8;  PA = 155d

 

18" (11/23/05): NGC 201 is the largest member of the HCG 7 quartet.  At 225x appears faint, fairly large, round, ~1.6' diameter, low nearly even surface brightness with only a very weak concentration.  Located 5' E of NGC 192.

 

17.5" (10/8/88): largest in the NGC 192 group = HCG 7.  Faint, moderately large, diffuse, even surface brightness, slightly elongated NW-SE.  Last of four including NGC 192, NGC 196 and 197.

 

WH discovered NGC 201 = H III-873 = h43, along with NGC 192 and NGC 196, on 28 Dec 1790 (sweep 988) and recorded "eF, cL. I should not have seen it but for the other two [III-872 = NGC 192 and II-860 = NGC 196]."  On sweep 113, JH recorded "vF; L; E; 60".  The last of 3 on the parallel of the first."

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NGC 202 = UGC 421 = MCG +00-02-113 = CGCG 383-062 = PGC 2394

00 39 39.8 +03 32 11

V = 14.3;  Size 0.9'x0.3';  Surf Br = 12.7;  PA = 153d

 

17.5" (10/8/88): very faint, very small, elongated NNW-SSE, low even surface brightness.  A mag 14 star is at the east edge 0.7' from center.  Located 7' S of mag 7.8 SAO 147387.  Member of the NGC 182 group with NGC 203 5' S.

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 202 = St VIIIa-1 on 17 Nov 1876 with the 31" reflector at the Marseille Observatory.  His position is accurate.

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NGC 203 = NGC 211 = MCG +00-02-114 = CGCG 383-061 = PGC 2393

00 39 39.5 +03 26 34

V = 14.0;  Size 0.9'x0.3';  Surf Br = 12.3;  PA = 85d

 

17.5" (10/8/88): faint, very small, oval E-W, weak concentration.  Member of the NGC 182 group with NGC 202 5' N.

 

Ralph Copeland discovered NGC 203 on 19 Dec 1873, while observing the field of NGC 193 and 204.  His micrometric position matches CGCG 383-061 = PGC 2393.  This galaxy was independently found by ƒdouard Stephan (List VIII-2) on 18 Nov 1876 with the 31" reflector at Marseille Observatory and catalogued as NGC 211, but Stephan misidentified his offset star so his position was in error.  Applying the correction reveals NGC 211 = NGC 203, with discovery priority going to Copeland.

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NGC 204 = UGC 423 = MCG +00-02-116 = CGCG 383-063 = PGC 2397

00 39 44.2 +03 17 58

V = 12.9;  Size 1.2'x1.1';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 30d

 

17.5" (10/8/88): faint, very small, slightly elongated, bright core, faint stellar nucleus.  Located 4' ESE of a mag 9.5 star.  Member of the NGC 182 group with NGC 193 7' WNW.

 

WH discovered NGC 204 = h42 on 21 Dec 1786 (sweep 657) and noted "vF, vS, but I have not been out long enough, any may be a deception."  His offset from NGC 193 clearly matches NGC 204, but he didn't assign it an H-designation and is uncredited in the GC and NGC.

 

JH independently discovered NGC 204 on 16 Oct 1827 and logged "pB; R; the following of 2."  He gives an uncertain position, which is between NGC 193 and 204.  In the Slough Catalogue, JH mistakenly equated h42 with H III-595 (which applies to NGC 193).

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NGC 205 = M110 = UGC 426 = MCG +07-02-014 = CGCG 535-014 = Holm 17c = PGC 2429

00 40 22.0 +41 41 07

V = 8.1;  Size 21.9'x11.0';  Surf Br = 14.0;  PA = 170d

 

13.1": bright, very large, elongated 5:2 NNW-SSE, 10'x4', quite prominent but only a gentle broad concentration.  G73, the brightest globular cluster in M110 (or associated with M31), lies 6' E of center and appears as a 15th magnitude "star".

 

8" (10/4/80): fairly bright, large, elongated ~N-S, companion to M31.

 

Charles Messier probably was the first to discover NGC 205 = M110 = H V-18 = h44 on 10 Aug 1773, though no observation was published, nor does it appear in his notes.  A sketch he made, though, was published in 1807 and showed both companions to M31.  Kenneth Glynn Jones suggested adding NGC 205 as M110 in a 1967 Sky & Telescope article.  Caroline Herschel independently rediscovered M110 on 27 Sep 1783.  On 17 Oct 1786 (sweep 613), WH recorded "vB, mE, above 20' long nearly in the meridian; a few degrees from np to sf, the branches lose themselves."  On 24 Oct 1786 (sweep 621), he also logged "eB, mE.  I suppose not less than 1/2” long and 10 or 12' broad.  vgmbM; so as to come to a luminous nucleus.  The time very inaccurate, the telescope being off the roller, and only guided by hand."

 

M110 was observed with Lord Rosse's 72" on 2 Nov 1850 and "spirality" was suspected (falsely).  A later observation on 16 Oct 1855 recorded "vL; mE np by sf; sharp nucleus, for some distance round which, the neb. is bright and then suddenly decreases; there is a bright star np the nucleus; and another involved in sf end; another in preceding border.Ó

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NGC 206 = M31-A78 = OB 78

00 40 31.3 +40 44 22

Size 4.2'x1.5';  PA = 0d

 

48" (11/1/13): We examined the large association NGC 206 carefully for resolved stars using the finder chart in Stephen Odewahn's 1987 study "A photometric survey of the rich OB association NGC 206 in M31". I carefully identified the 6 or 7 brightest members down to V = 17.6 with the brightest star #12 (V = 16.1) at the north edge relatively prominent.  Then just scanning over the cloud with averted vision, roughly 20 additional extremely faint stars popped in and out of view, mimicking the appearance of a dense open cluster or partially resolved globular cluster!  Based on photometry in the paper, the magnitudes extended down to approximately V = 18.3-18.4. The cloud, itself, was quite irregular and split up into several slightly brighter patches.

 

17.5" (8/18/93): fairly faint, fairly large, elongated 5:2 N-S, 4.0'x1.6', low and uneven surface brightness.  A few very faint stars are just visible over surface including a brighter star at the south tip.  Located 40' SW of the core of M31.  This is the huge star cloud at the SW end of M31.

 

8" (12/6/80): very faint, moderately large, elongated N-S, low surface brightness patch near the SW end of M31.

 

WH discovered NGC 206 = H V-36 = h45 on 17 Oct 1786 (sweep 613) and recorded "vF, vL, mE, about 20' long nearly in the meridian, or a little from np to sf."  JH simply called it "a very large space filled with neb."  E.E. Barnard independently found this M31 star cloud in 1883 and assumed it was new.  In September 1885 he wrote "about two years ago, I found with my 5-inch refractor, a moderate size nebula involved with the extreme preceding end of the Great Nebula in Andromeda.  I have now confirmed the observation with the 6-inch Cooke Equatorial and as I can find no record of such nebula I suppose it is new."  Barnard caught his mistake and credited Herschel in 1886.  But apparently Barnard did discovered the M31 association A54.

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NGC 207 = MCG -03-02-035 = PGC 2395

00 39 40.6 -14 14 13

V = 13.7;  Size 0.9'x0.4';  Surf Br = 12.4;  PA = 85d

 

17.5" (11/6/93): faint, small, elongated 3:2 E-W, 25"x15".  A mag 14.3 star is just 40" SW of center.  Located 4.4' NW of mag 9.2 SAO 147389.  Forms a pair with NGC 178 9' WNW.  Listed as nonexistent in the RNGC.  Member of the NGC 210 group.

 

R.J. Mitchell discovered NGC 207 using Lord Rosse's 72" on 7 Dec 1857.  It was found near NGC 210 and described in two observations (second one by Dreyer himself on 29 Oct 1877).  With respect to NGC 210, Dreyer roughly placed this object 25'± south and about 35 sec of RA west.  His description reads "vF, S, lE pf, mbMN, stellar 5' nnf a coarse double star 10-11 and 12m.  A very insignificant object." 

 

Mitchell's offset from NGC 210 places NGC 207 at approximately 00 37.5 -14 34 (1950).  MCG -03-02-035 is located at 00 37 09.8 -14 30 44 (1950), which is a reasonable match.  Furthermore, this galaxy is elongated E-W and is located 5' NNW (incorrectly stated as NNE) of a wide double star at 40" separation.  So, the identification NGC 207 = MCG -03-02-035 is virtually certain.  Ormond Stone independently discovered this galaxy at Leader-McCormick Observatory on 3 Nov 1885 and reported it as new in list LM I-9.

 

IC 41 (discovered by Javelle) lies 3.7' north, although MCG and PGC incorrectly equate IC 41 with NGC 207 (error also in Megastar).  RNGC misclassified NGC 207 as nonexistent.  See RNGC Corrections #5.

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NGC 208 = MCG +00-02-118 = CGCG 383-064 = PGC 2420

00 40 17.6 +02 45 22

V = 14.3;  Size 0.7'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.4

 

17.5" (10/8/88): very faint, very small, round.  Located west of four mag 11-13 stars that form a rhombus.  The closest is a mag 11 star 3' ENE.  Member of the NGC 182 group.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 208 = m 15 on 5 Oct 1863 with Lassell's 48" on Malta and simply logged "pF".  His position is very close SE of CGCG 383-064 = PGC 2420.

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NGC 209 = ESO 540-008 = MCG -03-02-031 = PGC 2338

00 39 03.6 -18 36 30

V = 12.9;  Size 1.4'x1.0';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 10d

 

17.5" (12/3/88): faint, very small, round, small bright core.  Located 70' SW of Beta Ceti.

 

Francis Leavenworth discovered NGC 209 = LM 1-10 on 9 Oct 1885 with the 26" refractor at the Leander McCormick Observatory .  His position is ~1.4 min of RA east of ESO 540-008 = PGC 2338.  Herbert Howe measured an accurate position in 1898-99 using the 20" refractor at Chamberlin Observatory (repeated in the IC 2 notes) and called it "almost a nebulous star."  MCG does not identify -03-02-031 as NGC 209.

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NGC 210 = MCG -02-02-081 = PGC 2437

00 40 34.8 -13 52 28

V = 10.9;  Size 5.0'x3.3';  Surf Br = 13.8;  PA = 160d

 

13.1" (8/24/84): fairly bright, fairly small, slightly elongated ~NNW-SSE, small very bright core.  A mag 11.5 star is close WSW 1.3' from the center.  Located 7' E of mag 8.3 SAO 147392.  Forms a pair with MCG -02-02-082 7.7' NE (not seen).

 

8" (10/13/81): faint, small, round.  A mag 9 star is 7' W.

 

WH discovered NGC 210 = H II-452 = h46 on 3 Oct 1785 (sweep 451) and recorded "pB, pS, mbM, resolvable, star 1.5' distant".  His position is 30 tsec too far west.

 

R.J. Mitchell, observing on 7 Dec 1857 with LdR's 72", logged "bright centre; much elongated north and south, arms vF."  Francis Leavenworth independently found the galaxy on 2 Oct 1886 at the Leander-McCormick Observatory and reported it as new in list I-11.

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NGC 211 = NGC 203 = MCG +00-02-114 = CGCG 383-061 = PGC 2393

00 39 39.5 +03 26 34

 

See observing notes for NGC 203.

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 211 = St VIIIa-2 on 18 Nov 1876 with the 31" reflector at the Marseille Observatory.  Corwin notes that Stephan misidentified his offset star (GSC 0014-1250 at 00 40 43.5 +03 28 05) and when his offsets are reapplied they point directly to NGC 203, which was found three years earlier by Ralph Copeland using Lord Rosse's 72" on 19 Dec 1873.  So, NGC 211 = NGC 203, with the original discovery going to Ralph Copeland.  Emmanuel Esmiol did not catch Stephan's error when his rereduced Stephan's positions at the Observatoire de Marseille, so the position is incorrect in his 1916 paper.

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NGC 212 = ESO 150-018 = PGC 2417

00 40 13.3 -56 09 11

V = 13.4;  Size 1.2'x1.0';  Surf Br = 13.6;  PA = 131d

 

30" (11/4/10 - Coonabarabran, 429x): This galaxy, along with NGC 215, are the two brightest members in the core of AGC 2806.  Appeared moderately bright, fairly small, irregularly round, ~55"x45", broad concentration.  A dozen members were easily picked up in the 23' field, though I didn't spend time looking for the faintest members.  The nearest is 2MASX J00400662-5609299 just 1' WSW, while NGC 215 lies 6' SE.  Located 25' NW of mag 5.7 Xi Phoenicis and just 2.4' N of mag 9.6 SAO 232142.  2MASX J00400423-5610499 is situated  just 1' NW of the mag 9.6 star.

 

JH discovered NGC 212 = h2336 on Oct 28 1834 and recorded "vF, S, R, 15", the preceding of two [with h2337 = NGC 215]".

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NGC 213 = UGC 436 = MCG +03-02-023 = CGCG 457-026 = PGC 2469

00 41 10.0 +16 28 09

V = 13.3;  Size 1.7'x1.4';  Surf Br = 14.1

 

17.5" (10/8/88): faint, very small, round, small bright core.  A mag 13.5-14.0 star is off the SE edge 26" from center.

 

WH discovered NGC 213 = H III-200 on 14 Oct 1784 (sweep 289) and logged "2 small stars with nebulosity between, verified with 240 power."  His position is accurate.  On 18 Sep 1786 (sweep 590) he noted "2 small stars with faint nebulosity, most of the chevulure is about the preceding star; the stars are within 1/2' of each other."

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NGC 214 = UGC 438 = MCG +04-02-044 = CGCG 479-059 = PGC 2479

00 41 28.0 +25 29 58

V = 12.3;  Size 2.2'x1.7';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 35d

 

13.1" (10/20/84): moderately bright, slightly elongated SW-NE, brighter core, faint stellar nucleus.

 

WH discovered NGC 214 = H II-209 = h47 on 10 Sep 1784 (sweep 264) and recorded "vF, pL, iR, equally bright, r."  R.J. Mitchell observed the field with LdR's 72-inch on 3 Nov 1855 and noted "I find 3 neb, perhaps 4, as in annexed sketch.  A is oval, and I think resolvable; and has a star at np edge."  Mitchell goes on to describe 1 or 2 additional nebulae in the field, but these are either stars or close doubles.

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NGC 215 = ESO 150-019 = PGC 2451

00 40 48.9 -56 12 51

V = 13.1;  Size 1.1'x0.8';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 120d

 

30" (11/4/10 - Coonabarabran, 429x): this is the brightest member of AGC 2806. Appeared moderately bright or fairly bright, moderately large, elongated 4:3 NW-SE, well concentrated with a bright core that increases to the center.  NGC 212 (just barely inferior) lies 6' NW.  Located 4' NE of mag 10 SAO 232144.  The nearest two members are PGC 101135 3.4' WSW and PGC 128457 2.9' NW.

 

JH discovered NGC 215 = h2336 (along with NGC 212 = h2336) on Oct 28 1834 and recorded "pF, S, R, 20", the following of two [with NGC 212]."  On a later sweep he logged "F, R, vgbM; among stars." His position is accurate.

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NGC 216 = ESO 540-015 = MCG -04-02-035 = PGC 2478

00 41 27.1 -21 02 44

V = 13.2;  Size 1.8'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.5;  PA = 27d

 

17.5" (12/3/88): fairly faint, fairly small, very elongated 3:1 SSW-NNE, fades at tips.

 

WH discovered NGC 216 = H III-244 = h49 on 9 Dec 1784 (sweep 330) and noted "eF, vS, E."  JH logged "eF; lE; nf to sp." The NGC position is accurate.

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NGC 217 = MCG -02-02-085 = PGC 2482

00 41 33.8 -10 01 20

V = 12.7;  Size 2.5'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 110d

 

17.5" (12/3/88): moderately bright, fairly small.  This is a pretty edge-on 4:1 WNW-ESE with a small bright core and stellar nucleus.

 

WH discovered NGC 217 = H II-480 = h48 on 28 Nov 1785 (sweep 479) and recorded "F, pL, lE, lbM."  JH observed this galaxy on a single sweep and noted "not vF; S; gbM; 10-15"."  Lewis Swift independently found the galaxy again on 9 Aug 1886 and reported it in list IV-4.  His position was 15 sec of RA east of MCG -02-02-085 = PGC 2482, a similar offset as other objects he observed that night.

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NGC 218 = "The Pattern" = VV 527 = UGC 480 = MCG +06-02-016 = CGCG 519-021 = PGC 2720

00 46 31.9 +36 19 32

V = 12.5;  Size 1.5'x1.2';  Surf Br = 13.0;  PA = 177d

 

24" (12/22/14): moderately bright and large, irregularly round, ~0.8' diameter though the halo increases in size and shape with averted vision.  A brighter nucleus is offset to the east side of the galaxy, so could be mistaken for a knot in the halo.  Forms an interacting pair with CGCG 519-022 1.4' ENE.

 

CGCG 519-022 is fairly faint, fairly small, slightly elongated N-S, 0.4'x0.2', very weak concentration.  The SDSS reveals numerous thin, blue arm segments of NGC 218 that are apparently tidally stretched towards CGCG 519-022.

 

17.5" (9/1/02): fairly faint, fairly small, irregular shape and surface brightness, 1.0' diameter, broadly concentrated.  Forms the right angle of a small isosceles triangle with two mag 13.5-14 stars 1.4' N and 1.3' W.  Forms an interacting pair with MCG +06-02-017 1.4' E.  The companion is very faint, small, elongated 2:1 N-S, 0.5'x0.25'.  Member of the Pisces-Perseus Supercluster.

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 218 = St VIIIa-3 on 17 Oct 1876 with the 31" reflector at the Marseille Observatory.  His published position implies an offset of just 40" S of mag 8.9 SAO 54096 (given as the offset star) but there is nothing at this position and his description makes no mention of a nearby bright star.  The only nearby candidate is UGC 440, which is located 45 tsec W and almost 2' N of Stephan's offsets, and this galaxy is taken as NGC 218 in all modern catalogues.

 

I checked Emmanuel Esmiol's 1916 re-reduction of Stephan's positions at Marseilles Observatory and found that NGC 218 was left off of the main tables, but replaced with an "Anonymous" galaxy using a different delta RA but the same offset star (SAO 54096) and the same delta Dec.  Esmiol's new position corresponds exactly with UGC 480, although apparently this correction to the position of NGC 218 has gone unnoticed until now.  At the bottom of the page is the note "wrongly identified as NGC 218".  So, NGC 218 = UGC 480.  Harold Corwin and Wolfgang Steinicke agree with this analysis.  Wolfgang notes in his book on the history of the NGC, that Esmiol's catalogue gives 4 discoveries of Stephan that did not receive NGC designations, but he missed this connection with NGC 218.  This identification has now been incorporated into NED, although it is still incorrect in HyperLeda (as of 2013) as well as the NGC/IC Project, which has not been updated in a long time.

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NGC 219 = MCG +00-02-128 = CGCG 383-073 = PGC 2522

00 42 11.3 +00 54 16

V = 14.3;  Size 0.5'x0.5';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 60d

 

17.5" (10/8/88): very faint, extremely small, slightly elongated.  A mag 12 star is 1.1' SSW of center.  Located 3.7' NNW of NGC 223.

 

George Bond discovered NGC 219 = HN 1 on 16 Sep 1863 at Harvard College observatory with the 15-inch Merz & Mahler refractor.  His position and description matches MCG +00-02-128.  This is one of the few galaxies "discovered" by Bond that are not single or multiple stars.

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NGC 220 = ESO 029-SC003 = Lindsay 22

00 40 30.6 -73 24 11

V = 12.4;  Size 0.8'

 

18" (7/10/05 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): at 228x, this SMC cluster appeared moderately bright, fairly small, round, ~50" diameter, brighter nucleus.  No resolution except for a single faint star near the center.  A mag 11 star lies 1' NE and just south of NGC 222.  This is the first of three in a chain with NGC 222 1.5' NE and NGC 231 4.0' NE with NGC 176 24' NW.  Located at the west edge of a large SMC star cloud (Hodge Association 3).

 

JH discovered NGC 220 = h2338 (along with NGC 231 = h2340) on 12 Aug 1834 in the SMC and recorded "F, vgbM, irregular figure."  On a second sweep he wrote "The first of an irregular string of nebulae and stars which descends at an angle of about 45 degrees from the centre to the edge of the field (i.e. in a north-following direction)."  Finally, on a third sweep he recorded "F, R; the field is full of the nebulous light of the Nubecula Minor."  Harold Corwin notes that NGC 222 = h2339 may be a 4th observations of this cluster (see notes).

 

James Dunlop probably discovered NGC 220 = D 2 on 1 Aug 1826 with his 9" reflector and described a "faint nebula, about 1 1/2' long, irregular figure, rather branched.  This is involved in the margin of the Nebula minor."  His position is 3.6' NW of NGC 220 though given his general poor positions this identification is not certain.  Herschel assigned D 2 to NGC 231 = h2340 instead.

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NGC 221 = M32 = Arp 168 = UGC 452 = MCG +07-02-015 = CGCG 535-016 = Holm 17b = PGC 2555

00 42 41.9 +40 51 53

V = 8.1;  Size 8.7'x6.5';  Surf Br = 12.4;  PA = 170d

 

24" (11/24/14): extremely high surface brightness, large, elongated at least 4:3 NNW-SSE, ~5'x3.5'.  The large halo is highly concentrated to a small very bright core.  The core itself is sharply concentrated to a very small, very bright nucleus punctuated by an intense stellar nucleus.

 

13.1" (8/24/84): very bright, moderately large, elongated 4:3 NNW-SSE, about 4'x3', increases to small very bright core which is almost stellar.  Located 24' S of the center of M31. 

 

8": very bright, moderately large, round, 24' S of M31.

 

15x50mm (7/26/06): an intense "star-like" core is surrounded by a small halo in my IS binoculars.

 

Guillaume Le Gentil discovered M32 = NGC 221 = h51 on 29 Oct 1749.  In the Appendix to the 1912 'Scientific Papers of Sir William Herschel' this description is given of M32: "1813, December 26, 20 feet telescope, a vB R nebula, vgbM, up to a nucleus."

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NGC 222 = ESO 029-SC004 = Lindsay 24

00 40 44.5 -73 23 03

V = 12.2;  Size 0.6'

 

18" (7/10/05 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): second and the smallest of three SMC clusters in a string with NGC 220 1.5' SW and NGC 231 2.5' NE.  At 228x, appears as a fairly faint, small, round glow of ~30" diameter.  A mag 11.5 star lies 30" south.

 

JH discovered NGC 222 = h2339 on 11 Apr 1834 and simply recorded "vF, R, outlying."  His position, though, is unusually poor - landing 3.7' S of NGC 220.  Since h2339 was only recorded on the single sweep 441, Harold Corwin suggests this number may be another observation of NGC 220, which was recorded on 3 later sweeps, but not the one on 11 Apr 1834!  As NGC 220 is much more prominent than the smaller cluster taken as NGC 222, it seems unreasonable that JH would have missed NGC 220.  On sweep 625, JH recorded NGC 220 as "The first of an irregular string of nebulae and stars which descends at an angle of about 45 degrees from the centre to the edge of the field (i.e. in a north-following direction)".  It's very possible that the cluster taken as NGC 222 was one of these "string of nebulae and stars" as it is just 1.5' NE of NGC 220, so perhaps he did see the cluster on this date.  See Corwin's notes for more on this identification.

 

James Dunlop's D 2, discovered on 1 Aug 1826 with his 9" reflector, may refer to this chain.  He described a "faint nebula, about 1 1/2' long, irregular figure, rather branched.  This is involved in the margin of the Nebula minor."  His position is ~3.5' WNW of NGC 220/222 but given his general poor positions, this identification is not certain, and more likely would apply to NGC 220 (brightest cluster).  Herschel assigned D 2 to NGC 231 = h2340.

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NGC 223 = IC 44 = UGC 450 = MCG +00-02-129 = PGC 2527

00 42 15.8 +00 50 44

V = 13.2;  Size 1.3'x0.9';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 62d

 

17.5" (10/8/88): faint, small, elongated SW-NE, small bright core.  Forms a pair with NGC 219 3.7' NNW.  Located close to the midpoint of a mag 11 star 2.8' SE and a mag 12 star 3.0' NW that is just south of NGC 219.

 

George Bond discovered NGC 223 = HN 7 = Au 4 = Sw VI-5 on 5 Jan 1853 with the 15-inch Merz refractor during the Harvard Zone observations of stars near the celestial equator.  He noted a round nebula, between stars #131 and 132 and measured the dec, but not the RA.  The discovery was listed as #4 in Auwers 1862 list of new nebulae, though the RA is only given to the nearest minute of time.  Heinrich d'Arrest found this galaxy again on 1 Jan 1862 (he noted Bond's earlier discovery), as well as by Lewis Swift on 21 Nov 1886.  Finally Swift "discovered" it again on 12 Nov 1890, and described Sw X-1 (later IC 44) as "eF; S; R; bet 2 st." His position is ~2' too far north and Dreyer either assumed it was new or just missed the equivalence.  In any case, NGC 223 = IC 44.

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NGC 224 = M31 = Andromeda Galaxy = UGC 454 = MCG +07-02-016 = CGCG 535-017 = And A = Holm 17a = PGC 2557

00 42 44.1 +41 16 08

V = 3.4;  Size 191'x62';  Surf Br = 13.5;  PA = 35d

 

17.5" (7/5/86): the remarkable "Andromeda galaxy" is very bright, extremely large, very elongated 4:1 SW-NE, about 2.5” length.  Very large bright core containing a stellar nucleus using direct vision.  There are two black parallel dust lanes along the NW side of the core.  The galaxy extends beyond the star cloud NGC 206 located about 40' SW of the core.

 

18": a total of 38 globular clusters have been tracked down in M31 as well as 9 star clusters.

 

Persian astronomer Al-Sžfi first mentioned M31 = NGC 224 = h51 in his "Book of Fixed Stars" (~905 AD) as the "Little Cloud" lying before the mouth of a Big Fish (an Arabic constellation).  German astronomer Simon Marius made the first telescopic observation of M31 (actually of any nebula) on 15 Dec 1612 and remarked, "resembling the light of a burning candle, shining through translucent horn."  William Herschel made an early observation on 2 Aug 1783 with his 6-inch reflector and noted "227x, a strong suspicion of stars.  This speculum has not light enough.  I doubt not but 20 feet will confirm it.  460x, suspicion still stronger."  He was obviously mistaken on the resolvability.  WH also noted the nebula "begins to shew a faint red colour."  Perhaps he detected a slight hue to the nuclear region (red giants), though this seems unlikely.

 

According to Joseph Ashbrook, the quasi-stellar nucleus was observed by Johann Lamont on 13 Oct 1836 with a 10.5-inch refractor at Munich Observatory and measured as 6.9".  George Bond discovered and sketched the two dark lanes or "canals" in 1847 with the 15-inch Harvard refractor.  He also traced the major axis to a length of 4”.  Leopold Trouvelot produced a beautiful sketch of the dust lanes in 1874 at the Harvard College Observatory. The spiral nature, though, was first revealed in photographs by Isaac Roberts in 1887 with a 20-inch reflector and E.E. Barnard in 1890 with a 6-inch f/5 refractor, though neither used in the word "spiral" in their papers.

 

Ernst Hartwig discovered a supernova on 20 Aug 1885 near the center of M31.  Steinicke notes that there is a report by Isaac Ward about sighting it one day earlier than Hartwig (Sidereal Messenger 4, p281).

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NGC 225 = Cr 7 = OCL-305 = Lund 25

00 43 35 +61 46

V = 7.0;  Size 12'

 

24" (1/4/14): bright, large, scattered group of ~50 stars in 10' group.  Includes 15-18 brighter stars that stand out (mag 9.5-11).  A ragged N-S string of stars defines the eastern border of the cluster.  There are no rich subgroups and a lack of faint stars.

 

A detached group of stars is off the north side, but these stars do not appear to be part of the cluster.  vdB 4, a very faint reflection nebula, is involved with these stars though it was not noticed.

 

17.5" (11/2/91): about two dozen stars at 100x in a 12' diameter.  Bright but scattered.  Outline forms an isosceles triangle with the vertex at west edge and the long base on the east side.  Most stars are mag 10-11 and evenly spaced.  The cluster appears completely resolved.  Only one fairly close double star in group.  Just ENE of the main group is a line of five mag 9 stars oriented N-S.

 

8": two dozen stars in a cluster, fairly bright but scattered, no dense spots.

 

Caroline Herschel discovered NGC 225 = H VIII-78 = h52 on 27 Sep 1783 (and found again on 23 Feb 1784) with her 4.2" comet seeker.  On 26 Nov 1788 (sweep 887), WH recorded "a good many coarsely scattered L stars of an equal size, they take up a space of 15 or 20'."

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NGC 226 = UGC 459 = CGCG 500-076 = LGG 014-003 = PGC 2572

00 42 54.0 +32 34 52

V = 13.3;  Size 0.9'x0.9';  Surf Br = 13.0

 

17.5" (9/1/02): fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 4:3 ~E-W, 0.6'x0.45', very weak concentration. A mag 13.5 star is just off the south side, 30" from the center.  Located 11' ESE of mag 8.5 HD 3925, which is just outside the 220x field.

 

17.5" (11/25/87): fairly faint, fairly small, irregularly round, bright core, irregular surface brightness.  A mag 14 star is 30" S.  Located 7' NE of mag 9.4 SAO 54094 and 10.5' ESE of mag 8.5 SAO 54088.

 

JH discovered NGC 226 = h53 on 22 Nov 1827 and logged "eF; S; R; has a 13m to south, dist 20"."  His position and description matches UGC 459 = PGC 2572.  Recorded with the 72" on 19 Sep 1857 as "vF, S, R, bM, just on of a vF *."

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NGC 227 = UGC 456 = MCG +00-02-135 = CGCG 383-076 = PGC 2547

00 42 36.8 -01 31 43

V = 12.1;  Size 1.6'x1.3';  Surf Br = 12.8;  PA = 155d

 

13.1" (10/20/84): moderately bright, very small bright core or stellar nucleus?

 

13.1" (9/29/84): compact galaxy elongated 3:2 NNW-SSE, small prominent nucleus.

 

WH discovered NGC 227 = H II-444 on 1 Oct 1785 (sweep 448) and logged "F, pL, lbM".  The micrometric position from Engelhardt in the NGC is accurate.

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NGC 228 = UGC 458 = MCG +04-02-048 = CGCG 479-062 = PGC 2563

00 42 54.5 +23 30 12

V = 13.7;  Size 1.2'x1.1';  Surf Br = 13.8

 

17.5" (10/20/90): faint, small, almost round, weak concentration.  In a tight quadruple group with NGC 229 2.5' E, CGCG 479-061 1.5' SW ("extremely faint, very small, elongated 2:1 E-W, very low even surface brightness") and CGCG 479-065 11' ESE ("very faint, very small, round, bright core").

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 228 = St X-1 on 10 Oct 1879 with the 31" reflector at the Marseille Observatory, along with St X-2 = NGC 229.  His position is accurate.

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NGC 229 = MCG +04-02-049 = CGCG 479-064 = PGC 2577

00 43 04.6 +23 30 33

V = 13.7;  Size 0.9'x0.4';  Surf Br = 12.4

 

17.5" (10/20/90): faint, very small, elongated 3:2 WNW-ESE, stellar nucleus.  In a quadruple group with NGC 228 2.5' W and CGCG 479-065 9' ESE.

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 229 = St X-2 on 10 Oct 1879 with the 31" reflector at the Marseille Observatory, along with NGC 228 = St X-1.  His position is accurate.

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NGC 230 = ESO 474-014 = MCG -04-02-037 = PGC 2539

00 42 27.1 -23 37 44

V = 14.7;  Size 1.1'x0.2';  Surf Br = 12.8;  PA = 44d

 

24" (12/22/14): extremely faint to very faint, small, elongated 2:1 SW-NE, ~20"x10", low surface brightness.  Requires averted and concentration, but clearly visible ~25% of time.

 

17.5" (10/4/97): extremely tough, very small object only suspected on a couple of occasions.  My field sketch shows it situated just south of the midpoint of two stars oriented NW-SE [separation 1.5'] and it seemed extended SW-NE (perpendicular to the line connecting the stars).  This matches the DSS image, so I probably finally detected this galaxy.  Located 6' SW of NGC 232 and 8' SW of the double system NGC 235.

 

17.5": Negative sightings on 12/3/88 (Fiddletown), 10/21/95 in thin clouds (Fiddletown) and 12/20/95 at Digger Pines.

 

Francis Leavenworth discovered NGC 230 = LM II-291 (along with NGC 232 and NGC 235) in 1886 with the 26" refractor the Leander McCormick Observatory.  His position is just 0.2 min of RA east of ESO 474-014.  As Leavenworth gave a size of just 0.1' and mag 16.0, it must have appeared nearly stellar.

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NGC 231 = ESO 029-SC005 = Lindsay 25

00 41 06.4 -73 21 08

V = 12.7;  Size 0.8'

 

18" (7/10/05 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): at 228x, this SMC cluster appears as a moderately large, low surface brightness hazy region with an irregular outline, ~2' diameter.  A few mag 14 stars are resolved.  Last of three open clusters with compact NGC 222 2.5' SW and NGC 220 4.0' SW.

 

JH discovered NGC 231 = h2340 on 12 Aug 1834 and recorded "an irregular train of stars and nebulosity in the Nubecula Minor. (Evidently that referred to in Sweep 625 [NGC 220])." His position falls very close to the cluster taken as NGC 231 (ESO 029-005 = Lindsay 25), but based on the description Corwin suggests that NGC 231 really refers to the entire string of 3 clusters - NGC 220, 222 and 231.  Corwin lists a separate entry for the traditional NGC 231 as the core of this string of clusters.

 

JH noted that h2340 might be equivalent to D 2, but Dunlop more likely found brighter NGC 220, which he described as "a faint nebula, about 1.5' long, irregular figure, rather branched. This is involved in the margin of the Nebula minor."

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NGC 232 = ESO 474-015 = MCG -04-02-040 = VV 830 = PGC 2559

00 42 45.7 -23 33 41

V = 13.5;  Size 1.0'x0.8';  Surf Br = 13.0;  PA = 171d

 

24" (12/22/14): at 260x; fairly faint, fairly small, round, 24" diameter, weak concentration.  NGC 235/235B lies 2.0' NE and NGC 230 is 6' SW.

 

17.5" (12/3/88): faint, very small, round, weak concentration.  Forms a trio with NGC 235A/NGC 235B 2.5' NE.  Extremely difficult NGC 230 lies 6' SW (see notes of 10/4/97).

 

Francis Leavenworth discovered NGC 232 = LM II-292 (along with NGC 230 and 235) in 1886 with the 26" refractor at the Leander McCormick Observatory.  His position essentially matches ESO 474-015 = PGC 2559, but Herbert Howe measured a precise position in 1898-99 using the 20" refractor at Chamberlin Observatory (repeated in the IC 2 notes).

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NGC 233 = UGC 464 = MCG +05-02-041 = CGCG 500-078 = PGC 2604

00 43 36.6 +30 35 13

V = 12.4;  Size 1.7'x1.5';  Surf Br = 13.5

 

17.5" (11/25/87): fairly faint, fairly small, slightly elongated, bright core, stellar nucleus, diffuse outer halo, no distinct edges.

 

WH discovered NGC 233 = H III-149 = h54 on 14 Oct 178 (sweep 266) and logged "eF, vS, R."  R.J. Mitchell, using Lord Rosse's 72" on 22 Nov 1854, recorded "pB, vS, R, a F* v close preceding??". There is a very faint star close west of the core.  The NGC position is accurate.

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NGC 234 = UGC 463 = MCG +02-02-028 = CGCG 434-032 = PGC 2600

00 43 32.4 +14 20 33

V = 12.5;  Size 1.6'x1.6';  Surf Br = 13.4

 

17.5" (10/8/88): moderately bright, moderately large, irregularly round, broad concentration, faint nucleus.

 

WH discovered NGC 234 = H II-245 on 14 Oct 1784 (sweep 289) and logged "F, pS, irregular oval."  On 16 Oct 1784 (sweep 295), he noted "F, pS, R, lbM." and again on 18 Sep 1786 (sweep 590), "pB, cL, gmbM."  Dreyer made a detailed observation at Birr Castle on 8 Nov 1876: "pB, pL, iR, seems with higher power to have two points of condensation, p and f, the f. one the brighter.  I think the p one is a S * involved. Lord Rosse thought it resolved."  A mag 16.3 star is at the west edge and the following "point of condensation" probably refers to the nucleus. The NGC position is 2.5' too far south.

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NGC 235 = (R)NGC 235A = ESO 474-016 = MCG -04-02-041 = PGC 2569

00 42 52.8 -23 32 29

V = 13.2;  Size 1.3'x0.7';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 117d

 

24" (12/22/14): at 260x; NGC 235A, the brighter northwest component of this interacting double system, appeared fairly bright, fairly small, round, 24" diameter high surface brightness, bright core increases to a very bright stellar nucleus.  NGC 235B is attached on the southeast side and appeared fairly faint, small, 12" diameter, round, very small brighter nucleus.  The pair of galaxies are separated by just 20" between centers!

 

17.5" (12/3/88): the western member of this double system appeared faint, very small, round, small bright core.  The eastern component, attached at the following end, appeared extremely faint and small, round.  Forms a double with NGC 232 2.5' SW.

 

Francis Leavenworth discovered NGC 235 = LM II-293 (along with NGC 230 and NGC 232) in 1886 with the 26" refractor at the Leander McCormick Observatory.  His position is 0.3 min of RA east of ESO 474-016 = PGC 2569.  This is a double system with the brighter component on the NW side, although it was not resolved by Leavenworth.  Often NGC 235 is taken as the northwest component with the southeast component (ESO 474-017) a separate galaxy, though Leavenworth likely observed the merged image of both objects.  Herbert Howe measured an accurate position in 1898-99 using the 20" refractor at Chamberlin Observatory (repeated in the IC 2 notes), but also makes no reference to it appearing double.

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NGC 236 = UGC 462 = MCG +00-03-001 = CGCG 383-080 = PGC 2596

00 43 27.5 +02 57 30

V = 13.5;  Size 1.1'x1.0';  Surf Br = 13.5;  PA = 160d

 

17.5" (10/20/90): faint, fairly small, oval 4:3 SW-NE, fairly low even surface brightness.  A mag 14.5 star is off the NE edge 1.4' from center.  Located roughly 1 degree east of the large NGC 182 group.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 236 = m 16 on 3 Aug 1864 using Lassell's 48" reflector on Malta and recorded "vF, pL".  His position is 1.5' N of UGC 462 = PGC 2596.

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NGC 237 = UGC 461 = MCG +00-02-136 = CGCG 383-079 = PGC 2597

00 43 27.9 -00 07 30

V = 13.0;  Size 1.6'x0.9';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 175d

 

17.5" (10/8/88): fairly faint, fairly small, elongated NNW-SSE, brighter core.

 

13" (12/7/85): fairly faint, fairly small, almost round, weak concentration.

 

Truman Safford discovered NGC 237 = Sf 94 on 27 Sep 1867 with the 18.5" refractor at the Dearborn Observatory. His discovery list was not published until 1887, so Dreyer was unable to credit him in the NGC. The galaxy was independently found by Lewis Swift on 21 Nov 1886 with a 16" refractor at Warner Observatory and catalogued in list VI-6, though his position is 16 seconds off in RA.  Swift is credited with the discovery in the NGC.  Herbert Howe measured an accurate position in 1897 using the 20" refractor at the Chamberlin Observatory in Denver.

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NGC 238 = ESO 194-031 = AM 0041-502 = PGC 2595

00 43 25.5 -50 10 57

V = 12.5;  Size 1.9'x1.6';  Surf Br = 13.6;  PA = 93d

 

30" (10/13/15 - OzSky): at 303x; fairly bright, moderately large, roundish, ~1.5' diameter.  Sharply concentrated with a very small bright nucleus.  A weak central bar extends NW-SE from the nucleus.

 

Subtle structure is evident in the halo with slightly enhanced regions.  A slightly brighter patch is on the northwest and west side (images show this part of an inner ring) and an extremely faint "star" is superimposed [25" NW of center].  The DSS2 image reveals this is either a bright knot or possibly an interacting companion.  In 1981ApJS...46...75A ("Spectroscopic Measures of Galaxies, Their Companions, and Peculiar Galaxies in the Southern Hemisphere"), Arp identifies this object as a companion galaxy.

 

JH discovered NGC 238 = h2341 on 2 Oct 1834 and recorded "eF, pL, R, gvlbM, 50"."  His position matches ESO 194-031 = PGC 2595.

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NGC 239 = MCG -01-03-007 = PGC 2642

00 44 37.4 -03 45 34

V = 14.0;  Size 0.9'x0.4';  Surf Br = 12.7;  PA = 28d

 

17.5" (10/20/90): fairly faint, fairly small, oval 3:2 NNW-SSE, broad concentration.  A mag 12 star is 2.6' E of center.

 

Francis Leavenworth discovered NGC 239 = LM I-12 in 1886 with the 26" refractor at Leander McCormick Observatory.  His position is just 1' S of MCG -01-03-007 = PGC 2642.  Ormond Stone's "corrected" position, given in the IC 1 notes, is 1.1 tmin too far E.  In the IC 2 notes section, Max Wolf states the original NGC position was correct!

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NGC 240 = UGC 473 = MCG +01-03-001 = CGCG 410-003 = PGC 2653

00 45 01.9 +06 06 47

V = 13.5;  Size 1.0'x0.9';  Surf Br = 13.3

 

17.5" (10/8/88): faint, small, oval 4:3 ~E-W, small bright core.  A mag 14 star is 1.2' SSE of center.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 240 = Sw V-9 on 22 Oct 1886 with the 16" refractor at Warner Observatory and recorded "vF; S; R; * nr south".  His position is 9 sec of RA east of UGC 473 and his "* nr south" is probably the mag 13.6 star 1.2' SE.

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NGC 241 = NGC 242 = ESO 029-SC006

00 43 34 -73 26 36

V = 12.0;  Size 0.9'

 

See observing notes for NGC 242.

 

JH discovered NGC 241 = h2342 on 12 Aug 1834 and described "a very F, R nebula or group (We are now fairly in the Nubecula Minor, and field begins to be full of faint perfectly irresolvable nebulous light."  There is nothing at his published CGH position but 10' N is h2343 (first observed on 11 Apr 1834).  Herschel caught this error and corrected the NPD in an errata list at the end of the CGH catalogue.  So, NGC 241 = NGC 242 = ESO 29-SC6.  ESO, Eric Lindsay and Harold Corwin also equate NGC 241= NGC 242.  Since NGC 242 is the earliest observation, this should be the primary designation.  See Harold Corwin's notes for more.

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NGC 242 = NGC 241 = ESO 029-SC006 = Lindsay 29

00 43 34 -73 26 36

V = 12.0;  Size 0.9'

 

18" (7/10/05 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): at 282x, this SMC cluster appeared fairly bright, slightly elongated E-W, 0.8'x0.6'.  A faint star is at the west end and another faint star or clump of stars is at the SE end.  A pair of mag 12.5/13 stars lie 2.5' SW.  NGC 248 lies 9' NE and NGC 256 can be found 11' ESE.

 

JH discovered NGC 242 = h2343 on 11 Apr 1834 and recorded "pL; vF; R; vgbM; (in a sweep below the pole and ill seen) the RA is probably also in error.  On a second sweep he recorded "a binuclear nebula, or two, vS, R, running together."  Finally on a third sweep he noted "a small irresolvable knot in the bright part of the Nubecula Minor."  NGC 241 = h2343, recorded in Aug 1834, is a duplicate observation (see notes).

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NGC 243 = MCG +05-02-043 = CGCG 500-082 = PGC 2687

00 46 00.9 +29 57 34

V = 13.6;  Size 0.9'x0.4';  Surf Br = 12.5;  PA = 145d

 

17.5" (11/25/87): fairly faint, small, round, bright core, stellar nucleus.  Located 1.4' E of a mag 10.5 star.

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 243 = St XII-6 on 18 Oct 1881 with the 31" reflector at the Marseille Observatory and logged "F, vS, R, gbM,* 10 precedes by 6 sec".  His position and description matches CGCG 500-082 = PGC 2687.

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NGC 244 = MCG -03-03-003 = UGCA 10 = VV 728 = PGC 2675

00 45 46.7 -15 35 50

V = 12.9;  Size 1.5'x0.9';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 50d

 

17.5" (10/20/90): fairly faint, very small, elongated 3:2 SW-NE, small bright core.  Located 3.5' NNW of a mag 10.5 star.  A tight trio of mag 14.5 stars is 8' W.

 

WH discovered NGC 244 = H III-485 = h55 on 30 Dec 1785 (sweep 499) and logged "vF, S, iF, resolvable."  The NGC position is just 1' too far N.

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NGC 245 = UGC 476 = MCG +00-03-005 = Mrk 555 = PGC 2691

00 46 05.5 -01 43 22

V = 12.2;  Size 1.4'x1.2';  Surf Br = 12.6;  PA = 145d

 

17.5" (10/8/88): moderately bright, moderately large, slightly elongated ~E-W, stellar nucleus.  A pair of stars mag 13.5 and 14.5 with a separation of 35" lie 1.5' S.

 

13" (9/29/84): moderately bright, slightly elongated WNW-ESE, star superimposed or faint stellar nucleus.

 

WH discovered NGC 245 = H II-445 on 1 Oct 1785 (sweep 448) and recorded "F, iR, easily resolvable, 1' broad." The NGC RA is just 0.1 tmin too large.

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NGC 246 = PK 118-74.1 = PN G118.8-74.7 = Skull Nebula

00 47 03.3 -11 52 19

V = 10.4;  Size 240"x210"

 

48" (10/23/14): At 488x with an NPB filter the view of the Skull Nebula was breathtaking and all the structure in a detailed photograph was visible.  The thin brighter rim varied in brightness, thickness and scalloped structure along its entire length.

 

The rim is brightest along a 60” arc on the western side, bulging inward just north of center, creating a small darker indentation in the rim due west of the prominent central star. Moving counterclockwise around the rim, a small brighter, elongated patch is at the northwest edge, close to a mag 11.5 star just outside the planetary.  The rim is relatively weak along the north side, but two brighter (detached) patches are along the northeast side.  An irregular, elongated luminous patch spreads inward here.  This glow is fairly prominent just northwest of center, on line with the central star and the second interior mag 12 star, and a second patch is midway from the central star to the north rim.  The rim is weakest overall along a 90” arc on the eastern side, near a mag 13.5 star, which is embedded just within the planetary. At the south rim, two more luminous patches are visible with the westernmost glow both larger and brighter.

 

The interior is relatively dark, though glows weakly with subtle variations, creating pockets of darkness - one is northeast of the central star.  A very faint interior glow is just south of the mag 12 star on the southwest side.  More extensive faint nebulosity extends inward from the southern rim, though the brightest interior glow is the split nebulosity mentioned earlier on the northwest side.

 

33" (9/16/07): gorgeous annular planetary viewed at 200x.  The thin brighter rim was striking and varied in brightness and thickness around the periphery.  The rim is brightest along the western or WNW edge and weakest on the east side.  The interior was darker but irregular in surface brightness.

 

18" (10/13/07): 175x gave an excellent view using the NPB filter and the thin, bright irregular rim (only dimming on the east side) and darker center was quite striking.

 

18" (8/23/03): I took a quick look at 160x from Chew's Ridge with a thin waning crescent low in the ENE.  Without a filter I don't remember the brighter rim being so crisply defined and the annularity so clear.  The superimposed stars gave the planetary a transparent, 3-dimensional feel as if I was seeing inside the object. 

 

17.5" (1/8/00): at 100x, appears as a moderately bright, 3.5' irregular glow with a darker center and encompassing four stars including the 12th magnitude central star.  Excellent contrast gain using an OIII filter, which sharpens up the edge of the roundish annulus and enhances the irregular surface brightness.  The halo is brightest along a 270” arc running from SW to NE and is clearly weakest at the east edge of the halo.  A mag 11.5 star is embedded at the NW edge of the halo 2.0' from center.  The irregular central hole is much darker but faintly luminous.  Also superimposed is a mag 12 star SW of the central star and a 4th star is just inside the eastern boundary.  The central star forms a thin right triangle with the other two brighter stars.  At 220x, the western 90” outer arc is brightest and there appears to be a knot embedded at the NE edge of the halo.

 

17.5" (9/19/87): fairly bright, large, 4' diameter, annular.  Four stars are involved including the central star.  This planetary has an irregular surface brightness with subtle structure.

 

13" (11/05/83): fairly bright with filter, clearly annular, sharper edges.  NGC 255 lies 15' SSE.

 

8": fairly faint, large, four stars involved.  No annularity noted.

 

16x80 (8/24/84): faintly visible in finder.

 

80mm finder (10/13/07): visible unfiltered at 25x.  Nice contrast gain using the NPB filter and the planetary also appears to increase in size.

 

WH discovered NGC 246 = H V-25 = h56 on 27 Nov 1785 (sweep 478) and recorded "four or five pL stars forming a trapezium of 4 or 5' diameter. The enclosed space is filled up with milky nebulosity faintly terminated. The stars seem to have no connection with the nebulosity."  The sign of the declination is reversed (+) in the RNGC.

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NGC 247 = ESO 540-022 = MCG -04-03-005 = UGCA 11 = PGC 2758

00 47 08.2 -20 45 37

V = 9.1;  Size 21.4'x6.9';  Surf Br = 14.4;  PA = 174d

 

48" (10/31/13): at 287x, NGC 247 spanned at least 18'x5' NNW-SSE, stretching from an HII region at the NNW tip to beyond a mag 9.5 star near the SSE end.  An interesting feature is a very large, elongated darker (dusty) region dubbed the "Needle's Eye" on the NNW side, extending at least 3.5'x1.0'.  A relatively bright HII knot (identified in NED as MRSS 540-038059 from the "Muenster Red Sky Survey") is beyond this feature, 9.5' NNW of center.  It appeared fairly faint, relatively large for an HII region, elongated ~N-S, 20"x12".  A second well-defined HII knot is MRSS 540-038506, found 5' NNW of center.  This easy patch appeared fairly faint, elongated, 15"x10".  At least two small knots (including MRSS 540-038001) are on the SW side of the halo ~2.4' from center and ~1.5' E of a mag 12-12.5 star just off the west edge of the disc.  Finally, I picked up a faint, very small knot, ~6" diameter, situated 3.5' SSE of center and 1.1' N of a mag 13.5 star.  This HII region (not in the MRSS) forms a "double" with a mag 15 star 15" N.

 

17.5" (11/1/86): bright, very large, bright core, elongated 7:2 N-S, 14'x4'.  The southern extension is brighter and mag 9 SAO 166572 is superimposed at the southern end about 6' from the core.  Burbidge's Chain (VV 518) lies 18' NNE.

 

13" (8/5/83): fairly bright, diffuse, very large, bright core. 

 

8" (10/4/80): very large, elongated ~N-S, bright core.  A mag 10 star is at the south tip.  The southern extension appears brighter.

 

WH discovered NGC 247 = H V-20 = h57 on 20 Oct 1784 (sweep 303) and logged "a Streak of light about 27' long, and in the brightest part, which was pB is 3' or 4' broad. The extension nearly in the meridian (I believe a little from from S.p. to N.f.) ... The situation is so low, that it would probably appear of much greater extent in a higher altitude."  JH observed NGC 247 at Slough on 16 Sep 1830 and noted "eF; vL; vmE; vglbM; 10' long; pos 172.0 deg. Has no bright star in it, but a star 8.9 mag at some distance n.p."  Surprisingly, he made no (published) observations at the Cape of Good Hope.

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NGC 248 = ESO 029-EN008 = LMC-N13A/B

00 45 24.0 -73 22 47

Size 0.8'

 

18" (7/10/05 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): at 228x this fairly faint SMC nebulous cluster appeared as an irregular glow, 0.8'x0.6', elongated NW-SE.  Good response to the UHC filter at 76x.  One or two stars or knots are involved including a small nebulous knot at the southeast end.  NGC 256 lies 8' SSE and NGC 242 is 9' SW.

 

JH discovered NGC 248 = h2344 on 11 Apr 1834 and logged "very faint.  Below the pole, and the sweep otherwise irregular."  On a later sweep he recorded "faint, elongated or binuclear, small, very gradually a little brighter in the middle."  His position matches the knot at the southeast end.

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NGC 249 = ESO 029-EN009 = SMC-N12B

00 45 33 -73 04 48

Size 1.5'

 

18" (7/10/05 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): at 228x this SMC cluster with nebulosity appeared fairly bright, fairly large, slightly elongated, 1.3'x0.9', weakly concentrated. Two or three faint stars are involved including a mag 13 star just north of the center. The UHC filter produces a good contrast boost and increases the size to at least 2'.  Forms a pair with NGC 261 4.5' ESE with NGC 242 18' S.

 

James Dunlop possibly discovered NGC 249 = D 19? = h2346 on 5 Sep 1826 with his homemade 9" speculum reflector and recorded "a small faint elliptical nebula - this is the preceding in a line of small faint nebulae."  His position is just 3.7' N of this SMC nebula, although his positions can be all over the map, so assigning a specific object is difficult as NGC 261 is close following.

 

JH recorded this nebula on 3 sweeps, first logging "faint, large, round; very gradually brighter in the middle; 2' across. Here begins a starry region of the Nubecula Minor." The second observation reads: "pretty bright, pretty large, oval, resolvable, 2' diameter." The last notes are "faint, round, 30 arcseconds." Herschel notes that this entry could refer to either Dunlop 19 or 21.

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NGC 250 = UGC 487 = MCG +01-03-002 = CGCG 410-005 = PGC 2765

00 47 16.0 +07 54 36

V = 13.6;  Size 1.1'x0.6';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 153d

 

17.5" (10/8/88): faint, very small, almost round, faint stellar nucleus.  Located in the center of a small right triangle consisting of two mag 13.5 stars 2.1' NE and 2.8' NE and a mag 12.5 star 2.7' S.  Located 29' NW of mag 4.4 63 Psc.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 250 = Sw III-2 on 10 Nov 1885 with the 16" refractor at the Warner Observatory.  His position is 17 sec of RA east of UGC 487 = PGC 2765.  His description "in center of 3 stars in form of a right angle triangle" applies to UGC 487, so this identification is secure.

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NGC 251 = UGC 490 = MCG +03-03-003 = CGCG 458-005 = PGC 2806

00 47 54.0 +19 35 48

V = 13.2;  Size 2.4'x1.9';  Surf Br = 14.7;  PA = 105d

 

17.5" (10/20/90): fairly faint, fairly small, oval 3:2 E-W, weak concentration.  Enclosed by a small group of four mag 12-14.5 stars including a mag 12.5 star (close double) just 0.7' E.  Located 9.5' E of 59 Piscium (V = 6.1).

 

WH discovered NGC 251 = H III-204 = h58 on 15 Oct 1784 (sweep 291) and reported "vF, S, s.p. 2 vS stars, a third star in it but not in the center, and I suppose is not connected with it.  240 verified it."  On 13 Nov 1786 (sweep 635) he logged "vF, S, lbM, just preceding two stars are in the same meridian."  JH recorded "vF; R; follows a *6.7 40s and is 1.5' north of it.  It is near 2 v s st.  If this be III 204, my father polar distance is 5' wrong."  JH's position and description is accurate.

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NGC 252 = UGC 491 = MCG +04-03-004 = CGCG 480-007 = Holm 23b = PGC 2819

00 48 01.5 +27 37 26

V = 12.4;  Size 1.5'x1.1';  Surf Br = 12.8;  PA = 80d

 

17.5" (10/17/87): moderately bright, moderately large, large slightly elongated halo, bright core, stellar nucleus.  Brightest and first of three with NGC 258 3.2' NE and NGC 260 8.4' NE.  An uneven double star is 4' WNW (9.5/12 at 30").

 

WH discovered NGC 252 = H II-609 = h59 = h60 on 26 Oct 1786 (sweep 626) and logged "pB, S, iR, gbM."  JH made 4 observations under h59 and a 5th under h60.  Both Herschels missed NGC 258 and NGC 260, which were found by George Stoney on 22 Dec 1848 ("3 neb in a line") with LdR's 72".

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NGC 253 = ESO 474-G29 = MCG -04-03-009 = UGCA 13 = Sculptor Galaxy = Silver Coin Galaxy = PGC 2789

00 47 33.1 -25 17 17

V = 7.2;  Size 27.5'x6.8';  Surf Br = 12.7;  PA = 52d

 

48" (10/23/14): although I've viewed NGC 253 several previous times with Lowrey's 48", I'm always amazed by the spectacular view as the mottled galaxy explodes into numerous bright knots, dusty patches, dark lanes and luminous star associations.  Using a 21mm Ethos (232x), NGC 253 completely filled the 26' field.  The central region of this starburst galaxy contains a blazing, nonstellar nucleus surrounding by an intense, elongated core with several bright patches around the periphery of the core (segments of the inner spiral arms).  Just northwest and southeast of the nucleus are extremely bright sections of the core.  Since the galaxy is only 12” from edge-on, many visible features extend parallel to the SW-NE major axis (PA = 52”).

 

A dark lane running SW-NE parallels the core just off its northern side.  Close northwest and parallel to this dust lane is a very bright, fairly narrow arm, extending ~3' in length.  Another thin arm (also running SW-NE) is to the southeast of the core with a prominent, very thin section ~3.5' SW of center, just southwest of a superimposed mag 12.5-13 star.  Three smaller bright patches surround a superimposed star ~2.5' NE of the nucleus.  The brightest and largest of these patches is close southeast of the star.  Further northeast the surface brightness lowers in the outer portion of the galaxy, but it still appears curdled and blotchy.  Several bright stars are near the periphery including a mag 9.3 star 6.2' SW of center and a mag 11.6 star 3.8' W of center.  A brighter patch is ~3.5' WSW of center is near the latter star.  Additional luminous patches are further out on the southwest end.

 

30" (10/12/15 - OzSky): superb view at 152x and 303x with NGC 253 within 10” of the zenith.  Much of the detail seen in Lowrey's 48" was visible, although the bright patches were not quite as contrasty.  The nucleus is a very small region embedded in a very bright, elongated central region that is enhanced immediately south of the nucleus.  A thin, luminous "arm" extends in the direction of the major axis near the north side.  A long spiral "arm" is along the northeast flank of the galaxy, extending 5 or 6' in length.  Three slightly brighter patches were noted to the northeast of the core close to a superimposed star (also marked in the 48" observation).  A bright, elongated strip was along the southwest side, about 2.8' NNW of a mag 9.3 star near the southwest edge (6.2' from center).

 

30" (11/5/10 - Coonabarabran, 264x): stunning view in the 13mm Ethos at 264x although the galaxy overfilled the 23' field.  The dust structure and knots were mesmerizing but I didn't take detailed notes.

 

17.5" (8/29/92): at 100x; very bright, very large, edge-on 6:1 SW-NE, 30'x5', at 100x.  The galaxy exhibits only a weak central concentration to a small elongated core that is slightly larger than the visible knots.  Remarkable dust structure and mottling visible particularly on the southwest extension and a dark lane runs along the north side.  Three faint HII knots are visible near a superimposed star on the southwest side and a slightly brighter knot lies northeast of a star near the core.

 

13" (9/11/82): very bright, elongated 4:1 SW-NE, very mottled, dust lanes, dark patches, 30' diameter.

 

8": very bright, very elongated, mottled, 25'-30' diameter.

 

10x30mm IS binoculars: easily visible as an elongated glow.

 

Caroline Herschel discovered NGC 253 = H V-1 = h61 = h2345 on 23 Sep 1783 (before WH started his sweeps) with a "small Newtonian Sweeper of 27 inches focal length, and a power of 30."  WH independently found it just a month later on 30 Oct 1783 (sweep 8 on his second night sweeping and internal discovery #3), though he realized it was found by his sister.  On 27 Oct 1785 (sweep 467) he recorded "about 45' long and 7 or 8' br; cB, mBM.  The place taken is that of the brightest part of it, where there is a small star visible, which however I suppose has no connection with the nebula.  It makes an angle of 25 or 40” with the meridian, from sp to nf.  The faint ends of it require much attention to be seen, and I believe extend much farther than I could trace them."

 

From the Cape of Good Hope, JH recorded "vvB; vvL; vmE; 30' long, 3' or 4' broad; has several stars in it; gmbM to a centre elongated like the nebula itself. The nebula is somewhat streaky and knotty in its constitution and may perhaps be resolvable." A second observation in 1836 was logged as "vvB; vvvL; a superb object; 24' in length, breadth about 3'; pos = 143.8 very exact. Its light is somewhat streaky, but I see no stars in it but 4 large and one very small one, and these seem not to belong to it, there being many near."  In the GC, he noted the position angle should read 54.5”.

 

The origin of the "Silver Coin" nickname goes back to at least 1964 (Time-Life International edition of "The Universe"), with the description "Silvery Coin of the flat Sc spiral NGC 253", though the 1962 edition published in the U.S. reads "Silvery Dollar ..."

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NGC 254 = ESO 411-015 = MCG -05-03-005 = PGC 2778

00 47 27.6 -31 25 20

V = 11.7;  Size 2.5'x1.5';  Surf Br = 13.0;  PA = 137d

 

17.5" (12/3/88): moderately bright, fairly small, very bright core, stellar nucleus, elongated 2:1 NW-SE.  Located 5' SW of mag 7.1 SAO 192746.

 

13" (9/22/84): fairly bright, small, elongated ~E-W, small bright nucleus.  Located 5' SW of a mag 8 star.

 

JH discovered NGC 254 = h2347 on 28 Sep 1834 and logged "vB, R, gmbM, 40", has a star 8th mag 5' distant."  His position is accurate.

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NGC 255 = MCG -02-03-017 = PGC 2802

00 47 47.1 -11 28 07

V = 11.9;  Size 3.0'x2.5';  Surf Br = 13.9;  PA = 15d

 

17.5" (8/16/93): moderately bright, fairly large, elongated 4:3 NNW-SSE, 2.0'x1.6', broad mild concentration.  A mag 14 star lies 2.5' ESE.  Forms a pair with MCG -02-03-13 11' NNW.  Planetary nebulae NGC 246 is located 25' SSW.

 

13" (8/24/84): similar to previous observation but exhibits a weak concentration.

 

13" (11/5/83): moderately bright, fairly small, round, no noticeable concentration. 

 

8" (8/28/81): faint, small, round.  Located 25' NNE of NGC 246.

 

WH discovered NGC 255 = H II-472 = h62 on 27 Nov 1785 (sweep 478) and simply recorded "F, pS."  His position is accurate.  JH made the single observation "vF; L; R; gbM; 30"."

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NGC 256 = ESO 029-SC11 = Lindsay 30

00 45 54 -73 30 24

V = 12.5;  Size 0.9'

 

18" (7/10/05 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): at 228x, this SMC cluster appeared moderately bright, fairly small, triangular or wedge-shaped, 30" diameter.  Weakly concentrated with a slightly brighter core but no resolution.  Located 1.9' SSW of mag 9.7 HD 4558, which detracts somewhat from viewing.  NGC 248 lies 8' NNW and several clusters are within 15' including NGC 265 6' ENE.

 

JH discovered NGC 256 = h2348 in the SMC on 11 Apr 1834 and described "not vF, S, R, has a star 9th mag Nf."  On a second sweep he logged "F, S, R, gbM, 40" south of a star 8th mag. (In Nubecula Minor)."  His third observation reads "F, lE, 30", precedes a star 9th mag" and a fourth record states "F, S, R, 18"; a star 9th mag Nf."

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NGC 257 = UGC 493 = MCG +01-03-003 = CGCG 410-006 = PGC 2818

00 48 01.6 +08 17 48

V = 12.6;  Size 1.9'x1.3';  Surf Br = 13.4;  PA = 105d

 

17.5" (10/8/88): fairly faint, moderately large, oval 3:2 ~E-W, weakly concentrated but no core.

 

WH discovered NGC 257 = H II-863 on 29 Dec 1790 (sweep 991) and logged "pL, lE, gbM, resolvable."  The NGC position is accurate.

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NGC 258 = MCG +04-03-005 = Holm 23d = PGC 2829

00 48 12.8 +27 39 26

V = 14.6;  Size 0.6'x0.5';  Surf Br = 13.1

 

17.5" (10/17/87): extremely faint and small, round.  A mag 11 star is close WSW 40" from center.  Second of three with NGC 252 3.2' SW and NGC 260 5.3' NE.

 

George Johnstone Stoney discovered NGC 258 using Lord Rosse's 72" on 22 Dec 1848.  The field was observed no less than 7 times at Birr Castle, although the descriptions are sometimes contradictory and made under poor conditions.  It's possible that Stoney also discovered NGC 260 to the northeast, and it was also seen in 1854, though d'Arrest is credited with the discovery in the NGC.

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NGC 259 = MCG -01-03-015 = Holm 22a = PGC 2820

00 48 03.2 -02 46 31

V = 12.5;  Size 2.3'x0.7';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 140d

 

17.5" (11/28/97): fairly faint, moderately large, very elongated 3:1 NW-SE, 2.0'x0.7', broad concentration.  Forms the vertex of a right isosceles triangle with a mag 11 star 3' SSE and a mag 11.5 star 3.4' WSW.  MCG -01-03-012 lies 14' WNW (see notes for NGC 331).

 

17.5" (10/20/90): fairly faint, fairly small, edge-on 4:1 NW-SE, bright core, stellar nucleus, pretty system.  Forms a right angle with a mag 10.5 star 3' SSW and a mag 11.5 star 3.5' ESE.

 

WH discovered NGC 259 = H II-621 = h63 = h64 on 13 Dec 1786 (sweep 646) and recorded "F, E from np to sf, 1 1/2' long, lbM."  He found it again the following year on 11 Sept 1787, relisting the nebula as II-703.  The second observation had an error in the offset position, so WH thought it was a new discovery.  Strangely, JH also recorded the galaxy twice, as h 63 (called a "Nova") and h 64 = H II-621.  Heinrich d'Arrest noted the equivalence of both entries. See JH's note in the GC and NGC.

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NGC 260 = UGC 497 = MCG +04-03-006 = CGCG 480-009 = Holm 23c = PGC 2844

00 48 34.6 +27 41 33

V = 13.5;  Size 0.9'x0.9';  Surf Br = 13.2

 

17.5" (10/17/87): fairly faint, small, slightly elongated.  A faint mag 14.5-15.0 star is close NE.  This galaxy is the third of three with NGC 252 8.4' SW and NGC 258.

 

George Johnstone Stoney discovered NGC 260 on 22 Dec 1848 with LdR's 72" and recorded "3 neb in a line nff, p one = h59 [NGC 252], other two vF [NGC 258 and NGC 260], middle one [NGC 258] eF, vS, distance of extremes about 12'."  Although NGC 260 = UGC 497 is 9' ESE of NGC 252, it is collinear with the other two, and most likely the 3rd nebula seen by Stoney.  Another observation in 1854 also mentions "3 neb".

 

Heinrich d'Arrest independently discovered NGC 260 on 27 Aug 1865 with the 11" refractor at Copenhagen.  His position matches UGC 497.  He noted "one of Rosse's" although d'Arrest, instead of LdR, was credited with the discovery by Dreyer.

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NGC 261 = ESO 029-EN012 = SMC-N12A

00 46 29 -73 06 06

Size 1.5'

 

18" (7/10/05 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): at 228x this SMC HII region appeared fairly bright, moderately large, round, 1.5' diameter with a single mag 13 star at the center (emission-line star Lin 78).  A UHC filter produced a good contrast gain and increased the size to over 2'.  A group of four stars follows including supergiant SK 13 (three brighter in a string and one faint star) and a number of faint stars are scattered nearby.  Forms a similar pair with NGC 249 4.5' WNW.  NGC 267 lies 12' SE.

 

James Dunlop probably discovered NGC 261= D 4 = D 21? = h2349 with his 9" reflector on 5 Sep 1826.  D 4 was described as a "faint round nebula, about 30" diameter" while D 21 was described as a small round faint nebula." His position for D 21 is just 3' N of ESO 29-12.

 

JH made 3 observations, first logging "very faint, round, gradually brighter in the middle, 2' across, resolvable." He next described it as "pretty bright, round, 60". Has a star 13th mag in centre. Occurs in a field illuminated by the Nubecular Minor and many stars." His final observation was "pretty faint, round, 90"." Herschel noted this could be either Dunlop 3, 4 or 21.

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NGC 262 = UGC 499 = MCG +05-03-008 = Mrk 348 = PGC 2855

00 48 47.1 +31 57 25

V = 13.1;  Size 1.1'x1.1';  Surf Br = 13.1

 

24" (11/24/14): moderately bright, small, round, dominated by a high surface brightness core that increases to the center, very low surface brightness halo, ~25" diameter.  Forms a pair with 2MASX J00485285+3157309 = PGC 212600 just 1.2' E.  The companion appeared very faint, round, just 10" diameter. It was too faint (V = 15.4) for any details.

 

17.5" (11/25/87): faint, small, round, bright core.  Contains a faint stellar nucleus about 15th magnitude.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 262 = Sw II-10 on 17 Sep 1885 with the 16" refractor at Warner Observatory.  His position is 15 sec of RA east of UGC 499.  Bigourdan's measured an accurate RA on 13 Oct 1890 (repeated in the IC 2 Notes).

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NGC 263 = MCG -02-03-021 = PGC 2856

00 48 48.4 -13 06 27

V = 13.7;  Size 0.7'x0.4';  Surf Br = 12.2

 

17.5" (10/13/90): faint, small, round, weak concentration.  A mag 14 star is 30" W.

 

Francis Leavenworth discovered NGC 263 = LM I-13 in 1886 with the 26" refractor at the Leander McCormick Observatory.  His rough position is close to MCG -02-03-021 = PGC 2856.

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NGC 264 = ESO 295-006 = MCG -07-02-016 = PGC 2831

00 48 21.0 -38 14 04

V = 13.4;  Size 1.0'x0.3';  Surf Br = 12.0;  PA = 113d

 

18" (11/22/08): fairly faint, small, elongated 4:3 WNW-ESE, 0.4'x0.3'.  Contains a very small brighter core with direct vision.  A group of 4 stars including mag 9 HD 4735 and nearly forming a trapezoid follows by ~6'.

 

JH discovered NGC 264 = h2350 on 30 Aug 1834 and noted "F, S, R, vsvmbM to a star 13th mag. A trapezium of large stars follows."  His position and description matches ESO 295-006 = PGC 2831.

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NGC 265 = ESO 029-SC014 = Lindsay 34

00 47 10 -73 28 36

V = 12.1;  Size 1.0'

 

18" (7/10/05 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): at 228x, this SMC cluster appeared moderately bright and large, 1' diameter, round, fairly symmetrical appearance with no concentration.  NGC 256 lies 5.7' WSW with NGC 269 6' SE.

 

JH discovered NGC 265 = h2351 in the SMC on 11 Apr 1834 and remarked "vF; situated on the edge of the Nubecula Minor." On a later sweep he recorded as "vF, R, 30 arcseconds."

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NGC 266 = UGC 508 = MCG +05-03-009 = CGCG 501-022 = PGC 2901

00 49 47.8 +32 16 40

V = 11.6;  Size 3.0'x2.9';  Surf Br = 13.8

 

17.5" (11/25/87): fairly bright, moderately large, elongated ~E-W, bright core, stellar nucleus.  Located on the Andromeda border 4' N of mag 8.2 SAO 54174.

 

WH discovered NGC 266 = H III-153 = h65 on 12 Sep 1784 (sweep 268) and noted "vF, pL, lE, r, very little brighter towards the following side."  JH observed this 4 times and at Birr Castle 5 times with the 72-inch.  On 18 Sep 1857 it was described as "S, pB disc, in vF haze of mottled nebulosity, which seems brightest in a line p and f."  E.E. Barnard found it in Feb 1889 while sweeping with the 12-inch refractor at Lick Observatory and noted it as "R, 1' +/- or less, bM to faint nucleus of 13m."

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NGC 267 = ESO 029-SC015 = SMC-N22

00 48 02.9 -73 16 27

Size 2.5'

 

18" (7/10/05 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): at 228x this SMC cluster with nebulosity appears as a fairly faint, fairly large irregular glow ~2'x1.4'.  The surface was grainy with a half-dozen mag 14 stars resolved (Hodge Association 15).  Good response using a UHC filter, which increased the size of the visible nebulosity.  Collinear with two mag 10.5 stars ~6' SE.  A string of brighter stars to the north heads east for 17' towards NGC 290.  LHa 115-N25, a very small detached piece ~2' N, appears as a 15" glow and increases the total size to nearly 5'.

 

JH discovered NGC 267 = h2352 in the SMC on 4 Oct 1836 and recorded "a faint, pretty large, cluster of very small stars. It is the preceding knot (or centre of condensation) of the resolvable portion of the Nubecula Minor which fills the subsequent field and consists of irregularly scattered clustered stars 12...20th mag."  His position is on the southwest side of the cluster/nebula.

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NGC 268 = MCG -01-03-017 = PGC 2927

00 50 09.4 -05 11 38

V = 13.1;  Size 1.6'x1.1';  Surf Br = 13.6;  PA = 95d

 

13.1" (9/22/84): fairly faint, fairly small, diffuse, slightly elongated 4:3 ~E-W, weak concentration but no nucleus.  Lies west of a group of four bright stars including mag 8.5 SAO 128977 5' NE, mag 7.8 SAO 128978 9' SSE, mag 8.5 SAO 128987 15' E and mag 6.8 SAO 128986 18' NE.

 

WH discovered NGC 268 = H III-463 = h66 on 22 Nov 1785 (sweep 474) and logged "vF, pL, irr R, resolvable."  The NGC position is accurate.

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NGC 269 = ESO 029-SC016 = Lindsay 37

00 48 21 -73 31 54

V = 12.6;  Size 0.6'

 

18" (7/10/05 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): at 228x, fairly faint, fairly small, round, 0.6' diameter, weak concentration but no core or resolution.  A 2.5' string of three stars follows by 2'-3' and a mag 11 star lies 3' SE.  Situated in a rich SMC star field 6' SE of NGC 265.

 

JH discovered NGC 269 = h2353 on 5 Nov 1836 in the SMC and described as "vF; S; R; 30"."  His position is accurate.

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NGC 270 = MCG -02-03-027 = PGC 2938

00 50 32.4 -08 39 07

V = 12.1;  Size 2.0'x1.7';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 25d

 

17.5" (10/13/90): fairly faint, small, oval 3:2 SW-NE, bright core, almost stellar nucleus.  NGC 277 is 12' NE.

 

WH discovered NGC 270 = H III-955 on 10 Dec 1798 (sweep 1086) and logged "cF, vS, iR."  His position matches MCG -02-03-027 = PGC 2938.  Nearby NGC 277 was missed by WH.

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NGC 271 = UGC 519 = MCG +00-03-012 = CGCG 384-013 = PGC 2949

00 50 41.9 -01 54 37

V = 12.0;  Size 2.1'x1.7';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 130d

 

17.5" (10/8/88): moderately bright, fairly small, elongated NW-SE, small bright core.  Mag 8.4 SAO 128981 is off the SE edge 1.5' from the center.

 

WH discovered NGC 271 = H II-446 = h67 on 1 Oct 1785 (sweep 448) and noted "F, S, E, milky; about 1 1/2' preceding a pB star."  On 13 Dec 1786 (sweep 646) he noted "pB, R, mbM, about 1' sp a bright star." JH logged "Not vF; R; pslbM; 30"; a star 8-9m follows."

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NGC 272 = OCL-312

00 51 25 +35 49 18

V = 8.5;  Size 5'

 

17.5" (9/26/92): 9 stars in a 5' diameter forming a "hook" asterism.  Includes a mag 9 star and a close double star.  Appears to be fully resolved and only an unimpressive, scattered asterism.

 

Heinrich d'Arrest discovered NGC 272 on 2 Aug 1864 with the 11" refractor at Copenhagen.  His single position points directly to this group of stars.  It is listed in the 4th edition of the Gosta Lynga catalogue but was removed from the 5th edition.  Visually it appears to be a scattered asterism.

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NGC 273 = MCG -01-03-019 = PGC 2959

00 50 48.4 -06 53 08

V = 12.9;  Size 2.2'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 105d

 

24" (10/5/13): moderately bright and large, very elongated 3:1 WNW-ESE, ~48"x16".  Contains a very small brighter core.  A mag 14 star is off the NW edge by ~20".  NGC 272/274 = Arp 140 lies 11' SSE.

 

17.5" (10/13/90): fairly faint, small, elongated 2:1 E-W.  A mag 14 star is off the NW edge, 42" from center.  NGC 272/274, a contact pair of galaxies, lies 11' SSE.

 

WH discovered NGC 273 = H III-430 on 10 Sep 1785 (sweep 435) and noted "vF, vS.  This precedes the former [NGC 274]".  The NGC position from Wilhelm Tempel is accurate.

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NGC 274 = Arp 140 NED1 = VV 81a = Holm 26b = MCG -01-03-021 = PGC 2980

00 51 01.9 -07 03 28

V = 11.8;  Size 1.5'x1.5';  Surf Br = 12.6;  PA = 155d

 

24" (10/5/13): bright, round, fairly small, 0.6' diameter, sharply concentrated with a small intensely bright core that gradually increases to the center, but no nucleus.  This is the brighter but smaller component of a striking double system (Arp 140 = VV 81) with NGC 275, which is attached on the SE side.  NGC 273 lies 11' NNW.

 

13.1" (9/29/84): moderately bright, small, compact, very small bright core.  Forms a close pair with NGC 275 1' SE.

 

WH discovered NGC 274 = H III-429 = h69 on 10 Sep 1785 (sweep 435), although he only noted a single object as "vF, pS, E."

 

The pair was observed 8 times with Lord Rosse's 72-inch.  On 3 Oct 1856, observer R.J. Mitchell's wrote, "69 [NGC 274] is S, B, R, with bright nucleus; 70 [NGC 275] is F, E and patchy.  Suspect formed of two knots involved in faint nebulosity; there appears to be a nebulous connexion between them all."  On 15 Nov 1857, Lord Rosse experimented with a silvered secondary (the speculum secondary was covered with a thin silver layer) and noted "silvered mirror shows the object brighter than before, but no new details.Ó

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NGC 275 = Arp 140 NED2 = VV 81b = Holm 26a = MCG -01-03-022 = PGC 2984

00 51 04.5 -07 03 56

V = 12.5;  Size 1.5'x1.1';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 90d

 

24" (10/5/13): at 375x appeared moderately to fairly bright, elongated 5:3 NW-SE, ~45"x27".  Very unusual patchy, irregular appearance!  A brighter elongated N-S patch (or arm) is on the east end.  Also the southwest border is slightly brighter with a sharp, curving edge. This edge is more prominent at the NW end of the galaxy, where it merges with NGC 274 just northwest.

 

13.1" (9/29/84): moderately bright, fairly small, diffuse, even surface brightness.  Forms a close pair with NGC 274 1' NW.

 

JH discovered NGC 275 = h70 on 9 Oct 1828 and logged "A fine double neb; the preceding only seen by my father.  pB; S; smbM.  The f is vF; S; R; pos = 60”; dist of centres 40".  The neb join at borders."  Also see the observations using Lord Rosse's 72" under NGC 274.

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NGC 276 = ESO 474-034 = MCG -04-03-021 = IC 1591 = PGC 3054

00 52 06.5 -22 40 49

V = 14.9;  Size 1.0'x0.4';  Surf Br = 13.8;  PA = 90d

 

17.5" (10/21/95): extremely faint, very small, 20" diameter.  This is a threshold object and can just glimpse at moments.  No details visible including shape but detection repeated several times.  View hampered by mag 7.6 SAO 166640 4.0' NNE.

 

Frank Muller discovered NGC 276 = LM II-294 in 1886 with the 26" refractor at Leander McCormick Observatory and he noted a "*11, position 0” [N] Delta 3.2'."  His position is 1.2 min of RA west of ESO 474-034 = PGC 3054.  This galaxy was independently found by DeLisle Stewart on a Harvard plate, correctly placed, and catalogued as IC 1591.  But Muller's note about the star (much brighter, though, than 11th magnitude!) clearly establishes that NGC 276 = IC 1591, with the discovery priority going to Muller. Herbert Howe measured an accurate position in 1899-00 using the 20" refractor at Chamberlin Observatory (repeated in the IC 2 notes).

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NGC 277 = MCG -02-03-028 = PGC 2995

00 51 17.2 -08 35 49

V = 12.7;  Size 1.3'x1.1';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 50d

 

17.5" (10/13/90): faint, very small, round.  A mag 11 star is just off the NW edge 50" from core.

 

Heinrich d'Arrest discovered NGC 277 on 8 Oct 1864 with the 11" refractor at Copenhagen.  His position and description of the nearby mag 11 star (52" distant) is a perfect match with PGC 2995.

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NGC 278 = UGC 528 = MCG +08-02-016 = CGCG 550-016 = PGC 3051

00 52 04.3 +47 33 02

V = 10.8;  Size 2.1'x2.0';  Surf Br = 12.2

 

17.5" (10/13/90): bright, moderately large, round, bright core, stellar nucleus.  Located 3' S of mag 8.8 SAO 36725.

 

WH discovered NGC 278 = H I-159 = h71 on 11 Dec 1786 (sweep 644) and logged "vB, R, vgmbM, about 1.5' dia., about 1' south of a pretty considerable star."  On 30 Nov 1787 (sweep 786) he noted "cB, R, vgbM, about 1 1/2' dia." R.J. Mitchell, observing with LdR's 72" on 16 Oct 1855, recorded "pB, R, N, light certainly patchy, but I can distinguish no stars in it.  It is right handed spiral??  I suspect a F* cl following the nebula."

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NGC 279 = UGC 532 = MCG +00-03-19A = Mrk 558 = PGC 3055

00 52 08.9 -02 13 07

V = 12.7;  Size 1.6'x1.2';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 5d

 

17.5" (10/20/90): fairly faint, fairly small, slightly elongated, small bright core, stellar nucleus.

 

WH discovered NGC 279 = H III-439 = h73 on 1 Oct 1785 (sweep 448) and logged "vF, S, irr figure."  JH recorded it twice at Slough and the NGC position is accurate.

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NGC 280 = UGC 534 = MCG +04-03-013 = CGCG 480-017 = PGC 3076

00 52 29.9 +24 21 01

V = 13.2;  Size 1.7'x1.1';  Surf Br = 13.8;  PA = 95d

 

17.5" (10/20/90): faint, fairly small, oval 3:2 E-W, weak concentration.  A mag 13.5 star is just off the SE edge 1.0' from center.

 

WH discovered NGC 280 = H III-477 = h72 on 5 Dec 1785 (sweep 484) and logged "vF, S, R, just preceding a vF star."  This galaxy was observed with on 3 nights at Birr Castle and R.J. Mitchell recorded on 26 Oct 1854, "F object with two nuclei, possibly a spiral."  There is no double nuclei, but the spiral suggestion is correct.

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NGC 281 = IC 11 = IC 1590 = Cr 8 = LBN 616 = Sh 2-184 = Ced 3 = "Pac-Man" Nebula

00 52 48 +56 37 42

Size 35'x30'

 

18" (2/16/07): remarkable view of this detailed emission nebula/cluster at 115x and 220x.  Without a filter at 220x about three dozen stars are visible in the region of the nebula, including a number of faint stars.  At the center of the cluster (IC 1590) and nebula (NGC 281) is the multiple star Burnham 1, a striking triple with a difficult 4th component at 1.1".  A 13" pair of mag 11.5 stars lie 0.9' SW of Burnham 1.

 

The nebulosity responds dramatically to a UHC or OIII filter.  The two brightest regions have a butterfly appearance with the two lobes or wings partially divided by a curving dust lane oriented roughly N-S. A fainter detached portion is on the southeast side.  The overall dimensions extend to 15'-18'.  The two lobes are fairly similar in size and surface brightness, though the following section is larger including the southern piece.  The western section has the brightest and most sharply defined edge running along its southern side and oriented E-W.  A long straight dust lane extends along the southern boundary of both lobes and defines the sharp edge on the western lobe.  The curving central dust lane intrudes into the nebula on the south side and nearly divides the two sections, though weaker nebulosity connects the two wings.

 

17.5" (9/28/02): the bright central quadruple (ADS 719 = Burnham 1) contains a bright mag 8.6/9.1/9.8 trio at 4" and 9".  At 140x, a fainter companion (mag 10) at 1.54" separation is just visible close following the brightest member and is cleanly resolved at 324x.

 

17.5" (10/17/98): spectacular view of this detailed HII region at 100x using an OIII filter.  This 15' nebulous complex has a mushroom appearance and is separated into three main lobes apparently by dust.  The brightest and largest lobe is following a bright triple star embedded near the center (8.6/9.2/9.8 at 4" and 9").  There appears to be a much fainter detached piece off the south end of this lobe.  Preceding the triple star is a section that is noticeably elongated and irregular in surface brightness fading to the NW.  The section to the north is faintest and separated from the eastern lobe by a curving dark lane.  A dark intrusion, apparently due to obscuring dust, is visible south of the triple star.

 

13" (8/24/84): very large, fascinating nebulosity, very irregular, dark gaps between sections, five brighter stars mag 8.6-12.5 involved.  The brightest star is a very close double.

 

80mm (2/16/07): at 13x and a UHC filter, the PacMan nebula is easily visible surrounding the central star.

 

E.E. Barnard discovered NGC 281 visually on 26 Nov 1881 (Sidereal Messenger, Vol 2, p226 and AN 369, 108, 1884) with his 5-inch refractor at Nashville and recorded a "large, faint nebula, very diffuse, not less than 10' diameter."  IC 11, found around 1892 by Barnard using the 6-inch Cooke refractor at Vanderbilt Observatory in Nashville (probably relayed directly to Dreyer) was placed 30 min of RA west, but Corwin notes that the description "vF, L, triple * on np corner" points to NGC 281 and there may have been a transcription error.  IC 1590, discovered by Bigourdan on 31 Oct 1899 is a large, scattered cluster on the west side.  NGC 281 is misclassified as an open cluster in the RNGC, as Barnard made no reference to a cluster.

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NGC 282 = MCG +05-03-015 = CGCG 501-030 = PGC 3090

00 52 42.2 +30 38 21

V = 13.7;  Size 0.4'x0.3'

 

17.5" (10/17/87): fairly faint, very small, round, bright core, faint stellar nucleus.  Located 2' N of mag 8.4 SAO 54223.

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 282 = St X-3 on 13 Oct 1879 with the 31" reflector at the Marseille Observatory and recorded "F, S, R, lbM".  His position matches CGCG 501-030 = PGC 3090.

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NGC 283 = MCG -02-03-031 = PGC 3124

00 53 13.2 -13 09 50

V = 14.1;  Size 1.6'x1.0';  PA = 160d

 

24" (10/5/13): first and largest of five galaxies including four similar NGCs and much fainter MCG -02-03-03.  At 375x appeared fairly faint, moderately large, elongated 4:3 NNW-SSE, 0.4'x0.3', weak concentration.  A mag 13.5 star lies 1.6' NE.  NGC 284 and 285 follow directly east by 2.7' and 4.1' with NGC 286 5.2' NE and much fainter PGC 173072 is 1.9' NNE.  The entire quintet fits in a 5' circle.

 

17.5" (10/28/89): very faint, very small, round, bright core.  A mag 13.5 star is 1.5' NE.  First of four similar galaxies with NGC 284 3' E and NGC 285 5' E almost on a line.

 

Francis Leavenworth discovered NGC 283 = LM I-14 (along with NGCs 284, 285 and 286) on 2 Oct 1886.  He gave the same positions for NGC 283, 284 and 285 in his discovery list, although the (rough) position is good.  NGC 286 was placed 2' further N.  Since the positions were only given to the nearest minute of RA, this is reasonable and his rough position is a reasonable match with MCG -02-03-031 = PGC 3124.  Herbert Howe measured an accurate position in 1897 of NGC 282, 284, 285 and 286 using the 20" refractor at Chamberlin Observatory.

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NGC 284 = MCG -02-03-032 = PGC 3131

00 53 24.2 -13 09 33

V = 14.4;  Size 0.6'x0.5';  Surf Br = 13.2

 

24" (10/5/13): fairly faint, small, slightly elongated N-S, 20"x15".  Collinear with NGC 285 1.4' E and NGC 283 2.7' W, all three similar in brightness.  A mag 13.5 star lies 1.6' NW with MCG -02-03-032 2.4' NW.

 

17.5" (10/28/89): extremely faint, very small, round.  A mag 13.5 star is 1.6' NW.  Second of four similar galaxies with NGC 283 3' E, NGC 285 1.5' E and NGC 286 3' SE.

 

Francis Leavenworth discovered NGC 284 = LM I-15 (along with NGCs 283, 285, and 286) on 2 Oct 1886 with the 26" refractor at the Leander McCormick Observatory.  His (rough) position is a good match with MCG -02-03-032 = PGC 3131.  Herbert Howe measured an accurate position in 1897 using the 20" refractor at Chamberlin Observatory.

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NGC 285 = MCG -02-03-033 = PGC 3141

00 53 29.8 -13 09 39

V = 14.7;  Size 0.7'x0.5';  Surf Br = 13.4

 

24" (10/5/13): fairly faint, small, slightly elongated N-S, 18"x15", very small brighter nucleus.  Third in a string with similar NGC 284 1.4' W and NGC 283 4.1' W.  NGC 286 is ~3' due N.

 

17.5" (10/28/89): very faint, very small, round.  Third of four in a group and third of three almost on a line with NGC 283 and NGC 286 3.5' S.  Appears similar to NGC 284 2' W.

 

Francis Leavenworth discovered NGC 285 = LM I-16 (along with NGCs 283, 284 and 286) on 2 Oct 1886 with the 26" refractor at the Leander McCormick Observatory.  His (rough) position is a good match with MCG -02-03-033 = PGC 3141.  Herbert Howe measured an accurate position in 1897 using the 20" refractor at Chamberlin Observatory.

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NGC 286 = MCG -02-03-034 = PGC 3142

00 53 30.3 -13 06 46

V = 14.1;  Size 1.2'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.8;  PA = 175d

 

24" (10/5/13): fairly faint, fairly small, oval 4:3 N-S, 40"x30", weak concentration, small brighter nucleus.  By a slight margin, the brightest in a compact quartet of similar NGC galaxies with NGC 283/284/285 in an east-west string just 3' S.  Also PGC 173072, a much fainter galaxy, lies 3.7' SW.

 

17.5" (10/28/89): very faint, very small, slightly elongated N-S.  Fourth of four with NGC 285 3.5' S and NGC 284 4' SSW.

 

Francis Leavenworth discovered NGC 286 = LM I-17 (along with NGCs 283, 284 and 285) on 2 Oct 1886 with the 26" refractor at the Leander McCormick Observatory.  His (rough) position is a good match with MCG -02-03-034 = PGC 3142.  Herbert Howe measured an accurate position in 1897 using the 20" refractor at Chamberlin Observatory.

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NGC 287 = CGCG 501-033 = PGC 3145

00 53 28.3 +32 28 56

V = 13.8;  Size 0.8'x0.4';  PA = 15d

 

17.5" (11/25/87): fairly faint, very small, round, bright core, stellar nucleus.

 

JH discovered NGC 287 = h75 on 22 Nov 1827 and recorded "eF; S; R.  The faintest object imaginable; (night wonderfully clear)." His position matches CGCG 501-033 = PGC 3145.  This galaxy is not catalogued in the RC 3, MCG or UGC.

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NGC 288 = ESO 474-SC37

00 52 47.4 -26 35 24

V = 8.1;  Size 13.8'

 

30" (10/15/15 - OzSky): this very loose globular appears fully resolved at 303x.  There were too many stars to possibly count, but certainly several hundred were resolved including a number of relatively bright stars (brightest members mag 12.6).  The core is loosely overlaid with a dozen or so brighter stars.  A number of stars in the halo appear to be arranged in strings and arcs including one string extending towards the west.

 

18" (1/1/08): at 220x-280x, ~60 stars were resolved in an 8' diameter.  This globular has a very loose, irregular appearance with a very small brighter core containing a clump of resolved stars.  A string of stars running SSW-NNE runs through the west side of the halo with a brighter star (double) at the NNE end of this string.  A roughly parallel string also passes through the east side of the halo.  Located 1.8” SE of NGC 253 and form a nice pair in the 80mm finder at 13x.

 

18" (8/25/06): this bright globular is quite loose (concentration class 10) and well-resolved at 220x over the entire face and halo.  The outer halo is very irregular with a scraggly appearance and extends to 8'-10' in diameter.  Roughly 100 stars were resolved in total.

 

18" (8/23/03): bright but loose globular, well-resolved at 323x into 75-100 stars (difficult to count).  A number of the stars are clearly aligned in long chains.

 

17.5" (8/29/92): very bright, very large, round, ~8' diameter.  Well-resolved over entire disc into 75-100 stars mag 13-15 at White Mountains over background glow although not densely packed.  60 stars resolved previously at Fiddletown, only weakly concentrated in core.

 

13.1" (11/5/83): 30-40 stars resolved over haze.

 

8" (10/13/81): faint stars resolved across entire disc at 200x with averted, many near visual limit

 

8" (10/4/80): very large, grainy, few stars resolved at the NW and south edges, other clumps on the verge of resolution.

 

15x50 (8/25/06): easily visible in IS binoculars as a fairly large, diffuse glow.

 

WH discovered NGC 288 = H VI-20 = h74 = h2354 on 27 Oct 1785 (sweep 467) and recorded "pB, L, oval round, bM, 7 or 8' long, 4 or 5' br."  His summary description (including a 2nd observation) reads "cB, iR, 8 or 9' diameter, a great many of the stars visible, so that there can remain no doubt but that it is a cluster of vS stars."  Caroline Herschel missed this cluster two years earlier when she discovered NGC 253.  JH observed this globular both at Slough and at the Cape, where he recorded "globular cluster; bright; large; round; gradually brighter in the middle; all resolved into stars 12..16 mag; 5' diameter."

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NGC 289 = ESO 411-025 = VV 484 = AM 0050-312 = MCG -05-03-010 = PGC 3089

00 52 41.6 -31 12 28

V = 11.0;  Size 5.1'x3.6';  Surf Br = 14.0;  PA = 130d

 

17.5" (12/3/88): fairly bright, fairly large, oval NW-SE, broad concentration.  A mag 13.5 star is off the NW edge 3.2' from the center.

 

13" (9/22/84): fairly bright, oval ~E-W.  A mag 13 star is off the west edge.

 

JH discovered NGC 289 = h2355 on 27 Sep 1834 and logged "vB; L; pmE; oval; has a star 11th mag north preceding.". His position and description is accurate.

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NGC 290 = ESO 029-SC019 = Lindsay 42

00 51 15 -73 09 42

V = 12.0;  Size 0.8'

 

18" (7/10/05 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): fairly faint, very small, granular, 20" diameter, brighter core.  A faint star or knot is at the north edge (may be a compact HII region).  A pair of mag 10/11 stars 8' NE are collinear with the cluster.  LHA 115-N45 (cluster with nebulosity) lies 4.5' SE.  This SMC HII region and cluster appeared as a faint, elongated patch with a few faint stars resolved around the edges.

 

JH discovered NGC 290 = h2357 in the SMC on 11 Apr 1834 and simply logged "eF".  His position (single sweep) is about 35" N of the cluster.

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NGC 291 = MCG -02-03-035 = PGC 3140

00 53 29.8 -08 46 04

V = 13.7;  Size 0.9'x0.5';  Surf Br = 12.7;  PA = 45d

 

17.5" (10/5/91): faint, fairly small, elongated 2:1 SW-NE, very thin extensions.  Located 12' W of 21 Ceti (V = 6.2) at the edge of 220x field.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 291 = m 17 on 27 Sep 1864 with Lassell's 48" on Malta and recorded "vF, vS, lE, alm stellar."  His position is accurate.

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NGC 292 = ESO 029-021 = Small Magellanic Cloud = PGC 3085

00 52 38 -72 48 00

V = 2.3;  Size 316.2'x186.2';  Surf Br = 14.0;  PA = 45d

 

18": This number actually refers to the entire Small Magellanic Cloud, a prominent naked-eye "cloud" with 47 Tuc off to one side.  Over a couple of nights, I went through the most prominent clusters and nebulae with the 18" at Magellan, although it was first viewed at Bargo.

 

Amerigo Vespucci was the first northern hemisphere explorer to see the SMC in 1501, 20 years earlier than Magellan according to a 1990 article by Dekker.

 

John Herschel (h2356) has two entries: "I should consider this to be about the main body of the Nubecula Minor, which is here fairly resolved into excessively minute stars, which are however certainly seen with the left eye."  On a later sweep he noted: "Hereabouts seems to be placed the main body of the Nubecula Minor which is a Faint, Rich, Large Cluster of very small stars (12..18) filling many fields, and broken up into many knots, groups, and straggling branches. But the whole is clearly resolved into stars."

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NGC 293 = MCG -01-03-030 = PGC 3195

00 54 16.0 -07 14 08

V = 13.9;  Size 1.1'x0.9';  Surf Br = 13.7;  PA = 10d

 

17.5" (10/13/90): extremely faint, very small, round, very low surface brightness.  A mag 14.5 star is off the SE end 1.1' from center.  Forms a pair with NGC 298 11' SE.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 293 = m 18 on 27 Sep 1864 with Lassell's 48" on Malta and recorded "vF, S."  His position is accurate.

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NGC 294 = ESO 029-SC022 = Lindsay 47

00 53 05 -73 22 48

V = 12.7;  Size 0.8'

 

30" (11/6/10 - Coonabarabran, 264x): fairly bright, fairly small, round, 45"-50" diameter, contains a bright core.  The halo has a smooth moderately high surface brightness but there were no resolved stars.  Four mag 12-13 stars forming a parallelogram are centered 4.5' NW, but there are no bright stars in the immediately field.  Bruck 67, a slightly smaller irregular glow with a low surface brightness, lies 2.2' SW.  NGC 267 lies 23' WNW.

 

James Dunlop discovered NGC 294 = D 5 in 1826 with his 9" reflector and reported "a small faint nebula, about 10 or 12 arcseconds diameter."  His position is 5' due north ESO 029-022.  JH first observed this nebula (NGC 294 =h2358) on 11 Apr 1834, noting "eF.  In a sweep below the Pole."  He added a note later that "This obs give 47 -- instead of 46 -- for the min of RA.  The earlier minute preferred."  On a later sweep, he recorded the RA minute as 46, which was used in the GC and NGC but this is 1.0 min too far west.  JH referenced D 5 as the discovery, though D 6 described as "a faint nebula, about 20" diameter" was placed only 5' SE, and may be a duplicate observation (D 5 = D 6).  The Hodge-Wright Atlas labels this object as Lindsay 47, though Table 6 lists NGC 294 = L47?

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NGC 295 = CGCG 501-056 = PGC 3555

00 59 32.3 +31 47 53

Size 0.55'x0.5'

 

New identification – needs an observation.

 

Ralph Copeland discovered NGC 295 on 26 Oct 1872 while observing the field he assumed was H II 214 (NGC 296).  He found two nebulae and wrote, "(GC) 167 [NGC 296] F, R, *10m (yellow) Pos 29.6 deg, Dist 123.1".  Nova [NGC 295], S, R, and with a * or another neb 10" n. Pos from [296] 242.0 deg, Dist 314.6" or 21.6 seconds p, 147.6" s."  Dreyer used WH's (inaccurate) position for NGC 296 to compute a position for the "nova" GC 5123 (future NGC 296) in the GC Supplement and NGC.

 

There is nothing at Copeland's offset from NGC 296.  A 10th magnitude star is near NGC 296 but it's not at the reported position angle and separation, so it's clear Copeland misidentified the field and Corwin considered NGC 295 as lost.  Confusing the situation further, the computed position for NGC 295 lands on NGC 296!  As a result, all modern catalogues label NGC 296 as NGC 295 and UGC 562 is misidentified as NGC 296.

 

Recently (2016) Yann Pothier was able to identify the correct field about 1” ENE, surrounding mag 7.8 HD 5801 = SAO 54330.  This star is 115" distant in PA 32” from CGCG 501-058, so Copeland took this galaxy as NGC 296.  The second object is CGCG 501-056, located 288" in PA 248” (southwest) from CGCG 501-058.  Although Copeland discovered both galaxies, NGC 295 applies to CGCG 501-056 and CGCG 501-058 is left without an NGC number.

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NGC 296 = (R)NGC 295 = UGC 562 = MCG +05-03-024 = CGCG 501-042 = PGC 3260

00 55 07.6 +31 32 32

V = 12.6;  Size 2.0'x0.8';  Surf Br = 13.0;  PA = 164d

 

17.5" (11/25/87): fairly faint, moderately large, very elongated NNW-SSE, bright core.  Located just 30" W of a mag 10 star.  Brightest in a group of four with UGC 565 = (R)NGC 296 9' NNE and UGC 567 13' NNE.

 

WH discovered NGC 296 = H II-214 on 12 Sep 1784 (sweep 268) and logged "F, E, preceding a bright star.  Appears almost like a brush issuing from the star, but does not join it by a good deal."  Although his RA was 20 seconds too large and Dec 1' too far north, it is clear from the description that NGC 296 = UGC 562.

 

Dreyer used WH's (poor) position to compute the position of NGC 295, found by Ralph Copeland.  See NGC 295 for the story on this number.  Coincidentally, the computed position for NGC 295 lands on NGC 296!  As a result UGC, CGCG, PGC and RNGC misidentify NGC 296 as NGC 295.  In addition, RNGC misidentifies UGC 565 as NGC 296.

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NGC 297 = 2MASX J00545892-0720591 = PGC 3243

00 54 58.9 -07 20 59

Size 0.3'x0.3'

 

18" (11/22/03): this extremely faint and tiny galaxy was a marginal object at 257x, barely glimpsed several times as a fleeting quasi-stellar spot just 1.3' SW of NGC 298.  If this observation is valid, this is one of the faintest NGC galaxies I've recorded.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 297 = m 19 on 27 Sep 1864 with Lassell's 48" on Malta and simply noted "eF".  His position is 2 sec of RA west and 1' S of much brighter m 20 = NGC 298, discovered at the same time.  It's possible that Marth confused a close, faint double situated 2' S of NGC 298 as a nebula.  But 1.3' SW of NGC 298 at 00 54 58.9 -07 20 59 (2000) is a nearly stellar galaxy, described here, which is a more likely candidate.  In any case, NGC 297 is not identical to NGC 298 as stated in the RNGC.  See Corwin's notes.

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NGC 298 = MCG -01-03-033 = PGC 3250

00 55 02.2 -07 20 00

V = 12.7;  Size 1.7'x0.6';  Surf Br = 12.6;  PA = 87d

 

18" (11/22/03): faint, fairly small, elongated 2:1 E-W, 1.0'x0.5', weak concentration.  Located 11' W of a mag 6 star that I kept outside the field.  NGC 297 is an extremely difficult companion just 1.3' SW.

 

17.5" (10/13/90): very faint, very small, elongated 3:2 E-W.  Forms a pair with NGC 293 11' NW.  Located 11' W of mag 5.9 SAO 129032 in field!

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 298 = m 20 (along with NGC 297) on 27 Sep 1864 using Lassell's 48" reflector on Malta.  His position is accurate.

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NGC 299 = ESO 051-SC005 = Kron 32 = Lindsay 49

00 53 24.8 -72 11 47

V = 11.7;  Size 0.9'

 

18" (7/11/05) - Magellan Observatory, Australia): at 228x appeared fairly bright, fairly small, round, 50" diameter with a broad weak concentration.  Forms a pair with NGC 306 5' SE.

 

18" (7/9/02 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): at 128x, this SMC cluster appeared as a small, round, bright knot, ~45" diameter. Forms the SE vertex of an obtuse triangle with two mag 11 stars ~3.5' NNE and 4' W.  Forms a trio with NGC 306 4.7' SE and Kron 30 3.8' W.  Kron 30 appeared as just a hazy patch, ~1.5' diameter with a few mag 13/14 stars superimposed or resolved.

 

18" (7/6/02 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): this is the first of two small knots of stars (the other being NGC 306) located 26' W of NGC 346.  At 171x, it appeared as a small glowing spot, ~40" in diameter, though standing out fairly well in the field.  Embedded within a scattered group of brighter stars in the field.  Forms a pair with NGC 306 4.7' SE.  The second edition Uranometria 2000.0 and DSFG incorrectly list both objects twice - as open clusters and bright nebulae.

 

JH discovered NGC 299 = h2360 on 12 Aug 1834 and recorded this SMC cluster as "F; vS; R; glbM; r; 15"."  His fourth and final record reads "pB, vS, R, 12", resolvable. Situated at the upper limit of the nubecula which here is starry. At the other it is nebulous."

 

This cluster is listed as a Bright Nebula in the RNGC, and this classification was copied into the NGC 2000.0 and first edition of the Uranometria 2000.0.

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NGC 300 = ESO 295-020 = MCG -06-03-005 = PGC 3238

00 54 53.4 -37 41 00

V = 8.1;  Size 21.9'x15.5';  Surf Br = 14.3;  PA = 111d

 

13.1" (9/22/84): fairly bright, fairly large, oval 3:2 WNW-ESE, very diffuse, bright stellar nucleus.  There is a hint of structure though the galaxy has a low surface brightness and at my observing location of +38.5” latitude was viewed at a low elevation (13” at best).  This nearby galaxy is located at a distance of 6 million light years in the Sculptor group, and may be physically paired with NGC 55.

 

15x50 IS binoculars: (11/18/06): visible in binoculars as a relatively large, very low surface brightness hazy region, roughly 15' in size.  A star is superimposed on the SW side.

 

James Dunlop discovered NGC 300 = D 530 = h2359 on 5 Aug 1826 with his 9" reflector and described "a pretty large faint nebula, irregular round figure, 6' or 7' diameter, easily resolvable into exceedingly minute stars, with four or five stars of more considerable magnitude; slight compression of stars to the centre." There are several superimposed Milky Way stars, although the resolution towards the center was spurious, of course.  His position is 8' E of center and JH (h2359) gave an uncertain identification as D 530 in his Cape catalogue but removed it in the GC and it is missing in the NGC.

 

JH observed the galaxy on 3 occasions. On the first sweep (1 Sep 1834) he described it as "B; vL; vgpmbM; vmE; irregular figure; 8' to 10' long, 3' or 4' broad; has subordinate nuclei."  His sketch (plate V, figure 10) includes the nucleus and two or three additional regions of nebulosity. Three nights later, he noted it as "faint, very large, very gradually brighter towards the middle; 4' long; 2' broad; has another nebula attached." He noted 10.4' to the west a "very faint nebula attached to the large one, or a subordinate nucleus." On 30 Nov 1837 he wrote: "A large oval nebula, containing three stars." He had tentatively identified it with Dunlop 530, but noted: "Mr. Dunlop's neb 530 is described by him as easily resolvable into very minute stars. Its identity with [NGC 300] is therefore very doubtful."

 

Joseph Turner sketched NGC 300 using the 48" Great Melbourne Telescope in December 1875 (http://www.docdb.net/history/texts/1885osngmt________e/lithograph_m_1_3.php) and appears to show a bright HII complex on the east side.  He commented "The present aspect of nebula and position of stars agrees very fairly with Herschel's sketch. There is a slight haze to-night, the day having been very hot. To see this object properly would require a perfectly clear sky; still, I feel convinced that my sketch represents very accurately its present aspect. There is not the least appearance or even suspicion of sparkling in the denser portions; it seems to be purely nebulous matter throughout. It is so faint that the eye has to be carefully protected from all extraneous light for some time before it can be distinctly seen."

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NGC 301 = PGC 3345

00 56 18.3 -10 40 25

V = 14.6;  Size 0.7'x0.5';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 70d

 

17.5" (10/28/89): very faint, very small, round.  Situated between two mag 9/9.5 stars with a separation of 15'.

 

Frank Muller discovered NGC 301 = LM I-18 in 1886 with the 26-inch refractor at Leander McCormick Observatory.  His rough position (nearest minute of RA) is fortunately just 0.2 tmin W of PGC 3345 and his note that a *8 precedes by 30" applies (though the star is NW) . But the RNGC still managed to identify a plate defect as NGC 301!  He also placed NGC 302 (List I-19)  just 1' ENE, but there is only a star there.

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NGC 302

00 56 19.1 -10 40 42

 

=* 1.8' ENE NGC 301, Corwin.

 

Frank Muller discovered NGC 302 = LM I-19 in 1886 and placed 1.0' ENE (PA 75”) of NGC 301.  The only object close to this position is a faint star.  RNGC misidentifies NGC 302 with PGC 3311, an edge-on galaxy  6' WNW of NGC 301. This error was followed by PGC and others sources (such as Megastar) based on the PGC.  See Corwin's notes.

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NGC 303 = PGC 3240

00 54 54.7 -16 39 18

V = 15.3;  Size 0.7'x0.2';  Surf Br = 13.0;  PA = 158d

 

17.5" (10/21/95): extremely faint, very small, round, 20" diameter, low surface brightness with just a weak concentration.  Can almost hold steadily with averted vision once identified on my finder chart.

 

Francis Leavenworth discovered NGC 303 = LM I-20 in 1886 with the 26" refractor at the Leander McCormick Observatory.  His position is 1' N of PGC 03240.  Herbert Howe measured an accurate position in 1898-99 using the 20" refractor at Chamberlin Observatory (repeated in the IC 2 notes) and he noted the PA was 160”.

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NGC 304 = UGC 573 = MCG +04-03-018 = CGCG 480-023 = PGC 3326

00 56 06.0 +24 07 37

V = 13.0;  Size 1.1'x0.7';  Surf Br = 12.6;  PA = 175d

 

17.5" (10/20/90): fairly faint, very small, elongated 3:2 NNW-SSE, small very bright core.  Forms pair with CGCG 480-021 4' WNW.

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 304 = St IX-2 on 23 Oct 1878 with the 31" reflector at the Marseille Observatory .  His position is accurate.

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NGC 305

00 56 20.9 +12 03 54

 

17.5" (9/26/92): small group of 7 stars in 3' diameter.  Includes a mag 9.5 star.  A small equilateral triangle of three mag 11-12 stars is just south.  Unimpressive but fairly distinctive in a very sparse field.  RNGC, PGC and RC 3 incorrectly equate NGC 305 with the galaxy UGC 571.

 

JH discovered NGC 305 = h76 on 17 Oct 1825 as "a small cluster of p closely scattered stars".  At Herschel's position is a small unimpressive asterism (not a cluster). MCG, RNGC and RC3 misidentify the galaxy UGC 571 as NGC 305.   HyperLeda now shows NGC 305 as stellar (or stars) and NED correctly identifies the number as "six galactic stars".   Discussed in Malcolm Thomson's "Catalogue Corrections" and Corwin's notes.

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NGC 306 = ESO 029-SC023 = Kron 33 = Lindsay 50

00 54 14.7 -72 14 30

Size 1.1'

 

18" (7/11/05 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): slightly fainter of a pair with NGC 299 5' NW.  Appeared fairly faint, fairly small, round, 40" diameter, smooth surface brightness, no resolution.  Two mag 12 stars lie 2' E and SE.

 

18" (7/9/02 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): NGC 306 is a slightly smaller and fainter companion of NGC 299, situated 4.7' NW.  At 128x it appeared small, round, fairly faint, ~35" diameter with no sign of resolution. Forms the west vertex of a small triangle with two mag 12 stars ~2' SE and a 2' E.

 

18" (7/6/02 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): this is a fainter of a pair of small SMC clusters with NGC 299 and located 4.7' SE of NGC 299.  At 171x it was just a small, hazy compact knot, ~30" in diameter, with no resolution and fairly even surface brightness to the edge.  A mag 12 star is ~2' SE.  In the same low power field with the impressive NGC 346 located 22' ENE.

 

JH discovered NGC 306 = h2361 in the SMC on 4 Oct 1836 and recorded "an extremely small *faint* knot of the Nubec. Min. 15" diameter."  His position is accurate.

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NGC 307 = UGC 584 = MCG +00-03-035 = CGCG 384-039 = LGG 013-005 = PGC 3367

00 56 32.5 -01 46 19

V = 12.8;  Size 1.6'x0.7';  Surf Br = 12.8;  PA = 85d

 

18" (10/16/09): at 285x appeared fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 5:2 E-W, 0.8'x0.3', sharply concentrated with a very small bright core.  This galaxy is in the foreground of Abell Galaxy Cluster 119, which lies 1/2 degree to the north.

 

17.5" (10/8/88): faint, very small, oval 3:2 E-W, small bright core.  A mag 15.5 star (NGC 308) is 1' SSE.  The center of  AGC 119 lies 30' N.

 

JH discovered NGC 307 = h77 on 6 Sep 1831 and logged "pF; S; E; 15"."  His position matches UGC 584 = PGC 3367.  This galaxy is located just south of the central region of AGC 119 but the redshift is only z = .013, which is 3 times less than the other cluster members so it is very unlikely to be a member.

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NGC 308

00 56 34.3 -01 47 03

 

=*, Corwin.

 

Sir Robert Ball discovered NGC 308 on 31 Dec 1866 while observing the field of NGC 307.  He recorded a faint "Nova" in PA 147” (SE) at a separation of 60" (measured at 52" on 23 Oct 1876).  In this position (51" separation) is a 15th magnitude star that Ball apparently mistook for a very small nebulous object.  The RNGC misidentifies PGC 3354, an extremely faint galaxy 3' SSW of NGC 307, as NGC 308.  I listed this RNGC error in my RNGC Corrections #3.  See Corwin's notes for more.

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NGC 309 = MCG -02-03-050 = Holm 27a = PGC 3377

00 56 42.8 -09 54 50

V = 11.9;  Size 3.0'x2.5';  Surf Br = 14.0;  PA = 175d

 

17.5" (10/28/89): fairly faint, fairly large, slightly elongated ~E-W, weak concentration.  A mag 12.5 star is off the NNE edge 2.1' from center.  A mag 15 star is off the west edge.

 

8" (10/13/81): very faint, slightly elongated, even surface brightness.

 

At a redshift distance of ~260 million light years, NGC 309 is one of the largest and most luminous spiral galaxies known.

 

Wilhelm Tempel discovered NGC 309 = T I-4 in 1876 with an 11" refractor at the Arcetri Observatory.  His position is 10 sec of RA west and 2' S of MCG -02-03-050 = PGC 3377.  Bigourdan measured an accurate position on 26 Oct 1897 as well as Howe in 1898-99 using the 20" refractor at Chamberlin Observatory.

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NGC 310

00 56 48.1 -01 45 58

 

=*, Corwin and Gottlieb.

 

Sir Robert Ball discovered NGC 310 on 31 Dec 1866 while observing the field of NGC 307.  His placed this object, with respect to NGC 307, at 225" separation in PA 81”.  The offset was measured again on 23 Oct 1876 as 239" in PA 84.8”.  At this position (233" in PA 85”) is a single mag 15.3 star that Harold Corwin identifies as NGC 310.

 

The RNGC and PGC misidentify LEDA 3325895 = PGC 3396 as NGC 310.  This extremely faint galaxy is situated 303" in PA 91” of NGC 307.  As the single star was measured twice and is a much closer fit, this identification is very unlikely.  See Corwin's identification notes under NGC 308.

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NGC 311 = UGC 592 = MCG +05-03-028 = CGCG 501-049 = PGC 3434

00 57 32.7 +30 16 51

V = 13.0;  Size 1.5'x0.8';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 120d

 

17.5" (10/17/87): fairly faint, small, round, small bright core, faint stellar nucleus.  First of three on line and equally spaced with NGC 315 6' NE and NGC 316 12' NE.

 

JH discovered NGC 311 = h78 on 15 Sep 1828 while observing H II-210 = NGC 313, and recorded "F, vS; R; bM; 6".  The next sweep he logged "pB; R; gbM; 10"."

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NGC 312 = ESO 151-006 = PGC 3343

00 56 15.6 -52 46 58

V = 12.4;  Size 1.4'x1.1';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 62d

 

30" (10/13/15 - OzSky): at 394x; bright, fairly small, high surface brightness, 40"x30", sharply concentration with an intense core.  The halo is extended 4:3 or 5:4 WSW-ESE.  A mag 11.3 star lies 2.4' W. NGC 312 is the furthest north in a group of 8 galaxies in a 25' string to the south.  The galaxies share a common redshift of z = .026, implying a distance of ~350 million l.y.  The closest companion is ESO 161-005 3' SSW, which appeared fairly faint to moderately bright, elongated at least 2:1 N-S, sharply concentrated with a small bright core and faint extensions ~40"x20".  NGC 328 lies 10.6' SE and NGC 323 is 12' SSW.

 

JH discovered NGC 312 = h2363 on 5 Sep 1836 and noted "vF, S, R".  On a later sweep he logged "F, S, R, 15", follows a star 12th mag on same parallel".  The mag 12 star mentioned in the description is 2.5' W.  His mean position from 2 observations is accurate.

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NGC 313 = Holm 28c

00 57 45.7 +30 21 56

 

=** 1' NW of core of NGC 314, Carlson and de Vaucouleurs. =***, Corwin

 

Bindon Stoney discovered NGC 313, along with NGC 316, on 29 Nov 1850 using Lord Rosse's 72".  Stoney's offset of 1' NW of NGC 315 points directly to a double star (clearly resolved on the DSS) at 00 57 45.7 +30 21 56 (2000) - position on the southern star.  The sketch in the 1861 publication shows two stars encased in a small nebula (labeled as Gamma), but in the 1880 publication there are only two stars.

 

Dorothy Carlson (in her 1940 NGC Correction paper) and Harold Corwin identify this double star (the northern component itself is a very close double, so technically a triple) as NGC 313.

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NGC 314 = ESO 411-032 = MCG -05-03-015 = PGC 3395

00 56 52.3 -31 57 48

V = 13.2;  Size 1.0'x0.8';  Surf Br = 12.7;  PA = 168d

 

17.5" (12/3/88): faint, very small, round, weak concentration.  A mag 12 star is 2.1' ESE of center.

 

JH discovered NGC 314 = h2362 on 27 Sep 1834 and recorded "F, eS, R, sbM to a stellar nucleus." On a later sweep he logged "eeF, vS; almost doubtful whether really the object looked for.  Has a pB star following 2' distant. (N.B. The coincidence of the places destroys this doubt)."  His mean position is accurate.

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NGC 315 = UGC 597 = MCG +05-03-031 = CGCG 501-052 = Holm 28a = PGC 3455

00 57 48.8 +30 21 09

V = 11.2;  Size 3.2'x2.0';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 40d

 

17.5" (10/17/87): fairly bright, fairly small, oval 3:2 ~SW-NE, bright core, stellar nucleus.  Located 3.5' NW of mag 8.5 SAO 54298.  Brightest of three and at midpoint connecting NGC 311 6' SW and NGC 318 6' NE.  A close faint double star is 1' NW of center = NGC 313.

 

WH discovered NGC 315 = H II-210 = h79 on 11 Sep 1784 (sweep 266) and noted "F, pL, unequally bright, resolvable, near a pB star."  JH observed this nebula on 3 sweeps and NGC 311 was also found.  When the field was observed using Lord Rosse's 72", NGC 318 was also discovered, though a nearby single star (NGC 316) and a double star (NGC 313) were mistaken as nebulous.

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NGC 316 = Holm 28b

00 57 52.4 +30 21 16

 

=* 47" following NGC 315, Gottlieb.  =**, de Vaucouleurs.

 

Bindon Stoney discovered NGC 316, along with GC 5059 = NGC 313, on 29 Nov 1850 at Birr Castle.  He "suspected .. a faint nebula (labeled Delta) 44" ENE of the center of NGC 315, but at this offset  is a single star (noted as such in the 1855 observation published in 1861).  JH repeated it was a star in the GC notes but Dreyer still added it to the GC Supplement.

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NGC 317 = UGC 594 = MCG +07-03-010 = CGCG 536-013 = V Zw 42 = KTG 2B = PGC 3442

00 57 40.4 +43 47 32

V = 13.9;  Size 1.1'x0.5';  Surf Br = 12.3;  PA = 105d

 

24" (10/5/13): this is the larger component of a close double system with NGC 317A = UGC 593 just 35" NNW (between centers).  At 375x appeared fairly faint, very elongated WNW-ESE, ~45"x15", weak concentration, slightly brighter core.  Two mag 11.5/13.8 stars lie 1' W.  NGC 317A appeared fairly faint to moderately bright, small, fairly high surface brightness (core region) ~15".  With averted vision, the core is surrounded by a thin, very low surface brightness halo increasing the diameter to 25". CGCG 536-014 lies 5.5' S, forming the isolated triplet KTG 2.

 

17.5" (8/29/92): the SSE component of this double galaxy appeared very faint, very small, round, low even surface brightness.  A mag 11 star is 1' W and a faint mag 14 star is 1' SW, forming a wide 30" double.  The NNW component is the slightly brighter of the pair and appears faint, very small, very small bright core, stellar nucleus. On the POSS the SSE galaxy is the brighter component.  MCG +07-03-011 lies 6' S.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 317 = Sw II-11 on 1 Oct 1885 with the 16" refractor at Warner Observatory.  His position is 28 sec of RA east and 1' N of PGC 3442.  He mentions a "Double star close following", but he confused the directions as the pair of stars is close preceding.  This galaxy is identified as NGC 317A in the MCG as the close pair are given separate designations.

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NGC 318 = CGCG 501-054 = PGC 3465

00 58 05.2 +30 25 32

V = 14.2;  Size 0.5'x0.3';  PA = 15d

 

17.5" (10/17/87): very faint, very small, round, weak concentration.  A mag 13.5 is off the NW edge 0.9' from the center.  Located 5.6' NE of NGC 315 and the third of three in a group.

 

Bindon Stoney discovered NGC 318 = St XII-7 using Lord Rosse's 72" on the 3 Nov 1855 observation (only) of NGC 315 and noted as "F, S, R."  It is placed accurately on the sketch in line with NGC 311 and 315.  ƒdouard Stephan independently found this galaxy on 6 Nov 1882 and listed it as new in his 12th discovery list, missing the earlier GC entry.  Stephan's position is accurate.

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NGC 319 = ESO 243-013 = MCG -07-03-001 = PGC 3398

00 56 57.5 -43 50 20

V = 13.3;  Size 1.0'x0.8';  Surf Br = 13.0;  PA = 35d

 

30" (10/13/15 - OzSky): at 394x; moderately bright, fairly small, slightly elongated SSW-NNE, 0.6'x0.5', contains a very small brighter nucleus.  A mag 15.4 star is 33" SW of center and a mag 13 star is 2.3' SSE.  Forms a pair NGC 322 7.1' NNE.

 

24" (10/5/13): at 225x appeared faint to fairly faint, small, slightly elongated ~N-S, 20"x15".  NGC 322 lies 7' NNE.  Despite an elevation of only 10”, both galaxies were easily seen.

 

JH discovered NGC 319 = h4007, along with NGC 322, on 5 Sep 1834 and remarked "eF; vS; R; lbM."  His CGH position has a typo of 23h instead of 00h in RA, but he corrected this mistake in his errata list at the end.

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NGC 320 = ESO 541-003 = MCG -04-03-037 = PGC 3510

00 58 46.5 -20 50 24

V = 13.5;  Size 0.9'x0.5';  Surf Br = 12.4;  PA = 159d

 

17.5" (11/6/93): faint, very small, round, very small bright core, very faint stellar nucleus, diffuse slightly elongated halo.  A mag 12 star is 1.5' NNW.  Located 15' SE of mag 7.8 SAO 166710.

 

Francis Leavenworth discovered NGC 320 = LM II-295 in 1886 with a 26" refractor at the Leander McCormick Observatory.  There is nothing at his position but 1.4 tmin of RA east is ESO 541-003 and his published position angle (160”) matches this galaxy. Herbert Howe measured an accurate position in 1899-00 using the 20" refractor at Chamberlin Observatory (repeated in the IC 2 notes).

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NGC 321 = MCG -01-03-043 = PGC 3443

00 57 39.1 -05 05 11

V = 14.8;  Size 0.4'x0.4';  Surf Br = 12.8

 

24" (12/1/13): faint, very small, round, 15" diameter.  Easily visible 1.5' SE of a mag 12.5 star and 5.7' WSW of NGC 329 in a group.

 

17.5" (12/11/99): very faint, very small, round, 15" diameter.  The faintest of 5 galaxies in the field (NGC 325 = MCG -01-03-045 not seen in very soft seeing) including NGC 327 4.8' SE, MCG -01-03-041 5.1' NNW and NGC 329 5.7' WNW.  Located 1.4' SE of a mag 12 star.

 

13.1" (7/12/86): very faint, small, round.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 321 = m 21 (along with NGCs 325, 327 and 329) on 27 Sep 1864 using Lassell's 48" on Malta.  His description simply reads "eF, vS", but his position matches MCG -01-03-043.  Nevertheless, the RNGC, MCG, RC3 and others misidentify MCG -01-03-041 (located 5' further N) as NGC 321.  Furthermore, MCG -01-03-043 is misidentified as NGC 325 in RNGC, MCG, PGC and other sources.  MCG -01-03-041 was visible in my 13" so it is odd that Marth did not notice this galaxy. 

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NGC 322 = ESO 243-015 = AM 0054-435 = MCG -07-03-003 = PGC 3412

00 57 10.0 -43 43 39

V = 13.3;  Size 1.1'x0.6';  Surf Br = 12.7;  PA = 153d

 

30" (10/13/15 - OzSky): at 394x; moderately bright and large, very elongated 7:2 NNW-SSE, 0.9'x0.25', contains a very small bright nucleus.  PGC 95427, an extremely faint companion at the west edge [13" from center], was barely distinguishable from a very dim star.  NGC 319 lies 7.1' SSW.

 

24" (10/5/13): fairly faint, fairly small, oval 5:3 NNW-SSE, 25"x15".  A mag 13 star lies 1.4' SW.  Brighter of a pair with NGC 319 7' SSW.

 

JH discovered NGC 322 = h4007, along with NGC 319, on 5 Sep 1834, and recorded "vF; vS; R; lbM; follows 3 stars 12, 13 and 14m."  His position is 6 sec of RA east and 1' south of ESO 243-015 = PGC 3412 (after corrected for a 1 hour typo in the Cape catalogue).

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NGC 323 = ESO 151-009 = PGC 3374

00 56 41.6 -52 58 34

V = 12.6;  Size 1.0'x1.0';  Surf Br = 12.6;  PA = 178d

 

30" (10/13/15 - OzSky): at 394x; fairly bright, fairly small, round, high surface brightness, 40" diameter, very small bright core.  In a group of galaxies (8 recorded in a 25' string N-S) with NGC 328 4' NE and ESO 151-010 4.7' N.  Forms a very close pair with PGC 95384 1.0' S.  The close companion (not catalogued in Megastar) is faint, very small, slightly elongated, 15"x10", low surface brightness.

 

ESO 151-012, situated 7.3' SSE, appeared fairly bright, moderately large, elongated 2:1 WNW-ESE, ~50"x25", sharply concentrated with a bright core and stellar nucleus.  A mag 15 star is 1.5' SE and a mag 15.5 star is 1' N.  ESO 151-012 is located 10' NE of mag 6.6 HD 5474 and I'm surprised that John Herschel missed it.  Just 2' E of the bright star is ESO 151-004.  This galaxy appeared fairly faint to moderately bright, very elongated 7:2 NNW-SSE, contains a slightly brighter elongated core.  A mag 14.5-15 star is at the south tip, 45" from center.  The nearby mag 6.6 star detracts from the view.

 

JH discovered NGC 323 = h2365 on 3 Oct 1834 and recorded "vF, S, R. The RA may err several seconds. The PD also is not very good." On a much later sweep he recorded "Viewed; found exactly in the place of No 29, Sweep 498 [previous description] pB, S, R, bM, 15 arcseconds, there is also another [NGC 328], pos = 36.8 degrees [NE], delta in PD = 4'."  JH's RA is 0.1 tmin too large.

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NGC 324 = ESO 295-025 = MCG -07-03-002 = PGC 3416

00 57 14.7 -40 57 34

V = 12.9;  Size 1.4'x0.5';  Surf Br = 12.3;  PA = 95d

 

Southern object (not observed).

 

JH discovered NGC 324 = h2364 on 23 Oct 1835 and recorded "F, S, Stellar, the bad definition of a south-easter prevents certainty, but I think it is not a star."  There is nothing at his position, but exactly 30' S is ESO 295-G25 = PGC 3416, a galaxy that fits Herschel's description.  ESO, MCG and RC3 identify this galaxy as NGC 324.  RNGC misidentifies IC 1609 as NGC 324, and as a further complication gives incorrect coordinates for IC 1609.  Nothing exists at the RNGC position on the POSS, but the photographic description clearly applies to IC 1609.  Listed in RNGC Corrections #6.

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NGC 325 = MCG -01-03-045 = FGC 111 = PGC 3454

00 57 47.8 -05 06 45

V = 14.6;  Size 1.5'x0.2';  PA = 90d

 

24" (12/22/14): at 260x; very faint, small, elongated 2:1 E-W, ~20"x10".  Occasionally a mag 16.5 star appeared to be involved [DSS shows a very faint star just north of the core].  Situated 2.1' NW of NGC 327.

 

17.5" (11/6/93): only highly suspected several times as an extremely faint and small glow situated 2.1' NW of NGC 327.  This galaxy is a very low surface brightness edge-on in a group with NGC 329 4' NE and NGC 321 2.7' NW.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 325 = m 22 on 27 Sep 1864 with Lassell's 48" on Malta and noted "vF, vS."  His position matches MCG -01-03-045 = PGC 3454, an extremely faint edge-on in a quartet.

 

RNGC and MCG misidentify NGC 321 = MCG -01-03-043 as NGC 325.  RC3 doesn't label MCG -01-03-045 as NGC 325.  The "Deep Sky Field Guide" (version 1) mentions a "faint, anonymous galaxy 2' NW" of NGC 327 and this is probably NGC 321.  I find it odd that Marth described NGC 325 as "vF", while NGC 321, which is noticeably brighter, is described as "eF".

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NGC 326 = UGC 601 = MCG +04-03-025 = CGCG 480-026 = IV Zw 35 = PGC 3482

00 58 22.7 +26 51 56

V = 13.2;  Size 1.4'x1.4';  Surf Br = 14.0

 

17.5" (10/20/90): faint, small, round, weak concentration.  A mag 13 star is 1.2' W.  Situated at the center of an isosceles triangle consisting mag 7.2 SAO 74405 5' SSE, mag 8.5 SAO 74400 5' NW (nice close double star) and mag 9 74409 3.6' E.

 

Heinrich d'Arrest discovered NGC 326 on 24 Aug 1865 with the 11" refractor at Copenhagen.  His position (measured on 2 nights) matches UGC 601 = PGC 3482 and he accurately measured the mag 9-10 star that follows by 15.5 seconds of time and 26" south.   MCG misidentifies +04-03-024 (a much fainter galaxy to the NW) as NGC 326, instead of +04-03-025.  NGC 326 has a double nucleus and appears to be a close pair of merged compacts in a common halo.

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NGC 327 = MCG -01-03-047 = Holm 30a = PGC 3462

00 57 55.2 -05 07 50

V = 13.3;  Size 1.6'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 175d

 

24" (12/1/13): at 375x appeared moderately bright and large, very elongated 3:1 N-S, ~48"x15", fairly high even surface brightness with only a weak concentration.  Brightest in a small group with NGC 329 3.9' NNE and NGC 321 4.8' NW.

 

13.1" (7/12/86): faint, small, slightly elongated, weak concentration.  Second of three with similar NGC 329 3.8' NNE and MCG -01-03-041 9' NW.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 327 = m 23 (along with NGC 321, NGC 325 and NGC 329) on 27 Sep 1864 with Lassell's 48" on Malta and recorded "F, E."  His position and description is appropriate.

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NGC 328 = ESO 151-013 = PGC 3399

00 56 57.4 -52 55 26

V = 13.3;  Size 2.7'x0.5';  Surf Br = 13.6;  PA = 100d

 

30" (10/13/15 - OzSky): at 394x; moderately to fairly bright, moderately large, very elongated 4:1 WNW-ESE, 1.4'x0.35', contains a slightly bulging core that is only weakly concentrated.  In a group of 8 galaxies in a 24' string N-S including NGC 323 4' SW and ESO 151-010  2.6' NW.  The ESO galaxy (B = 15.7) appeared fairly faint, very small, slightly elongated WSW-ENE, 15"x10".

 

JH discovered NGC 328 = h2366 on 5 Sep 1836 and logged "vF, lE, vgbM.".  His position is 0.1 min of RA east and 1' north of ESO 151-013 = PGC 3399.  Both NGC 323 and 328 were observed on the same sweep (730), although NGC 323 was first picked up on an earlier sweep.

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NGC 329 = MCG -01-03-048 = Holm 30b = PGC 3467

00 58 01.4 -05 04 17

V = 13.4;  Size 1.6'x0.6';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 20d

 

24" (12/1/13): fairly faint, fairly small, very elongated 3:1 SSW-NNE, 45"x15".  NGC 327, the brightest member in the group, lies 3.9' SSW.

 

13.1" (7/12/86): faint, small, slightly elongated, weak concentration.  Third of three with NGC 327 3.8' SSW and MCG -01-03-041 8' NW.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 329 = m 24 on 27 Sep 1864 with Lassell's 48" on Malta and noted "F, E."  This galaxy is the last in a quartet along with NGC 321, NGC 325 and NGC 327.  His description and position applies to MCG -01-03-048 = PGC 3467.

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NGC 330 = ESO 029-SC024 = Lindsay 54

00 56 19 -72 27 48

V = 9.6;  Size 1.9'

 

18" (7/6/02 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): this is one of the brightest SMC clusters and a fascinating object at 228x.  It appears as a bright, extremely rich knot of stars, just 1'- 1.5' diameter, which was only partially resolved.  Streaming out from the dense core are numerous mag 12 and fainter stars, some arranged in a curving chain off the following side of the core.  The bright outliers seem scattered about to at least 5' (Hodge Association 40).  NGC 330 is situated 20' SW of the remarkable HII region NGC 346 within a rich star field!

 

10x30 IS binoculars (11/4/12 - Coromandel Peninsula, New Zealand): visible as a very small, but non-stellar knot.

 

James Dunlop discovered NGC 330 = D 23 = h2367 on 1 Aug 1826 with a 7" reflector and recorded "A small, but very bright nebula, exceedingly condensed. This is the brightest nebula in the small cloud. I think I perceive two bright nuclei in this body." Dunlop observed the cluster 8 times during his survey and his position was just 2' N of the cluster.

 

JH observed the cluster on 5 separate sweeps, first recording on 11 Apr 1834, "pretty bright, small, oval, resolved, 60"." His second sweep reads "globular cluster, S, B, little elliptic, gbM; 2' across. Fairly resolved into rather large and not very crowded stars."  His third observation reads "globular cluster, vB, S, lE, resolvable or resolved; 90" long, 60" broad; a close compressed knot of stars with outliers."

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NGC 331 = MCG -01-03-012 = PGC 2759

00 47 06.9 -02 43 51

V = 14.7;  Size 0.8'x0.5';  PA = 127d

 

17.5" (11/28/97): extremely faint, very small, round, 20" diameter.  Requires averted to glimpse and can only view for moments knowing exact location.  A nice mag 13/14 double lies 6' N [at 20" separation].  Located 14' W of NGC 259.  The identification NGC 331 = MCG -01-03-012 is very tentative.

 

Francis Leavenworth discovered NGC 331 = LM II-296 in 1886 with the 26" refractor at the Leander McCormick Observatory.  There is nothing at his position, though he mentions the RA (which is often bad) is doubtful.  Harold Corwin suggests the possible identification NGC 331 = MCG -01-03-012 = PGC 2759 (listed here), though that assumes Leavenworth made a 10 min error in RA.  Leavenworth's description mention a *12 located 3' NE and there is a faint star (closer to mag 15) in this relative position. RNGC and PGC misidentify MCG -01-03-039 as NGC 331.  This galaxy is closer to Leavenworth's position but has a mag 7 star 5' NW, so does not fit his description.  See Corwin's notes.

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NGC 332 = UGC 609 = CGCG 410-021 = PGC 3511

00 58 49.1 +07 06 41

V = 13.5;  Size 1.2'x1.2';  Surf Br = 13.7

 

17.5" (10/5/91): faint, small, bright core, slightly elongated NW-SE.  A line of three mag 12-13 stars is close SW.  Located 18' NNE of a mag 6.9 star SAO 109563.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 332 = Sw V-10 on 22 Oct 1886 with the 16" refractor at Warner Observatory.  His position and description ("5 or 6 stars near south in a curve") matches UGC 609 = PGC 3511.

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NGC 333 = MCG -03-03-013 = PGC 3519

00 58 51.3 -16 28 09

V = 13.7;  Size 1.6'x0.9';  Surf Br = 13.9;  PA = 119d

 

17.5" (11/6/93): very faint, small, elongated 3:2 ~E-W, very slight central brightening.  Almost on a line with two mag 13 stars 3' SE and 5' SE.  This is a double system (not resolved).

 

Wilhelm Tempel discovered NGC 333 = T I-5 in 1877 with an 11" refractor at the Arcetri Observatory.  Tempel's position is 10 sec of RA west and 4' south of PGC 3519.  Herbert Howe measured an accurate position in 1898-99 using the 20" refractor at Chamberlin Observatory (repeated in the IC 2 notes).  This is a double galaxy (often listed as NGC 333A and 333B) with a very small companion just southwest of the nucleus.   Based on RA order, the main galaxy is identified as NGC 333B in NED, RNGC and MCG, and the companion (PGC 3073571) as NGC 333A.

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NGC 334 = ESO 351-026 = MCG -06-03-012 = PGC 3514

00 58 49.8 -35 06 58

V = 13.8;  Size 1.2'x0.6';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 169d

 

17.5" (10/4/97): extremely faint, very small, round, 20" diameter, no concentration.  Best viewed at 280x.  Forms the north vertex of an equilateral triangle with two mag 11-12 stars 2.5' SW and 2.5' SE.

 

JH discovered NGC 334 = h2368 on 25 Sep 1834 and recorded "F, S, R, glbM; makes a triangle with two stars south of nebulosity." On later sweep he logged "eF, S, R, at the northern angle of an equilateral triangle formed with two stars 11th mag."  His position and description (of the nearby mag 11 stars) clearly establishes NGC 334 = ESO 351-026.

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NGC 335 = ESO 541-006 = MCG -03-03-015 = PGC 3544

00 59 19.5 -18 14 01

V = 14.3;  Size 1.1'x0.3';  Surf Br = 13.0;  PA = 137d

 

17.5" (10/21/95): extremely faint, small, elongated 5:2 NW-SE, 0.8'x0.3', low even surface brightness.  NGC 336 lies 20' SW.

 

Francis Leavenworth discovered NGC 335 = LM I-21 on 9 Oct 1885 with the 26" Clark refractor at the Leander McCormick Observatory.  His very rough position is just 0.1 tmin of RA east and 2' S of ESO 541-006.  He gave the same RA as NGC 336 although both are shown on his discovery sketch (examined by Corwin).  Herbert Howe measured an accurate position in 1899-00 using the 20" refractor at Chamberlin Observatory.

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NGC 336 = ESO 541-002 = PGC 3470

00 58 02.8 -18 23 05

V = 14.5;  Size 0.7'x0.3';  PA = 42d

 

17.5" (10/21/95): very faint, very small, round, low surface brightness.  A mag 13 star is 2.2' NW of center.  NGC 335 lies 20' NE.  Incorrect identification in RNGC.

 

Francis Leavenworth discovered NGC 336 = LM I-22 on 31 Oct 1885 with the 26" refractor at the Leander McCormick Observatory.  Corwin examined the discovery sketch and verified NGC 336 = ESO 541-002 = PGC 3470.  The RNGC, PGC and ESO misidentify ESO 541-004 = PGC 3526 (located 30' SSW of NGC 335) as NGC 336.  See Corwin's notes and my RNGC Corrections #5.

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NGC 337 = MCG -01-03-053 = IV Zw 35 = PGC 3572

00 59 50.3 -07 34 43

V = 11.6;  Size 2.9'x1.8';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 130d

 

48" (11/1/13): at 488x appeared bright, fairly large, very irregular with a number of obvious clumps.  Although the galaxy is generally elongated 3:2 or 5:3 NW-SE it contains a bright, elongated N-S central region that seems to be a bar.  On the south end of the "bar" is a brighter elongated patch extending towards the WSW.  Another brighter knot is at the north end of the bar, extending to the east.  On the southeast flank of the galaxy is an elongated, fainter patch.  The northwest side of the halo extends further out, giving an asymmetric outline, and one or two small knots are involved.  A mag 11 star lies 5' E.

 

17.5" (12/26/00): fairly bright and large, elongated 3:2 NW-SE, ~1.8'x1.2', broad concentration.  The appearance is asymmetric -- with a noticeably mottled or irregular surface brightness.  Brighter knots within the halo are also clearly visible at moments.  The visual impression matches well with the DSS image, which shows a chaotic structure with a number of large HII knots.  NGC 337A, a large faint dwarf spiral, lies 27' E.

 

13" (9/29/84): fairly bright, moderately large, elongated NW-SE, fairly even surface brightness, diffuse outer halo.  A mag 11.5 star is 5.4' E of center.

 

WH discovered NGC 337 = H II-433 = h80 on 10 Sep 1785 (sweep 435) and noted "pB, pL, bM, irregular parallelogram in the direction of the meridian."  His position is pretty accurate.

 

R.J. Mitchell observed this irregular galaxy using LdR's 72" on 3 Oct 1856 and recorded "pL, not vF.  Its brightest part is a line running diagonally, and there is a knot at either end.  Perhaps it shaped like an "S".  The galaxy has a distorted appearance on CCD photo.

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NGC 338 = UGC 624 = MCG +05-03-034 = CGCG 501-061 = LGG 014-015 = PGC 3611

01 00 36.4 +30 40 09

V = 12.8;  Size 1.9'x0.7';  Surf Br = 12.8;  PA = 109d

 

17.5" (10/5/02): nice, fairly small edge-on oriented WNW-ESE, 0.8'x0.25', very small bright core.  A pair of evenly matched mag 14 stars are close off the south side.

 

17.5" (11/25/87): moderately bright, very elongated WNW-ESE, moderately large, bright core.  An easy mag 14 double star at 22" separation is off the SSE edge just 0.8' from center.

 

Wilhelm Tempel discovered NGC 338 = T I-6 in 1877 with an 11" refractor at the Arcetri Observatory and recorded "small but class III;  has 2 stars mag 14-15 near the south end."  His position is 11 tsec W and 1' S of UGC 624 and the description of the nearby stars fits.  ƒdouard Stephan (XII-8) independently found the galaxy on 6 Nov 1882 with the 31" reflector at Marseille Observatory and the position was accurately measured.

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NGC 339 = ESO 029-SC025 = Lindsay 59

00 57 42 -74 28 24

V = 12.8;  Size 2.2'

 

30" (11/6/10 - Coonabarabran, 264x): moderately bright, fairly large, roundish, 3' diameter, weak concentration to a small brighter core.  The outer halo appears ragged and mottled but the only definite resolution is a star on the east side of the halo.  Located 15' SE of mag 6.7 HD 5499.  There are no brighter stars within 5'.  NGC 339 is a massive intermediate age cluster (6.5 billion years old).  Kron 37 lies 8.6' N.

 

JH discovered NGC 339 = h2369 on 18 Sep 1835 in the SMC and recorded "vF, L, R, vgbM, 3' or 3.5' diameter".  His position is 1.3' NNW of center.

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NGC 340 = MCG -01-03-055 = PGC 3610

01 00 34.9 -06 52 00

V = 14.4;  Size 0.9'x0.4';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 65d

 

17.5" (10/20/90): very faint, small, elongated 2:1 WSW-ENE, bright core.  First of six in the NGC 349 group with NGC 342 7' NE.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 340 = m 25 on 27 Sep 1864 with Lassell's 48" on Malta and logged "vF, S, E".  This is the first in a group of 6 galaxies he discovered that night (NGC 340, 342, 345, 347, 349, 350).  His position is accurate.

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NGC 341 = Arp 59 = VV 361 = MCG -02-03-063 = PGC 3620

01 00 45.8 -09 11 09

V = 13.4;  Size 1.1'x1.0';  PA = 55d

 

17.5" (10/28/89): fairly faint, fairly small, slightly elongated NW-SE, weak concentration.  Located along the west side of a triangle formed by a mag 11.5 star 2.5' N, a mag 12.5 star 3' ESE and a mag 13.5 star 3' SSE.

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 341 = St XII-9 on 21 Oct 1881 with the 31" reflector at the Marseille Observatory.  His position is an exact match with MCG -02-03-063 = PGC 3620, though the RC3 does not label this galaxy as NGC 341.  Forms a double system (Arp 59) w/NGC 341B = PGC 3627 on the east edge. In the Arp category of spiral galaxies with small, high surface-brightness companions on arms.

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NGC 342 = MCG -01-03-058 = PGC 3631

01 00 49.8 -06 46 22

V = 13.5;  Size 0.9'x0.4';  Surf Br = 12.2;  PA = 105d

 

17.5" (10/20/90): very faint, very small, slightly elongated, weak concentration.  Forms a pair with NGC 340 7' SW and second of six in the NGC 349 group.  Located 11' WNW of mag 7.2 SAO 129088.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 342 = m 26 on 27 Sep 1864 with Lassell's 48" on Malta and logged "vF, vS".  Second in a group of 6 galaxies he discovered that night (NGC 340, 342, 345, 347, 349, 350).

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NGC 343 = AM 0055-232 = PGC 133741

00 58 24.1 -23 13 30

Size 0.7'x0.3';  PA = 9d

 

18" (12/3/05): extremely faint, very small, ~12" diameter.  Appears as a very low surface brightness spot with averted vision located 2' W of a 1.2' pair of mag 14 stars.  Forms a very close pair with NGC 344.  Uncertain historical identification due to a poor position at Leander McCormick observatory.

 

18" (11/6/04): extremely faint, small, round, very low surface brightness.  Situated 2' W of a N-S pair of mag 14 stars.  A mag 15 star is 1' N.  NGC 344 close SE was not seen.  The identification of this pair is uncertain.

 

Frank Muller discovered NGC 343 = LM II-297 (along with NGC 344 = LM II-298) in 1886 with the 26" refractor at the Leander McCormick Observatory.  This nebula was placed 1' N of NGC 344 but there is nothing at Muller's position.  Corwin suggests NGC 343/NGC 344 are the faint pair of galaxies AM 0055-232 = PGC 133741/PGC 198261, located 2.5 min of RA following Muller's position, but matching in declination.  As the Leander McCormick positions are often well off in RA (but generally good in dec), this candidate is reasonable, though uncertain.  ESO and RNGC apply NGC 343 to a single star 1' N of ESO 475-006 and ESO 475-006 is misidentified as NGC 344 in ESO and RNGC.

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NGC 344 = 2MASXJ00582543-2313456 = PGC 198261

00 58 25.4 -23 13 46

Size 0.3'x0.2'

 

18" (12/3/05): extremely faint and small, 5" diameter.  Forms a very close pair with NGC 343 close preceding, just 24" between centers.  At times this object appeared stellar and easier to view than NGC 343, though there doesn't appear to be a faint star close by that I might have confused it with.

 

Frank Muller discovered NGC 344 = LM II-298 (along with NGC 343 = II-297) in 1886 with the 26" refractor at the Leander McCormick Observatory..  Muller described both objects as possible stars and his position is 0.3 min of RA east and 1.5' north of ESO 475-006.  Corwin suggests that NGC 343 and NGC 344 may instead refer to a faint pair of galaxies (Arp-Madore 0055-232 = PGC 13374/198261) about 2.5 min of RA due east of Muller's position.  If Muller observed this pair, then NGC 344 (fainter SE component) at B = 17.2 is the faintest discovery at Leander McCormick Observatory with the Clark refractor.

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NGC 345 = MCG -01-03-064 = PGC 3665

01 01 22.0 -06 53 04

V = 12.7;  Size 1.3'x0.8';  Surf Br = 12.6;  PA = 140d

 

17.5" (10/20/90): faint, fairly small, slightly elongated, even surface brightness.  Located 6' SSW of mag 7.2 SAO 129088.  Third of six in the NGC 349 group with NGC 347 5' N.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 345 = m 27 on 27 Sep 1864 with Lassell's 48" on Malta and logged "vF, vS, gbM".  Third in a group of 6 galaxies he discovered that night (NGC 340, 342, 345, 347, 349, 350) and placed accurately.

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NGC 346 = ESO 051-SC010 = SMC-N66 = Lindsay 60 = SMC Ass 45

00 59 05 -72 10 36

V = 10.3;  Size 14'x11'

 

18" (7/6/02 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): this is the largest HII region in the SMC and an amazing sight at 171x and UHC filter.  The brightest section is a "bar" extending NW-SE with a distinct edge on the following side.  Extending from the central region, are two sweeping "arms" or extensions, creating an exaggerated "S" appearance similar to a barred spiral galaxy!  A longer but lower surface brightness arm is attached at the SE end of the central region and broadly sweeps towards the west, below the bar.  A shorter, but high surface brightness arm is attached at the NW end and hooks towards the east.  The extensions increase the diameter to 8'-10' in total size!  Without the filter, the nebula is set in a rich star field (Hodge Association 45) and a number of stars are superimposed or involved with the nebula, some in the center.  NGC 371 is in same low power field 22' NE and NGC 330 lies 21' SW.  The small clusters NGC 306 and 299 lies 22' WSW and 26' W, respectively.  Easily visible in 10x30 and 15x50 IS binoculars.

 

James Dunlop discovered NGC 346 = D 25 on 1 Aug 1826 with his 9" speculum reflector and recorded a "pretty large, pretty bright nebula, about 2.25' diameter, irregular round figure, resolvable, very slight condensation, not well defined at the edges.  He observed it on 7 occasions and his position is unusually accurate.

 

John Herschel gives 5 descriptions in his Cape observations: He first observed it on 11 Apr 1834 as "B, L, pmE, pgmbM, 5', resolvable (ill seen, below the pole)." On a second sweep he called it "Cluster, imperfectly resolved; rather irregular figure; 5' diameter. Not equally condensed about centre; fades imperceptibly; has a double star (12th mag) in centre." His third observation was recorded as "B, L, irregularly round, gmbM, 3' or 4' in extent, fades away insensibly." His next sweep was recorded as "B, L, neb with resolvable centre; irregularly extended into a kind of broad train as in figure, gently graduating away to the borders. 6' diameter." His final observation was logged as "B, L, irregular figure, with a star 13th mag in most compressed part."  His published sketch is in the CGH catalogue, plate IV, figure 6.

 

Joseph Turner sketched NGC 346 using the 48" Great Melbourne Telescope in 1875, which shows the "arm" attached on the NW end of bar, hooking to the east (see http://www.docdb.net/history/texts/1885osngmt________e/lithograph_m_1_4.php) and the comments "It is very unlike H.'s drawing and description; indeed I cannot trace any resemblance between that and its present appearance; and were it not for its position, and the fact that L.S. observed and sketched it on 5th February 1870, I should be in great doubt as to its being the proper object. The position, however, accords with that given by H., and L.S.'s sketch is, in its general features, very like mine, so that there is no room for doubting its identity. The central portion is by far the brightest, being a cluster of stars so very distinct that they could almost be counted; and the nebula here also appears the most dense. From this point it proceeds s.f. for almost 1' 30", terminating in a few very faint stars. Towards the n.p. direction it forms a complete bend or hook, and is here very faint. A little n.f. the main or central portion is a very small and faint round patch, which at times looks like a cluster of very faint stars, but I cannot with certainty determine whether or not it be stars or only nebula, although the night is an exquisite one, being clear and steady."

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NGC 347 = PGC 3673

01 01 35.2 -06 44 02

V = 14.8;  Size 0.6'x0.5';  Surf Br = 13.3

 

17.5" (10/8/94): very faint, very small, round, 20" diameter, very weak concentration.  Located 4' N of mag 7.5 SAO 129988.  A mag 13.5 star is 2.1' NE.  Member of the NGC 349 group.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 347 = m 28 on 27 Sep 1864 with Lassell's 48" on Malta and logged "vF, vS".  This is the 4th in a group of 6 galaxies discovered that night (NGC 340, 342, 345, 347, 349, 350).  At Marth's position is PGC 3673, situated 4' N of mag 7.2 HD 6031 and Karl Reinmuth, in his 1926 survey of Herschel's catalogues based on Heidelberg plates, identifies this galaxy as NGC 347.

 

But RNGC misidentifies PGC 1028378 as NGC 347 and it is misplotted on the first edition of the Uranometria 2000 Atlas..  PGC 1028378 is located at 01 01 29.1 -06 48 41 (J2000), just 1.5' SW of the mag 7.2 star, and is a more difficult object visually (see notes).  PGC correctly identifies NGC 347 but also claims it is equal to IC 71.  See Corwin's notes and my RNGC Corrections #7.

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NGC 348 = ESO 151-017 = PGC 3632

01 00 52.0 -53 14 41

V = 13.7;  Size 0.8'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.0;  PA = 91d

 

Southern object (not observed).

 

JH discovered NGC 348 = h2371 on 3 Oct 1834 and recorded "eF, S, R."  On a later sweep he noted "eeeF, seems to have a vF star involved."  His position and description matches ESO 151-017 = PGC 3632, with a very faint star at the north edge.

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NGC 349 = MCG -01-03-068 = PGC 3687

01 01 50.7 -06 47 59

V = 12.7;  Size 1.3'x0.9';  Surf Br = 12.5;  PA = 140d

 

17.5" (10/20/90): fairly faint, fairly small, slightly elongated, broad concentration.  Located 4' E of mag 7.2 SAO 129088!  Forms a close pair with NGC 350 1.5' E.  Brightest in a group of six galaxies.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 349 = m 29 on 27 Sep 1864 with Lassell's 48" on Malta and logged "vF, vS".  This is the fifth in a group of 6 galaxies discovered that night (NGC 340, 342, 345, 347, 349, 350).  His position is just 1' too far south (same offset as NGC 350).

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NGC 350 = MCG -01-03-069 = PGC 3690

01 01 56.6 -06 47 45

V = 14.5;  Size 0.7'x0.4';  Surf Br = 13.0

 

17.5" (10/20/90): very faint, very small, round, bright core.  A mag 11 star is 1.2' E.  Last of six in the NGC 349 group and forms a close pair with NGC 349 1.5' W.  Located 6' W of a mag 7.2 SAO 129088.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 350 = m 30 on 27 Sep 1864 with Lassell's 48" on Malta and logged "eF."  This galaxy is the last in a group of 6 he discovered that night (NGC 340, 342, 345, 347, 349, 350).  His position is 1' S of MCG -01-03-069 = PGC 3690.

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NGC 351 = UGC 639 = MCG +00-03-057 = CGCG 384-057 = PGC 3693

01 01 57.8 -01 56 12

V = 13.2;  Size 1.4'x0.8';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 142d

 

17.5" (10/5/91): fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 3:2 NW-SE, broad concentration.  Forms a pair with NGC 353 at 7' ESE.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 351 = Sw III-3 (along with NGC 353 = Sw III-4) on 10 Nov 1885 with the 16" refractor at the Warner Observatory.  His position is 12 sec of RA following UGC 639.  Bigourdan measured an accurate micrometric position on 25 Oct 1897 as well as Howe in 1897 using the 20" refractor at Chamberlin Observatory.

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NGC 352 = MCG -01-03-071 = PGC 3701

01 02 09.2 -04 14 45

V = 12.6;  Size 2.4'x0.9';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 165d

 

17.5" (11/30/91): fairly faint, fairly small, very elongated 3:1 NNW-SSE, 1.5'x0.5', broadly concentrated with fainter extensions.

 

WH discovered NGC 352 = H III-191 = h81 on 20 Sep 1784 (sweep 280) and logged "vF, mE."  His position was poor but JH measured a fairly accurate (mean) position.

 

Harold Corwin's ESGC and the Deep Sky Field Guide (first edition) give an incorrect PA = 10”.  Karl Reinmuth, in his 1926 survey of Herschel's objects based on Heidelberg plates, correctly gives the PA = 165”.

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NGC 353 = UGC 641 = MCG +00-03-058 = CGCG 384-058 = PGC 3714

01 02 24.6 -01 57 28

V = 13.7;  Size 1.3'x0.4';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 26d

 

17.5" (10/5/91): faint, fairly small, very elongated 3:1 SSW-NNE, bright core.  Forms a pair with NGC 351 7' WNW.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 353 = Sw III-4 (along with NGC 351 = Sw III-3) on 10 Nov 1885 with the 16" refractor at the Warner Observatory.  His position is 9 sec of RA following UGC 641 (similar offset as NGC 351).

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NGC 354 = UGC 645 = MCG +04-03-037 = Mrk 353 = PGC 3763

01 03 16.3 +22 20 33

V = 13.4;  Size 0.8'x0.4';  Surf Br = 12.1;  PA = 29d

 

17.5" (9/26/92): fairly faint, very small, slightly elongated, fairly high surface brightness.  A mag 13 star is at the WNW end and a mag 11 star is 1' E.  Located 3.3' NNW of mag 9.1 SAO 74452.

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 354 = St XII-10 on 24 Oct 1881 with the 31" reflector at the Marseille Observatory and recorded "eF and S; R; a mag 14 star precedes by 1 sec".  His position and description is accurate.

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NGC 355 = MCG -01-03-077 = PGC 3753

01 03 06.9 -06 19 26

V = 14.3;  Size 0.9'x0.6';  Surf Br = 13.5;  PA = 125d

 

17.5" (9/26/92): extremely faint, very small, round.  Near my visual threshold and only glimpsed with averted vision for moments.  Located just 4' WNW of NGC 357. Appears extremely faint on the POSS (16 pg) with a nearly stellar core and very small low surface brightness arms that were not visible.  Previously missed using my 13.1".

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 355 = m 31 on 27 Sep 1864 with Lassell's 48" on Malta and noted "eF, vS."  His position matches MCG -01-03-077 = PGC 3753, although it is surprisingly faint and was barely visible in my 17.5" (missed with my 13").

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NGC 356 = MCG -01-03-078 = VV 486 = PGC 3754

01 03 07.0 -06 59 17

V = 12.7;  Size 1.5'x0.8';  Surf Br = 12.7;  PA = 70d

 

17.5" (10/20/90): faint, fairly small, slightly elongated 3:2 SW-NE, very weak concentration.  Located about 30' SE of the NGC 349 group.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 356 = m 32 on 27 Sep 1864 with Lassell's 48" on Malta and logged "vF, S, iR."  His position is accurate.

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NGC 357 = MCG -01-03-081 = PGC 3768

01 03 21.9 -06 20 22

V = 12.0;  Size 2.4'x1.7';  Surf Br = 13.4;  PA = 20d

 

13.1" (9/3/86): moderately bright, small, compact, very bright core.  A faint mag 14 star is at the ENE edge.  NGC 355 4' WNW not seen in 13.1" but glimpsed in 17.5".

 

WH discovered NGC 357 = H II-434 = h82 on 10 Sep 1785 (sweep 435) and recorded "F, S, irr figure, bM, resolvable."  His position is accurate. JH observed this galaxy on 3 sweeps, logging on 10 Oct 1828: "F; R; sbM; to a *13m; 20" a *14 10 sec nf."  His position and description is a perfect match with MCG -01-03-081 = PGC 3768.

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NGC 358

01 05 10.9 +62 01 14

 

17.5" (11/6/93): consists of just four mag 11-12 stars in a 2'x1' trapezoid at the NGC position.  This appears to be just a small asterism.  10' SE is also a scattered group in two detached sections elongated E-W with about a dozen mag 12-13.5 stars in each group.

 

Heinrich d'Arrest discovered NGC 358 on 4 Feb 1865 with the 11" refractor at Copenhagen while observing h 83 = NGC 366.  Harold Corwin suggests his description (translated roughly from Latin) is "A cluster of several stars -- not many members.  Found when inspecting the cluster h 83 [NGC 366], which is nearly of the same nature."  His position matches the group of 4 stars in my visual observation although the NGC description ("Cl, vl Ri") is inaccurate.

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NGC 359 = UGC 662 = MCG +00-03-066 = CGCG 384-066 = PGC 3817

01 04 16.9 -00 45 53

V = 13.3;  Size 1.5'x1.1';  Surf Br = 13.7;  PA = 135d

 

17.5" (10/5/91): faint, small, elongated 4:3 NW-SE, bright core.  A mag 14.5 star is 1.2' SSE.  Forms a pair with NGC 364 7' ESE.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 359 = m 33 (along with NGC 364) on 2 Sep 1864 with Lassell's 48" on Malta and called "eF, vS".

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NGC 360 = ESO 079-014 = FGC 119E = PGC 3743

01 02 51 -65 36 36

V = 12.6;  Size 3.5'x0.5';  Surf Br = 13.0;  PA = 144d

 

Southern object (not observed).

 

JH discovered NGC 360 = h2372 on 2 Nov 1834 and remarked "eF, vmE, vlbM; a Ray nebula, pos = 145.4”".  His position and descriptions matches ESO 079-014 = PGC 3743.

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NGC 361 = ESO 051-SC012 = Lindsay 67 = Kron 46

01 02 11 -71 36 24

V = 11.8;  Size 1.6'

 

18" (7/11/05 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): at 228x, this SMC cluster appeared moderately bright and large, round, 1' diameter, weak concentration to center, grainy.  A single star or clump is resolved. Located 4.5' SE of mag 7.8 HD 6222 (2' pair with a mag 9.8 companion).  Observation made through thin clouds.

 

James Dunlop discovered NGC 361 = D 54 = h2374 on 6 Sep 1826 with a 9" speculum reflector and recorded "a small round pretty well-defined nebula, 15" or 20" diameter."  His position is 7' SE of this SMC cluster.  There are other Dunlop entries near this cluster that may also refer to it, though this description seems to fits best.  JH swept it on 11 Apr 1834 and noted "vF, L, oval, vgvmbM."  Herschel noted the possible equivalence with D 55, whose position is off by 10' east.

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NGC 362 = ESO 051-SC013 = 75 Tuc

01 03 14 -70 50 54

V = 6.6;  Size 12.9'

 

18" (7/6/02 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): At 228x, NGC 362 appeared very bright and well-resolved into a couple of hundred stars!  The rich halo is plastered with stars and extends to nearly 8Õ diameter.  The 2' compressed core is well-concentrated to a blazing center (concentration class III).  Stars appear to stream out of the core in curving spiral lanes.  This globular has a classic symmetric appearance with a prominent, round core and halo.  NGC 362 is situated just north of the SMC, though lies overshadows NGC 362.

 

Naked-eye (11/4/12 - Coromandel Peninsula, New Zealand): this 6.6-magnitude globular was just visible naked-eye to the north of the SMC.

 

James Dunlop discovered NGC 362 = D 62 on 1 Aug 1826 with a 9" speculum reflector and described "a beautiful bright round nebula, about 4' diameter, exceedingly condensed. This is a good representation of the 2nd of the Connaissance des Temps [M2] in figure, colour, and distance; it is but a very little easier resolved, rather a brighter white, and perhaps more compact and globular. This is a beautiful globe of white light; resolvable; the stars are very little scattered."  He observed the globular 11 times and his published position is just 2' NE of center.

 

John Herschel (h2375) reported it with his 18" reflector from the Cape of Good Hope on 12 Aug 1834 as a "Fine, highly condensed globular cluster; psbM; diameter 4'." On 3 Nov 1834 he called it "vB; vL; psvmbM; round; 5' or 6' diameter; all resolved." Observing the next night, he recorded it as "a globular cluster; vB; vlE; gvmbM. Diameter of more condensed part approx. 60 sec in RA; but there are loose stars to a considerably greater distance, stars 13 or 14 mag all nearly equal and distinct, but run into a blaze in centre." His final observation reads: "globular cluster, vB, very compact; psvmb; 4' across; all resolved into stars 13..15 magnitude."

 

There was a 1.0 tmin error in reduction in the NGC position too far west (Dreyer, IC 2 notes).  This error was noted in Harvard College Observatory NGC corrections.

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NGC 363 = MCG -03-03-023 = PGC 3911

01 06 15.8 -16 32 34

V = 14.2;  Size 0.7'x0.5';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 49d

 

17.5" (11/6/93): very faint, very small, round, 0.5' diameter, very small brighter core.  A mag 12 star is 3' NNE.

 

Francis Leavenworth discovered NGC 363 = LM I-23 on 28 Nov 1885 with the 26" refractor at Leander McCormick Observatory.  His rough position is 1.5 min of RA west of MCG -03-03-023 = PGC 3911.  Herbert Howe measured an accurate position in 1899-00 using the 20" refractor at Chamberlin Observatory (repeated in the IC 2 notes). The MCG does not identify their entry as NGC 363.

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NGC 364 = UGC 666 = MCG +00-03-069 = CGCG 384-067 = PGC 3833

01 04 40.8 -00 48 10

V = 13.1;  Size 1.4'x1.3';  Surf Br = 13.6;  PA = 30d

 

17.5" (10/5/91): faint, small, elongated 4:3 SW-NE, bright core.  Forms a pair with NGC 359 7' WNW.  Plotted too far south on the first edition of the Uranometria 2000.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 364 = m 34 (along with NGC 359) on 2 Sep 1864 with Lassell's 48" on Malta and logged "vF, vS".  His position matches UGC 666 = PGC 3833.  The RNGC position is 3' too far S, CGCG  does not identify their entry as NGC 364 and the UGC position is 26' too far S!

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NGC 365 = ESO 352-001 = MCG -06-03-017 = PGC 3822

01 04 18.7 -35 07 17

V = 13.5;  Size 1.0'x0.6';  Surf Br = 12.8;  PA = 5d

 

17.5" (10/4/97): very faint, small, round, 30" diameter.  A pair of mag 11/13 stars [45" separation] lie ~5' SE.  Requires averted vision to comfortably view the galaxy.

 

JH discovered NGC 365 = h2373 on 25 Sep 1834 and recorded "F, S, R, gbM, 20"." His mean declination from two observations is ~1.3' S of ESO 352-001.

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NGC 366 = Cr 9 = OCL-286 = Lund 37

01 06 26 +62 13 42

Size 3'

 

24" (1/4/14): small, rich group with 30 stars resolved in a 3' region at 260x, with several small knots of stars.  On the south side is the multiple star STI 177 A/B/C = 12/12.9/13 at 3.8" and 10".  Just 48" NE, is the 12" mag 12/13 D and E components with a fainter component at 7" and another close pair or triple is ~30" E.  On the N end of the group is DAM 304 = 12/14 pair at 9".  A string of mag 14-15 stars oriented SW-NE is on the west side of the main grouping.

 

17.5" (11/6/93): 10 stars mag 12-14 in a small 3' group.  Consists of two mag 12-13 stars both of which form very close doubles and a tight trio of mag 13-14 stars on the east side.  The rest are faint stars and the cluster is set over unresolved haze.  Not impressive but stands out clearly in field.

 

JH discovered NGC 366 = h83 on 27 Oct 1829 and reported a "small cl 2' in diam.  Place that of the double star h 1070."  His position, though, is 2' S of the double star.

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NGC 367 = PGC 3894

01 05 48.9 -12 07 42

V = 14.5;  Size 0.7'x0.3';  Surf Br = 12.7;  PA = 15d

 

17.5" (12/26/00): extremely faint, very small, round, 20" diameter, low even surface brightness.  Requires averted vision but visible ~80% of the time with concentration at 280x once identified in the eyepiece field.  Elongation not noted so I probably only picked up the brighter central region.

 

17.5" (10/4/97): uncertain sighting.  Possibly barely glimpsed on a couple of occasions using a GSC finder chart to pinpoint location and averted vision at 280x.  No elongation noticed.

 

Frank Muller discovered NGC 367 = LM II-299 in 1866 with the 26" refractor at Leander McCormick Observatory and recorded "mag 16.0, 1.0'x0.2', E 175”, bn, 3 st 12, np 30”.  There is nothing at his position but 1 min of RA east is PGC 3894. This galaxy is elongated SSW-NNE (Muller's PA is nearly N-S) and his description of three nearby stars matches this galaxy.  RNGC misidentifies FGC 120 = PGC 90518, an extremely thin edge-on, as NGC 367.  PGC 90518 is 13' S of Muller's position and does not match his description.

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NGC 368 = ESO 243-023 = PGC 3826

01 04 21.9 -43 16 36

V = 13.6;  Size 0.7'x0.7';  Surf Br = 12.7

 

24" (10/5/13): at 225x; very faint, very small, round, 18" diameter.  Situated 3.1' NE of mag 8.8 HD 6368.  Viewed at ~10” elevation from Lake San Antonio.

 

JH discovered NGC 368 = h4012 on 5 Sep 1834 and logged "eeF; vS; N.f. a star 7-8 mag distant 3'."  His position and description is accurate (after correcting for a 1 hr typo in RA).

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NGC 369 = ESO 541-017 = MCG -03-03-022 = PGC 3856

01 05 08.9 -17 45 32

V = 13.8;  Size 1.0'x0.8';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 52d

 

17.5" (11/6/93): faint, small, round, 0.8' diameter, gradually weak concentration.  A similar pair of mag 10.7 and 11.1 stars oriented NW-SE lie 5' SW.

 

Francis Leavenworth discovered NGC 369 = LM I-24 on 9 Oct 1885 with the 26" refractor at the Leander McCormick Observatory.  His rough position is 3' S of ESO 541-017 = PGC 3856.  Herbert Howe measured an accurate position in 1899-00 using the 20" refractor at Chamberlin Observatory (repeated in the IC 2 notes).

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NGC 370 = NGC 372

01 06 44.6 +32 25 43

 

See observing notes for NGC 372.  Identification uncertain.

 

Heinrich d'Arrest discovered NGC 370 = Au 5 on 7 Oct 1861 with the 11-inch refractor at the Copenhagen Observatory.  There is nothing at his single position, though he mentions a mag 13 star is 15" to the south.

 

Harold Corwin suggests that NGC 370 is possibly equal to NGC 372, a triple star found by Dreyer at Birr Castle on 12 Dec 1876, at a mean position of 01 06 44.6 +32 25 43 (2000).  This triplet is about 10 seconds of time greater and 1' further north than d'Arrest's position.  The separation for the north-south pair is close to d'Arrest's estimate.  This identification is uncertain, but there is nothing else in the vicinity that matches.

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NGC 371 = ESO 051-SC014 = Lindsay 71 = Kron 48 = SMC-N76 = SMC Ass 53

01 03 30 -72 03 24

Size 8'

 

18" (7/6/02 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): at 171x and UHC filter, this is a fairly bright, prominent, round SMC nebulous cluster, up to 6' in diameter with a fairly well-defined edge.  The haze has a fairly consistent high surface brightness and seems suspended in a large, scattered cluster or star cloud (Hodge Association 53).  A 5' string of four mag 10-11 stars oriented NW-SE is superimposed on the glow as well as a number of fainter stars.  This is an excellent low power field with the striking HII region NGC 346 22' WSW and NGC 395/IC 1624 8'-10' NE.

 

10x30 and 15x50 IS binoculars: easily visible along with NGC 346.

 

James Dunlop discovered NGC 371 = D 31 = h2376 on 1 Aug 1826 with his 9" reflector at Parramatta and recorded "a pretty large unequally bright nebula, about 5' diameter, round figure, resolvable into stars of mixt magnitudes."  He made 5 observations and his published position is 8' too far south.

 

JH made 5 observations beginning on his sweep of 11 Apr 1834, recording "cluster, 6th class; faint, round, 10' diameter, stars 15..18th mag."  The next observation was logged as "vF, L, p rich cluster, 6th class. Stars 14..15th mag." On a third sweep he noted it as "a F, L, p compressed cl of 6th class. 10' diameter. gbM; stars 12..16th mag - in some parts almost nebulous." The fourth observation was recorded as a "cluster 6th class; stars 12..15th mag, a few = 10th mag and one of 9th mag; much compressed in the middle; fills field and has loose straggling lines and crooks branching off." The final sweep was recorded as "F, L, cl; little compressed; gbM; 7' diam; resolved into stars 14..16th mag."  Herschel noted that this may be Dunlop 31.

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NGC 372 = NGC 370

01 06 44.6 +32 25 43

 

18" (11/18/06): faint triple star resolved at 280x.  The components form a very small equilateral triangle 1' N of a mag 12 star with the components ~10" apart.  The brightest component of the triple is at the north vertex and the other two are mag 15-15.5.  NGC 370 may also refer to this multiple star.

 

J.L.E. Dreyer discovered NGC 372 on 12 Dec 1876 with the 72" at Birr Castle and stated "the last nova [GC 5146 = NGC 372] looks at first sight like a hazy *, the higher power seems to resolve it, at all events sev luminous points were seen. Has a *12 in pos 166.5d, dist, 74"."  This pins down the equivalence with a triple star with a mean position of 01 06 44.6 +32 25 43 (2000).  Heinrich d'Arrest *possibly* also observed this triple star (or one or more of its components) on 7 Oct 1861 and it was catalogued as GC 197 = NGC 370.

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NGC 373 = PGC 3946

01 06 58.2 +32 18 31

V = 14.9;  Size 0.4'x0.4';  Surf Br = 13.0

 

18" (11/18/06): extremely faint, very small, round, 15"-20" diameter.  There appears to be a 15-16th magnitude star superimposed as a stellar point was sometimes visible offset from the center.  Located on the SW side of the "Pisces Group", 9' SW of NGC 383.

 

17.5" (9/19/87): very faint, very small, slightly elongated ~E-W.  Located 8.3' SW of NGC 383 in the core of the cluster.  Forms a pair with NGC 375 2.8' NNE.

 

J.L.E. Dreyer discovered NGC 373 on 12 Dec 1876 using the 72" at Birr Castle in the NGC 383 group.  His description is simply "vF, vS" but he accurately placed it 428" in PA 225.8” with respect to a mag 12.2 star situated SSW of NGC 382/383.  This offset matches PGC 3946.  This is one of 8 galaxies in the Pisces Group discovered at Birr Castle.  Karl Reinmuth, in his 1926 survey based on Heidelberg plates, described this object as a double nebulous star (there appears to be a very faint star at the NW edge) and Dorothy Carlson, in her 1940 NGC Corrections list, states "nebula + star".

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NGC 374 = UGC 680 = MCG +05-03-048 = CGCG 501-080 = PGC 3952

01 07 05.8 +32 47 42

V = 13.4;  Size 1.1'x0.5';  Surf Br = 12.5;  PA = 175d

 

17.5" (9/26/92): fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 2:1 NNW-SSE, bright core, faint stellar nucleus or mag 15 star is superimposed.  Located almost midway between two mag 14 stars 0.7' NE and 0.9' SW.  Located about 25' N of the core of the NGC 383 group.

 

Heinrich d'Arrest discovered NGC 374 = Au 6 on 7 Oct 1861 with the 11-inch Fraunhofer refractor at the observatory in Copenhagen.  His single position is accurate and he noted the nebula was "between 2 stars mag 15."    The discovery was early enough to be included in Auwers 1862 list of new nebulae.

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NGC 375 = PGC 3953

01 07 05.9 +32 20 53

V = 14.5;  Size 0.5'x0.5';  Surf Br = 13.0

 

18" (11/18/06): very faint, extremely small, round, 15" diameter, weak concentration.  Situated ~2' W of a triangle of mag 12/13/14 stars (on the opposite side from NGC 384/385) and 5.6' SW of NGC 383 in the "Pisces Group".  The closest cluster member is NGC 373 situated 3' SSW.

 

17.5" (9/19/87): extremely faint and small, round.  Three mag 12-13.5 stars forming an isosceles triangle with the long base oriented N-S are about 2' SE.  Located 5.6' SW of NGC 383 in the core of the cluster.  Forms a pair with NGC 373 2.8' SSW.

 

Lawrence Parsons, 4th Earl of Rosse, discovered NGC 375 on 1 Dec 1874 with his father's 72" and shown on the constructed sketch of the entire Pisces Group in the 1880 publication.  The GC and NGC position matches PGC 3953, an extremely compact elliptical.  MCG misidentifies UGC 679 = MCG +05-03-049 (an extremely low surf brightness edge-on ~2.5' north) as NGC 375.

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NGC 376 = ESO 029-SC29 = Lindsay 72

01 03 54 -72 49 30

V = 10.9;  Size 1.0'

 

18" (7/11/05 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): moderately bright, small, round, 30" diameter, a few individual stars or clumps are resolved. A 10' string of stars (Hodge Association 56) passing ~4' N and angles towards the NE.  NGC 419 follows by 20'.  Observation made through thin clouds.

 

James Dunlop probably discovered NGC 376 = D 36 = h2378 with his 9" reflector on 2 Sep 1826 and recorded "a faint ill-defined nebula, about 1 1/2' diameter."  He made a single observation and his published position is 9.5' ESE.  JH recorded this cluster on two sweeps: on 12 Aug 1834 he logged "pretty faint, small, round, resolvable, pretty compact."  On a later sweep he recorded it as a "globular cluster, a vS, vB knot of visible stars 15 or 20" diameter almost like a solid mass."  His position and description on both sweeps is accurate, although Dreyer quotes DeLisle Stewart in the IC 2 notes, "only a D*, pos 270d, Dist 10" (from Harvard College Observatory NGC corrections).  JH credited Dunlop as the possible discoverer (D 36) in the GC but not the Cape observations.

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NGC 377 = ESO 541-019 = MCG -04-03-053 = PGC 3931

01 06 34.8 -20 19 57

V = 15.1;  Size 1.0'x0.3';  Surf Br = 13.6;  PA = 30d

 

24" (12/1/13): at 325x appeared extremely faint, small, round, 18" diameter.  Visible perhaps 25% of the time as an extremely faint patch and too fleeting to detect an elongated shape.  Forms the northern vertex of a triangle with a mag 14.5 star 6' SW and a mag 13.5 star 4.7' SE.  A large scattered group of stars including several mag 10-11 lies ~10' E.

 

18" (12/3/05): not seen at 225x.

 

18" (11/6/04): extremely faint, small, round, 20" diameter (core only viewed?).  Only visible intermittently with averted and concentration (in fairly poor seeing) but sighting definite.

 

Francis Leavenworth discovered NGC 377 = LM I-25 on 15 Oct 1885 with the 26" refractor at the Leander McCormick Observatory.  Based on the discovery sketch, Corwin determined NGC 377 = ESO 541-019 = PGC 3931.  This would place NGC 377 17' S of Leavenworth's rough position, an unusual error in declination.  ESO misidentifies 541-019 as possibly NGC 412 (also from Leavenworth).

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NGC 378 = ESO 412-005 = AM 0103-302 = MCG -05-03-024 = PGC 3907

01 06 12.1 -30 10 41

V = 13.1;  Size 1.5'x1.1';  Surf Br = 13.5;  PA = 90d

 

17.5" (11/6/93): faint, fairly small, elongated 3:2 E-W, 1.2'x0.8'.  A mag 11.5 star is 3' NNE.  Located 8' WSW of mag 10.7 SAO 192929.

 

JH discovered NGC 378 = h2377 on 28 Sep 1834 and noted "vF, S, R, glbM, 15 arcseconds." His position matches ESO 412-005 = PGC 3907.  Listed in category 8 (Galaxies with apparent companions) in the Arp-Madore catalogue and an image is on page 8.2.

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NGC 379 = Arp 331 NED1 = UGC 683 = MCG +05-03-050 = CGCG 501-082 = VV 193 = IV Zw 38 NED1 = PGC 3966

01 07 15.7 +32 31 13

V = 12.9;  Size 1.4'x0.8';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 0d

 

18" (11/18/06): moderately bright, fairly small, elongated 3:2 N-S, 0.8'x0.5', broad concentration with a slightly brighter core.  Forms a similar pair with NGC 380 2.3' S.  This galaxy is at the north end of the Pisces Group centered on NGC 383 and is one of 11 NGC galaxies viewed in the field at 280x!

 

17.5" (9/19/87): fairly faint, fairly small, elongated ~N-S, even surface brightness.  Forms a pair with similar NGC 380 2' S in the NGC 383 group.

 

13" (9/29/84): fairly faint, small, slightly elongated N-S, bright core.

 

WH discovered NGC 379 = H II-215 = h84, along with NGC 380 = II-216 and NGC 383 = II-217, on 12 Sep 1784 (sweep 268) and recorded "Three, F, vS, R, all in a row in the meridian, nearly of equal size, the distance between the two most south [NGC 383 and 383] is about double that of the other."

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NGC 380 = Arp 331 NED2 = UGC 682 = MCG +05-03-051 = CGCG 501-081 = LGG 017-001 = PGC 3969

01 07 17.6 +32 28 59

V = 12.5;  Size 1.3'x1.3';  Surf Br = 13.2

 

18" (11/18/06): moderately bright, fairly small, round, 40" diameter, sharply concentrated with a very small, very bright core.  Forms a 2.2' pair with NGC 379 and 4.5' NNW of NGC 383 at the north end of the "Pisces Group".

 

17.5" (9/19/87): fairly faint, small, round, bright core, stellar nucleus.  Forms a pair with NGC 379 2' S in the NGC 383 group.

 

13" (9/29/84): fairly faint, small, round, bright core.

 

WH discovered NGC 380 = H II-216 = h85, along with NGC 379 = II-215 and NGC 383 = II-217 on 12 Sep 1784 (sweep 268).  See description under NGC 379.

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NGC 381 = Cr 10 = OCL-317 = Lund 38

01 08 18 +61 35

Size 6'

 

24" (1/4/14): nice group of ~75 stars, fairly uniformly distributed in a 6' group.  A triple star (STI 185 = 10.8/12.5 at 9" and third closer companion) is just north of center.  The cluster is roughly circular with no denser patches, but it does include a number of faint stars so the appearance is fairly rich.  Pretty well detached in the 50' field at 125x (less so on the north side).

 

17.5" (8/16/93): 40 stars mag 11-15 in loose 6' diameter, stands out best at 100x.  The brightest mag 10.8 star is part of a triple along the north side.  Fairly uniform in mag 12/13 stars with a scattering of faint stars, fairly even distribution with no rich regions.  Not recognizable as a cluster at 220x.

 

17.5" (11/2/91): about three dozen stars in 6' diameter, fairly faint, roughly a circular group.  Consists mostly of mag 12/13 stars.  Includes a triple star (10.8/12.5/13 at 8"/~3") and two mag 11 stars on the west side.  Several stars are arranged in strings.  Relatively few stars in center.  A line of mag 10 stars trail off to the north edge of field and the mag 10 star at the end of the string 11' N is a close double star.

 

8": ~30 stars in a circular group, bright curving string to the north.  A mag 8 star is 10' E.

 

Caroline Herschel is generally attributed with the discovery of NGC 381 = H VIII-64 on 27 Sep 1783, though according to an article in Aug 2007 S&T, Caroline's discovery preceded Gamma Cass instead of following and likely refers to NGC 189 instead.  WH observed the cluster on 3 Nov 1787 (sweep 774) and noted "a forming cluster of pretty compressed stars."  In his second published catalogued he added "C.H. disc. 1783."

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NGC 382 = Arp 331 NED5 =VV 193b = UGC 688 = MCG +05-03-052 = CGCG 501-086 = LGG 018-002 = PGC 3981

01 07 23.9 +32 24 15

V = 13.2;  Size 0.5'x0.5'

 

18" (11/18/06): fairly faint, very small, round, 20" diameter, slightly brighter corer, faint stellar nucleus with direct vision.  Situated at the south edge of the halo of NGC 383 (the brighter member of the "Pisces Group"), just 30" from the center.

 

17.5" (9/23/00): very faint, extremely small, round, 20" diameter, very faint quasi-stellar nucleus at moments.  Viewed SN 2000dk, just 5 days after discovery on 9/18/00, as a mag 15.5 "star" at the NW edge of the halo.  At the first glance using 280x, the galaxy appeared elongated in the direction of the SN, but in moments of better seeing, the SN was clearly resolved and similar in brightness to the nucleus of NGC 382.  This galaxy is the fainter of a close pair with NGC 383 in the Pisces group.

 

17.5" (9/19/87): faint, very small, round.  Forms a double system with much brighter NGC 383 30" NNE in a group.

 

13" (9/29/84): very faint, extremely small, round.  Nearly attached to NGC 383.

 

Bindon Stoney discovered NGC 382 on 4 Nov 1850 using Lord Rosse's 72" and labeled as "Gamma prime" in his sketch of the Pisces Group.  Heinrich d'Arrest independently found this nebula on 26 Aug 1865 with the 11-inch Fraunhofer refractor in Copenhagen.  This is one of 5 galaxies discovered by Stoney on that night including NGCs 384, 385, 386 and 388.

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NGC 383 = Arp 331 NED6 = VV 193a = UGC 689 = MCG +05-03-053 = CGCG 501-087 = LGG 018-003 = PGC 3982

01 07 24.9 +32 24 45

V = 12.4;  Size 1.4'x1.4';  Surf Br = 13.0;  PA = 30d

 

18" (11/18/06): fairly bright, moderately large, irregularly round, 1.3' diameter, broadly concentrated to a bright core that increases to a 6" nucleus.  Forms an interacting pair with NGC 382 30" S of center.  This galaxy is the brightest and largest member of the "Pisces Group" (at the southwest end of the Pisces-Perseus Supercluster) and is surrounded by 10 galaxies within 8'!

 

17.5" (9/19/87): brightest in the NGC 383 cluster.  Fairly bright, moderately large, slightly elongated, broadly concentrated halo.  Forms a double system with NGC 382 30" SW.  NGC 380 is 4.5' NNW, NGC 379 6.8' NNW, NGC 386 3.3' SSE, NGC 385 5.5' SSE.

 

13" (9/29/84): fairly bright, almost round, bright core.  Forms a double with NGC 382.

 

WH discovered NGC 383 = H II-217 = h86, along with NGC 379 = II-215 and NGC 380 = II-216, on 12 Sep 1784 (sweep 268).  See description under NGC 379.

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NGC 384 = Arp 331 NED3 = UGC 686 = MCG +05-03-055 = CGCG 501-084 = LGG 017-002 = PGC 3983

01 07 25.0 +32 17 34

V = 13.1;  Size 1.1'x0.9';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 135d

 

18" (11/18/06): moderately bright, fairly small, irregularly round, 0.6'x0.5', fairly well concentrated with a small bright core.  At the south end of the "Pisces Group" with NGC 385 1.7' N.

 

17.5" (9/19/87): fairly faint, slightly elongated, bright core.  NGC 385 2' N and NGC 386 is 4.3' NNE in the NGC 383 group.

 

13" (9/29/84): fairly faint, small, round, small bright core.  Forms a pair with NGC 385.

 

Bindon Stoney discovered NGC 384 = Au 7 on 4 Nov 1850 with LdR's 72" and labeled it "Zeta" on his sketch of the Pisces Group.  Heinrich d'Arrest rediscovered this galaxy (along with NGC 385) and measured an accurate position on 12 Oct 1861 with the 11-inch Fraunhofer refractor in Copenhagen.  Auwers published d'Arrest's observation in his 1862 catalogue of new nebulae and JH credited d'Arrest with the discovery in the GC. Dreyer included LdR, as well as d'Arrest, in the NGC.

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NGC 385 = Arp 331 NED4 = UGC 687 = MCG +05-03-056 = CGCG 501-085 = LGG 018-004 = PGC 3984

01 07 27.2 +32 19 12

V = 13.0;  Size 1.1'x1.0';  Surf Br = 12.9

 

18" (11/18/06): moderately bright, fairly small, round, 1.0' diameter, strong concentration with a bright 20" core.  Located near the south end of the "Pisces Group" and appears slightly larger and brighter than nearby NGC 384 1.7' SSW.  A trio of mag 12-13 stars lies 2'-3' WNW and the two northern stars are collinear with the galaxy.

 

17.5" (9/19/87): fairly faint, small, slightly elongated, bright core.  Forms a trio with NGC 386 2.6' N and NGC 384 1.8' S in the NGC 383 group.

 

13" (9/29/84): fairly faint, small, small bright core, similar to NGC 384.

 

Bindon Stoney discovered NGC 385 = Au 8 on 4 Nov 1850 with Lord Rosse's 72" and labeled "Epsilon" in his sketch of the NGC 383 (Pisces) Group.  Heinrich d'Arrest independently found this galaxy on 7 Oct 1861 with the 11-inch Fraunhofer refractor in Copenhagen and measured an accurate position (4 measurements).  d'Arrest's observation was included in Auwers 1862 catalogue of new nebulae and JH credited d'Arrest with the discovery in the GC.  Dreyer credited both LdR and d'Arrest when compiling the NGC.

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NGC 386 = Arp 331 NED7 = MCG +05-03-057 = CGCG 501-088 = PGC 3989

01 07 31.3 +32 21 43

V = 14.3;  Size 0.5'x0.4';  Surf Br = 12.6

 

18" (11/18/06): faint, fairly small, round, 25" diameter, gradually increases to a very small brighter core.  Located 3.3' SSE of NGC 383 and on a line to the north of the NGC 384/385 pair in the core of the "Pisces Group".

 

17.5" (9/19/87): very faint, very small, round, bright core.  Located 3.3' SSE of NGC 383 in a group.  NGC 385 lies 2.6' S.

 

Bindon Stoney discovered NGC 386 on 4 Nov 1850 with Lord Rosse's 72" and he labeled this nebula as "Delta" in his sketch of the NGC 383 (Pisces) Group.

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NGC 387 = PGC 3987

01 07 33.0 +32 23 28

V = 15.5;  Size 0.3'x0.3'

 

18" (11/18/06): at 280x appeared very faint, very small, round, 8" diameter.  This is perhaps the smallest and faintest NGC galaxy in the "Pisces Chain".  Located 2' SE of NGC 383 and 2.5' N of NGC 386 in the heart of the "Pisces Group".

 

17.5" (9/19/87): extremely faint, round, almost stellar.  Located 1.8' NNE of NGC 386 and 2.1' SE of NGC 383 in the NGC 383 group.  Not 100% certain of its non-stellar appearance.

 

Lawrence Parsons discovered NGC 387 on 10 Dec 1873 with Lord Rosse's 72" and included it on the sketch that was made of the cluster (later labeled as GC 5149), along with offsets from NGC 383.  The GC (5149) and NGC position matches PGC 3987.

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NGC 388 = Arp 331 NED8 = MCG +05-03-059 = CGCG 501-090 = LGG 018-018 = PGC 4005

01 07 47.1 +32 18 36

V = 14.3;  Size 0.6'x0.3';  Surf Br = 12.5;  PA = 168d

 

18" (11/18/06): at 280x appeared faint, small, round, 20" diameter.  Located 4.5' E of the NGC 384/385 pair at the south end of the "Pisces Group".

 

17.5" (9/19/87):extremely faint and small, round, size 10"-15".  Located 5'-6' E of NGC 385 in the NGC 383 group.

 

Bindon Stoney discovered NGC 388 on 4 Nov 1850 with Lord Rosse's 72" and labeled it as "Theta" in the sketch made of the NGC 383 (Pisces) Group. 

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NGC 389 = UGC 703 = MCG +06-03-014 = CGCG 520-017 = PGC 4054

01 08 30.0 +39 41 44

V = 13.8;  Size 1.3'x0.4';  Surf Br = 13.0;  PA = 54d

 

17.5" (1/1/92): very faint, very small, elongated 2:1 SW-NE, even surface brightness.  A mag 11 star is just off the NE edge 0.7' from center which detracts from viewing.  Forms a pair with NGC 393 3.3' SSE.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 389 = Sw II-12 on 6 Sep 1885 with the 16" refractor at Warner Observatory.  His position is 30 sec of RA west and 1.5' north of UGC 703 = PGC 4054.  His description "* near" applies to the star just off the NE end of this galaxy.

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NGC 390

01 07 54.4 +32 25 59

 

=*, Corwin.

 

Guillaume Bigourdan discovered NGC 390 = Big. 9 on 19 Nov 1884 with the 12" refractor at the Paris Observatory and recorded "mag 13.4-13.5; stellar aspect".  According to Harold Corwin (private correspondence), Bigourdan's offsets match a star at 01 07 54 +32 25 59 (2000).

 

RNGC misidentifies PGC 4021 as NGC 390.  PGC 4021 is  4' ENE of Bigourdan's place.

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NGC 391 = UGC 693 = MCG +00-03-075 = CGCG 384-077 = PGC 3976

01 07 22.6 +00 55 33

V = 13.4;  Size 0.9'x0.7';  Surf Br = 12.8;  PA = 45d

 

17.5" (11/30/91): fairly faint, very small, round, compact, well-defined edge, small bright core.  Located 1.7' SSE of a mag 9.5 star and 4.4' NNE of mag 9.5 SAO 109686.

 

George Bond, director of Harvard College Observatory, discovered NGC 391 = HN 3 = Au 9 on 8 Jan 1853 with the 15-inch Merz & Mahler refractor while taking micrometric positions of stars for the Harvard Zone Catalogue.  He noted a "faint nebula, 1' 30" south following star number 32 [11th magnitude]."  At this exact position is UGC 693 = PGC 3976.  Auwers included Bond's discovery in his 1862 Catalogue of new nebulae, before the GC was published.

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NGC 392 = UGC 700 = MCG +05-03-062 = CGCG 501-094 = Holm 36a = KTG 3A = PGC 4042

01 08 23.5 +33 08 00

V = 12.8;  Size 1.2'x0.9';  Surf Br = 12.8;  PA = 50d

 

24" (10/5/13): brightest member of the KTG 3 triplet with NGC 394 1.0' NNE and NGC 397 2.2' SE.  At 375x appeared fairly bright, fairly small, slightly elongated SW-NE, 30"x25", increases to a bright stellar nucleus.  A mag 13 star lies 1.2' SW.  Also recorded IC 1619 13' WSW and UGC 692 15' SW.

 

17.5" (12/23/89): fairly faint, round, bright core, sharp stellar nucleus.  A mag 13 star is 1' SW.  Brightest of three (KTG 3) with NGC 394 1' NE and NGC 397 2' SE.

 

WH discovered NGC 392 = H II-218 = h87 on 12 Sep 1784 (sweep 268) and simply noted "F, resembling the foregoing [NGC 379, 380, 383]."  JH remarked "pF; bM nearly to a *; between 2 stars" and measured an accurate position.  Both Herschels missed the nearby galaxies NGC 394 and 397.

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NGC 393 = UGC 707 = MCG +06-03-015 = CGCG 520-018 = V Zw 52 = PGC 4061

01 08 37.0 +39 38 39

V = 12.5;  Size 1.7'x1.4';  Surf Br = 13.4;  PA = 20d

 

17.5" (1/1/92): fairly faint, small, elongated 4:3 SW-NE, sharp concentration, faint halo, two mag 13/13.5 star are 1.2' WNW and 1.6' NW with a separation of 36".  Forms a pair with NGC 389 3.3' NNW.

 

WH discovered NGC 393 = H I-54 = h88 on 5 Oct 1784 during sweeps 281-285, which were made in the east (not in CH's fair copy of the sweeps).  On 18 Oct 1786 (sweep 618) he recorded "pB, S, R, vgbM."  When JH took a look on 1 Oct 1828, he logged "vF; vS; lE; gbM; 10".  Allowing the moon & c. this cannot be a 1st class neb [as his father placed it]; no other neb near it."  In the GC notes, JH mentions "This (h88) is not the I. 54 of the P.T, which proved to be one of Messier's nebulae, but another subsequently inserted by WH, so as not to break the order of the numbers..."  Both Herschels missed nearby NGC 389 (discovered by Lewis Swift).

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NGC 394 = MCG +05-03-063 = CGCG 501-095 = Holm 36b = KTG 3B = PGC 4049

01 08 26.0 +33 08 52

V = 13.8;  Size 0.5'x0.2';  Surf Br = 11.3;  PA = 135d

 

24" (10/5/13): moderately bright, fairly small, elongated 2:1 NW-SE, 0.4'x0.2', small brighter core.  Second brightest in a small triplet (KTG 3) with brighter NGC 392 1.0' SW and NGC 397 2.6' SSE.

 

17.5" (12/23/89): faint, small, oval NW-SE, small brighter core.  In a group with NGC 392 1' SW and NGC 397 3' SSE.

 

R.J. Mitchell discovered NGC 394 using Lord Rosse's 72" on 26 Oct 1854.  His description for NGC 392 (GC 212) reads "B, S, R, bM. [John Herschel] described it as between 2 stars.  I think the northernmost one is a nebula [NGC 394] of same character but smaller."  There are two entries for this galaxy in the GC, the second (GC 215) from Heinrich d'Arrest's independent discovery on 22 Aug 1862.  Both GC entries were combined in the NGC.

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NGC 395 = ESO 051-SC016 = Kron 51 = Lindsay 75 = SMC-N78A/B

01 05 07.9 -71 59 37

Size 2'

 

18" (7/6/02 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): easily picked up in the same field as brighter NGC 371.  At 171x, this is a moderately bright 4' round knot of mag 14 or fainter stars with a good response to the UHC filter (emission component = LMC-N78).  The surface brightness is fairly high with the filter although it is just described as a "star group" in Hartung.  Forms a pair with IC 1624 3.2' SSE.  Located 8' NE of NGC 371.

 

James Dunlop probably discovered  NGC 395 = D 35 = D 34? = h2379 on 1 Aug 1826 with his 9" reflector and recorded (for D 35) "a very small faint nebula, with a small star in the south margin."  He made two observations of D 35 and one observation of D 34 and his published position for D 35 is 7' too far south.  JH made a single observation on 5 Nov 1836 and recorded "very faint, pretty large, round, gradually a little brighter in the middle; 2' across."  His position and description is accurate and no mention is made of Dunlop's possible discovery. See NGC Corrections list from Harvard College Observatory and the IC 2 notes/corrections, DeLisle Stewart.

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NGC 396 = 2MASXJ01080838+0431509 = PGC 99944

01 08 08.4 +04 31 51

V = 14.2;  Size 0.7'x0.4';  Surf Br = 12.7;  PA = 140d

 

17.5" (10/4/97): very faint, very small, slightly elongated.  Required averted vision to identify with GSC finder chart but with concentration can just hold steadily.  Located 2.1' NNW of a mag 13 star.  By a remarkable coincidence, Saturn was in the same low power field just 15' due S!  Best view of NGC 396 at 280x with Saturn sufficiently out of field to avoid any glare.  Misidentified in RNGC (MCG +00-04-020).

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 396 = m 35 on 27 Oct 1864 with William Lassell's 48" on Malta and recorded "eF, S, lE."  Harold Corwin notes that a faint galaxy (PGC 99944) is very close to Marth's position (just 5 sec of RA west) with a star superimposed on the north side.  RNGC misidentifies UGC 729 as NGC 396.  UGC 729 is located 1” S and 2.2 min of RA east of Marth's position!

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NGC 397 = MCG +05-03-064 = CGCG 501-096 = KTG 3C = PGC 4051

01 08 31.0 +33 06 33

V = 14.6;  Size 0.7'x0.5';  Surf Br = 13.3

 

24" (10/5/13): faintest in the KTG 3 triplet with brighter NGC 392 2.2' NW and NGC 394 2.5' NNW.  At 375x appeared fairly faint, small, 15"x12", slightly elongated SW-NE, very weak concentration.

 

17.5" (12/23/89): extremely faint and small, slightly elongated, very low even surface brightness.  Faintest of three with NGC 392 2' NW.

 

Sir Robert Ball, an assistant on Lord Rosse's 72" telescope, discovered NGC 397 on 6 Dec 1866.  While observing GC 212 = NGC 392 he noted a "suspected neb preceded by a vF*".  The closest match is MCG +05-03-064 and MCG gives the tentative identification "NGC 397?". There is no "very faint star" preceding this compact galaxy but there is one close following.

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NGC 398 = MCG +05-03-065 = CGCG 501-100 = PGC 4090

01 08 53.6 +32 30 52

V = 14.5;  Size 0.8'x0.5';  Surf Br = 13.4;  PA = 135d

 

18" (11/18/06): very faint, very small, round, 10" diameter.  Member of the "Pisces Group" (z = 0.016), though located 20' NE of NGC 383.

 

17.5" (12/23/89): extremely faint and small, round, low surface brightness.  Requires averted to see well.  NGC 399 lies 7' NNE.

 

Guillaume Bigourdan discovered NGC 398 = Big. 10 on 28 Oct 1886 with the 12" refractor at the Paris Observatory.  His position is accurate.

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NGC 399 = UGC 712 = MCG +05-03-067 = CGCG 501-101 = LGG 018-005 = PGC 4096

01 08 59.2 +32 38 03

V = 13.6;  Size 0.9'x0.7';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 40d

 

18" (11/18/06): this member of the NGC 383 group ("Pisces Group") appeared fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 3:2 SW-NE, 0.7'x0.45', weak even concentration.

 

17.5" (12/23/89): faint, small, slightly elongated N-S, even concentration to bright core, substellar nucleus.  NGC 403 is 7.5' NE and NGC 398 7' SSW.

 

Lawrence Parsons discovered NGC 399 on 7 Oct 1874 with the 72" at Birr Castle and noted a "small nebula" 464.3" (7.7') in PA 205.4” (SSW) from GC 217 = NGC 403.  This offset matches UGC 712 = PGC 4096.  The actual separation is 465" and the PA 204”.  Bigourdan measured an accurate position.

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NGC 400

01 09 02.5 +32 43 57

 

 =*, HC.  =Not found, JS.

 

Sir Robert Ball, an assistant on Lord Rosse's 72" telescope, discovered NGC 400 on 30 Dec 1866.  He placed his object, with respect to GC 217 = NGC 403, at a separation of 151" (2.5') in PA 242” (WSW).  At this offset is a very faint star at 01 09 02.5 +32 43 57.  NGC 401, described in the same observation, also refers to a faint star!

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NGC 401

01 09 07.7 +32 45 35

 

 =*, HC.  =Not found, JS.

 

Sir Robert Ball, an assistant on Lord Rosse's 72" telescope, discovered NGC 400 on 30 Dec 1866.  He placed his object, with respect to GC 217 = NGC 403, at a separation of roughly 110" in PA 291.3”.  At this offset is a very faint star at 01 09 07.7 +32 45 35.  GC 5153 = NGC 400, described in the same observation by Ball, is also a faint star!

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NGC 402

01 09 13.3 +32 48 23

 

 =*, HC.  =Not found, JS.

 

Lawrence Parsons discovered NGC 402 on 7 Oct 1874 with his father's 72" and recorded a "faint nebulous knot" and placed 281.7" in PA 353” from star 1 in the sketch.  This star is 87.3" in PA 177” from NGC 403 and has a position of 01 09 15.7 +32 43 42 (2000).  This offset points to a very faint star at 01 09 13.3 +32 48 23 (2000).

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NGC 403 = UGC 715 = MCG +05-03-068 = CGCG 501-104 = LGG 018-006 = PGC 4111

01 09 14.1 +32 45 07

V = 12.5;  Size 1.9'x0.6';  Surf Br = 12.6;  PA = 86d

 

18" (11/18/06): fairly bright, moderately large, very elongated 3:1 E-W, ~1.3'x0.4', sharp concentration with a small, very bright core.  The extensions are fairly low surface brightness but appear a bit asymmetric; possibly misaligned at slightly different angles or slightly different widths.  A group of four stars nearly forming a trapezoid is close south.  Located ~30' NE of the core of the NGC 383 group ("Pisces Group") and one of the brightest members of the cluster.  MCG +05-03-071 lies 2' SE.

 

17.5" (12/23/89): moderately bright, moderately large, very elongated 3:1 E-W, bright core, small bright nucleus.  Four mag 10-13 stars are close south.  Brightest of a trio with MCG +05-03-071 = CGCG 501-105 2' SE and NGC 399 8' SW.

 

Heinrich d'Arrest discovered NGC 403 on 29 Aug 1862 with the 11" refractor at Copenhagen.  His position (measured on 2 nights) matches UGC 715 = PGC 4111 and he also noted the four stars to the south, measuring the one nearly due south.

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NGC 404 = Mirach's Ghost = UGC 718 = MCG +06-03-018 = CGCG 520-020 = LGG 011-009 = PGC 4126

01 09 26.9 +35 43 05

V = 10.3;  Size 3.5'x3.5';  Surf Br = 12.8

 

17.5" (10/13/01): bright, fairly large, round, at least 2' diameter.  Contains a bright 30" core that increases steadily to a bright stellar nucleus.  Located 7' NW of mag 2.1 Beta Andromedae (Mirach), which detracts somewhat from viewing.

 

13" (12/22/84): bright, round, bright stellar nucleus.  Located 7' NW of Beta Andromedae (V = 2.1)!

 

WH discovered NGC 404 = H II-224 = h89 on 13 Sep 1784 (sweep 271) and recorded "pretty bright (not withstanding the light of Beta Andromeda, which is in the field with it), cL, R, bM."  The observers on LdR's 72" tried to resolve this nebula.  R.J. Mitchell reported on 16 Oct 1855, "pL, B.  I have no doubt it is a cluster.  The F borders of the nebula extend a long way out, involving several stars."

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NGC 405 = ESO 243-*039

01 08 33.9 -46 40 05

 

= Double star 7.3/8.3 at 1.2", Corwin and ESO.

 

JH discovered NGC 405 = h2380 on 6 Sep 1834 and recorded "After a long and obstinate examination with all powers and apertures, I cannot bring it to a sharp disc and leave it, in doubt whether it be a star or not. The star [Beta Phe] immediately preceding offered no such difficulty, giving a good disc with 320."  This is clearly a double star on the Southern Sky Survey (SAO 215379) and is identified in the Sky Catalogue 2000 as SLR (Sellors) 2 = 7.3/8.3 at 1.2".

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NGC 406 = ESO 051-018 = PGC 3980

01 07 24.4 -69 52 33

V = 12.5;  Size 3.3'x1.3';  Surf Br = 13.9;  PA = 160d

 

24" (4/5/08 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): at 260x, this interesting edge-on is fairly bright, large, elongated 3:1 NNW-SSE, ~2.5'x0.8'.  Contains a large, elongated core.  Emerging from the east edge of the north end is an extremely thin extension or arm that stretches north-northwest.  A fainter, less obvious arm is attached at the west edge of the south end.  In addition there appears to be a faint star or knot involved [images reveal a star superimposed south of the core but also a double HII knot further south near the edge]. This galaxy is located 1” NNE of the bright globular cluster NGC 362 and 3” NNE of the center of the SMC!

 

JH discovered NGC 406 = h2381 on 6 Sep 1834 and logged "F, R, vL, vglbM, 3' dia.".  His position matches ESO 051-018 = PGC 3980.  In Harvard College Observatory NGC corrections, DeLisle Stewart notes that "eE wisps (arms) at 165d" (repeated in IC 2 notes).

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NGC 407 = UGC 730 = MCG +05-03-077 = CGCG 501-115 = PGC 4190

01 10 36.5 +33 07 35

V = 13.4;  Size 1.7'x0.4';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 0d

 

17.5" (12/23/89): fairly faint, fairly small, very elongated 3:1 N-S, bright core.  Faintest of three with NGC 410 5' ENE and NGC 414 8.4' E.

 

13" (8/23/84): faint, very small, slightly elongated N-S, NGC 410 5' ENE.

 

WH discovered NGC 407 = H II-219, along with NGC 410 = II-220, on 12 Sep 1784 (sweep 268) and described both as "Two, eF and vS.  The following [NGC 410] the largest."  He gave a single position, roughly between the two galaxies.  ƒdouard Stephan (XIII-9) independently found the galaxy on 2 Oct 1883 at the Marseille Observatory and published an accurate position.  Herman Schultz also measured a precise micrometric position and recorded a nearby star as a "nova" (NGC 408).

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NGC 408

01 10 51.1 +33 09 05

 

=* 1.6' W of NGC 410, Gottlieb and Carlson.  Incorrect identification in the RNGC.  17.5" (12/23/89): (R)NGC 408 not found.

 

Herman Schultz discovered NGC 408 = Nova III on 22 Oct 1867 with the 9.6-inch refractor at the Uppsala Observatory.  Schultz placed this object just 8 tsec of RA preceding NGC 410.  At this offset is a mag 14.5 star at 01 10 51.1 +33 09 05 (2000), which almost certainly is his object.  RNGC misidentified PGC 4221 as NGC 408.  This galaxy is 3' SW of NGC 410.  Since Schultz micrometric measurement placed his ŅnovaÓ due west of NGC 410, the RNGC identification is incorrect.  Dorothy Carlson, in her 1939 paper on NGC errata, also came to this conclusion based on Mount Wilson photographs.  Finally, the RNGC has misinterpreted the NGC description to read "406 F 8S" instead of "410 F 8S".  Bigourdan probably observed PGC 4221 (described as almost stellar) although I missed it with my 17.5".  See Malcolm Thompson's "Catalogue Corrections" and my RNGC Corrections #5.

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NGC 409 = ESO 352-012 = MCG -06-03-023 = PGC 4132

01 09 33.2 -35 48 21

V = 13.0;  Size 1.3'x1.1';  Surf Br = 13.3

 

17.5" (10/4/97): very faint, small, round, 30" diameter.  Located just 45" SE of a mag 13 star.  Identified at 280x after missing at 220x.  Brighter than NGC 415 20' NNE.

 

JH discovered NGC 409 = h2382 on 29 Nov 1837 and reported "eF, R, S, near a vS star." His position is 8 sec of RA east and 2' north of ESO 352-012 and the description of the nearby star (to the NW) clinches the identification.

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NGC 410 = UGC 735 = MCG +05-03-080 = CGCG 501-118 = Mrk 562 = PGC 4224

01 10 58.9 +33 09 07

V = 11.5;  Size 2.4'x1.3';  Surf Br = 12.7;  PA = 30d

 

17.5" (12/23/89): moderately bright, moderately large, slightly elongated, broadly concentrated halo, stellar nucleus.  In a trio with NGC 407 5' WSW and NGC 414 5' SE.

 

13" (9/29/84): brightest of 3, fairly bright, bright core, slightly elongated SW-NE, NGC 414 4.5' SE.

 

WH discovered NGC 410 = H II-220, along with NGC 407 = II-219, on 12 Sep 1784 (sweep 268) and recorded "Two. The preceding faint, very small. The following pretty large". Herman Schultz measured an accurate position at Uppsala.

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NGC 411 = NGC 422 = ESO 051-SC019 = Kron 60 = Lindsay 82

01 07 55.9 -71 46 00

V = 12.2;  Size 1.9'

 

18" (7/11/05 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): fairly faint, moderately large, round, 1.2' diameter.  At 228x, appears as a low surface brightness glow with a very weak concentration and no sign of resolution.  Located 5' NW of mag 8.6 HD 7031 and 19' NE of NGC 395.  Viewed through thin haze.

 

18" (7/6/02 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): this fairly faint SMC cluster was immediately noticed in the same lower power field while viewing NGC 395/IC 1624 about 20' SW.  At 128x it appeared fairly small, round, ~1.5' diameter, mottled but with no resolution.  Located 5.3' NW of mag 8.6 HD 7031 and 13' ESE of mag 7.4 HD 6623.

 

JH discovered NGC 411 = h2384 in Sep 1835 and recorded "vF, pL, R, vlbM; 2'."  His position is accurate.  On a second sweep he gave a similar description and position, but Harold Corwin found he miscopied the RA minute (1 tmin too large) into his table of "Stars, Nebulae, and Clusters in the Nubecula Minor" and it later received the designations GC 231 and NGC 422.  So, NGC 411 = NGC 422, with NGC 411 the primary designation.  See entry for NGC 422.

 

James Dunlop possibly discovered NGC 411 = D 56 or D 57 in 1826 with his 9" reflector and described "a small faint nebula" and "a small faint nebula, about 15" diameter."  With the first entry, the position is 16.6' SSE of this cluster and the second entry is 19' SE, both far enough off and a vague enough description that neither is very secure. 

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NGC 412

01 10 18 -20 01

 

=Not found, RNGC and Corwin.

 

Francis Leavenworth discovered NGC 412 = LM I-26 on 15 Oct 1885 with the 26" Clark refractor at the Leander McCormick Observatory and simply noted "Neb?" There is nothing near Leavenworth's position.  Corwin examined the discovery sketch, but it wasn't of much help and he was unable to recover this object (or even identify it with a star).  ESO lists ESO 541-019 = PGC 3931 as a possible candidate, although this galaxy is 3.8 min of RA west and 19' S of Leavenworth's place.  So, at this time NGC 412 is lost.

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NGC 413 = MCG -01-04-013 = PGC 4347

01 12 31.5 -02 47 37

V = 14.1;  Size 1.1'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.7;  PA = 151d

 

17.5" (8/4/97): very faint, diffuse glow located 1.3' SSE of a mag 13.5-14 star. The galaxy is roundish and ~1' in diameter with little or no concentration.  The star to the north is preceded by a mag 14-14.5 star 1.4' W.  The RNGC identification at  01 12 31.5 -02 47 38 is probably incorrect and this number was deleted from DSFG.

 

Francis Leavenworth discovered NGC 413 = LM II-301 in 1886 with the 26" refractor at Leander McCormick Observatory.  His very rough position (to nearest minute of RA and given as doubtful) is 2 tmin west of MCG -01-04-013 = PGC 4347.  This galaxy is not identified as NGC 413 in the MCG.  RNGC misidentifies MCG -01-04-004, an edge-on galaxy, as NGC 413.

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NGC 414 = UGC 744 = CGCG 501-123 = IV Zw 39 = PGC 4254

01 11 17.6 +33 06 48

V = 13.5;  Size 0.7'x0.4';  Surf Br = 12.0;  PA = 35d

 

17.5" (12/23/89): fairly faint, small, elongated NW-SE.  Third of three with NGC 410 5' NW and NGC 407 8.4' W.  Consists of a pair of compacts.

 

13" (9/29/84): faint, thin streak NW-SE, weak concentration.

 

Herman Schultz discovered NGC 414 = Nova IV on 15 Oct 1866 with the 9.6-inch refractor at Uppsala Observatory.  His micrometric position matches UGC 744 = PGC 4254.  This appears to be the only galaxy in the NGC that Schultz discovered first.  His NGC 20 was discovered earlier by R.J. Mitchell using Lord Rosse's 72", his GC 5096 = NGC 90 was also found earlier by Mitchell (GC 40), GC 6153 = NGC 7553 was discovered earlier by George Stoney (GC 4913) and finally NGC 7571 is probably a duplicate of NGC 7597, discovered earlier by Albert Marth.  All his other NGC objects are single or double stars.

 

This is a double or merged system with two nuclei.  The companion on the southeast side is catalogued separately as PGC 93079 and was not resolved in my observation.

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NGC 415 = ESO 352-014 = MCG -06-03-024 = PGC 4161

01 10 05.7 -35 29 27

V = 13.5;  Size 1.4'x0.8';  Surf Br = 13.5;  PA = 55d

 

17.5" (10/4/97): extremely faint, small, slightly elongated, 30" diameter (probably only viewed core).  Required averted vision at 280x and could not hold steadily.  NGC 409 is located 20' SSW.

 

JH discovered NGC 415 = h2383 on 1 Sep 1834 and noted "vF, R, gbM, 20"." On a later he called it "vF, S, R, glbM, 15"." Herschel's mean position  matches ESO 352-014.

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NGC 416 = ESO 029-SC32 = Lindsay 83 = Kron 59

01 07 59.0 -72 21 19

V = 11.4;  Size 1.1'

 

18" (7/10/05 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): at 228x, this SMC cluster appeared fairly bright, moderately large, round, 1.2' diameter. A mag 13 star lies 1' N.  Located in a rich faint star field.  Located 31' N of NGC 419 and 27' SE of the large, nebulous cluster NGC 371.

 

James Dunlop possibly discovered NGC 416 = D 42 = D 43? = h2386 in Sep 1826 with his 9" reflector and described a "round well-defined nebula, about 30" diameter."  His position is 13.5' SE of the cluster and with a number of other nearby entries that are either spurious or with poor positions, this identification is uncertain.  JH made 4 observations at the Cape with the earliest on 11 Apr 1834 recording "F; S; R; 30".  His other sweeps gave sizes up to 60" and his positions are accurate.  Herschel made no reference to the earlier Dunlop observations.

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NGC 417 = ESO 541-024 = MCG -03-04-019 = PGC 4237

01 11 05.5 -18 08 54

V = 14.1;  Size 0.6'x0.5';  Surf Br = 12.8;  PA = 55d

 

17.5" (10/4/97): extremely faint, very small, round, 20" diameter.  Can almost hold continuously with averted vision after identified at 280x.  Very weak if any concentration.  No brighter stars in field.

 

Francis Leavenworth discovered NGC 417 = LM II-300 in 1886 with the 26" refractor at the Leander McCormick Observatory.   His RA is 0.4 min west of ESO 541-024, a close enough match.  This is a double system, though Leavenworth missed the fainter northern component.  Herbert Howe measured an accurate position in 1899-00 using the 20" refractor at Chamberlin Observatory (repeated in the IC 2 notes).

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NGC 418 = ESO 412-009 = MCG -05-04-002 = PGC 4189

01 10 35.5 -30 13 17

V = 12.6;  Size 2.0'x1.7';  Surf Br = 13.8;  PA = 19d

 

17.5" (11/6/93): very faint, slightly elongated, fairly small, 1.2' diameter, low surface brightness though slight broad concentration, gradually fades into the background.  A mag 14 star is 2' S.  Located 7' S of a mag 10 star.

 

JH discovered NGC 418 = h2385 on 27 Sep 1834 and logged "not vF, pL, R, gbM, 60"."  On a later sweep he noted "F, R, vglbM, 40", the preceding of two [with NGC 423]."  His mean position is accurate.

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NGC 419 = ESO 029-SC33 = Lindsay 85

01 08 17 -72 53 00

V = 10.6;  Size 2.6'

 

30" (11/6/10 - Coonabarabran, 264x): very bright, large, impressive, large bright core, fainter halo, 2' diameter.  Mottled and lively but not resolved.  A mag 9 star lies 8' S and a mag 7 star lies 9' SE.

 

18" (7/10/05 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): quite bright, fairly large, round, 1.8' diameter, moderately concentrated, granular but no resolution.  Appears like an unresolved globular cluster with a very symmetrical appearance although classified as a rich open cluster.  Located 9' NW of mag 7 HD 7187 and 7.5' N of mag 9 HD 6997.

 

James Dunlop probably discovered NGC 419 = D 38 (and possibly D 39 and D44) = h2387 on 2 Sep 1826 with his 9" reflector at Parramatta, and recorded (for D 38) a "very small oval nebula, a little brighter in the centre; a star of the 8th magnitude south."  Dunlop claimed two observations of D38, two of D39 and one of D44.  His position for D38 is 7.8' SSE and for D44 16' NE (Glen Cozens found a typo in the RA) of this SMC cluster.  JH gives 4 observations in the Cape catalogue, first recording the cluster on 11 Apr 1834 as "pB; pL; R; 2'. Has two stars near".  His position and description is very accurate.  Herschel gave a possible equivalence with D 36, though that entry more likely applies to NGC 376.

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NGC 420 = UGC 752 = MCG +05-03-083 = CGCG 501-127 = PGC 4320

01 12 09.6 +32 07 24

V = 12.1;  Size 2.0'x2.0';  Surf Br = 13.5

 

17.5" (12/23/89): fairly faint, moderately large, round, bright core, large fainter halo.  Located 10' W of ·98 = 7.0/8.0 at 20".

 

WH discovered NGC 420 = H III-154 = h90, along with NGC 421 = III-155, on 12 Sep 1784 (sweep 268) and logged both as "Two. Both eF, vS. The following [NGC 421] is the largest."  Dreyer commented in the notes section: "Nothing said in the sweep about their distance apart. John Herschel, d'Arrest (only once, in moonlight), an observer at Birr Castle and Bigourdan have seen only one neb, no doubt the following one."  Corwin notes that despite Herschel's comment that the following [NGC 421] is the largest, "all the observers have assigned the preceding number (H III-154 = NGC 420) to the object" here.

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NGC 421

01 12 12 +32 07

 

=Not found, Carlson.

 

WH discovered NGC 421 = H III-155, along with NGC 420 = III-154 on 12 Sep 1784 (sweep 268) and logged both as "Two. Both eF, vS. The following [NGC 421] is the largest."  Dreyer notes there was no mention in the sweep of the separation between the objects and that only a single galaxy was observed by JH, Bigourdan, and at Birr Castle.  Perhaps William Herschel thought that NGC 420 was double?  In any case, although the original description seems to imply that NGC 421 should be the number of the single galaxy here, everyone has assigned NGC 420 to the galaxy.  See Corwin's notes for further discussion.

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NGC 422 = NGC 411 = ESO 051-SC019 = Kron 60 = Lindsay 82

01 07 55.9 -71 46 00

V = 12.2;  Size 1.9'

 

See observing notes for NGC 411.  The cluster previously assumed to be NGC 422 is IC 1641 and my notes for this cluster are copied below --

18" (7/11/05 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): very faint, small, 30" diameter, low surface brightness and no hint of resolution.  Follows NGC 411 by 7' and forms the eastern vertex of an equilateral triangle with NGC 411 and a mag 8 star 6' SW.  Observation made through thin haze.

 

18" (7/6/02 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): this faint SMC cluster is located 7' following NGC 411.  At 228x it appeared as just a very faint knot, less than 1' diameter with a low surface brightness and no resolution.  Located 5.5' NE of mag 8.6 HD 7031.

 

JH discovered NGC 422 in 1836 with his 20-foot (18") reflector and it was included as #162 in his catalogue of "Stars, Nebulae, and Clusters in the Nubecula Minor".  His position is 30 sec of RA west (very small offset at this declination) of ESO 051-SC022 = Kron 65 = Lindsay 87, the faint cluster taken as NGC 422 by all modern sources (ESO, NED, SIMBAD, etc).

 

But Harold Corwin found that the entry #162 in "Stars, Nebulae, and Clusters in the Nubecula Minor" actually derives from Herschel's second observation of NGC 411 = h2384 ("eF; pL; R; glbM 2'.") on sweep 745 (5 Nov 1836) but he accidentally increased the RA by 1.0 tmin.  So, NGC 411 has two entries in this table (both indicated as deriving from a sweep with his 18") -- #162, which is 1.0 tmin too large, and #157, which was copied correctly.  Entry #162 later acquired the numbers GC 231 and NGC 422.  So, NGC 422 = NGC 411 with NGC 411 the primary designation.

 

The cluster previously assumed to be NGC 422 was later discovered by DeLisle Stewart on plates taken in 1900 at Harvard's station in Arequipa, Peru and received the designation IC 1641.  Instead, IC 1641 has been misidentified as a very faint cluster (Hodge-Wright 62) just following the real IC 1641.  See Corwin's notes for more.

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NGC 423 = ESO 412-011 = MCG -05-04-004 = PGC 4266

01 11 22.2 -29 14 04

V = 13.4;  Size 1.0'x0.4';  Surf Br = 12.1;  PA = 114d

 

17.5" (11/6/93): very faint, fairly small, elongated 2:1 ~E-W, even surface brightness.  Located 7' S of mag 9.3 SAO 166858.

 

JH discovered NGC 423 = h2388 on 14 Nov 1835 and recorded "vF, S, E, glbM."  Two sweeps later he logged it as "eF, S, lE, 20", following of two [with NGC 418]." His position is accurate.

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NGC 424 = ESO 296-004 = MCG -06-03-026 = PGC 4274

01 11 27.6 -38 05 01

V = 12.8;  Size 1.8'x0.8';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 60d

 

17.5" (10/4/97): fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 2:1 SW-NE, 1.2'x0.6', brighter core.  NGC 438 lies 27' NE.

 

JH discovered NGC 424 = h2389 on 30 Nov 1837 and logged "vF, S, R, glbM, 18 arcsec."  His position matches ESO 296-004 = PGC 4274.

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NGC 425 = UGC 758 = MCG +06-03-023 = CGCG 520-026 = PGC 4379

01 13 02.6 +38 46 06

V = 12.6;  Size 1.0'x1.0';  Surf Br = 12.5

 

17.5" (8/16/93): fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 4:3 NW-SE, 0.8'x0.6', fairly even high surface brightness.  A mag 11 star is just off NW edge [29" from center].

 

Truman Safford discovered NGC 425 = Sf 62 on 29 Oct 1866 with the 18.5" refractor at the Dearborn Observatory and recorded "pS, pB, gar bM."  ƒdouard Stephan (X-4) independently found the galaxy on 11 Oct 1879 with the 31" reflector at the Marseille Observatory and was credited with the discovery in the NGC, as Safford's discovery list was published in 1887, too late to have been seen by Dreyer.

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NGC 426 = UGC 760 = MCG +00-04-035 = CGCG 385-026 = PGC 4363

01 12 48.6 -00 17 25

V = 12.9;  Size 1.4'x1.0';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 140d

 

17.5" (11/30/91): fairly faint, small, slightly elongated 4:3 NW-SE, prominent bright core.  First of trio with NGC 429 4' SE and NGC 430 3.5' NE.  Slightly fainter than NGC 430 but comparable in brightness.

 

WH discovered NGC 426 = H III-592 = h91, along with NGC 429, on 20 Dec 1786 (sweep 655) and logged "Three, the place is that of the last [NGC 430], which is the largest and most north, F, S.  The next in size is about 2 or 3' sp [NGC 426], vF, vS.  The last [NGC 429] is about 5' south of the 1st; eF, eS, not verified."

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NGC 427 = ESO 412-014 = MCG -05-04-007 = PGC 4333

01 12 19.2 -32 03 41

V = 14.1;  Size 1.0'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.5;  PA = 0d

 

17.5" (10/4/97): extremely faint, very small, round, 20" diameter (only core viewed?).  Required averted vision and GSC finder chart to identify at 280x.  Located in a sparse field.  A couple of very faint nearby stars were not recorded.

 

JH discovered NGC 427 = h2390 on 25 Sep 1834 and recorded "Rather doubtful, but I strongly incline to the suspicion of its being a vF neb with 2 vS stars near it".  On a second sweep (#635) he noted "I believe it only 3 vF st, but yet there remains a suspicion of nebulosity."  His position is just 1.3'  S of ESO 412-014, despite the uncertain observations.

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NGC 428 = UGC 763 = MCG +00-04-036 = CGCG 385-028 = PGC 4367

01 12 55.6 +00 58 54

V = 11.5;  Size 4.1'x3.1';  Surf Br = 14.1;  PA = 120d

 

24" (12/22/14): bright, fairly large, elongated 4:3 ~NW-SE, mottled irregular appearance, broad weak concentration.  With averted vision the halo increases in size to ~2.5'x2.0'.  A quasi-stellar HII region, catalogued in NED as UM 309 NED1 and NGC 428: [HK83] 44-46, occasionally pops as a very small detached knot, ~6" diameter.  This is the brightest in a series of blue HII knots on the northwest side of the outer core [45" WNW of center].  Forms the SE vertex of an isosceles triangle with mag 8.7 HD 7208 6' W and mag 8.6 HD 7276 8' NNE.  Mag 12.5 stars are 2' NW and 2' SSW [6" pair].

 

13.1" (9/3/86): fairly bright, moderately large, oval ~N-S, weak concentration.  A mag 13 star is at the NW edge 1.8' from center.  Forms the vertex of an isosceles triangle with two mag 8.5 stars SAO 109728 and SAO 109733 6.0' W and 6.0' NNE, respectively.

 

WH discovered NGC 428 = H II-622 on 20 Dec 1786 (sweep 655) and noted "F, R, bM, easily resolvable."  Heinrich d'Arrest measured an accurate micrometric position on 30 and 31 Oct 1864.

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NGC 429 = UGC 762 = MCG +00-04-037 = CGCG 385-027 = PGC 4368

01 12 57.4 -00 20 43

V = 13.4;  Size 1.4'x0.3';  Surf Br = 12.3;  PA = 19d

 

17.5" (11/30/91): faint, very small, slightly elongated, bright core.  A mag 14 star is 1' N.  Faintest of three with NGC 430 6' N and NGC 426 4' NW.

 

WH discovered NGC 429 = H III-593 = h92, along with NGC 426, on 20 Dec 1786 (sweep 655) and recorded "The last [NGC 429] is about 5' south of the 1st [NGC 430]; eF, eS, not verified."

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NGC 430 = UGC 765 = MCG +00-04-039 = CGCG 385-029 = PGC 4376

01 13 00.0 -00 15 09

V = 12.5;  Size 1.3'x1.1';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 155d

 

17.5" (11/30/91): fairly faint, small, round, prominent small bright core, stellar nucleus.  A mag 14 star is 1' SSW.  Brightest in a group with NGC 429 6' S and NGC 426 3.5' SW.

 

WH discovered NGC 430 = H II-447 = h93 on 1 Oct 1785 (sweep 448) and noted "eF, vS, 240 confirmed it with difficulty but left no doubt."  His position is accurate.  The following year he found NGC 426 and 429, so his summary description reads "F, S. Two more near it. See III.592.593 [NGC 426 and 429]."

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NGC 431 = UGC 776 = MCG +05-04-002 = CGCG 501-132 = PGC 4437

01 14 04.5 +33 42 15

V = 12.9;  Size 1.4'x0.9';  Surf Br = 13.0;  PA = 20d

 

17.5" (12/23/89): fairly faint, fairly small, slightly elongated SW-NE, bright core, stellar nucleus.  Located 2.5' SW of a mag 10.5 star.

 

JH discovered NGC 431 = h95 on 22 Nov 1827 and recorded "F; S; vsbM".  His position is accurate.

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NGC 432 = ESO 113-022 = PGC 4290

01 11 46.4 -61 31 40

V = 12.9;  Size 1.3'x1.2';  Surf Br = 13.3

 

Southern object (not observed).

 

JH discovered NGC 432 = h2391 on 6 Oct 1834 and logged "F, S, R."  No position was determined on that sweep.  On a later sweep he noted "pF, S, R, gbM, 15 arcseconds, has a star 12th mag following" and commented the "place is liable to some error".

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NGC 433 = Stock 22 = OCL-319 = Lund 41

01 15 09 +60 07 36

Size 3'

 

24" (1/4/14): the most distinctive part of this cluster is a mag 9.3 star surrounded by a 2' cloud (mostly south) of ~15 mag 13-14 stars.  A mag 11 star is at the NW corner, a 50" pair of mag 11 stars is at the SE end and a mag 11.5 star is at the SW corner.  A small string of stars extends from the mag 9.3 star to the southwest.

 

17.5" (8/16/93): 30 stars mag 10-14 in a 6' triangular outline although very few stars are inside the triangle.  The mag 10 star at the north vertex is surrounded (mostly on the south side) by a rich subgroup of faint stars,   including at least three close multiple systems.  Mag 8.7 SAO 22122 is just south of the triangle and 8' SSW of the mag 10 star in the cluster.

 

JH discovered NGC 433 = h94 on 29 Sep 1829 and described a "star 8m the chief of a small loose cluster." The mag 9.3 star is on the north side of the cluster. Robert Ball observed the cluster using the 72" at Birr Castle and logged "Loose CL. consisting of 50 or 60 stars of various sizes from about 8 mag down."

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NGC 434 = ESO 113-023 = KTS 8A = PGC 4325

01 12 14.2 -58 14 51

V = 12.0;  Size 2.1'x1.2';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 6d

 

Southern object (not observed).  Trio with NGC 440 (5' SE) and NGC 434A (3.2' NE).

 

JH discovered NGC 434 = h2392 on 28 Oct 1834 and logged "B, R, psbM, 40" dia."  His position is accurate (2 sweeps).

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NGC 435 = UGC 779 = MCG +00-04-046 = CGCG 385-035 = PGC 4434

01 13 59.9 +02 04 18

V = 14.2;  Size 1.1'x0.4';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 20d

 

17.5" (12/23/92): very faint, very small, round, low even surface brightness.  A mag 14 star is just off the WSW edge 20" from the center.  Located midway between mag 8.5 SAO 109745 2.5' SSW and mag 10.5 2.5' N.  NGC 445 lies 15' SE.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 435 = m 36 on 23 Oct 1864 with Lassell's 48" on Malta and noted "eF, S, E".  His position is 2' N of UGC 779 = PGC 4434.

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NGC 436 = Cr 11 = Mel 6 = OCL-320

01 15 58 +58 49 00

V = 8.8;  Size 6'

 

24" (1/4/14): at 200x, ~50 stars are resolved in a rich, 4' group that is well-detached and distinctive.  The main group is confined within a triangular outline with a mag 10.9 star at the S end, a mag 12 star at the W end and a mag 11.5 star at the N end.  Contains a very rich central region ~1.5' diameter and includes STI 1550, a close triple with components 11.2/11.3/11.8 at 9" and 12".  Another uncatalogued pair is just 0.6' S of STI 1550.  Two mag 9.5/10 stars are collinear to the east of the mag 10.9 star at the south end.

 

17.5" (8/16/93): 40 stars mag 10-15 in 4' diameter.  Includes a rich 1.5' region with 15 stars with a nice triple star in a tight equilateral triangle.  Other brighter stars in this grouping form a pentagon outline.  Three equally spaced mag 9-10 stars oriented E-W begin just off the south side.  Several sprays of stars emanate out in various directions from the central region.

 

17.5" (11/2/91): fairly bright and compact, ~30 stars mag  9-14 at 220x in a 4' diameter, distinctive group.  Just north of center is a tight triple star with 4th star to E, also second trio of stars is close south.  A mag 9 star near the south edge is collinear with two mag 9 stars 2' SE and 4' SE all equally spaced.

 

WH discovered NGC 436 = H VII-45 on 3 Nov 1787 (sweep 774).  His summary description is "a small pretty compressed cluster of stars, not rich, iF, like a forming one."  The NGC position is accurate.

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NGC 437 = UGC 788 = MCG +01-04-005 = CGCG 411-009 = PGC 4464

01 14 22.3 +05 55 37

V = 12.8;  Size 1.3'x1.0';  Surf Br = 13.0;  PA = 130d

 

17.5" (11/30/91): fairly faint, small, round, small bright core, stellar nucleus.  A mag 13.5 star is 1.1' NW.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 437 = Sw V-11 on 22 Oct 1886 with the 16" refractor at the Warner Observatory.  His position is 8 tsec west of UGC 788 = PGC 4464 and his description "F * nr np" applies to this galaxy.  Kolbold later measured an accurate position at the Strasbourg Observatory.

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NGC 438 = ESO 296-007 = MCG -06-03-029 = PGC 4406

01 13 34.2 -37 54 06

V = 12.8;  Size 1.4'x1.1';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 126d

 

17.5" (10/4/97): faint, fairly small, round, 40" diameter, weak even concentration.  Situated just following the midpoint of two mag 13 stars 3.1' SSE and 2.8' NNE.  NGC 424 lies 27' SW.

 

JH discovered NGC 438 = h2393 on 1 Sep 1834.  On one sweep he called this nebula "vF" and another time "pB". His mean position matches ESO 296-007 = PGC 4406.

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NGC 439 = ESO 412-018 = MCG -05-04-015 = PGC 4423

01 13 47.2 -31 44 51

V = 11.5;  Size 2.5'x1.5';  Surf Br = 12.8;  PA = 156d

 

24" (9/15/12): at 175x appeared fairly bright, moderately large, oval 4:3 NNW-SSE, 1.5'x1.2', increases to a bright core.

 

Brightest in cluster ACO S141 = Klemola 1 with NGC 441 2.6' SSE, MCG -05-04-018 7' SE and a trio of MCGs (-011/-012/-013) 5' SW.  MCG -05-04-018 appeared fairly faint, fairly small, oval 3:2 E-W, 24"x16" and the small trio of MCGs were all extremely to very faint, round, 12" to 18" diameter.

 

17.5" (11/6/93): fairly faint, moderately large, elongated 4:3 NNW-SSE, 1.5'x1.2', broad concentration.  A mag 13.5 star is 2.3' SW and a mag 14 star is 2.2' SE of center.  Brighter of a pair with NGC 441 2.5' SSE.  Located 11' NE of mag 8.2 SAO 192988.  This is the brightest member of ACO S141.

 

8" (1/1/84): very faint, small, round.  Can just hold steadily with averted vision.  A mag 8 star is 10' SW.

 

JH discovered NGC 439 = h2394 (along with NGC 441 = h2395) on 27 Sep 1834 and logged "pB, R, bM, 20 arcseconds."  His mean position from 2 sweeps is accurate.

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NGC 440 = ESO 113-025 = PGC 4361

01 12 48.5 -58 16 57

V = 13.2;  Size 1.1'x0.7';  Surf Br = 12.8;  PA = 45d

 

Southern object (not observed).  Trio with NGC 434 and NGC 434A.  Located 5' SE of NGC 434.

 

JH discovered NGC 440 = h2396 on 27 Sep 1834 and logged "F, S, R, 15" dia."  His position (typo corrected at the end of the CGH) matches ESO 113-25  = PGC 4361.

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NGC 441 = ESO 412-019 = MCG -05-04-016 = PGC 4429

01 13 51.1 -31 47 19

V = 12.7;  Size 1.4'x1.1';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 135d

 

24" (9/15/12): moderately bright, moderately large, elongated 4:2 WSW-ENE, bright core, increases to the center.  A mag 14 star lies 1.2' NE.  Second brightest member of ACO S141 with NGC 439 2,6' NNW.

 

17.5" (11/6/93): fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 3:2 WNW-ESE, weak concentration.  A mag 14 star is 1.3' NE.  Forms a close pair with NGC 439 2.5' NNW.

 

JH discovered NGC 441 = h2395 (along with NGC 439 = h2394) on 27 Sep 1834 and recorded "vF; S; R; gbM."  His position is accurate.

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NGC 442 = UGC 789 = MCG +00-04-054 = CGCG 385-041 = PGC 4484

01 14 38.7 -01 01 14

V = 13.5;  Size 1.0'x0.5';  Surf Br = 12.5;  PA = 157d

 

13.1" (9/3/86): Located 3.9' SW of 38 Ceti (V = 5.7).  Fairly faint, small, bright core.  Forms a pair with NGC 450.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 442 = Sw V-12 on 21 Oct 1886 with the 16" refractor at the Warner Observatory.  His position is 11 seconds of RA west and 15" south of UGC 789 = PGC 4484.  His description mentions "B * sf", but the mag 5.7 star is actually northeast.

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NGC 443 = UGC 796 = MCG +05-04-005 = CGCG 502-010 = IC 1653 = PGC 4512

01 15 07.5 +33 22 38

V = 13.0;  Size 0.8'x0.7';  Surf Br = 12.3

 

17.5" (9/19/87): fairly faint, small, round, bright core, stellar nucleus.  Located 20' NNW of NGC 447.  Identified as IC 1653 in the UGC and CGCG.

 

Heinrich d'Arrest discovered NGC 443 = Au 10 = Big. 114 on 8 Oct 1861 with the 11-inch Fraunhofer refractor in Copenhagen.  There is nothing at his single position, but he measured a mag 15 star that he placed 8.3 seconds of time directly west.  UGC 796 is 9' due north of his position and 8 seconds west of this galaxy is a very faint star, matching d'Arrest's description.  So, this identification is certain.  Bigourdan measured an accurate position and noted d'Arrest's error in the remarks section of his second Comptes Rendus list (1887).

 

Stephane Javelle independently discovered the galaxy on 17 Oct 1903 with the 30-inch refractor at the Nice Observatory, placed it accurately, and Dreyer recatalogued J. 3-849 as IC 1653.   UGC, MCG (+05-04-005) and CGCG (502-010) label this galaxy IC 1653, although the primary designation should be NGC 443.  Malcolm Thomson noted this error in his unpublished "CGCG Corrections".

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NGC 444 = UGC 810 = MCG +05-04-007 = CGCG 502-015 = IC 1658 = PGC 4561

01 15 49.6 +31 04 50

V = 14.3;  Size 1.9'x0.4';  Surf Br = 13.9;  PA = 157d

 

17.5" (12/23/89): extremely faint, fairly small, very elongated 4:1 NNW-SSE.  A mag 11 star is 3' ESE.  Forms a pair with NGC 452 6' SE.  Appears fainter than the CGCG magnitude.

 

R.J. Mitchell discovered NGC 444 on 26 Oct 1854 with Lord Rosse's 72" at Birr Castle while observing NGC 452.  The first description reads "vvF ray, elongated NW-SE, without nucleus."  The NGC RA is 28 sec too small but Mitchell's description and sketch clearly identifies NGC 444 = UGC 810 = 4561.  Javelle later independently discovered the galaxy on 17 Oct 1903 with the 30" refractor at Nice, placed it correctly, and Dreyer recatalogued it as IC 1658.  So, NGC 444 = IC 1658 with discovery priority to Mitchell.

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NGC 445 = CGCG 385-047 = PGC 4493

01 14 52.6 +01 55 03

V = 14.1;  Size 0.8'x0.6';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 135d

 

17.5" (12/23/92): faint, very small, round, broad concentration.  On a line between a mag 12 star 0.9' WNW and a mag 11 star 1.9' ESE.  NGC 435 lies 15' NW.  UGC 791 6.3' SW not seen.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 445 = m 37 on 23 Oct 1864 with Lassell's 48" on Malta and reported "vF, vS".  His position matches CGCG 385-047 = PGC 4493.  This galaxy is not included in the MCG, although MCG +00-04-052, located 6.3' SW, is listed as possibly NGC 445.

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NGC 446 = UGC 818 = MCG +01-04-012 = CGCG 411-016 = IC 89 = PGC 4578

01 16 03.6 +04 17 38

V = 12.4;  Size 2.0'x1.6';  Surf Br = 13.5

 

17.5" (12/23/92): fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 4:3 NW-SE, prominent sharp bright core with a nearly stellar nucleus.  This galaxy is identified as IC 89 in UGC, CGCG and RC3.  NGC 446 lies 19' WSW and NGC 462 is 30' ESE.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 446 = m 38 on 23 Oct 1864 with Lassell's 48-inch on Malta and recorded "F, vS, stellar".  There is nothing at Marth's position but Corwin suggests NGC 446 = UGC 818 = PGC 4578, located exactly 1.0 min of RA east of Marth's position.  Javelle independently discovered this galaxy on 20 Aug 1892 with the 30-inch refractor at Nice, placed it correctly, and it was catalogued again as IC 89.  UGC, CGCG, MCG and RC3 use IC 89 as the primary designation for this galaxy.  Karl Reinmuth also makes the equivalence NGC 446 = IC 89 and gives the IC position.  UGC, CGCG (411-010) and RNGC identify UGC 794 = PGC 4494 as NGC 446.  This galaxy is located 13 sec of RA east and 7' north of UGC 794, which would require random errors in both directions by Marth instead of a single digit error.

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NGC 447 = UGC 804 = MCG +05-04-006 = CGCG 502-013 = IC 1656 = PGC 4550

01 15 37.6 +33 04 04

V = 14.0;  Size 2.2'x2.2';  Surf Br = 15.5

 

17.5" (9/19/87): very faint, very small, round.  A mag 15 star is involved at the southeast end.  In a group with NGC 449 and NGC 451.  Incorrectly identified as NGC 449 in the RNGC, CGCG, UGC.

 

Heinrich d'Arrest discovered NGC 447 = Au 11 on 8 Oct 1861with the 11-inch Fraunhofer refractor in Copenhagen.  His position (measured on 4 nights) is accurate and he noted the mag 11 star that follows by 9.2 seconds of RA and 110" north as well as an involved star about 18-19th magnitude (the star is closer to mag 15).  Auwers included this discovery in his 1862 list of 50 new nebulae.

 

Barnard independently found this galaxy visually, along with NGC 451, on 25 Oct 1888 using the 12-inch refractor at Lick Observatory.  He noted the "nebula is s.p. comparison star [mag 6 HD 7578] and close n.p. a small star.  A 9 1/2m star is s.f. 3'+/- [should read n.f.], a 12m star is s.f. 1/4'."  His offset in RA from the bright star (~40 seconds of time) matches NGC 447, though his declination is 1.4' too far north (similar offset as IC 1661 = NGC 451).  He reported the discovery directly to Dreyer who recatalogued it as IC 1656.  So, NGC 447 = IC 1656. In Barnard's notebook, he later added the comment "This is NGC 447.  The star is wrongly located in NGC."  See NGC 443 = IC 1653 and NGC 451 = IC 1661 for more duplicate IC entries.

 

Based on the NGC positions, the RNGC has reversed the identifications of NGC 447 and NGC 449 whose correct orientations should be SW-NE.  UGC and CGCG misidentify NGC 447 = PGC 4550 as NGC 449 = IC 1656 and NGC 449 is misidentified as IC 1661 in CGCG.  MCG identifies these galaxies correctly.  These errors were noted in my RNGC Corrections #3 and Corwin's notes.

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NGC 448 = UGC 801 = MCG +00-04-060 = CGCG 385-051 = PGC 4524

01 15 16.5 -01 37 35

V = 12.1;  Size 1.6'x0.8';  Surf Br = 12.2;  PA = 116d

 

17.5" (10/5/91): fairly bright, fairly small, elongated 3:1 WNW-ESE, brighter along major axis, bright core, high surface brightness.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 448 = Sw IV-5 on 2 Sep 1886 with the 16" refractor at the Warner Observatory.  His position is just 5 tsec of RA east and 33" S of UGC 801 = PGC 4524.

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NGC 449 = MCG +05-04-009 = CGCG 502-018 = Mrk 1 = PGC 4587

01 16 07.2 +33 05 22

V = 14.2;  Size 0.6'x0.5';  Surf Br = 12.8

 

17.5" (9/19/87): very faint, very small, round, bright core.  Forms a close pair with NGC 451 1.9' SE.  Located 2.9' SW of mag 6.0 SAO 54567.  Incorrectly listed as NGC 447 in RNGC and IC 1661 in CGCG.

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 449 = St XII-11 on 11 Nov 1881 with the 31" reflector at the Marseille Observatory.  Stephan's original published position matches CGCG 502-018 = PGC 4587, although the RA is slightly off in the NGC.  The RNGC misidentifies NGC 447 as NGC 449 (reversing the identifications of NGC 447 and NGC 449.  CGCG labels NGC 449 as IC 1661. Although it is possible that IC 1661 (discovered by Barnard) is a duplicate observation of NGC 449, Corwin feels it is more likely that IC 1661 is a duplicate of NGC 451.  See RNGC Corrections #3 and Thomson's "CGCG Corrections".

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NGC 450 = UGC 806 = MCG +00-04-062 = CGCG 385-052 = PGC 4540

01 15 30.4 -00 51 40

V = 11.5;  Size 3.1'x2.3';  Surf Br = 13.5;  PA = 72d

 

48" (10/22/11): at 610x this double system is dominated by NGC 450, which appeared bright, large, 2.3' diameter. Sharply concentrated with a relatively large 30" bright core, surrounded by a very large, low surface brightness halo.  The halo is slightly asymmetric and more extensive on the west side.

 

Three faint "stars" are superimposed on the east side of the galaxy; two appeared stellar, but the faintest and most westerly object was clearly "soft" at 610x.  These are apparently HII knots in the galaxy and the southeast object is listed in NED as UM 311 from the University of Michigan Emission Line Survey.

 

NGC 450 has a very close companion, UGC 807, which is attached at the northeast side of the halo, 1.4' between centers.  UGC 807 appeared fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 5:2 SW-NE, 0.7'x0.3', even surface brightness except for a very small brighter nucleus.  Despite the fact that UGC 807 appears to form a double system, the companion has a redshift that is over 6x greater than NGC 450, so they are a line-of-sight pair.

 

13.1" (9/3/86): very large, diffuse, broad concentration, slightly elongated.  Located 12.5' NE of 38 Ceti.

 

WH discovered NGC 450 = H III-440 on 1 Oct 1785 (sweep 448) and logged as "vF, vL, requires great attention."  His RA was 25 tsec too large, but Heinrich d'Arrest provided an accurate position used in the NGC.  This system is a noninteracting spiral pair with the companion (UGC 807) over 6 times as distant.

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NGC 451 = IC 1661 = MCG +05-04-011 = CGCG 502-019 = Mrk 976 = PGC 4594

01 16 12.4 +33 03 51

V = 13.9;  Size 0.7'x0.5';  Surf Br = 12.5

 

17.5" (9/19/87): very faint, very small, oval.  Located 3.3' SSW of mag 6.0 SAO 54567!  Forms a close pair with NGC 449 1.9' NW.

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 451 = St XII-12 on 10 Nov 1881 with the 31" reflector at the Marseille Observatory.  His position matches CGCG 502-019 = PGC 4594.   Barnard independently found this galaxy visually (along with NGC 447) on 25 Oct 1888 using the 12-inch refractor at Lick Observatory.  He noted it was 6 seconds of time preceding his comparison star (mag 6 HD 7578) and called it "vvF, S, R."  The rediscovery was sent directly to Dreyer who recatalogued it as IC 1661, though his declination is 1.2' too far north (similar error with IC 1656 = NGC 447).  Barnard later wrote in pen in his notebook that "This is NGC 451".  CGCG labels this galaxy IC 1661, though NGC 451 should be the primary designation.

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NGC 452 = VV 430 = UGC 820 = MCG +05-04-010 = CGCG 502-020 =PGC 4596

01 16 14.8 +31 02 02

V = 12.6;  Size 2.5'x0.8';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 43d

 

17.5" (12/23/89): fairly faint, fairly small, very elongated SW-NE, bright core.  Located 3.2' SE of a mag 10.5 star.  Forms a pair with NGC 444 6' NW.

 

JH discovered NGC 452 = h96 on 22 Nov 1827 and reported "vF; E; a ....and a S * nf at the extremity of the nebula."  Part of the description is not readable on my photocopy of Herschel's catalogue but his position is accurate and a star is superimposed at the NE end.  The field was observed 7 times using Lord Rosse's 72".  R.J. Mitchell's observation on 3 Nov 1855 reads "mE, pB nucleus and a star in north end; np. this neb. is a star of the 9th mag, and about the same distance preceding this star is another neb., vF, mE [NGC 444].

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NGC 453

01 16 17.4 +33 00 51

 

=***, Corwin.

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 453 = St XII-13 on 10 Nov 1881 (same night he discovered NGC 451) with the 31" reflector at the Marseille Observatory.  His position corresponds with a collinear triple star 2.2' SSE of NGC 451. The triple is cleanly resolved on the DSS.  It is very possible the two brighter (northern) stars were unresolved (nebulous) to Stephan.

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NGC 454 = ESO 151-036 = PGC 4468

01 14 23.0 -55 23 54

V = 12.3;  Size 1.8'x1.8';  Surf Br = 13.5

 

Southern object (not observed).  ESO 151-36A = PGC 4461 is attached on SW side!

 

JH discovered NGC 454 = h2397 on 5 Oct 1834 and logged "vF, S, R, bM, 15 arcsec."  His position is accurate.

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NGC 455 = Arp 164 = UGC 815 = MCG +01-04-011 = CGCG 411-015 = PGC 4572

01 15 57.6 +05 10 43

V = 12.6;  Size 1.9'x1.2';  Surf Br = 13.4;  PA = 165d

 

17.5" (10/5/91): fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 3:2 NNW-SSE, bright core.  Located 2.5' NW of a mag 10.5 star.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 455 = m 39 on 27 Oct 1864 with Lassell's 48" on Malta and logged "F, vS, alm stell".  His position is 1' N of UGC 815 = PGC 4572

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NGC 456 = ESO 029-SC038 = Kron 65 = Lindsay 94 = SMC-N83A

01 13 44.4 -73 17 26

Size 5'

 

18" (7/6/02 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): this is the first of an unusual chain of three nebulous clusters with NGC 460 and NGC 465 within 10'.  The best view of the entire group was at 171x using an UHC filter.  At 220x the largest in the trio is NGC 456, appearing as a roundish 3' glow with a very small knot embedded in the SE end.  A few stars are superimposed (Hodge Association 61) on the glow.  NGC 460 lies 4' ESE.  Visible in 10x30 IS binoculars.

 

James Dunlop probably discovered  NGC 456 = D 7 = h2399 on 1 Aug 1826 with his 9" reflector and described "a faint round nebula, 35" diameter, with a small star near the south margin, but not involved."  D10 is possibly a duplicate observation - the description is similar "an elliptical nebula, about 1' long and 40" broad, with three minute stars in it." and the position is 20' ENE of NGC 456.  JH observed this object on at least 3 sweeps from the Cape as the first of 3 nebulous clusters with NGC 460 (observed 4 times) and NGC 465 (recorded once).  In addition it appears that h2398, which did not enter the GC or NGC is a 4th observation of h2399 = NGC 456 but with a poor RA.  Herschel equated D 7 with h2399.

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NGC 457 = Cr 12 = Mel 7 = OCL-321

01 19 33 +58 17 30

V = 6.4;  Size 13'

 

17.5" (9/19/87): ~150 stars in a beautiful cluster including mag 5 Phi 1 and mag 7 Phi 2 Cassiopeiae.  Includes many mag 14-15 stars.

 

8" (1/1/84): ~75 stars in cluster at 100x.

 

6: striking bird-shape with two prominent "arms".  One of my favorite objects in this scope at 36x.

 

15x50mm (7/26/06): the cluster was slightly resolved in IS binoculars.

 

WH discovered NGC 457 = H VII-42 = h97 on 18 Oct 1787 (sweep 769) and described "A star [Phi Cass].  About 50 seconds preceding is a cluster of small scattered stars, not very rich."  JH recorded "a double star 10m, pos 324.5”, dist 12", in the midst of a p rich L cl which fills the field.  The stars are 10m; one of 7 and 1 of 8m in the sf part."

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NGC 458 = ESO 051-SC026 = Lindsay 96

01 14 54 -71 32 54

V = 11.7

 

18" (7/6/02 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): this cluster is an outlying member of the SMC to the NE of the main body and 70' SE of NGC 362.  At 228x, it appears fairly bright, small, 1.5'-2' diameter, brighter core, slightly elongated.  The surface brightness is irregular with some mottling but there was no apparent resolution.  Three mag 10 stars are on the SW edge of the field, 10' from the cluster.

 

James Dunlop probably discovered NGC 458 = D 60 = h2401 on 6 Sep 1826 with his 9" reflector from Parramatta and described "a round well-defined nebula, gradually brighter to the centre, about 25" diameter." He made a single observation (no others nearby) and his position is 12' too far east.  JH made 2 observations, recording on 12 Aug 1834 "F, L, R, vgbM, 4' dia."  Herschel noted the equivalence with D 60.

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NGC 459 = UGC 832 = MCG +03-04-017 = CGCG 459-024 = PGC 4665

01 18 08.1 +17 33 44

V = 14.4;  Size 1.0'x0.9';  Surf Br = 14.1

 

17.5" (8/16/93): extremely faint, very small, round, very low even surface brightness.  A mag 14 star is 1' SE.  Located 5' WSW of two mag 10/11.5 stars.

 

WH discovered NGC 459 = H III-205 on 15 Oct 1784 (sweep 291) and described as "eF, 240 left a doubt, though it rather confirmed it. I perceived it in counting a field, otherwise I should never have suspected it."  WH's position for III-205 is 01 18.2 +17 39 which is 7' north of UGC 832 = PGC 4665, and this is the only nearby candidate.

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NGC 460 = ESO 029-S0C39 = Kron 66 = Lindsay 97 = SMC-N84A

01 14 41 -73 17 50

V = 12.5;  Size 1.8'

 

18" (7/6/02 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): this is the second of three SMC clusters with NGC 456 and NGC 465 in a chain.  At 128x and UHC filter, two close nebulous patches oriented NW-SE were visible, apparently separated by a dark lane.  The total diameter is ~2.5'.  The northwest component, which corresponds with John Herschel's position, has a very small knot or star in the south end.  The fainter southeast section (SMC-N84B/D) has some stars involved (Lindsay 97), including mag 12.5 SK 155, a massive O9-type.  Located 4' ESE of NGC 456 with NGC 465 a similar distance southeast. A mag 10 star is close north.

 

James Dunlop possibly discovered NGC 460 = D 8? = h2402 in 1826 with his 9" reflector and described a "a small oval nebula, about 10" diameter" and his position is just 2' NE of this nebulous cluster.  The close match in position might be a pure coincidence given Dunlop's poor positions.

 

In any case, this SMC cluster/nebula was discovered by JH on 11 Apr 1834 and observed on 4 sweeps.  Described as the second of three nebulous clusters with NGC 456 (observed 3 times) and NGC 465 (observed once).  JH placed h2402 at a mean position of 01 14 40 -73 18.2 (2000) and this position was used in the GC and NGC.  Nevertheless, the declination given in RNGC, Deep Sky Field Guide (first edition only), NGC 2000.0 and Uranometria 2000 Atlas (first edition only) is one degree too far north.  The declination given in ESO is correct.

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NGC 461 = ESO 352-033 = PGC 4636

01 17 20.4 -33 50 28

V = 13.4;  Size 1.2'x0.9';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 23d

 

17.5" (10/4/97): very faint, small, round, 30" diameter, low surface brightness, no concentration.  Lies in a barren field with a mag 13 star 3.3' SW.  Incorrect position in RNGC and on U2000 atlas.

 

JH discovered NGC 461 = h2400 on 25 Sep 1834 and recorded "pB, R, glbM, 20 arcseconds".  There is nothing at his position but 30' S is ESO 352-033 = PGC 4636.  He noted in his observation that because he was not able to relocate this galaxy he probably made an error in the declination. So, h2400 = ESO 352-033 = PGC 4636.  The RNGC position is 1.1 tmin too far W and 7' S (17' SW) of this galaxy and it is plotted incorrectly on the first edition of Uranometria 2000.  MCG (-06-04-002) missed assigning the NGC number.

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NGC 462 = PGC 4667

01 18 10.9 +04 13 34

Size 0.4'x0.4'

 

17.5" (12/23/92): extremely faint and small, round, visible continuously with averted vision.  A mag 13.5 star is 2.5' S.  The galaxy is almost collinear with mag 9.2 SAO 109796 5' SE and mag 9.1 SAO 109798 10.5' SE.  IC 89 lies 30' WNW.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 462 = m 40 on 23 Oct 1864 with Lassell's 48" on Malta and logged "eF, vS, stellar".  His position is accurate.  This galaxy is not included in the CGCG, MCG, RC3 and UGC.

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NGC 463 = UGC 840 = MCG +03-04-019 = CGCG 459-025 = PGC 4719

01 18 58.2 +16 19 33

V = 14.3;  Size 1.1'x0.4';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 4d

 

17.5" (12/23/92): very faint, fairly small, elongated 5:2 SSW-NNE, very small brighter core, extremely faint extensions.  NGC 473 lies 20' NE.

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 463 = St III-1 on 16 Dec 1871 with the 31" reflector at the Marseille Observatory.  His position is accurate.

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NGC 464

01 19 26.7 +34 57 20

 

=** or asterism of 4*, Gottlieb.  Unlikely identification in the RNGC.

 

Wilhelm Tempel discovered NGC 464 with the 11" refractor at the Arcetri Observatory, Italy, and recorded it in list V at 01 19 33 +34 57.7 (2000).  According to Bigourdan who searched for NGC 464, Tempel's entry may refer to a small asterism of four stars close northeast.  But just 1' W of his position is a 9" pair of mag 14 stars with a mean position of 01 19 26.7 +34 57 20 (2000).  Interestingly, my observing notes with the 17.5" indicate that I thought the close faint double could possibly be a non-stellar object!

 

RNGC and PGC misidentify PGC 4721 as NGC 464.  This extremely faint galaxy is located just 6' W of the NGC position and is missing in the CGCG, MCG and UGC.  But Corwin mentions that although Tempel included this object in his 5th list, the original observation was made by the BD observers with a 78mm refractor and hence the faint RNGC candidate is not plausible. Listed in my RNGC Corrections #5.

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NGC 465 = ESO 029-SC040 = Kron 67 = Lindsay 99

01 15 42.7 -73 19 27

V = 11.5;  Size 4'

 

18" (7/6/02 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): this is the last in a chain of interesting knots and clusters including NGC 456, NGC 460nw and 460se.  At 171x it appears as a 4' curving chain of stars (Hodge Association 63) with no central concentration situated 4' following NGC 460.  There is possibly some faint haze involved or this is just dim stars (no significant nebulosity shows on the Red DSS 2 image).  The entire complex of stars and nebulosity is ~10' in length and fascinating in a 171x field (29').

 

James Dunlop probably discovered NGC 465 = D 9 = h2404 on 1 Aug 1826 with his 9" reflector and described "a faint nebula, about 1 1/2' diameter, of an irregular round figure.  His position is 6' E of this SMC cluster.  JH observed the cluster on 4 Oct 1836 and described it as the third of three "in an irregular line of loose stars and nebula."  This object was only recorded on one sweep, though while NGC 456 and 460 were recorded 3 or 4 times.

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NGC 466 = ESO 113-034 = PGC 4632

01 17 13.4 -58 54 36

V = 12.6;  Size 1.8'x1.5';  Surf Br = 13.5;  PA = 103d

 

Southern object (not observed).

 

JH discovered NGC 466 = h2403 on 3 Oct 1836 and logged "vF, R, gbM, 30" dia."  His position matches ESO 113-034 = PGC 4632 although listed as an unverified southern object in the RNGC.

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NGC 467 = UGC 848 = MCG +00-04-079 = CGCG 385-065 = KTG 5A = PGC 4736

01 19 10.1 +03 18 02

V = 11.9;  Size 1.7'x1.7';  Surf Br = 12.9

 

24" (1/12/13): bright, moderately large, round, 1.2' diameter, sharply concentrated with a relatively large high surface brightness core that increases to a very small, very bright nucleus.  Located 3.5' WNW of mag 7.5 HD 7991.  First in a trio with NGC 470 and 474 to the northeast.  CGCG 385-068 (which has a similar redshift) lies 6.8' SE.

 

13.1" (8/24/84): moderately bright, slightly brighter core.

 

13.1" (11/13/82): fairly faint, small, round, weak concentration.  Collinear with mag 8.1 SAO 109805 3.6' ESE at midpoint and mag 10 SAO 109809 6.9' ESE.  NGC 470 is 11' NE and NGC 474 15' NE.

 

WH discovered NGC 467 = H I-108 = h99 on 8 Oct 1785 (sweep 462) and logged  "cB, vL, iR, preceding a very bright star."  Heinrich d'Arrest measured an accurate micrometric position.

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NGC 468 = NGC 472 = UGC 870 = MCG +05-04-022 = CGCG 502-034 = PGC 4833

01 20 28.7 +32 42 32

V = 13.0;  Size 1.2'x1.0';  Surf Br = 13.0

 

See observing notes for NGC 472.

 

JH discovered NGC 468 = h98 on 22 Nov 1827 and recorded "vF; eS; stellar."  His position is 3.6' south of IC 92 = CGCG 502-029 = PGC 4780, and this galaxy has been assumed to be NGC 468 until recently.

 

In March 2015, Harold Corwin checked JH's observing logs (in response to an inquiry from Courtney Seligman about the identity), and found he made an error in reducing the position of NGC 468 by 37 seconds in RA (recording the wrong wire).  Once corrected for an additional 37 seconds, the position of h98 = NGC 468 is a close match with UGC 870 -- a significantly brighter galaxy than IC 92.  Heinrich d'Arrest independently discovered this galaxy on 29 Aug 1862, measured an accurate position, and it was catalogued as NGC 472.  So, NGC 468 = NGC 472.  By historical discovery, the primary designation should be NGC 468, but this galaxy has been known only as NGC 472 up to this time.  See Corwin's notes for the full story.

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NGC 469 = MCG +02-04-023 = CGCG 436-024 = Holm 39a = PGC 4753

01 19 32.9 +14 52 19

V = 14.7;  Size 0.7'x0.5'

 

17.5" (11/30/91): faint, small, round, weak concentration.  Located 5.1' NNE of mag 8.6 SAO 92336.  Situated just north of a string of three mag 11-13 stars oriented NNW-SSE with a length of 3.3'.  Pair with NGC 471 10' SE.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 469 = m 41 (along with NGC 471 and NGC 475) on 3 Nov 1864 with Lassell's 48" on Malta and noted as "eF, S, R".  His position is accurate.

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NGC 470 = Arp 227 NED1 = UGC 858 = MCG +00-04-084 = CGCG 385-070 = KTG 5B = PGC 4777

01 19 44.8 +03 24 36

V = 11.8;  Size 2.8'x1.7';  Surf Br = 13.4;  PA = 155d

 

48" (10/25/14): very bright, large, elongated 3:2 NNW-SSE, ~1.8'x1.2'.  The bright core contains an intense circular nucleus.  Two spiral arms are visible with the brighter and better defined arm on the southwest side of the core.  It extends ~40" SW-NE and is fairly narrow and straight.  A second matching arm to the northeast of the core also stretches SW-NE, but has a lower contrast.  Neither arm clearly connects to the nucleus, so they appear more as bright arcs.

 

24" (1/12/13): very bright, fairly large, elongated 2:1 NW-SE, 1.8'x0.9', high surface brightness.  The halo gradually and weakly increases towards the center and then a sharp increase to a bright, quasi-stellar nucleus.  Forms a 5.5' pair with NGC 474 to the east.  NGC 467 lies 11' SW.

 

13.1" (8/24/84): fairly faint, moderately large, diffuse, elongated 3:2 NNW-SSE, weak concentration at center.  Largest of three with NGC 467 11' SW and NGC 474 6' E. 

 

8" (10/13/81): faint, small, round.

 

WH discovered NGC 470 = H III-250, along with NGC 474, on 13 Dec 1784 (sweep 338) and logged both as "Two. vF, vS, R, almost stellar 4' or 5' from each other, nearly in a parallel."  On 8 Oct 1785 (sweep 462) he noted "pB, L, R, mbM." and on 3 Dec 1787 (sweep 788) he noted "pB, cL, R, gbM, the preceding of two."

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NGC 471 = UGC 861 = MCG +02-04-024 = CGCG 436-029 = PGC 4793

01 19 59.6 +14 47 10

V = 13.3;  Size 1.0'x0.7';  Surf Br = 12.8;  PA = 85d

 

17.5" (11/30/91): fairly faint, very small, round, very small very bright core, sharp stellar nucleus.  NGC 469 is 10' NW.  Superimposed on the distant cluster AGC 175.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 471 = m 42 (along with NGC 469 and NGC 475) on 3 Nov 1864 with Lassell's 48" on Malta and noted as "neb *12m".  His dec is 1' N of UGC 861.  Engelhardt provided a micrometric position.

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NGC 472 = NGC 468 = UGC 870 = MCG +05-04-022 = CGCG 502-034 = PGC 4833

01 20 28.7 +32 42 32

V = 13.5;  Size 1.2'x1.0';  Surf Br = 13.6

 

17.5" (12/23/89): faint, small, round, small bright core.  Located 3.5' SE of a mag 10 star.  IC 92 (generally misidentified as NGC 468) lies 10' WNW.

 

Heinrich d'Arrest found NGC 472 on 29 Aug 1862 with the 11-inch refractor at Copenhagen.  His position (measured on 3 nights) and description (he measured the nearby mag 9.7 star as preceding by 14 seconds) corresponds with UGC 870 = PGC 4833.  d'Arrest is credited with the discovery in the GC and NGC, but in Mar 2015 Harold Corwin found that JH's h98 = NGC 468, which had previously been equated with IC 92, actually refers to this galaxy.  So, NGC 472 = NGC 468, with discovery priority to JH.  See NGC 468.

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NGC 473 = UGC 859 = MCG +03-04-022 = CGCG 459-030 = PGC 4785

01 19 55.1 +16 32 41

V = 12.5;  Size 1.7'x1.1';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 153d

 

17.5" (12/23/92): moderately bright, moderately large, elongated 2:1 NW-SE, 1.4'x0.7', broad concentration, bright core, stellar nucleus.  Several bright stars are in the field including three mag 9 stars 5' SE, 10' SSW and 11' NW.  NGC 463 lies 20' SW.

 

13" (10/20/84): moderately large, very diffuse, slightly elongated.  Two very faint stars are off the east edge and a mag 9 star follows.

 

WH discovered NGC 473 = H III-206 on 15 Oct 1784 (sweep 291) and noted "eF, S."  His position is 5' southeast of UGC 859 = PGC 4785, but this is the only nearby galaxy.

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NGC 474 = Arp 227 NED2 = UGC 864 = MCG +00-04-085 = CGCG 385-071 = KTG 5C = PGC 4801

01 20 06.7 +03 24 56

V = 11.5;  Size 7.1'x6.3';  Surf Br = 15.5;  PA = 75d

 

48" (10/25/14): the outer halo of NGC 474 was examined closely at 375x for evidence of the outer, concentric shells and circular streams that are visible on deep images.  Immediately there was a strong sense of arcs from two more different shells. The easiest arc to confirm was the outermost on the eastern side, which curves south from a mag 13.3 star situated 3.3' NE of center.  The arc passes through a mag 16.3 star and extends 30”-40”.  A second outer arc on the northeast side is half the distance (~1.6') to the center.  This arc has a stronger curvature and measures roughly 60”.  Only a single outer arc (slightly more difficult to confirm) was noted on the southwest side, 2'-2.5' from center.  My rough sketch shows it also curving ~60”.  Additional inner arcs or ripples were strongly sensed in the main halo of the galaxy, but too subtle and fleeting to pinpoint locations.  The center is sharply concentrated with a very prominent 1' core.  The core itself is sharply concentrated to a small, blazing nucleus.

 

24" (1/12/13): bright, very large with a huge very low surface brightness halo, extending roughly 4'x3.5' NW-SE.  Very sharply concentrated with a very bright, slightly oval core, ~1.0'x0.8', which increases to a small intense nucleus.  Largest in a trio with NGC 470 5.5' W and NGC 467 16' SW.

 

13.1" (8/24/84): fairly bright, small, round, small bright core.  Forms a pair with NGC 470 6' W.  NGC 467 lies 15' SW and NGC 479 is 30' NE.

 

8" (10/13/81): faint, very small, round, bright core.  Located 30' ESE of mag 5.2 89 Piscium.

 

WH discovered NGC 474 = H III-251, along with NGC 470, on 13 Dec 1784 (sweep 338) and logged both as "Two. vF, vS, R, almost stellar 4' or 5' from each other, nearly in a parallel."  On 8 Oct 1785 (sweep 462) he noted "pB, pL, mbM."   Again on 3 Dec 1787 (sweep 788), he reported "pB, S, R, smbM, the following of 2."

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NGC 475 = IC 97 = PGC 4796

01 20 02.0 +14 51 40

V = 15.0;  Size 0.4'x0.4';  Surf Br = 12.8

 

17.5" (10/4/97): threshold object that was barely glimpsed on a couple of occasions at 280x with averted vision using a GSC finder chart to pinpoint the location.  Visible less than 10% of time and would not have detected at all without first knowing precise position.  Appeared ~10" diameter but much too faint for any details.  Located 4.5' N of NGC 471 and 7' E of NGC 469.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 475 = m 43 on 3 Nov 1864 with Lassell's 48" on Malta and logged "eF, S".  His original position matches PGC 4796 and Dreyer used Marth's position in the GC Supplement (GCS 5666).  But Dreyer's NGC position (supposedly an improved micrometric position from C.H.F. Peters) is 0.3 minutes of RA too far east.  Bigourdan independently found this galaxy with the 12" refractor at the Paris Observatory, listed it as a nova (misidentifying NGC 475 with a star).  Dreyer mistakenly assumed this was a new object and catalogued it again as IC 97.  So, NGC 475 = IC 97, with NGC 475 the primary designation.

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NGC 476 = MCG +03-04-023 = CGCG 459-033 = Holm 40a = PGC 4814

01 20 19.9 +16 01 13

V = 14.3;  Size 0.6'x0.5';  Surf Br = 12.8

 

17.5" (12/4/93): very faint, very small, 20" diameter, weakly concentrated core.  Located just east of distinctive 13' string of six mag 12-13 stars oriented NW-SE including a mag 13 star 3' NW and a mag 11.5 star 3.5' SW.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 476 = m 44 on 3 Nov 1864 with Lassell's 48" on Malta and logged "eF, vS, stellar".  His position is a close match with PGC 4814.

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NGC 477 = UGC 886 = MCG +07-03-032 = CGCG 536-032 = PGC 4915

01 21 20.3 +40 29 17

V = 13.0;  Size 1.5'x0.9';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 135d

 

18" (7/11/10): faint, fairly small, elongated 3:2 NW-SE, 0.6'x0.4', weak concentration with just a slightly brighter center but no core or zones.  A mag 13.5 star lies 0.8' SE.  Brightest of three with MCG +07-03-031 2.3' SW ("very faint, small, slightly elongated, 25"x20", low even surface brightness") and MCG +07-03-029 4.4' SW ("barely visible as an extremely faint, elongated glow, roughly 0.4'x0.15'.")

 

17.5" (8/16/93): faint, fairly small, elongated 2:1 NW-SE, 1.0'x0.5', weakly concentrated but no core, larger halo with averted.  A mag 13.5 star is at the SE edge.  Forms a very close pair with MCG +07-03-031 2.3' SW.

 

WH discovered NGC 477 = H III-577 = h100 on 18 Oct 1786 (sweep 618) and noted "vF, pL, lE, lbM."  The NGC position is accurate.

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NGC 478 = ESO 476-IG 003 = VV 398 = MCG -04-04-005 = PGC 4803

01 20 08.9 -22 22 40

V = 13.7;  Size 0.9'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.0;  PA = 128d

 

17.5" (12/20/95): very faint, very small, round, 30" diameter, low even surface brightness.  Situated between two mag 13.5-14 stars ~1.5' S and a similar star 1.2' NNW.  ESO 476-G5 lies 30' SE (picked up first sweeping in the region).

 

Francis Leavenworth discovered NGC 478 = LM II-302 in 1886 with the 26" refractor of the Leander McCormick Observatory.  His position is just 14 sec of RA east of ESO 476-003 = PGC 4803.

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NGC 479 = UGC 893 = MCG +01-04-031 = CGCG 411-031 = PGC 4905

01 21 15.7 +03 51 44

V = 13.9;  Size 1.1'x0.9';  Surf Br = 13.7

 

17.5" (12/23/89): very faint, small, round, broad mild concentration.  Forms the east vertex of a near equilateral triangle with a mag 11 star 6.6' WSW and a mag 12 star 7' NW.  NGC 474 lies 30' SW.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 479 = m 45 on 27 Oct 1864 with Lassell's 48" on Malta and logged "eF, S, R".  His position is accurate.

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NGC 480 = PGC 4845

01 20 34.3 -09 52 50

V = 15.2;  Size 0.5'x0.2';  Surf Br = 12.5;  PA = 65d

 

17.5" (10/4/97): extremely faint and small, round, ~10" diameter.  This marginal object required averted vision and the GSC finder chart to glimpse at 280x.  Located 8' E of mag 7 SAO 147742 and nearly at the midpoint of two mag 12 stars 3.7' SW and 3.3' NE.  Listed as nonexistent in RNGC and this identification of a Leavenworth discovery is uncertain (see notes).

 

Francis Leavenworth discovered NGC 480 = LM II-304 in 1886 with the 26" Clark refractor at the Leander McCormick Observatory.  His position is 25 sec of RA following PGC 4845 (described here). This galaxy satisfies the condition of being 40' S of NGC 481 which is the difference in dec given by Leavenworth and Corwin identifies PGC 4845 = NGC 480.  Bigourdan failed to find NGC 480 at Leavenworth's position and the number is listed as nonexistent in the RNGC.

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NGC 481 = MCG -02-04-030 = PGC 4899

01 21 12.4 -09 12 40

V = 13.7;  Size 1.7'x1.2';  Surf Br = 14.3;  PA = 85d

 

17.5" (12/23/92): fairly faint, fairly small, slightly elongated, small bright core, fairly bright stellar nucleus.  A mag 13 star is 1' NW.

 

Lewis Swift independently discovered NGC 481 = Sw VI-7 on 20 Nov 1886 with the 16" refractor at the Warner Observatory along with Francis Leavenworth (II-303) in 1886 with the 26" refractor at Leander McCormick.  The discovery priority is unknown.  Swift's comment "F * nr np" applies to PGC 4899.  Herbert Howe measured an accurate position in 1897 using the 20" refractor at Chamberlin Observatory.

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NGC 482 = ESO 296-013 = MCG -07-03-017 = PGC 4823

01 20 20.5 -40 57 59

V = 13.7;  Size 2.2'x0.5';  Surf Br = 13.7;  PA = 84d

 

Southern object (not observed).  Interacting pair VV 578 = ESO 296-11 17' SSW.

 

JH discovered NGC 482 = h2405 on 23 Oct 1835 and logged "eF, lE, 20". A difficult object but certain after long attention with the left eye."  His position is 1' S of ESO 296-013 = PGC 4823.

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NGC 483 = UGC 906 = MCG +05-04-029 = CGCG 502-050 = PGC 4961

01 21 56.3 +33 31 17

V = 13.2;  Size 0.7'x0.7';  Surf Br = 12.4

 

24" (10/4/13): fairly bright, fairly small, round, 30" diameter, high surface brightness, increases gradually to a small bright nucleus.  The halo is slightly elongated with averted vision.  Two mag 10.2/11 stars lie ~3' E.  IC 1679 lies 3' SW (very faint, elongated 3:2 SW-NE, 20"x14") and PGC 169764 ("extremely faint and small, round, 8" diameter") is just 1.2' SE.  Member of the NGC 507 Group.

 

13.1" (8/8/86): faint, small, round, weak concentration.  There is a string of three stars oriented SSW-NNE following including two mag 10 stars 2.6' ESE and 3' ENE and a mag 13 star 3.8' NE.  Member of the NGC 499/507 group.

 

JH discovered NGC 483 = h102 on 11 Nov 1827 and reported "vF, so that had difficulty in finding it again when it had quitted the field".  His declination is 5' S of UGC 906, but it was marked as uncertain in the observation and he assumed it was a reobservation of his father's H III-156 = NGC 495.  The NGC position is correct (Heinrich d'Arrest and Herman Schultz provided accurate positions).  See Corwin's notes for NGC 499.

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NGC 484 = ESO 113-036 = PGC 4764

01 19 34.9 -58 31 28

V = 12.1;  Size 1.9'x1.4';  Surf Br = 13.0;  PA = 94d

 

Southern object (not observed).

 

JH discovered NGC 484 = h2406 on 28 Oct 1834 and logged "vB, S, lE, psmbM."  His mean position (2 observations) is accurate.

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NGC 485 = UGC 895 = MCG +01-04-032 = CGCG 411-032 = PGC 4921

01 21 27.6 +07 01 07

V = 13.0;  Size 1.7'x0.6';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 3d

 

17.5" (11/30/91): faint, fairly small, elongated 2:1 N-S, weak concentration.  Located 3.7' NE of mag 8.6 SAO 109824.

 

JH discovered NGC 485 = h101 on 8 Jan 1828 and recorded "eF; pL; R; has a red * 7.8m 45 degrees south preceding."  Herschel's description and the NGC position (from Heinrich d'Arrest and Herman Schultz) matches UGC 895.

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NGC 486 = PGC 1281966

01 21 43.1 +05 20 47

V = 16.5;  Size 0.3'x0.25'

 

17.5" (10/4/97): A stellar object was glimpsed a few times at my plotted position 5.5' N of NGC 488.  On the DSS the nearly stellar galaxy forms a close pair with a very faint star off the NE side.  It is possible that I glimpsed this star, which may be brighter than the galaxy.

 

Bindon Stoney discovered NGC 486, along with NGC 490, 492 and 500, on 6 Dec 1850 with the 72" at Birr Castle.  The field was observed on four nights, although this object was mentioned twice as only "suspected" (labeled Delta on the sketch in the 1880 publication).  The micrometric position from the 22 Oct 1876 observation is 339" N (PA 353”) of NGC 488.  This corresponds with an extremely faint galaxy along with a faint star.  This galaxy is too faint to be included in CGCG, MCG, RC3, PGC but is now listed in HyperLeda as PGC 1281966.  RNGC, PGC and DSFG misidentify MCG +01-04-037 = PGC 4975 (situated close southwest of NGC 492) as NGC 486.  Discussed in Malcolm Thomson's unpublished Catalogue Corrections.

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NGC 487 = MCG -03-04-056 = PGC 4958

01 21 55.1 -16 22 14

V = 13.2;  Size 1.2'x0.7';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 112d

 

17.5" (11/6/93): faint, small, slightly elongated, 30" diameter, weak concentration.

 

Francis Leavenworth discovered NGC 487 = LM I-27 on 28 Nov 1885.  His rough position (nearest min of RA) is 0.6 tmin west of PGC 4958. Herbert Howe measured an accurate position in 1899-00 using the 20" refractor at Chamberlin Observatory (repeated in the IC 2 notes).

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NGC 488 = UGC 907 = MCG +01-04-033 = CGCG 411-033 = PGC 4946

01 21 46.8 +05 15 25

V = 10.3;  Size 5.2'x3.9';  Surf Br = 13.4;  PA = 15d

 

17.5" (11/1/86): bright, large, very bright core, oval 4:3 ~N-S.  A mag 11 star is at the south edge just 1.6' SSE of center and a mag 10 star lies 3' SW.  Located 9' W of mag 8.3 SAO 109832.  In a group with NGC 490 8' NE, NGC 488 5.5' N and NGC 500 18' NE.

 

WH discovered NGC 488 = H III-252 = h103 on 13 Dec 1784 (sweep 338) and recorded "vF, pL, iR, lbM."  JH  gave a more detailed description: "B; L; svmbM, and losing itself imperceptibly; resolvable in centre with 320x; *7m in parallel 1 min following."  The NGC position is accurate.

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NGC 489 = UGC 908 = MCG +01-04-034 = CGCG 11-034 = LGG 023-001 = PGC 4957

01 21 53.9 +09 12 24

V = 12.6;  Size 1.7'x0.4';  Surf Br = 11.9;  PA = 120d

 

18" (12/3/05): moderately bright, fairly small, edge-on streak NW-SE, 0.9'x0.2', well concentrated with a very small bright core.  Contains a faint quasi-stellar nucleus with direct vision.  Furthest west of a large group of galaxies in the NGC 524 group.

 

17.5" (10/17/87): moderately bright, fairly small, edge-on WNW-ESE, bright core.  Member of the NGC 524 group with NGC 502 18' SE.

 

Heinrich d'Arrest discovered NGC 489 on 22 Dec 1862 with the 11-inch refractor at Copenhagen.  His position (measured on 3 nights) and description (he also noted the double star that precedes by 22 seconds) matches PGC 4957.

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NGC 490 = MCG +01-04-035 = CGCG 411-035 = PGC 4973

01 22 02.9 +05 22 02

V = 14.3;  Size 0.7'x0.5';  Surf Br = 13.1

 

17.5" (11/1/86): very faint, small, round, bright core.  Located 8' NE of NGC 488.  Forms the northern vertex of an equilateral triangle with NGC 488 and mag 8.3 SAO 109832 8' SE.  Seeing conditions very poor.

 

Bindon Stoney discovered NGC 490 (along with NGC 486, 492 and 500) on 6 Dec 1850 with Lord Rosse's 72", during his observation of NGG 488.  Shown as Beta in the sketch and described as "vvF".  The NGC position is accurate.

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NGC 491 = ESO 352-053 = MCG -06-04-011 = PGC 4914

01 21 20.2 -34 03 49

V = 12.5;  Size 1.4'x1.0';  Surf Br = 12.8;  PA = 93d

 

17.5" (11/6/93): fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 3:2 E-W, slightly brighter along major axis.  A mag 13.5 star is off the west edge 50" WSW of core.  ESO 352-041 lies 27' W.

 

8" (1/1/84): extremely faint, round, very small, threshold object.  A mag 13.5 star is off the west edge.

 

JH discovered NGC 491 = h2407 on 25 Sep 1834 and reported "B, vlE, pgmbM, near a vS star."  His mean position (2 observations) and description matches ESO 352-053 = PGC 4914.

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NGC 492 = MCG +01-04-038 = CGCG 411-036 = PGC 4976

01 22 13.6 +05 25 01

V = 14.7;  Size 0.7'x0.6';  Surf Br = 13.6

 

17.5" (10/4/97): extremely faint, small, round, 25" diameter, low surface brightness, no concentration.  On line with a mag 12 star 3.7' NW and a faint pair of mag 14-14.5 stars [at 22" separation] 2' NW.  Forms a close pair with MCG +01-04-037 1' SW (not seen). NGC 492 is located 12' NE of NGC 488 member with several other faint galaxies (NGC 486 8.5' SW, NGC 490 4' SW, NGC 500 7' ESE) in the field.

 

Bindon Stoney discovered NGC 492 on 6 Dec 1850 with Lord Rosse's 72", during his observation of the NGC 488 field.  Shown as Delta in the sketch and described as "vvF".  The sketch and position clearly identifies NGC 492 = PGC 4976 and the sketch appears to show a faint double star mentioned in my notes close NW.

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NGC 493 = UGC 914 = MCG +00-04-099 = CGCG 385-084 = PGC 4979

01 22 09.1 +00 56 47

V = 12.5;  Size 3.4'x1.0';  Surf Br = 13.7;  PA = 58d

 

17.5" (11/27/92): fairly faint, fairly large, very elongated 7:2 SW-NE, 3.5'x1.0', weakly concentrated.

 

WH discovered NGC 493 = H III-594 = h105 on 20 Dec 1786 (sweep 655) and logged "vF, mE, bM, 3.5' long, 1.5' broad."

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NGC 494 = UGC 919 = MCG +05-04-034 = CGCG 502-057 = PGC 5035

01 22 55.4 +33 10 26

V = 12.9;  Size 2.0'x0.8';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 100d

 

24" (10/4/13): moderately bright, moderately large, elongated 5:2 WNW-ESE, 50"x20", large bright elongated core.  A mag 15.5 star is at the south edge [16" from center].  A wide pair of mag 13.5 stars lie 1.4' SW and a similar star is 1.4' SE.  Located near the center of the NGC 507 Group with IC 1685 2.6' NE, NGC 504 7' ENE, NGC 507 11' NE and IC 1682 10' NW.  IC 1685 appeared very faint, extremely small, round, 10" diameter.

 

13.1" (8/8/86): fairly faint, very elongated 3:1 ~E-W, bright core. A wide mag 13 double star at 30" separation is just 1' SW.  Forms the vertex of a right triangle with mag 7.8 SAO 54647 8' NNE and mag 8.7 SAO 54632 11' WNW.  First in a group with NGC 504 7' ENE, NGC 507 11' NE, NGC 508 12' NE and IC 1685 2.5' NE (seen in 17.5" only).

 

JH discovered NGC 494 = h104 on 22 Nov 1827 and logged "vF; E; has a D* to s".  His position and description is accurate.

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NGC 495 = UGC 920 = MCG +05-04-035 = CGCG 502-058 = WBL 038-008 = PGC 5037

01 22 55.9 +33 28 18

V = 12.9;  Size 1.3'x0.8';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 170d

 

24" (10/4/13): fairly faint to moderately bright, fairly small, elongated 3:2 N-S, 30"x20", contains a small bright core.  Bracketed by two 14th magnitude stars 1' SSW and 1' NNE.  Located in the core of the NGC 507 group (actually the NGC 499 subgroup), with NGC 499 3.3' ESE, NGC 498 3.4' ENE, IC 1684 3.5' S, NGC 496 4.8' NE and NGC 501 6' SE.

 

13.1" (8/8/86): faint, small, slightly elongated, small bright core.  Located midway two mag 14 stars 1.1' SSW and 1.1' NNE.  First of three with NGC 496 4.8' NE and NGC 499 3.3' ESE.  Located in a rich galaxy group.

 

WH discovered NGC 495 = H III-156, along with NGC 496 and NGC 499, on 12 Sep 1784 (sweep 268) and logged "Three [along with NGC 496 and 499], eS and F, forming a triangle."  He observed this trio again the next night (sweep 271) in more detail: "Three, forming a [right triangle]; the [right angle] to the south [NGC 499], the short leg preceding [NGC 495], the long towards the north [NGC 496].  Those in the legs [NGC 495 and 496] the faintest imaginable; that at the rectangle [NGC 499] a deal larger and brighter, but still vF."  The NGC position (from Heinrich d'Arrest and Herman Schultz) is accurate.

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NGC 496 = UGC 927 = MCG +05-04-036 = CGCG 502-060 = WBL 038-010 = PGC 5061

01 23 11.6 +33 31 48

V = 13.3;  Size 1.6'x0.9';  Surf Br = 13.5;  PA = 28d

 

24" (10/4/13): fairly faint to moderately bright, moderately large, elongated 2:1 SSW-NNE, 0.9'x0.45', low fairly even surface brightness with a weak concentration. but no distinct core.  Located in the NGC 499 subgroup of the NGC 507 Group with NGC 498 2.4' S, NGC 499 4.2' S, NGC 495 4.8' SW and NGC 501 6.3' SSE.

 

13.1" (8/8/86): faint, low even surface brightness.  Second and largest of three with NGC 495 4.8' SW and NGC 499 4.2' S.

 

WH discovered NGC 496 = H III-157, along with NGC 495 and NGC 499, on 12 Sep 1784 (sweep 268) and observed again the next night (sweep 271).  See description under NGC 495. The NGC position is 0.1 tmin west and 1' south of UGC 927 = PGC 5061.

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NGC 497 = Arp 8 = UGC 915 = MCG +00-04-100 = CGCG 385-085 = PGC 4992

01 22 23.8 -00 52 30

V = 13.0;  Size 2.1'x0.9';  Surf Br = 13.5;  PA = 132d

 

17.5" (11/27/92): faint, fairly small, elongated 3:2 NW-SE, weak concentration.  A mag 13 star is 2.2' SE of center.  Located northwest of the core of AGC 194.

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 497 = St XII-14 on 6 Nov 1882 with the 31" reflector at the Marseille Observatory.  His position is accurate.  Lewis Swift independently found the galaxy again on 31 Oct 1886 with his 16" Clark refractor and recorded it in list V-13.

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NGC 498 = MCG +05-04-037 = PGC 5059

01 23 11.3 +33 29 22

V = 15.0;  Size 0.5'x0.5'

 

24" (10/4/13): very faint, very small, slightly elongated, 15"x12", low surface brightness.  Located 1.8' N of NGC 499 and 2.4' S of NGC 496, on a line between the two brighter galaxies.  This is perhaps the faintest NGC galaxy in the NGC 507 Group.

 

17.5" (10/4/97): extremely faint and small, no details visible.  This very difficult object was only detected after extended viewing at 220x, 280x and 420x.  Finally started to glimpse a virtually stellar spot for moments at 280x using a detailed finder chart to pinpoint the location.  Located 1.7' N of NGC 499 and 2.4' S of NGC 496 within the cluster.

 

R.J. Mitchell discovered NGC 498 on 23 Oct 1856 with Lord Rosse's 72" and placed on two sketches (object D in the original sketch) in the field of NGC 499.  His description says "only suspected", but the object is placed correctly on the sketch between NGC 496 and 499.

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NGC 499 = UGC 926 = MCG +05-04-038 = CGCG 502-059 = LGG 024-002 = IC 1686 = PGC 5060

01 23 11.5 +33 27 37

V = 12.2;  Size 1.6'x1.3';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 82d

 

24" (10/4/13): fairly bright, moderately large, elongated 4:3 WSW-ENE, 60"x45", well concentrated with a very bright core.  Brightest member of a subgroup of the NGC 507 Group with NGC 498 1.8' N, NGC 501 2.8' SE, NGC 498 3.4' WNW, NGC 496 4.2' N.

 

13.1" (8/8/86): moderately bright, moderately large, very bright core with a much fainter halo!  Third of three with NGC 495 3.3' WNW and NGC 496 4.2' N.

 

WH discovered NGC 499 = H III-158 = h106, along with NGC 495 and 496, on 12 Sep 1784 (sweep 268) and the trio was observed again the next night (sweep 271).  See NGC 495 for his description.  JH made two observations and recorded (sweep 100) "pB; R; bM.  Nebulae numerous hereabouts."

 

Stephane Javelle independently found this nebula on 1 Dec 1899 with the Nice Observatory 30" refractor and it was also catalogued as IC 1686.  His position is 1.7' S of NGC 499 (matches in RA) but this is a similar offset that he gave for IC 1684 and IC 1692.  This makes the equivalence NGC 499 = IC 1686 pretty certain, although Javelle claims he also measured NGC 499 so there is still some doubt on the equivalence.

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NGC 500 = MCG +01-04-040 = CGCG 411-039 = PGC 5013

01 22 39.4 +05 23 14

V = 14.1;  Size 0.7'x0.5';  Surf Br = 12.7

 

17.5" (12/23/92): very faint, very small, round, weak concentration, stellar nucleus.  A mag 11 star is 1' NE.  Located 10' NE of a mag 8 star.  NGC 490 is 9' WSW and NGC 488 18' SW.

 

Bindon Stoney discovered NGC 500, along with NGC 486, 490 and 492, on 6 Dec 1850 with Lord Rosse's 72" while examining the NGC 488 field.  NGC 500 is labeled Epsilon on the sketch in the 1861 and 1880 publications and simply described as "vF."

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NGC 501 = CGCG 502-062 = PGC 5082

01 23 22.4 +33 25 59

V = 14.5;  Size 0.4'x0.4'

 

24" (10/4/13): fairly faint, very small, slightly elongated, 20"x15", very small brighter nucleus.  Located 2.8' SE of NGC 499 and 1.8' SW of a mag 11.3 star in the NGC 507 Group.

 

17.5" (10/4/97): very faint, very small, round, 20" diameter.  Can just hold continually with averted vision once identified.  Located 2.8' SE of NGC 499 in a cluster.  A mag 10.5 star lies 1.8' NE.

 

R.J. Mitchell discovered NGC 501 on 28 Oct 1856 using Lord Rosse's 72".  It was sketched as object "E" and described as "vF, S."

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NGC 502 = UGC 922 = MCG +01-04-043 = CGCG 411-040 = LGG 023-002 = PGC 5034

01 22 55.6 +09 02 57

V = 12.8;  Size 1.1'x1.0';  Surf Br = 12.9

 

18" (12/3/05): fairly faint, small, round, 25" diameter, sharply concentrated with a very small, very bright core ~10" diameter.

 

17.5" (10/17/87): fairly faint, small, small bright core, possible faint stellar nucleus.  Member of the NGC 524 group.

 

Heinrich d'Arrest discovered NGC 502 on 25 Sep 1862 with the 11-inch refractor at Copenhagen.  His position (measured on 4 nights) matches UGC 922 = PGC 5034.  The identifications of NGC 502 and NGC 505 are reversed in the MCG and should read NGC 502 = MCG +01-04-041 and NGC 505 = MCG +01-04-043.

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NGC 503 = MCG +05-04-040 = CGCG 502-065 = WBL 038-014 = PGC 5086

01 23 28.4 +33 19 55

V = 14.3;  Size 0.4'x0.3'

 

24" (10/4/13): fairly faint, very small, slightly elongated, 20"x15".  Two mag 13.4/13.8 stars 0.6' SE and 1.1' SE are collinear with the galaxy.  Located 4' NE of mag 7.6 HD 8347 and 5' NNW of NGC 507, in the central hub of the cluster.

 

17.5" (10/4/97): very faint, very small, round, 20" diameter.  Collinear with two mag 13.5 stars 0.6' SE and 1.0' SE.  Located 4' NE of mag 7.5 SAO 54647 within the NGC 507 Group (NGC 507/508 in the field).

 

Heinrich d'Arrest discovered NGC 503 on 13 Aug 1863 with the 11-inch refractor at Copenhagen.  His single micrometric position is an exact match with CGCG 502-065 = PGC 5086.  He was uncertain if it might be one of WH's III 156-158 [NGC 495, 496, 499].

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NGC 504 = NGC 506: = UGC 935 = MCG +05-04-041 = CGCG 502-064 = PGC 5084

01 23 27.9 +33 12 16

V = 13.0;  Size 1.7'x0.4';  Surf Br = 12.6;  PA = 47d

 

24" (10/4/13): fairly bright, fairly small, elongated 5:2 SW-NE, ~40"x16", well-concentrated with a very bright elongated nucleus and faint extensions.  Located 4' SW of NGC 507 in the core of the NGC 507 Group.  IC 1687 is 4.7' NNW, NGC 508 5.2' NE, NGC 494 7' WSW.

 

13.1" (8/8/86): faint, small, very elongated 3:1 SW-NE, small bright core.  First of three with NGC 507 4' NNE and NGC 508 5.3' NNE.  Also NGC 494 lies 7.2' WSW.

 

JH discovered NGC 504 = h107 = Au 12 on 22 Nov 1827.  No visual description was recorded but he noted this nebula "precedes III.159 [NGC 507] by about 10 sec, and is half a field to the south of it."  Heinrich d'Arrest independently discovered this object on 8 Oct 1861 with the 11-inch Fraunhofer refractor in Copenhagen and assumed it was new.  His observation was included in Auwers 1862 catalogue of new nebulae.  JH catalogued the two observations separately as GC 291 and 292, but Dreyer combined these in the NGC.

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NGC 505 = UGC 924 = MCG +01-04-041 = PGC 5036

01 22 57.1 +09 28 08

V = 13.8;  Size 0.9'x0.6';  Surf Br = 13.1

 

18" (12/3/05): faint, very small, round, 20" diameter.  Contains a faint stellar nucleus with direct vision.  Located 7' WNW of NGC 509 in the NGC 524 group.

 

17.5" (10/17/87): very faint, extremely small, round.  NGC 509 lies 7' ESE.

 

13" (8/24/84): extremely faint, slightly elongated ~E-W?  Located 7' WNW of NGC 509 in the NGC 524 group.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 505 = m 46 on 1 Oct 1864 with Lassell's 48" on Malta and logged "vF, vS, stellar".  His position is accurate.

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NGC 506

01 23 35.3 +33 14 41

V = 15.3

 

24" (10/4/13): this number probably applies to a mag 15.3 star 1.3' SW of the center of NGC 507, beyond the halo.

 

Lawrence Parsons, the 4th Earl of Rosse, discovered NGC 506 on 7 Nov 1874 during the 8th and last observation of the NGC 499/507 Group.  There is no description but a micrometric measure is given 223.1" in PA 153.7” from mag 7.6 HD 8347 at 01 23 12.1 +33 17 24 (J2000).  There is no object at this offset but the NGC position is further southeast (perhaps Dreyer had additional information) and the NGC description adds "sp 507".  Near this position is a single star given here that Corwin identifies as NGC 506.  RNGC mistakenly equates NGC 506 with NGC 504. 

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NGC 507 = Arp 229 NED1 = VV 207a = UGC 938 = MCG +05-04-044 = CGCG 502-067 = PGC 5098

01 23 40.0 +33 15 22

V = 11.2;  Size 3.1'x3.1';  Surf Br = 13.5

 

24" (10/4/13): bright, moderately large, round, 1.5' diameter, sharply concentrated with a blazing core that increases to the center.  The outer halo gradually fades out, so there is no distinct edge, but just beyond the halo on the north side is NGC 508 (1.5' between centers).  A number of galaxies are nearby including NGC 504 4' SW, IC 1687 4.6' WNW, PGC 5100 3.0' S, CGCG 502-072 5.1' NE ("fairly faint, small, round, 18" diameter") and NGC 503 5.2' NNW.  A mag 14.3 star is just off the NW side, 1.3' from center and a mag 15.3 star (= NGC 506) is off the southwest side, 1.3' from center.  Mag 7.6 HD 8347 lies 6.2' WNW.

 

13.1" (8/8/86): moderately bright, moderately large, round, very bright core.  Second of three with NGC 508 1.5' N and NGC 504 4' SSW in a large group.  Located 6' ESE of mag 7.8 SAO 54647.

 

WH discovered NGC 507 = H III-159 = h108, along with NGC 508 = III-160, on 12 Sep 1784 (sweep 268) and recorded both as "Two. Both eF, S, but unequal."  The NGC position is accurate.

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NGC 508 = Arp 229 NED2 = VV 207b = UGC 939 = MCG +05-04-045 = CGCG 502-068 = PGC 5099

01 23 40.6 +33 16 51

V = 13.1;  Size 1.3'x1.3';  Surf Br = 13.6

 

24" (10/4/13): moderately bright to fairly bright, moderately large, round, broad concentration with a brighter nucleus.  Forms a close pair with NGC 507 1.5' S in the central region of the NGC 507 Group.  Also nearby is NGC 503 3.9' NW, CGCG 502-72 4.2' NE, IC 1687 4.6' W and NGC 504 5.3' SW.  Mag 7.6 HD 8347 lies 6' W.

 

13.1" (8/8/86): fairly faint, small, round.  Forms a close pair with NGC 507 1.5' S.  Third of three with NGC 504 5.3' SSW.  Located 6' E of mag 7.8 SAO 54647.

 

WH discovered NGC 508 = H III-160 = h109, along with NGC 507, on 12 Sep 1784 (sweep 268) and recorded both as "Two. Both eF, S, but unequal."  The NGC position is accurate.

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NGC 509 = UGC 932 = MCG +01-04-045 = CGCG 411-043 = LGG 023-011 = PGC 5080

01 23 24.1 +09 26 01

V = 13.4;  Size 1.6'x0.6';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 82d

 

18" (12/3/05): faint, fairly small, elongated nearly 2:1 ~E-W, 1.0'x0.5', broad weak concentration.  Situated between two mag 13.8/14.3 stars less than 2' SW and NNE.  NGC 505 lies 7' WNW.  Member of the NGC 524 group.

 

17.5" (10/17/87): faint, small, elongated ~E-W.  Located between a mag 14 star 1.9' SW and a mag 13.5 star 1.4' N.  Forms a pair with NGC 505 7' WNW in the NGC 524 group.

 

13" (8/24/84): very faint, small, slightly elongated ~E-W.  Two faint stars are north and south.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 509 = m 47 on 1 Oct 1864 with Lassell's 48" on Malta and logged "vF, S, E."  His position is accurate.

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NGC 510

01 23 55.6 +33 29 49

 

17.5" (10/4/97): this is a faint and difficult double star that was just resolved at 280x.  The fainter eastern component is difficult to cleanly resolve [separation 8"] and it is easy to imagine that Schultz would mistake this oibject as nonstellar.  Located 7' ESE of NGC 499 and 9' WNW of NGC 515 in the field of the NGC 507 Group. The RNGC mislabels PGC 5102 as NGC 510.

 

Herman Schultz discovered NGC 510 = Nova V on 11 Nov 1866 with the 9.6-inch refractor at Uppsala Observatory.  At Schultz's micrometric position (44 seconds following NGC 499) is a close, faint double star (also observed by Bigourdan) with a separation of 8" and mean position of 01 23 55.6 +33 29 49.  The RNGC and PGC misidentify PGC 5102 as NGC 510.  PGC 5102 is 32 sec east in RA and 3' S of NGC 499.  Discussed in  Malcolm Thomson's "Catalogue Corrections".

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NGC 511 = UGC 936 = MCG +02-04-033 = CGCG 436-037 = PGC 5103

01 23 30.7 +11 17 27

V = 13.7;  Size 1.2'x1.2';  Surf Br = 14.1

 

17.5" (10/17/87): very faint, very small, round.  A mag 14 star is attached at the south edge 17" from center.

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 511 = St VIII-4 on 26 Oct 1876 with the 31" silvered-glass reflector at the Marseille Observatory.  His description reads "eF, diffuse, vS, S* inv, S* attached".  His description and position matches UGC 936 = PGC 5103, with the two faint stars on the west side.

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NGC 512 = UGC 944 = MCG +06-04-013 = CGCG 521-018 = PGC 5132

01 23 59.8 +33 54 30

V = 13.2;  Size 1.6'x0.4';  Surf Br = 12.4;  PA = 116d

 

13.1" (8/8/86): fairly faint, fairly small, very elongated WNW-ESE.  A mag 14 star is just off the SE edge 0.6' from center and a mag 12 star is 1.6' SSW.  Located 6.5' NE of a mag 11 star.  NGC 513 lies 9' SE.  The RNGC misidentifies NGC 512 with a faint companion 2.5' S.

 

13.1" (12/22/84): faint, small, edge-on streak NW-SE, requires averted.

 

JH discovered NGC 512 = h110 on 17 Nov 1827 and recorded "vF; vS."  His position (from a single observation) is just 23" S of UGC 944.  The new description in the RNGC refers to CGCG 521-017, located 2.5' S of NGC 512.  The bright, elongated companion mentioned as 2' N of NGC 512, actually refers to NGC 512!  This misidentification was mentioned in my RNGC Corrections #1 and the Webb Society Quarterly Journal in April 1980.

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NGC 513 = UGC 953 = MCG +06-04-016 = CGCG 521-020 = PGC 5174

01 24 26.8 +33 47 59

V = 12.9;  Size 0.7'x0.3';  Surf Br = 11.1;  PA = 75d

 

13.1" (8/8/86): fairly faint, small, elongated WSW-ENE, weak concentration.  Located at the NE end of a line of four mag 12-13 stars which extend to SW; the closest mag 13.5 star is 0.9' SW and is followed by a second parallel line of stars.  NGC 512 lies 9' NW.  Incorrect RA by 0.6 minutes west in the RNGC and plotted incorrectly on the U2000.

 

WH discovered NGC 513 = H III-169 = h111 on 13 Sep 1784 (sweep 271) and simply noted "stellar."  This object is in a large group of galaxies found on this sweep using Beta Andromedae as a reference star.  Seven of these objects have varying errors in RA except for NGC 404. In this case, Herschel's RA is off by ~30 seconds from UGC 953.  JH made the single observation "F; S" and measured a good position.

 

The RA in the RNGC is also 0.6 min too far west and the galaxy is misplotted on the first version of Uranometria 2000. The position is given correctly in UGC and RC3.  See Corwin's notes.

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NGC 514 = UGC 947 = MCG +02-04-035 = CGCG 436-038 = PGC 5139

01 24 03.9 +12 55 03

V = 11.6;  Size 3.5'x2.8';  Surf Br = 14.0;  PA = 110d

 

17.5" (1/1/92): fairly faint, fairly large, 2.5'x2.0', elongated ~E-W, broad weak concentration, edges fade into background, low surface brightness but granular or mottled texture.  Located 3.1' WNW of a mag 9.5 star.  A mag 13.5 star is 3.4' SW.  Several faint stars are very close including a mag 14 star at the NE edge and a mag 15 star at the south edge 1.5' from center.

 

8" (1/1/84): faint, moderately large, very diffuse, even surface brightness.  A mag 9 star off the east edge interferes with viewing.

 

WH discovered NGC 514 = H II-252 = h112 on 16 Oct 1784 (sweep 295) and logged "F, pL, oval, lbM, preceding a pretty bright star."  This galaxy was observed 6 times using Lord Rosse's 72".  The earliest observation on 13 Dec 1848 noted "h's D* [referring to John Herschel's h 13] is triple and perhaps quadruple.  2 nuclei or nucleus and star in nebula."  The NGC position is accurate.

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NGC 515 = UGC 956 = MCG +05-04-052 = CGCG 502-077 = PGC 5201

01 24 38.6 +33 28 22

V = 13.5;  Size 1.4'x1.1'

 

24" (10/4/13): moderately bright, elongated 3:2 ~NW-SE, ~36"x24", fairly well concentrated with a bright core.  A mag 15.7 star is superimposed on the NW side.  Forms a pair with NGC 517 2.9' SE.  Located on the east side of the NGC 507 Group.

 

13.1" (8/8/86): fairly faint, small, slightly elongated, faint stellar nucleus.  An extremely faint mag 16 star is suspected at the NW end (confirmed on the POSS).  Forms a pair with NGC 517 3' SSE.

 

WH discovered NGC 515 = H III-167 = h113, along with NGC 517, on 13 Sep 1784 (problematic sweep 271 using Beta Andromedae as the reference star).  WH simply noted "Two, both stellar" and his single position (marked uncertain) is about 35 sec of RA east of UGC 956. JH made the single observation "Precedes [NGC 517] and is 2' north."  Heinrich d'Arrest measured an accurate position (4 nights) and noted the error in WH's position.

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NGC 516 = UGC 946 = MCG +01-04-048 = CGCG 411-046 = LGG 023-004 = PGC 5148

01 24 08.1 +09 33 06

V = 13.1;  Size 1.4'x0.5';  Surf Br = 12.7;  PA = 44d

 

18" (12/3/05): fairly faint, moderately large, appears as a thin streak, ~1.0'x0.25' oriented SW-NE, weak concentration, bulging core and tapering extensions.  Member of the NGC 524 group.

 

17.5" (10/17/87): faint, fairly small, very elongated SW-NE, weak concentration. Located 10' W of NGC 524.

 

13" (8/24/84): faint, small, slightly elongated SW-NE, even surface brightness.  Located about 10' W of NGC 524.

 

Heinrich d'Arrest discovered NGC 516 on 25 Sep 1862 with the 11-inch refractor at Copenhagen.  His mean position and offset from NGC 524 (41 seconds preceding) is an exact match with UGC 946 = PGC 5148.

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NGC 517 = VV 36a = UGC 960 = MCG +05-04-054 = CGCG 502-079 = PGC 5214

01 24 43.8 +33 25 47

V = 12.4;  Size 2.0'x1.0';  Surf Br = 13.0;  PA = 20d

 

24" (10/4/13): moderately to fairly bright, moderately large, elongated 2:1 SSW-NNE, ~45"x22", well concentrated with a bright core.  Forms a pair with NGC 515 2.9' NNW.  Member of the NGC 507 Group.

 

13.1" (8/8/86): fairly faint, small, elongated 2:1 SSW-NNE.  Appears slightly brighter than NGC 515 3' NNW.

 

WH discovered NGC 517 = H III-168 = h114, along with NGC 515, on on 13 Sep 1784 (problematic sweep 271 using Beta Andromedae as the reference star).  WH simply noted "Two, both stellar" and his single position (marked uncertain) is about 35 sec of RA east of NGC 515 = UGC 956.  JH made the single observation "pB; R". Heinrich d'Arrest measured a pretty accurate position (3 nights).  See Corwin's notes.

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NGC 518 = UGC 952 = MCG +01-04-049 = CGCG 411-047 = LGG 023-009 = PGC 5161

01 24 17.7 +09 19 52

V = 13.3;  Size 1.7'x0.6';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 98d

 

18" (12/3/05): faint or fairly faint, very elongated E-W, 1.0'x0.3', weak concentration with a slightly brighter core, irregular surface brightness.  A mag 14.5 star lies 1' SW.  Located 2.5' SW of a mag 10.5 star.

 

17.5" (10/17/87): faint, fairly small, very elongated ~E-W, weak concentration.  A mag 14 star is off the SSW side 0.9' from center.  Located 2.5' SW of a mag 10 star and 15' SSW of NGC 524 in a group.

 

13" (8/24/84): very faint, small, elongated ~E-W.  A mag 10 star is NE.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 518 = m 48 on 17 Dec 1864 with Lassell's 48" on Malta and logged "F, vS, R."  His position is 1' S of UGC 952 = PGC 5161.

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NGC 519 = CGCG 385-103 = PGC 5182

01 24 28.6 -01 38 29

V = 14.3;  Size 0.5'x0.3';  Surf Br = 12.1;  PA = 140d

 

17.5" (9/19/87): extremely faint and small, round.  A mag 14 star is 45" S.  Member of the AGC 194 cluster.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 519 = Sw VI-8 (along with NGC 530, 538, 557) on 20 Nov 1886 with the 16" refractor at the Warner Observatory.  His position is 7 sec of RA west and 1.3' south of CGCG 385-103 = PGC 5182.

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NGC 520 = Arp 157 = VV 231 = UGC 966 = MCG +01-04-052 = CGCG 411-050 = PGC 5193

01 24 34.4 +03 47 42

V = 11.4;  Size 4.5'x1.8';  Surf Br = 13.6;  PA = 130d

 

48" (10/22/11): the view of this very bright, highly irregular, disrupted galaxy was fascinating at 488x.  The most prominent feature is a very high surface brightness curving "bar" oriented NW-SE (VV 231a), bending out in the middle towards the southwest, and fading out on the southeast end with a faint extension.  The total length of the banana-shaped bar is close to 2.5'.  The brightest part is at the northwest end, where there is a large, bright knot, 24" diameter that increases to the center.  In AJ, 134, 212 (2007), Rossa et all refer to this knot as the northern nucleus. The edge of the bar is very well defined along the north side.  At the southeast end of the main bar, the brightness dims sharply but a much fainter hazy glow continues further southeast (VV 231c) and spreads out.

 

On the south side is a fairly bright, elongated section oriented WNW-ESE (VV 231b), that is separated from the northern "bar" by a prominent, irregular dark lane running NW to SE, paralleling the bar in the central region. A slightly brighter "knot" is located is the middle of the southern section.  According to the Rossa paper, the dust lane just north of this knot optically obscures the southern nucleus.  At the southeast end, the glow dims rapidly and fans out further southeast.

 

18" (10/19/06): bright, fairly large, very elongated 3:1 NNW-SSE, 2'x0.6'.  This disturbed galaxy has a very unusual appearance with a bright knot at the NNW end.  The SSE end is wider and fainter and appears to feather out with a fainter, more delicate section that branches from the main body (VV 231b).  The periphery at the SSE end is difficult to trace due to this chaotic structure.

 

17.5" (1/1/92): fairly bright, moderately large, elongated 5:2 NW-SE, 3.0'x1.2'.  Very unusual appearance; the NW portion is noticeably brighter with a bright knot at the NW tip and a mottled texture.  Fades towards the SE where it merges into a fainter section which is tilted ~E-W with an irregular surface brightness and ill-defined edges.

 

8" (11/28/81): faint, diffuse, elongated N-S.

 

WH discovered NGC 520 = H III-253 = h116 on 13 Dec 1784 (sweep 338) and remarked "eF, cL, E."  On 3 Dec 1787 (sweep 788), he reported "cL, E from sp to nf."  Using LdR's 72", Bindon Stoney wrote on 18 Dec 1851, "South end is like a brush or broom with a split in it."  His sketch was included in the 1861 publication (as well as 1880). A second observation on 9 Nov 1876 reads "Lord Rosse thought it had two points of condensation 3/4' apart.  I (Dreyer) thought it spread out in the following end like a fan.  Not well seen."

 

In Arp's category of disturbed galaxies with interior absorption.

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NGC 521 = UGC 962 = MCG +00-04-118 = CGCG 385-106 = PGC 5190

01 24 33.8 +01 43 53

V = 11.7;  Size 3.2'x2.9';  Surf Br = 14.0;  PA = 20d

 

13.1" (1/1/84): sharply concentrated with a very small bright core surrounded by a fairly large but very diffuse round envelope.  Located 14' W of NGC 533.

 

WH discovered NGC 521 = H II-461 = h115 on 8 Oct 1785 (sweep 462) and recorded "F, pL, irr R, bM."  On 20 Dec 1786 (sweep 655) he noted "vF, R, vgbM, 1 1/2' diam."  JH made two observations, calling it "B" and "vF" on the two sweeps.  R.J. Mitchell, using Lord Rosse's 72" on 3 Oct 1856, logged "pB, S, disc enveloped in F outlying neby and looks like an unresolved cluster." The NGC position is accurate.

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NGC 522 = UGC 970 = MCG +02-04-038 = CGCG 436-043 = FGC 163 = LGG 023-009 = PGC 5218

01 24 45.9 +09 59 40

V = 12.9;  Size 2.7'x0.5';  Surf Br = 13.0;  PA = 33d

 

18" (12/3/05): faint to fairly faint edge-on streak SW-NE, 1.2'x0.2'.  This is a pretty slash with a slightly brighter core.  Fades at the tips but uniformly narrow in width (does not bulge in the center).  NGC 525 lies 17' S within the NGC 524 group.  A couple of faint members, IC 101 and IC 102, lie 10' SW and 8' SW.

 

IC 101 is a faint hazy spot, irregularly round, ~20"-25" diameter.  A mag 14.5 star lies 1' S. IC 102 is extremely faint, very small, 15" diameter, no details.  This marginal object was just glimpsed as drifted through the field.

 

17.5" (10/17/87): faint, pretty edge-on steak SSW-NNE, weak concentration.  Located 27' N of NGC 524 in a group.

 

13" (8/24/84): very faint, edge-on streak SSW-NNE.

 

Heinrich d'Arrest discovered NGC 522 on 25 Sep 1862 with the 11-inch refractor at Copenhagen.  His mean position (2 observations) matches UGC 962 = PGC 5190.

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NGC 523 = Arp 158 = NGC 537 = UGC 979 = MCG +06-04-018 = CGCG 521-022 = IV Zw 45 = VV 783 = PGC 5268

01 25 20.8 +34 01 30

V = 12.7;  Size 2.5'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 108d

 

24" (11/24/14): fairly bright, moderately bright, very elongated 7:2 ~E-W, ~1.1'x0.3'.  This disrupted galaxy (or merger) appeared very asymmetric, widening a bit at the east end and tapering slightly to the west.  A small, relatively bright knot (HII complex or core of companion?), ~10" diameter, is at the east end.  An easily visible mag 14-14.5 star is embedded at the west end.  The main body, which extends ~40" from the knot to the star, is fairly thin and only very weakly brighter in the center.  With careful viewing, a very faint narrow plume extends west of the main glow.

 

13.1" (12/22/84): moderately bright, thin edge-on 4:1 ~E-W.  Located north of the NGC 483-517 cluster.

 

Heinrich d'Arrest found NGC 523 on 23 Aug 1862 and described this galaxy as a "Double Nebula, F, S, both very near.  A *11 precedes by 11.65 seconds."  As he noted this object as a "Nebula duplex", he apparently saw the knot at the east end (identified in NED as NGC 523 NED02).  WH probably discovered this galaxy earlier on 13 Sep 1784 (problematic sweep 271) and simply noted H III-170 = NGC 537 as "stellar".  His RA readings for objects in this sweep are poor (given to the nearest minute) and assuming H III-170 has an error of about 55 sec in RA, then NGC 523 = NGC 537.  The eastern knot was the site of SN 2001EN.

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NGC 524 = UGC 968 = MCG +01-04-053 = CGCG 411-051 = LGG 023-005 = PGC 5222

01 24 47.8 +09 32 19

V = 10.3;  Size 2.8'x2.8';  Surf Br = 12.3

 

18" (12/3/05): very bright, large, round, well concentrated with a bright core increasing to a very bright small nucleus.  The halo extends to 2.0' or 2.5'.  A mag 11 star lies 2.3' S of center.  Brightest in a large group of 8 NGC galaxies and a few IC galaxies.

 

17.5" (10/17/87): very bright, fairly large, very bright core, large faint halo, bright stellar nucleus.  A mag 11 star is 2.5' S.  Brightest in the NGC 524 group including NGC 505, NGC 509, NGC 516, NGC 518, NGC 522, NGC 525, NGC 532.

 

13" (8/24/84): bright, small very bright core surrounded by fainter round halo.

 

8" (11/8/80): fairly faint, round, bright core.  Located just north of a mag 10 star.

 

WH discovered NGC 524 = H I-151 = h117 on 4 Sep 1786 (sweep 581) and logged "cB, cL, R, cometic, vgmbM to a nucleus, several small stars near."  The NGC position is accurate.

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NGC 525 = UGC 972 = MCG +01-04-054 = CGCG 411-053 = PGC 5232

01 24 52.9 +09 42 12

V = 13.2;  Size 1.5'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 5d

 

18" (12/3/05): fairly faint, fairly small, slightly elongated, ~50"x40", symmetrical appearance and increases steadily to a brighter core and faint stellar nucleus.  Member of the NGC 524 group.  A mag 11 star lies 2' NW.

 

17.5" (10/17/87): faint, very small, slightly elongated, weak concentration.  Located 2' SE of a mag 10.5 star in the NGC 524 group.

 

13" (8/24/84): faint, small, almost round.

 

Heinrich d'Arrest discovered NGC 525 on 25 Sep 1862 with the 11-inch refractor at Copenhagen.  His mean position (2 observations) is fairly accurate and also noted the nearby mag 11-12 star (2' northwest) as 5 seconds preceding and 1.5' north.

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NGC 526 = ESO 352-IG 066nw = MCG -06-04-019 = PGC 5120

01 23 54.2 -35 03 56

V = 13.7;  Size 0.9'x0.6';  Surf Br = 12.8;  PA = 112d

 

17.5" (11/1/97): at first impression appeared as a very faint, small glow, slightly elongated WNW-ESE.  After extended viewing, it resolved at times into a close double system with NGC 526B = MCG -06-04-020 = PGC 5135, [35" between centers] and oriented WNW-ESE.  Both galaxies had very small brighter cores at moments.  Forms a trio with NGC 527 3.1' S.

 

JH discovered NGC 526 = h2408 (along with NGC 527 = h2409) on 1 Sep 1834 and recorded "pB, S, rather a doubtful object. The preceding of two [with NGC 527]".  On a later sweep he noted "vF;; S; lE; this is the "doubtful" neb of a former sweep."  This double system consists of NGC 526A = PGC 5120 and NGC 526B = PGC 5135.

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NGC 527 = ESO 352-068 = MCG -06-04-021 = PGC 5128

01 23 58.1 -35 06 54

V = 13.0;  Size 1.7'x0.4';  Surf Br = 12.6;  PA = 14d

 

17.5" (11/1/97): fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 5:2 SSW-NNE, 1.0'x0.4', weak concentration to a slightly brighter core.  A mag 13 star lies 1' NE.  The double system NGC 526 is 3.1' N.  NGC 527, itself, is a double system with MCG -06-04-022 = PGC 5142 (not seen), a faint edge-on system, close following the south end and just 46" between centers.

 

JH discovered NGC 527 = h2409 (along with NGC 526 = h2408) on 1 Sep 1834 and recorded "pB, S, E, bM, 20".  The following of 2 [with NGC 526]".

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NGC 528 = UGC 988 = MCG +05-04-057 = CGCG 502-083 = PGC 5290

01 25 33.6 +33 40 18

V = 12.5;  Size 1.7'x1.1';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 55d

 

13.1" (8/8/86): fairly faint, small, slightly elongated SW-NE, bright core.  There is a string of mag 10 stars to the north including two mag 10.5 stars 3.6' NNW and 7.6' NE and a mag 9.5 star 5.6' NNE.  Two bright stars lie SE including a mag 10 star 6' SSE.

 

Heinrich d'Arrest discovered NGC 528, which was missed by both Herschels, on 22 Aug 1865 with the 11-inch refractor at Copenhagen.  His single position is quite accurate.

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NGC 529 = UGC 995 = MCG +06-04-019 = CGCG 521-023 = HCG 10b = PGC 5299

01 25 40.3 +34 42 47

V = 12.1;  Size 2.4'x2.1';  Surf Br = 13.8;  PA = 160d

 

17.5" (8/31/86): moderately bright, fairly small, bright core.  Located 10' NW of mag 6.3 SAO 54695.  Brightest along with NGC 536 8.5' E in the HCG 10 group.

 

13.1" (12/22/84): faint, diffuse.  Located among group of 4-5 mag 10-11 stars with a mag 6 star 10' ESE.  Brightest in a group.

 

JH discovered NGC 529 = h118 on 17 Nov 1827 and recorded "pB; vS; sbM.  The preceding of two [with H III-171 = NGC 536].   Corwin suggests that NGC 529 = UGC 995 was probably discovered earlier by William Herschel and catalogued as H III-171, but with an error in RA of over 1 min.  But Wolfgang Steinicke argues that III-171 = NGC 536, based on analyzing the sweep order.  R.J. Mitchell, LdR's assistant, discovered the other two members of HCG 10 in 1855.

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NGC 530 = UGC 965 = MCG +00-04-119 = IC 106 = PGC 5210

01 24 41.7 -01 35 14

V = 13.0;  Size 1.5'x0.4';  Surf Br = 12.3;  PA = 134d

 

17.5" (9/19/87): fairly faint, fairly small, oval NW-SE, weak concentration.  A mag 13 star is at the SE end 0.9' from center.  Forms a pair with IC 1696 3' SE within AGC 194.

 

13" (9/22/84): moderately bright, edge-on NW-SE, bright core.  A mag 12 star is off the SE end.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 530 = Sw VI-9 on 20 Nov 1886 with the 16" refractor at the Warner Observatory.  His position is 15 sec of RA east of UGC 965 = PGC 5210.  This galaxy was found again by Guillaume Bigourdan on 16 Nov 1887, assumed to be new, and was catalogued again as IC 106. Herbert Howe measured an accurate position in 1897 using the 20" refractor at Chamberlin Observatory.  The equivalence of NGC 530 and IC 106 was mentioned in the IC 2 Notes.  MCG identifies this galaxy as IC 106 only (NGC 530 is misidentified as MCG +00-04-122) but UGC states NGC 530 = IC 106.  See Corwin's notes.

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NGC 531 = UGC 1012 = MCG +06-04-020 = CGCG 521-024 = HCG 10c = PGC 5340

01 26 18.8 +34 45 15

V = 13.8;  Size 1.9'x0.5';  Surf Br = 13.6;  PA = 34d

 

17.5" (8/31/86): faint, fairly small, oval SW-NE, fairly small.  A mag 12 star is just off the NE end 1.0' from center.  Member of the NGC 529-536 group = HCG 10 with NGC 536 3.1' SSE.

 

R.J. Mitchell discovered NGC 531 (along with NGC 542) with Lord Rosse's 72" on 16 Oct 1855 while observing NGC 529 and 536 (found earlier by the Herschels).  His position is 28 sec of RA west of UGC 1012 = PGC 5340, but the sketch confirms the identity.  The error in the position was caused by a confusion in the reference object.  PGC 5340 is not identified as NGC 531 in UGC (1012), CGCG (521-024) or MCG (+06-04-020).  Carlson advocated removal of NGC 531 from the NGC.  See Thomson's Catalogue Corrections and WSQJ April 1986.

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NGC 532 = UGC 982 = MCG +01-04-056 = CGCG 411-055 = LGG 023-006 = PGC 5264

01 25 17.3 +09 15 51

V = 12.9;  Size 2.5'x0.8';  Surf Br = 13.5;  PA = 28d

 

18" (12/3/05): moderately bright, fairly large, elongated 7:2 SW-NE, ~2.0'x0.4', broad concentration, patchy appearance with an irregular surface brightness.  Member of the NGC 524 group.

 

17.5" (10/17/87): fairly faint, fairly large, edge-on 3:1 or 4:1 SSW-NNE, broad concentration.  Member of the NGC 524 group with NGC 518 15' W and NGC 524 18' NW.

 

13" (8/24/84): fairly faint, thin streak elongated SSW-NNE, slightly brighter core.

 

WH discovered NGC 532 = H III-556 = h119 on 4 Sep 1786 (sweep 581) and noted "vF, mE, about 1 1/2' long; the extent about 15' from the meridian from sp to nf."  JH recorded "not vF, L, R, bM, 40" dia."  When JH compiled the GC, he included both his fathers and his own observations as separate entries as "the description differ so materially, especially in the particular of extension."  Nevertheless, GC 313 = GC 314.  Dreyer combined both entries into NGC 532.  The NGC position is accurate.

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NGC 533 = UGC 992 = MCG +00-04-131 = CGCG 385-121 = PGC 5283

01 25 31.4 +01 45 33

V = 11.4;  Size 3.8'x2.3';  Surf Br = 13.8;  PA = 50d

 

13.1" (1/1/84): moderately bright, bright core, faint stellar nucleus suspected, elongated halo WSW-ENE.  A mag 13.5 star is 3.4' WNW.

 

8" (1/1/84): very faint, very small, weak concentration.  A mag 13.5 star is 3.5' WNW.

 

WH discovered NGC 533 = H II-462 = h121 on 8 Oct 1785 (sweep 462) and logged "pB, R, pL, mbM."  On 20 Dec 1786 (sweep 655) he noted "pB, R, vgbM, about 1.5' dia." and on 3 Dec 1787 (sweep 788), "F, S, R, gbM."  JH recorded on 16 Dec 1827 (sweep 110), "B; pL; R; bM."

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NGC 534 = ESO 296-021 = MCG -06-04-026 = PGC 5215

01 24 44.6 -38 07 45

V = 13.4;  Size 1.1'x1.0';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 142d

 

17.5" (11/1/97): very faint, very small, round, ~25" diameter, weak concentration.  Slightly fainter than NGC 544 5.8' ENE.  First in a group with NGC 544, NGC 546 and NGC 549 (latter not seen).  Located 4' NNW of a mag 11 star.

 

JH discovered NGC 534 = h2410 (along with nearby NGC 544 and 546) on 23 Oct 1835 and logged "eeF, S, bM."  His mean position from two sweeps matches ESO 296-021 = PGC 5215.

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NGC 535 = UGC 997 = MCG +00-04-133 = CGCG 385-124 = PGC 5282

01 25 31.1 -01 24 30

V = 13.8;  Size 1.0'x0.3';  Surf Br = 12.5;  PA = 58d

 

17.5" (9/19/87): faint, small, oval SW-NE, weak concentration.  In the central core of the AGC 194 cluster on line with NGC 541 3.8' NE and NGC 545/NGC 547 8' NE.

 

13" (9/22/84): extremely faint, elongated SW-NE.

 

Heinrich d'Arrest discovered NGC 535 on 31 Oct 1864 with the 11-inch refractor at Copenhagen and recorded "eF, vS, 1st of 3 in a line [with NGC 541 and 545 (double)]".

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NGC 536 = UGC 1013 = MCG +06-04-021 = CGCG 521-025 = HCG 10a = PGC 5344

01 26 21.7 +34 42 12

V = 12.4;  Size 3.0'x1.1';  Surf Br = 13.5;  PA = 62d

 

17.5" (8/31/86): moderately bright, slightly elongated WSW-ENE.  A mag 14 star is involved at the north edge.  Located 8' NNE of mag 6.3 SAO 54695.  Brightest along with NGC 529 in HCG 10 with NGC 529 8.5' W, NGC 542 2.6' SE and NGC 531 3.1' NNW.

 

13" (12/22/84): fairly faint, very small, elongated ~E-W, very small faint core.

 

WH discovered NGC 536 = H III-171 = h120 on 13 Sep 1784 (problematic sweep 271) and noted "stellar".  Objects discovered on this sweep (NGC 513, 515, 517, 523, 536, 552, 553, 614) have various offset errors in RA.  His position for III-171 is 1.0 min of RA east of UGC 1013.  JH made the single observation "pB; pL; gbM; the following of two." and measured an accurate position.  Heinrich d'Arrest made 3 observations and mentioned the star involved on the north side.

 

Analyzing the sweep data, Harold Corwin suggests H III-171 applies to NGC 529, which is 1 min 40 sec west of WH's place, but Wolfgang Steinicke argues that III-171 must apply to NGC 536 (coming from the previous object NGC 537 in the sweep).

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NGC 537 = NGC 523 = UGC 979 = MCG +06-04-018 = CGCG 521-022 = Arp 158 = IV Zw 45 = PGC 5268

01 25 20.8 +34 01 30

 

See observing notes for NGC 523.

 

WH discovered NGC 537 = H III-170 on 13 Sep 1784 (problematic sweep 271) and simply noted "stellar".  All the RA positions are off by varying amounts in this sweep, computed with respect to Beta Andromedae (except for NGC 404) in varying amounts.  Dreyer questioned if this object was identical to Heinrich d'Arrest's NGC 523 and these numbers are equated in the RNGC.  If Dreyer's suggestion is correct, WH's RA 1.0 tmin too large and Corwin came to the same conclusion.  See his notes for more on the story.

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NGC 538 = UGC 991 = MCG +00-04-130 = CGCG 385-120 = PGC 5275

01 25 26.1 -01 33 02

V = 13.7;  Size 1.0'x0.5';  Surf Br = 12.8;  PA = 40d

 

17.5" (9/19/87): faint, very small, elongated SSW-NNE, weak concentration.  A mag 12 star is at the north edge 34" from center.  UGC 995 lies 3' NNW within AGC 194.

 

13" (9/22/84): fairly faint, elongated SW-NE, star on NE tip.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 538 = Sw VI-10 on 20 Nov 1886 with the 16" refractor at the Warner Observatory and recorded "eF; S; vE; pF * close N; Not 5180 [NGC 558]".  Swift's position is 10 sec of RA east of UGC 991 = PGC 5275 and his comment "pF * close N" applies, though the star is not faint.

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NGC 539 = NGC 563 = ESO 542-010 = MCG -03-04-063 = PGC 5269

01 25 21.7 -18 09 51

V = 13.5;  Size 1.5'x1.3';  Surf Br = 14.2;  PA = 145d

 

17.5" (12/23/92): very faint, fairly small, slightly elongated N-S, low even surface brightness.  Followed by a line of three mag 13-14 stars oriented SSW-NNE located 3.2' SSE, 2.6' SE and 2.7' NE.

 

Francis Leavenworth discovered NGC 539 = LM I-28 on 31 Oct 1885 with the 26" refractor at Leander McCormick Observatory.  His rough position is just 1' to 2' S of ESO 542-010 = PGC 5269.  NGC 563 (found again by Leavenworth the next year) is a duplicate observation with a 2 tmin error in RA.  So, NGC 539 = NGC 563.

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NGC 540 = ESO 542-012 = PGC 5410

01 27 08.9 -20 02 12

V = 14.6;  Size 0.8'x0.4';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 179d

 

17.5" (10/4/97): extremely faint and small, round.  Only glimpsed at moments at 280x using GSC finder chart but several times appeared virtually stellar.  On two occasions a 20" halo was visible (too faint to determine elongation but extended 2:1 N-S on DSS). A mag 14 star lies 1.3' due north.

 

Francis Leavenworth discovered NGC 540 = LM I-29 on 15 Oct 1885 with the 26" refractor at Leander McCormick Observatory.  There is nothing at his position by ~2 min of RA east and 5' south is ESO 542-012 = PGC 5410.  Corwin examined the sketch, but there is only one star shown, so the field cannot be confirmed and identification is uncertain.

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NGC 541 = Arp 133 = UGC 1004 = MCG +00-04-137 = CGCG 385-128 = PGC 5305

01 25 44.3 -01 22 46

V = 12.1;  Size 1.8'x1.7';  Surf Br = 13.2

 

48" (10/22/11): very bright, fairly large, round, sharply concentrated with an intense core 30" core surrounded by a much fainter halo, nearly 1.5' diameter.  Just off the east side of the halo are two faint galaxies: PGC 86298 1' E and Minkowski's Object 0.8' NE.  PGC 86298 was faint, very small, round, 10" diameter, visible continuously.  Minkowski's Object was very faint, very small, round, 10" diameter, low even surface brightness.  A mag 17 star 40" NE forms an equilateral triangle with the pair of galaxies. A 17th magnitude star is 1.4' NE of center and forms an equilateral triangle with the pair of faint galaxies.

 

Minkowski's object, experiencing a burst of star formation, was actually triggered by the jet from the nucleus of NGC 541 because the body of the jet can be traced all the way to the region where the new stars are forming.

 

17.5" (9/19/87): fairly faint, fairly small, bright core, oval SSW-NNE.  Slightly fainter than NGC 545/NGC 547 4.4' NE in the core of AGC 194.  Also at midpoint with NGC 545/547 and NGC 535 3.7' SW.  A bridge of stars and gas connects NGC 541 and the interacting pair NGC 545/547.  Embedded in the bridge just NE of NGC 541 is "Minkowski's Object" (not seen) which has a very unusual optical spectrum.

 

13" (9/22/84): moderately bright, round.

 

Heinrich d'Arrest discovered NGC 541 on 30 Oct 1864 with the 11-inch refractor at Copenhagen and measured on 3 nights.  I'm surprised that WH missed this galaxy in his discovery observation of NGC 545/547.

 

A bridge of stars and gas connects NGC 541 and the interacting pair NGC 545/547.  Embedded in the bridge just northeast of NGC 541 is "Minkowski's Object" which has a very unusual optical spectrum.  See "Minkowski's object - A starburst triggered by a radio jet" at http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/bib_query?1985ApJ...293...83V.  A brief summary and excellent image is at http://www.daviddarling.info/encyclopedia/M/Minkowskis_Object.html.

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NGC 542 = MCG +06-04-022 = CGCG 521-026 = HCG 10d = PGC 5360

01 26 30.8 +34 40 32

V = 14.7;  Size 0.8'x0.5';  Surf Br = 12.9

 

17.5" (8/31/86): faint, diffuse, slightly elongated.  Located 2.6' SE of NGC 536 in the HCG 10 = NGC 529-536 group.

 

R.J. Mitchell discovered NGC 542 on 16 Oct 1855 with Lord Rosse's 72" while observing NGC 529 and 536 (discovered earlier by the Herschels).  This nebula was shown on the sketch as Delta and Dreyer measured a micrometric position.

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NGC 543 = MCG +00-04-138 = CGCG 385-130 = PGC 5311

01 25 50.0 -01 17 34

V = 13.1;  Size 0.6'x0.3';  Surf Br = 10.9;  PA = 90d

 

48" (10/22/11): fairly bright/bright, fairly small, elongated 3:1 E-W, 0.6'x0.2', contains a small bright core.  MCG +00-04-140 lies 1.5' SSE.  In a string of galaxies oriented SSW-NNE in AGC 194 with NGC 545/547 4' SE.

 

17.5" (9/19/87): faint, small, very elongated ~E-W.  Located 4.5' NW of NGC 545/NGC 547 duo in the core of AGC 194.

 

13" (9/22/84): very faint, very small.

 

Heinrich d'Arrest discovered NGC 543 on 31 Oct 1864, while measuring positions for other members of AGC 194 with the 11-inch refractor at Copenhagen.  His single micrometric position is just off the south edge of CGCG 385-130 = PGC 5311.

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NGC 544 = ESO 296-024 = MCG -06-04-028 = PGC 5253

01 25 12.0 -38 05 41

V = 13.4;  Size 1.2'x0.9';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 2d

 

17.5" (11/1/97): very faint, very small, round, 25" round, weak concentration to a slightly brighter core.  Precedes a mag 14 star by 1.5' and forms a close pair with NGC 546 1.5' N; the two galaxies and the star form a nearly perfect equilateral triangle.  Located ~15' SW of the core of the distant AGC 2911.

 

JH discovered NGC 544 = h2411 (along with nearby NGC 534 = h2410 and NGC 546 = h2412) on 23 Oct 1835.  His description reads "eeF; the Sp of two [with NGC 546] which form an equilateral triangle with a star 13th mag" and matches ESO 296-024 = PGC 5253.

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NGC 545 = Arp 308 NED1 = UGC 1007 = MCG +00-04-142 = CGCG 385-132 = Holm 42a = 3C 40 = PGC 5323

01 25 59.1 -01 20 25

V = 12.2;  Size 2.4'x1.6';  Surf Br = 13.5;  PA = 55d

 

48" (10/22/11): very bright, large, oval 2:1 SW-NE, 1.4'x0.7', well concentrated with a large bright core and fainter halo that merges with NGC 547 on the southeast side.

CGCG 385-129, situated 2.5' NW of NGC 545, is moderately bright, small, elongated 3:2 , 0.4'x0.3' WNW-ESE, small bright core.  CGCG 385-127, located 3' due west of NGC 545, appeared moderately bright, fairly small, elongated 4:3 SSW-NNE, 0.4'x0.3', contains a small bright core.

 

17.5" (9/19/87): NGC 545 is the brightest member of AGC 194.  It appeared moderately bright, small, round, small bright core.  Forms a double system with NGC 547 in a common envelope.

CGCG 385-129, located 2.5' NW of NGC 545, is extremely faint and small, round.  It forms the eastern vertex of an equilateral triangle with a pair of mag 13 stars 45" SW and NW.  RNGC and MCG misidentify CGCG 385-129 as NGC 545.  CGCG 385-127, located 3' W of NGC 545 is extremely faint and small, almost round.

 

13" (9/22/84): moderately bright, round, bright core.  Preceding of a double system with NGC 547 0.5' SE.

 

WH discovered NGC 545 = H II-448, along with NGC 547, on 1 Oct 1785 (sweep 448) and recorded both as "Two, stellar of equal size and within 1' of each other.  Their nebulosities run together and at first sight seem to form only one extended nebula."  These galaxies form a double system and are the brightest members of AGC 194.

 

RNGC misidentifies the double system NGC 545/547 as NGC 547/547A.  MCG calls the double galaxy NGC 547a/NGC 547b.  RNGC and MCG both misidentify MCG +00-04-140 as NGC 545.   See RNGC Corrections #1 and the Webb Society Observer's Handbook, Volume 5.

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NGC 546 = ESO 296-025 = MCG -06-04-029 = PGC 5255

01 25 12.7 -38 04 09

V = 13.6;  Size 1.4'x0.5';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 35d

 

17.5" (11/1/97): extremely faint, very small, round, requires averted to view.  Located 1.5' N of brighter NGC 544.  A mag 13.5 star lies 1.5' SE.

 

JH discovered NGC 546 = h2412 (along with nearby NGC 534 = h2410 and NGC 544 = h2411) on 23 Oct 1835 and recorded "eeF.  The on f of two."  On a later sweep he logged "eeF; S; R; vgbM."  His mean position is accurate.

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NGC 547 = Arp 308 NED2 = UGC 1009 = MCG +00-04-143 = CGCG 385-133 = Holm 42b = 3C 40 = PGC 5324

01 26 00.7 -01 20 43

V = 12.2;  Size 1.3'x1.3';  Surf Br = 12.7;  PA = 85d

 

48" (10/22/11): very bright, round, moderately large, 1' diameter, very bright core.  The halo merges with NGC 545, which is in contact on the NW side.

 

17.5" (9/19/87): moderately bright, small, round, small bright core.  Forms a contact pair with NGC 545 0.5' NW and the brightest (pair) in AGC 194.  NGC 541 is 4.6' SW and NGC 543 lies 4.1' NW.

 

13" (9/22/84): moderately bright, round, bright core, in contact with NGC 545 very close NW.

 

WH discovered NGC 547 = H II-449, along with NGC 545, on 1 Oct 1785 (sweep 448) and reported both as "Two, stellar of equal size and within 1' of each other.  Their nebulosities run together and at first sight seem to form only one extended nebula."  These galaxies form a double system and are the brightest members of AGC 194.  MCG identifies this galaxy as NGC 547b.

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NGC 548 = UGC 1010 = MCG +00-04-141 = CGCG 385-134 = PGC 5326

01 26 02.5 -01 13 32

V = 13.7;  Size 0.9'x0.8';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 135d

 

17.5" (9/19/87): faint, small, slightly elongated, broad concentration.  Member of AGC 194.

 

George Searle discovered NGC 548 = HN 33 on 2 Nov 1867 using the 15-inch Merz Refractor (Annal of Harvard Obs, Vol 13, #25) at Harvard Observatory.  His micrometric position matches UGC 1010 = PGC 5326.

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NGC 549 = ESO 296-022 = PGC 5243

01 25 07.1 -38 00 29

V = 14.5;  Size 0.5'x0.4';  Surf Br = 12.8;  PA = 100d

 

18" (12/17/11): extremely faint, fairly small, round, no structure, required averted vision.  Located ~5' NNW of NGC 544/546 pair.  Viewed at 11” elevation.

 

17.5" (11/1/97): not visible

 

JH discovered NGC 549 = h2413 on 29 Nov 1837 and recorded "eeeF, S, R, vgbM. The 4th of a group of four [with NGC 534, 544 and 546]."  There is nothing at this position, but 15' N is ESO 296-026 = PGC 5278, and ESO, SGC and RC3 identify ESO 296-026 = NGC 549. These galaxies were observed on two sweeps and given very accurate positions.

 

Instead, I suggested that NGC 549 = ESO 296-022 = PGC 5243. This galaxy matches JH's position in declination but his RA would be off by 18 tsec.  Although ESO 296-022 is much smaller and fainter than ESO 296-026, it is closer in position (off only in RA) and a much better match with JH's description "The 4th of a group of 4" [with NGC 534, 544 and 546].  So, although the identification of NGC 549 is not definite, NGC 549 = PGC 5243 appears to be a much better choice.  See Corwin's identification notes.

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NGC 550 = UGC 1021 = MCG +00-04-146 = CGCG 385-139 = PGC 5374

01 26 42.5 +02 01 20

V = 12.7;  Size 1.5'x0.6';  Surf Br = 12.5;  PA = 120d

 

17.5" (1/1/92): fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 2:1 WNW-ESE, 1.0'x0.5', bright core has a fairly high surface brightness, faint stellar nucleus, faint halo.  Located 9' SW of a mag 9.5 star.

 

WH discovered NGC 550 = H II-463 = h122 on 8 Oct 1785 (sweep 462) and noted "F, S, lE."  On 20 Dec 1786 (sweep 655) he logged "F, S, mbM, irr lE nearly in the parallel" and on 3 Dec 1787 (sweep 788), "F, vS, irr R, lbM."  JH reported on 16 Dec 1827 (sweep 110) "pB; S; E from p to f; BM; has a granulated (i.e. a resolvable) appearance."  Dreyer observed the galaxy on 23 Oct 1876 with the 72" at Birr Castle and recorded "F, pL, E npsf, 2 st 13-14m p & np  2.5'.  Orange-red *9-10 (with a F companion 3/4' preceding) is 9.2' NE."  The mag 9.0 star is K2-type HD 8827.

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NGC 551 = UGC 1034 = MCG +06-04-027 = CGCG 521-030 = PGC 5450

01 27 40.6 +37 10 59

V = 12.7;  Size 1.8'x0.8';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 140d

 

17.5" (12/23/89): fairly faint, fairly small, oval NW-SE, even surface brightness.  A mag 13 star is at the NW end 1.1' from center.  A close mag 14.5 double is just following the SE end.

 

WH discovered NGC 551 = H III-560 = h123 on 21 Sep 1786 (sweep 599) and noted "vF, S, E, among some stars."  R.J. Mitchell observed this galaxy (UGC 1034 = PGC 5450) on 18 Sep 1857 with Lord Rosse's 72"and recorded "much elongated np-sf.  Faint triple star following; at Alpha a vF * or neb. patch."  Although the orientation of the sketch is not shown, at the position of Alpha there is just a very faint star.  The NGC position is accurate.

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NGC 552

01 26 10.1 +33 24 22

 

17.5" (12/9/01): this number possibly applies to the mag 15 star just 30" preceding CGCG 502-084, assuming NGC 553 applies to CGCG 502-084.  The star was actually slightly easier to view than the galaxy.

 

WH discovered NGC 552 = H III-172, along with NGC 553, on 13 Sep 1784 (problematic sweep 271) and noted "Two [with NGC 552 = III-172]. Both vS. stellar, but a little doubtful."  There is nothing near his position and Harold Corwin suggests NGC 552 may apply to a star at 01 26 10.1 +33 24 21, which is just preceding CGCG 502-084 = NGC 553?  Wolfgang Steinicke also identifies it as a star, but at 01 26 57.0  +33 33 29.  See NGC 553.

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NGC 553 = CGCG 502-084 = Mrk 1155 = LGG 026-033 = PGC 5333

01 26 12.6 +33 24 19

V = 14.0;  Size 0.9'x0.3';  Surf Br = 12.5;  PA = 15d

 

17.5" (12/9/01): extremely faint, very small, round, 15" diameter (viewed core only of this faint edge-on), requires averted.  A slightly brighter mag 15 star (possibly NGC 552) is 30" preceding.  Located 18' ESE of NGC 517, just following the NGC 507 Group.

 

This identification is very uncertain due to a poor position by William Herschel.

 

WH discovered NGC 553 = H III-173, along with NGC 552, on 13 Sep 1784 (problematic sweep 271).  He simply recorded "Two [with NGC 552 = III-172]. Both vS. stellar, but a little doubtful."  There is nothing near his position and RNGC classifies NGC 553 as nonexistent. Dreyer notes the observation by Sir Robert Ball at Birr Castle on 4 Jan 1867 ("Two, perhaps 3 neb, but I had not time to examine the field closely.  Alpha is F, vS; Beta extremely faint; Gamma is doubtful") may refer to other objects.

 

Harold Corwin suggests that NGC 553 is possibly CGCG 502-084 = PGC 5333.  NGC 552 could apply to the faint star close preceding.  This assumes Herschel's RA is 1.6 min too large, and his dec 3' too far north (his errors in RA were greater as the sweep progressed).  But Wolfgang Steinicke disagrees. He argues that WH's sweep path from III-171 = NGC 536, the previous object in the sweep, is not consistent with CGCG 502-084, which is too far west and south to be seen.  So, perhaps it is best to simply classify NGC 553 and 552 lost.

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NGC 554 = ESO 476-IG011 = MCG -04-04-013 = PGC 5412

01 27 09.6 -22 43 30

V = 13.7;  Size 0.7'x0.5';  Surf Br = 12.2;  PA = 177d

 

18" (12/3/05): fairly faint, fairly small, irregular round, 40" diameter, weak concentration.  Two mag 12 stars follow 1.8' E and 2.5' SE.  Close pair with NGC 552 2.3' S.

 

17.5" (11/6/93): faint, small, round.  Forms the SW vertex of an equilateral triangle with a mag 13.2 star 1.8' NE and a mag 12.8 star 1.8' E.  Forms a close pair with NGC 555 2' S.

 

Frank Muller discovered NGC 554 = LM II-305 (along with NGC 555 = LM II-306 and NGC 556 = LM II-307) in 1886 with the 26" refractor at Leander McCormick Observatory.  His position is 0.4 min of RA too far west. Herbert Howe measured an accurate position in 1899-00 using the 20" refractor at Chamberlin Observatory (repeated in the IC 2 notes).  This is an extremely close double system (PGC 5412 and 5413), with the two components identified as NGC 554A and 554B in NED and NGC 554 and 554A in PGC.

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NGC 555 = ESO 476-012 = MCG -04-04-014 = PGC 5419

01 27 11.8 -22 45 44

V = 14.1;  Size 0.7'x0.6';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 13d

 

18" (12/3/05): extremely faint, very small, round.  Appears as a very low surface brightness hazy spot with averted vision. ~15" diameter.  Visible at best 1/3 of the time with averted vision.  Located 2.3' S of NGC 554.

 

17.5" (12/9/01): extremely faint, very small, round.  In a small group with NGC 554 2' N and NGC 556 (not seen).

 

17.5" (11/6/93): extremely faint, very small, just glimpsed at moments though definitely visible.  A mag 13 star is 1.5' ENE.  Forms a close pair with NGC 554 2' N.

 

Frank Muller discovered NGC 555 = LM II-306 (along with NGC 554 = LM II-305 and NGC 556 = LM II-307) in 1886 with the 26" refractor at Leander McCormick Observatory.  His position is 0.4 tmin west of ESO 476-012 = PGC 5419.  Herbert Howe measured an accurate position in 1899-00 using the 20" refractor at Chamberlin Observatory (repeated in the IC 2 notes).

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NGC 556 = ESO 476-013 = PGC 5420

01 27 12.6 -22 41 52

V = 14.5;  Size 0.4'x0.3';  Surf Br = 12.1;  PA = 136d

 

18" (12/3/05): marginal object, glimpsed a few times but confirmed off the NNE side of NGC 554 and faintest in a close trio with NGC 554 and NGC 555.  Appeared quasi-stellar, ~6" in diameter.  Situated just 1.8' NNE of NGC 554.

 

17.5" (11/6/93): not seen.

 

Frank Muller discovered NGC 556 = LM II-307 (along with NGC 554 = LM II-305 and NGC 555 = LM II-306) in 1886 with the 26" refractor at Leander McCormick Observatory.  His position is 0.5 min of RA east of ESO 476-013 = PGC 5420.  Herbert Howe measured an accurate position in 1899-00 using the 20" refractor at Chamberlin Observatory (repeated in the IC 2 notes).

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NGC 557 = UGC 1016 = MCG +00-04-144 = IC 1703 = PGC 5351

01 26 25.1 -01 38 20

V = 13.5;  Size 1.4'x0.8';  Surf Br = 13.5;  PA = 45d

 

17.5" (1/1/92): faint, small, round, broad concentration, halo gradually fades into background.  Located 4.5' WNW of mag 8.7 SAO 129302 and 20' SE of the core of AGC 194.

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 557 = Sw VI-11 on 20 Nov 1886 with the 16" refractor at the Warner Observatory and recorded "eF; S; B * f 15 seconds and is on of it."  His position is poor; 46 sec of RA east of UGC 1016 = PGC 5351 and the bright star is southeast of the galaxy, but the identification NGC 557 = UGC 1016 is secure.  Bigourdan could not find the galaxy, though, at Swift's position but he "rediscovered" it on 27 Oct 1897 assuming it was a new object (IC 1703) and measured an accurate position.  So, NGC 557 = IC 170, with NGC 557 the primary designation.  UGC and CGCG assign IC 1703 to this galaxy but the RC3 identifies it as NGC 557.

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NGC 558 = CGCG 385-143 = PGC 5425

01 27 16.1 -01 58 16

V = 14.3;  Size 0.4'x0.2';  Surf Br = 11.1;  PA = 110d

 

17.5" (1/1/92): very faint, very small, very small bright core, faint stellar nucleus, elongated 2:1 WNW-ESE in direction of a mag 12.5 star 1.3' WNW of core.  Member of AGC 194 with NGC 560 4' NNE.

 

Heinrich d'Arrest discovered NGC 558 on 1 Feb 1864 with the 11-inch refractor at Copenhagen, while measuring nearby H III-441 = NGC 560 and H III-442 = NGC 564.  He also accurately placed the nearby mag 12 star (called mag 10) as 5 seconds preceding.

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NGC 559 = Cr 13 = OCL-322 = Lund 45

01 29 34 +63 18 12

V = 9.5;  Size 4'

 

17.5" (11/2/91): about 50 stars mag 10-15 at 220x in a 6'x4' region.  Fairly compact and rich with an irregular outline.  Includes a thin isosceles triangle of three mag 10 stars with the base to the south.  The southeast star in this base is a close unequal double.  A number of the stars are arranged in strings including four mag 13-14 stars over haze trail from base to the north.  Also four mag 8/9 stars precede the cluster to the northwest in a 10' string.

 

WH discovered NGC 559 = H VII-48 = h124 on 9 Nov 1787 (sweep 777) and noted "a compressed cluster of some pL and many vS stars, iR, 6' or 7' diameter."  JH independently found this cluster on 5 Oct 1829 and described "A fine rich cluster 5' diameter, irregular."  He made a clerical error in reducing the PD, which is 1” too far south (error caught by Auwers), so he thought it was a new discovery when compiling the Slough Catalogue, but corrected this error and equated h124 = H VII-48 in the GC.

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NGC 560 = IC 117 = UGC 1036 = MCG +00-04-151 = CGCG 385-145 = PGC 5430

01 27 25.4 -01 54 47

V = 13.0;  Size 1.9'x0.6';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 178d

 

17.5" (1/1/92): fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 2:1 N-S, well-defined very small bright core, faint narrow extensions.  In a trio with NGC 558 4' SSW and NGC 564 6' ENE within in AGC 194.

 

13" (9/22/84): fairly faint, small, elongated ~N-S, bright core.  Located 5' WSW of NGC 564.

 

WH discovered NGC 560 = H III-441 on 1 Oct 1785 (sweep 448) and logged "vF, vS, iE."  ƒdouard Stephan independently found the galaxy (VIII-1, second list) on 21 Nov 1878 with the 31" reflector at the Marseille Observatory.  He noted his object was probably the same as H. III-411 and St VIII-2, second list, was the probably the same as H. III-442 (later NGC 564).  Stephane Javelle's IC 117 was found by Corwin to also be a duplicate observation , due to an error in identifying the offset star.  So, NGC 558 = IC 117.  See Corwin's write-up on this error.

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NGC 561 = UGC 1048 = MCG +06-04-029 = CGCG 521-032 = PGC 5489

01 28 18.8 +34 18 30

V = 12.9;  Size 1.6'x1.5';  Surf Br = 13.7

 

17.5" (12/23/89): fairly faint, fairly small, slightly elongated NW-SE, weak concentration.  Located 15' ESE of mag 6.3 SAO 54705.

 

Heinrich d'Arrest discovered NGC 561 on 23 Aug 1862 with the 11-inch refractor at Copenhagen and logged "eF, 30" dia, R".  His single position matches UGC 1048 = PGC 5489.  WH and JH missed this galaxy although they both swept up many galaxies in the region.

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NGC 562 = UGC 1049 = MCG +08-03-025 = CGCG 551-020 = PGC 5502

01 28 29.3 +48 23 15

V = 13.3;  Size 1.3'x1.0';  Surf Br = 13.5;  PA = 20d

 

17.5" (11/27/92): faint, fairly small, round, even surface brightness.  A bright wide double star is located 4' S with components 8/10 at 21".

 

Lewis Swift discovered NGC 562 = Sw III-5 on 30 Nov 1885 with the 16" refractor at the Warner Observatory and noted "eF; pS; R; D * near south".  His position is 17 tsec following UGC 1049 and his comment "D * near south" applies to a wide pair 4' S of this galaxy.

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NGC 563 = NGC 539 = ESO 542-010 = MCG -03-04-063 = PGC 5269

01 25 21.7 -18 09 51

 

See observing notes for NGC 539.

 

Francis Leavenworth discovered NGC 563 = LM I-30 in 1886 with the 26" refractor at the Leander McCormick Observatory.  The description mentions "sev faint stars follow in a line n and s".  Corwin identifies NGC 563 as a duplicate observation of NGC 539 = ESO 542-010 = PGC 5269 (discovered earlier by Leavenworth) with a 2 tmin error in RA as the description of the line of faint stars matches NGC 539.  ESO 542-013 is misidentified as NGC 563 in RNGC, SGC and RC3 as well as in Megastar.

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NGC 564 = UGC 1044 = MCG +00-04-154 = CGCG 385-148 = Holm 44a = PGC 5455

01 27 48.2 -01 52 46

V = 12.5;  Size 1.4'x1.2';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 145d

 

17.5" (1/1/92): fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 3:2 NW-SE, very small bright core.  A mag 15 star is just off the west edge.  Third of three and similar to NGC 560 6' WSW although different position angles.  Located 7' NNW of mag 8.6 SAO 129314 and 10' NNW of mag 6.9 SAO 129315.  Member of the AGC 194 cluster. 

 

13" (9/22/84): fairly faint, fairly small, almost round, bright core.  Two bright stars are in the field to SE.

 

WH discovered NGC 564 = H III-442 on 1 Oct 1785 (sweep 448) and logged "vF, vS, iE."  ƒdouard Stephan (VIII-2, second list) independently found the galaxy on 21 Nov 1878 with the 31" reflector at the Marseille Observatory, although Stephan noted the probable equivalence with H III-441.

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NGC 565 = UGC 1052 = MCG +00-04-158 = CGCG 385-153 = PGC 5481

01 28 10.1 -01 18 22

V = 13.5;  Size 1.3'x0.4';  Surf Br = 12.6;  PA = 36d

 

17.5" (1/1/92): fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 5:2 SSW-NNE, bright core.  Located just west of the midpoint of two mag 10 stars 3.9' NE and 4.7' S in the rich cluster AGC 194.

 

George Searle discovered NGC 565 = HN 34 on 2 Nov 1867 using the 15-inch Merz Refractor (Annal of Harvard Obs, Vol 13, #26) at the Harvard Observatory.  His micrometric position is accurate.

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NGC 566 = UGC 1058 = MCG +05-04-062 = CGCG 502-092 = PGC 5545

01 29 03.0 +32 19 56

V = 13.5;  Size 1.6'x0.4';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 178d

 

17.5" (12/23/89): very faint, fairly small, elongated N-S, even surface brightness.  NGC 571 lies 15' NE.

 

JH discovered NGC 566 = h125 on 22 Nov 1827 and noted "vF; S; R".  His position matches UGC 1058 = PGC 5545.

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NGC 567 = MCG -02-04-053 = PGC 5402

01 27 02.3 -10 15 55

V = 13.5;  Size 1.1'x0.9';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 125d

 

17.5" (11/6/93): faint, very small, round, small bright core, stellar nucleus.  A mag 11.5 star is 4.5' S.

 

Francis Leavenworth discovered NGC 567 = LM I-31 in 1886 with the 26" refractor at Leander McCormick Observatory and logged "mag 15, vS, R".  His rough position (RA given as uncertain) is 1.0 tmin east of MCG -02-04-053 = PGC 5402.

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NGC 568 = ESO 353-003 = MCG -06-04-037 = IC 1709 = PGC 5468

01 27 57.0 -35 43 04

V = 12.6;  Size 2.2'x1.4';  Surf Br = 13.7;  PA = 137d

 

17.5" (11/1/97): fairly faint, fairly small, slightly elongated, 1.0' diameter, weak concentration to a small brighter core.  Larger of pair with NGC 574 15' NE.

 

JH discovered NGC 568 = h2414 on 29 Nov 1837 and recorded "very faint, small, round."  His position matches ESO 353-003 = PGC 5468, although he was uncertain of the declination.  Lewis Swift found the galaxy on 4 Sep 1897 and assumed it was a new discovery, recording it in his list XI-21.  His position is 10 tsec east and 2.8' south of PGC 5468. The ESO, PGC and Deep Sky Field Guide (first edition) misidentify ESO 353-004, a much fainter galaxy 4.3' NE, as IC 1709.  As Swift makes no mention of NGC 568 in his description, it is much more likely he picked up the brighter galaxy and missed the earlier discovery by Herschel.  See Corwin's notes.

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NGC 569 = UGC 1063 = MCG +02-04-053 = PGC 5548

01 29 07.2 +11 07 54

V = 14.3;  Size 1.1'x0.5';  PA = 163d

 

17.5" (1/1/92): very faint, fairly small, elongated 2:1 NNW-SSE, 1.0'x0.5', low surface brightness with weak concentration.  Forms a 1.1' pair with UGC 1065 1.1' NE.

 

Albert Marth discovered NGC 569 = m 49 on 1 Oct 1864 with Lassell's 48" on Malta and noted "eF, vS, R".  His position is accurate.

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NGC 570 = UGC 1061 = MCG +00-04-162 = CGCG 385-159 = PGC 5539

01 28 58.6 -00 56 57

V = 12.8;  Size 1.5'x1.3';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 175d

 

17.5" (1/1/92): fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 4:3 E-W, small bright core.  Contains a faint stellar nucleus offset towards the west end or a very faint star is superimposed.  A mag 13 star is 1.8' SSW.  Member of AGC 194.

 

George Searle discovered NGC 570 = HN 32 on 31 Oct 1867 using the 15-inch Merz Refractor (Annal of Harvard Obs, Vol 13, #27) at Harvard Observatory.  His micrometric position is accurate.

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NGC 571 = UGC 1069 = MCG +05-04-063 = CGCG 502-098 = PGC 5587

01 29 56.1 +32 30 04

V = 13.6;  Size 1.3'x1.3';  Surf Br = 14.0

 

17.5" (12/23/89): extremely faint, small, round, very diffuse.  A close mag 14/15 double star is close west.  Located 5.6' SSW of mag 9.0 SAO 54740.  NGC 566 lies 15' SW.

 

Heinrich d'Arrest discovered NGC 571 on 1 Oct 1864 with the 11-inch refractor at Copenhagen.  As well as providing an accurate position he measured the mag 14 star that precedes by 6 seconds of RA (or 74" separation), though did not note it was double.

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NGC 572 = ESO 296-031 = MCG -07-04-009 = PGC 5508

01 28 36.4 -39 18 26

V = 14.1;  Size 0.8'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.5

 

24" (10/3/13): although quite low from central California, viewed at 280x and 375x and appeared faint, very small, round, 18" diameter (core only).  A mag 14.6 star is at the NW edge.  A mag 10.3 star lies 6.2' SW.

 

JH discovered NGC 572 = h2415 on 4 Sep 1834 and reported "eF, S; attached to a minute star, and very near a bright one.".  His position and description apply to ESO 296-031 = PGC 5508.

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NGC 573 = UGC 1078 = CGCG 537-010 = PGC 5638

01 30 49.3 +41 15 26

V = 13.1;  Size 0.4'x0.4';  Surf Br = 10.9

 

17.5" (11/27/92): fairly faint, small, fairly strong smooth surface brightness, only a gradual concentration but no core or nucleus.  A mag 13.5 star is 30" SW.

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 573 = St XII-15 on 21 Oct 1881 with the 31" reflector at the Marseille Observatory and recorded "vF, vS, R, gradually brighter to the center".  His position is accurate.

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NGC 574 = ESO 353-006 = MCG -06-04-039 = PGC 5544

01 29 03.0 -35 35 57

V = 13.3;  Size 1.1'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.0;  PA = 2d

 

17.5" (11/1/97): faint, small, slightly elongated, weak even concentration to a brighter core.  Follows an asterism of four mag 13 stars, the closest being 2.4' W.  In same field with NGC 568 15' SW.

 

JH discovered NGC 574 = h2416 on 1 Sep 1834 and described "A Double Star. The left eye leaves no doubt of its being involved in a vF neb. diffused over 15". An extremely delicate and difficult object. Pos. of the double star 225 degrees; dist. 4", 15 and 16 mag." On a later sweep he noted "vF, S, R." and the next sweep he recorded it again: "There is a nebula but I perceive no double star in it."  This galaxy is a barred spiral, and possibly he detected a brightening in the bar at one end.

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NGC 575 = IC 1710 = UGC 1081 = MCG +03-04-051 = CGCG 459-072 = PGC 5634

01 30 46.7 +21 26 25

V = 12.8;  Size 1.7'x1.6';  Surf Br = 13.7

 

17.5" (11/30/91): faint, fairly small, round, 1.0' diameter, low almost even surface brightness, broad mild concentration, edges fade into background.

 

ƒdouard Stephan discovered NGC 575 = St VIIIa-5 on 17 Oct 1876 with the 31" reflector at the Marseille Observatory and described "eF, almost unobservable, irr R, dia 3/4 to 1'."  His published position matches UGC 1081, although the GC Supplement and NGC position is two degrees too far north (transcription error by Dreyer).  Independently found by Stephane Javelle on 18 Jan 1896, placed correctly, and catalogued again by Dreyer as IC 1710.  So, NGC 575 = St IC 1710.  CGCG, UGC and MCG use the IC designation as it matches this galaxy, although NGC 575 should apply based on historical discovery.  Karl Reinmuth, in his 1926 survey based on Heidelberg plates, noted the equivalence of NGC 575 with IC 1710.  See Corwin's notes.

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NGC 576 = ESO 196-007 = PGC 5535

01 28 57.5 -51 35 55

V = 13.4;  Size 1.0'x0.8';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 18d

 

Southern object (not observed).

 

JH discovered NGC 576 = h2417 on 3 Oct 1834 and logged "F; S; R; bM; among 5 or 6 stars 11m."  His position and description matches ESO 196-007 = PGC 5535.

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NGC 577 = NGC 580 = UGC 1080 = MCG +00-04-165 = CGCG 385-165 = PGC 5628

01 30 40.7 -01 59 40

V = 12.9;  Size 1.8'x1.4';  Surf Br = 13.8;  PA = 140d

 

17.5" (9/26/92): faint, fairly small, slightly elongated 4:3 NW-SE, weak concentration, occasionally a very faint stellar nucleus is visible.  Located near the east edge of AGC 194 and 5' WSW of a mag 10 star.

 

Aron Skinner discovered NGC 577 = Sf 100 = T I-7 on 23 Oct 1867 with the 18.5" Clark refractor at the Dearborn Observatory.  Truman Safford published the discovery list 20 years later (1887), so Dreyer didn't notice it in time for Skinner to be credited in the NGC.  Wilhelm Tempel independently found the galaxy on 14 Aug 1877 with an 11" refractor at the Arcetri Observatory and recorded it in his list I-7 and IV-5.  Tempel claimed he found two nebulae 2m 50s following NGC 560 and 564 (there is only a single galaxy at this position), which Dreyer assigned to NGC 577 and NGC 580.  Tempel is credited with the discovery of NGC 577 in the NGC. So, NGC 577 = NGC 580.

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NGC 578 = ESO 476-015 = MCG -04-04-020 = UGCA 18 = PGC 5619

01 30 28.9 -22 40 00

V = 10.9;  Size 4.9'x3.1';  Surf Br = 13.7;  PA = 110d

 

17.5" (1/1/92): fairly faint, fairly large, elongated 4:3 WNW-ESE, ~4'x3', slightly brighter middle is mottled, no distinct core.  A mag 14 star or knot is at the east end 1.3' from the center.  The SDSS image reveals this is a galaxy, catalogued as PGC 133775.  Located 11' SE of mag 7.8 SAO 81972. 

 

8" (9/25/81): faint, fairly large, elongated.  Lies SE of a mag 8 star.

 

JH discovered NGC 578 = h2418 on 11 Nov 1835 and logged "B; L; pmE; gpmbM; 3' long, 2' broad."  His position is accurate.

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NGC 579 = UGC 1089 = MCG +05-04-064 = CGCG 502-103 = PGC 5691

01 31 46.6 +33 36 55

V = 13.3;  Size 1.1'x1.0';  Surf Br = 13.3

 

17.5" (12/23/89): fairly faint, moderately large, almost round, weakly concentrated but no core.  Pair with NGC 582 8' SSE.

 

JH discovered NGC 579 = h127 on 22 Nov 1827 and logged "vF; pL; gbM".  His position matches UGC 1089 = PGC 5691.  Herschel missed NGC 582 (discovered later by Heinrich d'Arrest), located 8.7' SSE.

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NGC 580 = NGC 577 = UGC 1080 = MCG +00-04-165 = CGCG 385-165 = PGC 5628

01 30 40.7 -01 59 40

 

See observing notes for NGC 577.

 

Wilhelm Tempel found NGC 580 = T I-8 on 14 Aug 1877 with the 11" refractor at the Arcetri Observatory, claiming to see two nebulae 2m 50s following NGC 560 and 564.  The second object was assigned NGC 577. But there is only the single galaxy UGC 1080 = PGC 5628 at this position, so possibly one of his objects was a faint star. NGC 580 is generally equated with NGC 577. Aron Skinner discovered this galaxy 10 years earlier on 23 Oct 1867 with the 18.5-inch Clark refractor at Dearborn.  As the discovery wasn't published until 1887, Skinner wasn't credited in the NGC.

 

Lewis Swift found the galaxy again on 20 Nov 1886 and reported it as new in list VI-12.  Dreyer assigned Swift's position to NGC 580 with Swift and Tempel credited in the NGC.  Herbert Howe measured an accurate position in 1899-00 using the 20" refractor at Chamberlin Observatory.

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NGC 581 = M103 = Cr 14

01 33 22 +60 39 30

V = 7.4;  Size 6'

 

13.1" (10/20/84): 50-60 stars in cluster, fairly rich.  Includes several bright stars in a distinctive triangular wedge shape (mag 7.3 SAO 11822, mag 8.9 SAO 11824, mag 8.3 SAO 11826 and mag 8.3 SAO 11829) with a bright orange star east of center adding color contrast.

 

Pierre MŽchain discovered M103 = NGC 581 = h126 in April 1781 and was added by Messier into his 1781 catalogue (without confirmation).  John Herschel included M103 in his Slough Catalogue (h126) but only referenced ·131, Struve's entry (1825) from his catalogue of double stars, so he was apparently unaware of the equivalence with M103.

 

On 8 Aug 1783 WH described M103 as "14 or 16 pretty large stars with a great many eS ones. Two of the large ones are double, one of the 1st the other of the 2nd class. The compound eye glass shews a few more that may be taken into the cluster so as to make about 20. I exclude a good many straggling ones, otherwise there would be no knowing where to stop."

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NGC 582 = UGC 1094 = MCG +05-04-065 = CGCG 502-105 = PGC 5702

01 31 58.1 +33 28 35

V = 13.2;  Size 2.2'x0.6';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 58d

 

17.5" (12/23/89): fairly faint, fairly small, very elongated 3:1 SW-NE, weak concentration.  Pair with NGC 579 8' NNW.

 

Heinrich d'Arrest discovered NGC 582 on 9 Aug 1863 with the 11-inch refractor at Copenhagen.  He mentioned the mag 12-13 star that precedes by 4.5 seconds of time and measured an accurate position.

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NGC 583 = ESO 542-G20 = MCG -03-04-077 = PGC 5576

01 29 44.1 -18 20 22

V = 14.1;  Size 0.7'x0.6';  Surf Br = 13.0;  PA = 40d

 

17.5" (10/21/95): very faint, very small, round, 30" diameter, very weak concentration with no distinct core.  A mag 12 star is 1.5' NW of center.

 

Francis Leavenworth discovered NGC 583 = LM II-308 in 1886 with the 26" refractor at Leander McCormick Observatory.  His typical poor position is 1 min of RA east of ESO 542-020 = PGC 5576.  Herbert Howe measured an accurate position in 1899-00 using the 20" refractor at Chamberlin Observatory (repeated in the IC 2 notes).  MCG (-03-04-077) does not equate their entry with NGC 583.

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NGC 584 = IC 1712 = MCG -01-04-060 = Holm 45b = PGC 5663

01 31 20.7 -06 52 06

V = 10.5;  Size 4.2'x2.3';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 55d

 

17.5" (8/2/86): very bright, moderately large, oval WSW-ENE, very bright large core.  Forms a pair with NGC 586 4.5' SE. 

 

8" (9/25/81): bright, round, bright core.

 

WH discovered NGC 584 = H I-100 = h128 on 10 Sep 1785 (sweep 435), along with NGC 586, and recorded both as "two, the first [NGC 584] cB, pS, R, mbM.  The second [NGC 586] eF, S, about 5 or 6' following the former, requires great attention to be seen.  His position is fairly accurate.

 

E.E. Barnard found this galaxy while observing his comet discovery C/1888 RI!)  The comet nearly occulted the galaxy!  He commented "The comet's nucleus passed some 30" N of the nucleus of the nebula.  The comet is probably 5 times as bright as the nebula and is a great many times larger."  The discovery was reported directly to Dreyer, who catalogued it again as IC 1712.  As Barnard's position is nearly identical to NGC 584, it's strange Dreyer didn't noticed the equivalence, though Barnard later added in his notebook "NGC 584".

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NGC 585 = UGC 1092 = MCG +00-05-001 = CGCG 386-001 = PGC 5688

01 31 42.4 -00 55 55

V = 13.1;  Size 2.1'x0.5';  Surf Br = 13.0;  PA = 86d

 

17.5" (1/1/92): faint, fairly small, very elongated 3:1 E-W, 1.2'x0.4', small bright core, faint thin extensions.  This is an outlying member of AGC 194 cluster.

 

JH discovered NGC 585 = h129 on 20 Dec 1827 and reported "vF; R; bM; 25"."  His position is 7 sec of RA west and 1' south of UGC 1092 = PGC 5688.

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NGC 586 = Holm 45a = MCG -01-05-001 = LGG 027-002 = PGC 5679

01 31 37.0 -06 53 38

V = 13.2;  Size 1.6'x0.8';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 10d

 

17.5" (8/2/86): fairly faint, fairly small, diffuse, very weak concentration.  Located 4.5' SE of NGC 584.

 

WH discovered NGC 586 = H III-431 = h130 = Sw III-6 on 10 Sep 1785 (sweep 435) along with NGC 584. See description under NGC 584.  JH made the single observation "vF; R; 15 arcsec".  R.J. Mitchell observed NGC 586 with LdR's 72" on 28 and 29 Nov 1856.  JH entered the Birr Castle observations as GC 343 = R. nova.  In compiling the 1880 Rosse Catalogue, though, Dreyer noted the equivalence with h130 = III 431.  Lewis Swift apparently also thought he discovered this object on 30 Nov 1885 as it is listed as Sw III-6, though his position is 19 tsec too far east.  His description mentions "south-following GC 363 [NGC 615], but this must be a typo.

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NGC 587 = UGC 1100 = MCG +06-04-037 = CGCG 521-045 = PGC 5746

01 32 33.4 +35 21 30

V = 12.8;  Size 2.2'x0.8';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 67d

 

17.5" (12/23/89): fairly faint, fairly small, oval WSW-ENE, even surface brightness.

 

Heinrich d'Arrest discovered NGC 587 on 27 Aug 1862 with the 11-inch refractor at Copenhagen.  His single position is 4.5' south of UGC 1100 = PGC 5746, an unusually large error, though there are no other candidates nearby.

 

The CGCG, UGC and PGC label this galaxy IC 1713, although according to Malcolm Thomson, Bigourdan's micrometric position for Big. 247 = IC 1713 on 28 Nov 1891 clearly refers to a faint star near NGC 587.  Bigourdan also determined the position of NGC 587 so NGC 587 cannot be equal to IC 1713.  See Corwin's notes.

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NGC 588 = M33-A27 = BCLMP 280

01 32 45.9 +30 38 51

Size 0.5'

 

18" (12/8/07): moderately bright M33 HII region, ~40"x30", well-defined outline.  Situated at the western edge of M33 along the outer spiral arm that winds counterclockwise from the south to the west.

 

17.5" (7/5/86): extremely faint nebulosity in M33, requires averted vision to view.  Located 14' W of the center of M33 and forms the western vertex of a very obtuse isosceles triangle with NGC 592 6' E and NGC 595.  Nearly collinear with NGC 592 and the core of M33. This is a HII region and star cluster.

 

13.1": barely visible with averted.  Almost collinear with NGC 592 and NGC 595.

 

Heinrich d'Arrest discovered NGC 588 = Au 13 in M33, along with NGC 592, on 2 Oct 1861 with the 11-inch Fraunhofer refracto