IC 3010 = ESO 441-006 = MCG -05-29-020 = LGG 270-005 = PGC 38511

12 07 57.4 -30 20 22

V = 12.2;  Size 1.9'x1.8';  Surf Br = 13.4;  PA = 84d

 

18" (5/28/06): fairly faint, moderately large, round, fairly low surface brightness, 1' diameter, broad concentration to an ill-defined core.  A 9' string of a half-dozen mag 13/14 stars extends to the south-southwest from the galaxy.  Located 38' SE of IC 3010.

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 3010 = Sw XI-134 on 11 Apr 1898 and noted "eeeF; cS; R; D * sf; v diff."  Based on an observation in 1900 with the 20" refractor in Denver, Herbert Howe reported "the "D * sf" is of mags 10-10.5, angle 45ˇ, and distance 40"; it is 8' from the nebula.  Just south of the nebula, and pointing at it is a row of five stars of average mag 11.5, the farthest being less than 10' away [mentioned in my observation].  The nebula is considerably brighter than the description "eeF, v diff." would imply."

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IC 3015 = ESO 441-009 = MCG -05-29-023 = LGG 271-009 = PGC 38588

12 09 00.3 -31 31 12

V = 12.3;  Size 2.9'x0.7';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 166d

 

18" (5/28/06): fairly faint, moderately large, elongated 3:1 NNW-SSE, 1.2'x0.4', bulging center, even surface brightness.  A mag 13 star is just off the SSE extension [45" from center].  Located 3.7' W of a mag 9.6 star and 19' ESE mag 6.8 HD 105330.

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 3015 = Sw XI-135 on 31 Jan 1898 and recorded "pB; vF * close sf; vE at 45ˇ."  His position is poor (7' too far southwest), as well as the position angle (P.A. 166ˇ), but a star is close southeast.  Herbert Howe reported in 1900 "the "* close sf" is of mag 10.5, and follows 2 seconds, 0.6' south."  Howe also measured an accurate position (used by Dreyer in the IC 2).

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IC 3061 = UGC 7255 = MCG +02-31-063 = CGCG 069-101 = FGC 167A = PGC 39152

12 15 04.5 +14 01 44

V = 13.6;  Size 2.2'x0.4';  Surf Br = 13.4;  PA = 122d

 

17.5" (4/25/98): very faint, small, elongated NW-SE, 0.9'x0.4'.  Picked up with averted vision 11' NW of NGC 4212.  Precedes a pair of evenly matched stars [mag 13/14 at 22"] by ~2'.  Observation in poor transparency.

 

Arnold Schwassmann discovered IC 3061 = Sn 274 on a plate taken 22 Nov 1900 with the 6" Astrocamera at the Kšnigstuhl Observatory in Heidelberg.  Based on a plate taken with Harvard's 24" photographic refractor at Arequipa station in July 1904, Frost described "spiral, edgewise, extends 1.5' at 135ˇ."

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IC 3074 = UGC 7279 = MCG +02-31-071 = PGC 39233

12 15 46.3 +10 41 50

V = 14.2;  Size 2.3'x0.3';  Surf Br = 13.8;  PA = 160d

 

17.5" (5/14/88): very faint, moderately large, thin edge-on NNW-SSE.

 

Arnold Schwassmann discovered IC 3074 = Sn. 152 on a plate taken 6 Sep 1900 with the 6" Astrocamera at the Kšnigstuhl Observatory in Heidelberg.  Based on a plate taken with Harvard's 24" photographic refractor at Arequipa station in July 1904, Frost reported "extends 2' at 170ˇ (Sch. 152)."

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IC 3134 = CGCG 070-003 = PGC 39593

12 18 56.1 +08 57 42

V = 14.2;  Size 0.7'x0.3';  Surf Br = 12.4

 

17.5" (5/14/88): faint, very small, round, broad concentration.  A mag 15 star is 30" NE.  Forms a pair with IC 776 6' SSE.

 

Arnold Schwassmann discovered IC 3134 = Sn. 41 on a plate taken on 12 Feb 1900 with the 6" Astrocamera at the Kšnigstuhl Observatory in Heidelberg.  He noted "vF, vS, E 0ˇ."

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IC 3136 = UGC 7349 = MCG +01-31-048 = CGCG 042-005 = PGC 39601

12 18 57.4 +06 11 04

V = 14.3;  Size 1.2'x0.4';  Surf Br = 13.0;  PA = 33d

 

24" (4/28/14): fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 5:2 SSW-NNE, 30"x12", even surface brightness.  Located 8' NW of NGC 4260.

 

Auguste Voigt discovered IC 3136 in Jun 1865 with the 31-inch silvered-glass reflector at Marseille.  The discovery was not published or forwarded to Dreyer, so it was not included in the NGC. Wolfgang Steinicke states his discoveries were only listed in his observation log, which was not published until 1987.

 

Arnold Schwassmann discovered the galaxy photographically on 5 Apr 1894 at the Kšnigstuhl Observatory in Heidelberg and Bigourdan found it again visually on 31 Mar 1902.  Schwassmann was credited with the discovery in the IC.

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IC 3153 = CGCG 042-019 = Holm 368g = WBL 397-002 = PGC 39693

12 19 36.8 +05 23 52

V = 14.8;  Size 0.5'x0.45'

 

24" (4/28/14): faint, small, round, 15" diameter, even surface brightness.  Located 3.9' ENE of NGC 4259.  Forms the western vertex of an isosceles triangle with NGC 4273 6' SE and NGC 4270 5' NW.

 

17.5" (3/28/87): very faint, small, almost round, diffuse.  Located 3' E of NGC 4259 in the NGC 4261 group and second faintest of 8 in the field.

 

Hermann A. Kobold discovered IC 3153 on 8 Apr 1894 with the 18" refractor at the Strasboug Observatory.  He noted "vF, S, NGC 4273 near."  His position is an exact match with CGCG 042-019 = PGC 39693.

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IC 3155 = MCG +01-32-003 = CGCG 042-022 = Holm 365b = WBL 392-011 = PGC 39708

12 19 45.3 +06 00 21

V = 14.0;  Size 1.0'x0.5';  Surf Br = 13.0;  PA = 34d

 

24" (4/28/14): fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 5:3 SW-NE, very weak concentration, 30"x18".  Slightly larger than NGC 4269 (though lower surface brightness) just 1.2' NE.  Mag 7.7 HD 107238 lies 2.2' NNE.

 

17.5" (3/24/90): very faint, very small, slightly elongated SW-NE, even surface brightness.  Located 2.2' SSW of mag 7.7 SAO 119333.  Forms the fainter member of a pair with NGC 4269 1.1' NE.

 

Auguste Voigt discovered IC 3155 = Big. 290 in Jun 1865 with the 31-inch silver-on-glass reflector at Marseille.  The discovery wasn't published or forwarded to Dreyer, so IC 3155 didn't receive a NGC designation. Wolfgang Steinicke states that Voigt's discoveries were only listed in his observation log, which was published in 1987.

 

Hermann Kobold independently discovered this galaxy on 5 Apr 1894 (published in 1907), as well as Bigourdan on 31 Mar 1902.  Bigourdan was credited with the discovery in the IC.

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IC 3171 = MCG +04-29-065 = CGCG 128-078 = PGC 39796

12 20 24.1 +25 33 38

V = 13.7;  Size 0.7'x0.5';  PA = 55d

 

24" (5/30/16): at 225x; fairly faint, small, slightly elongated SW-NE, 20"x15", slightly brighter nucleus.  Located 14' SSE of brighter IC 780.

 

Max Wolf discovered IC 3171 = W. IV-23 on a Heidelberg plate taken 23 Mar 1903.  His position is very accurate.

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IC 3211 = NGC 4307A = UGC 7430 = MCG +02-32-012 = Holm 380b = PGC 40034

12 22 07.3 +08 59 26

V = 14.5;  Size 0.9'x0.7';  Surf Br = 13.9

 

17.5" (3/24/90): extremely faint and small, round.  Located 3' S of NGC 4307.  Identified in the RNGC as NGC 4307A.

 

Arnold Schwassmann discovered IC 3211 = Sn. 93 on a plate taken on 13 Feb 1900 with the 6" Astrocamera at the Kšnigstuhl Observatory in Heidelberg.  He noted "eF, S."  Listed as NGC 4307A in the RNGC.

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IC 3247 = (R)NGC 4338 = UGC 7459 = MCG +05-29-077 = CGCG 158-096 = FGC 1422 = PGC 40205

12 23 14.0 +28 53 38

V = 14.7;  Size 2.2'x0.3';  Surf Br = 14.0;  PA = 175d

 

24" (5/30/16): at 225x; extremely faint, thin edge-on ~5:1 N-S, very low surface brightness, very slightly brighter elongated core, ~45"x9".  Only visible part of the time, though pops clearly and can hold for a few seconds.

 

Max Wolf discovered IC 3247 = W. IV-69 on a Heidelberg plate taken 23 Mar 1903.

 

RNGC, PGC, RC3, SIMBAD and secondary sources such as WikiSky, Uranometria 2000. Atlas and Megastar misidentify IC 3247 as NGC 4338.  IC 3247 is located 20' south of d'Arrest's erroneous position.  Reinmuth also questioned if NGC 4338 = IC 3247 but Malcolm Thomson feels this galaxy is too faint and would not have been visible in d'Arrest's 11-inch refractor in twilight -- I agree.  NGC 4338 is more likely a duplicate of NGC 4310 with a 1 minute error in RA.

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IC 3253 = ESO 380-024 = MCG -06-27-021 = LGG 280-004 = PGC 40265

12 23 45.2 -34 37 20

V = 11.6;  Size 2.5'x1.1';  Surf Br = 12.6;  PA = 23d

 

18" (5/28/06): very faint, fairly large, ~2'x0.8' SSW-NNE, very ill-defined glow without a well defined edge, low surface brightness, broad concentration but no core.  Viewed at a low elevation west of the meridian, which may have compromised the view.

 

DeLisle Stewart discovered IC 3253 = D.S. 363 on a plate taken in 1901 at Harvard's Arequipa Station.  He noted "eF, vL, vE at 20ˇ, lbM."

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IC 3258 = UGC 7470 = MCG +02-32-021 = PGC 40264 = PGC 39911

12 23 44.5 +12 28 41

V = 13.1;  Size 1.6'x1.4';  Surf Br = 13.8;  PA = 88d

 

24" (5/29/14): fairly faint, fairly small, round, low surface brightness, very weak concentration, 24" diameter. 

 

17.5" (4/18/87): very faint, small, round, very diffuse.  Forms a pair with NGC 4351 16' SSE.

 

Arnold Schwassmann discovered IC 3258 on a plate taken on 14 Sep 1900 with the 6" Astrocamera at the Kšnigstuhl Observatory in Heidelberg.  Frost also recorded it on a plate taken at the Arequipa station on 10 May 1904.  He noted "R, lbM, diam. 0.7' (Sch 241)."

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IC 3259 = UGC 7469 = MCG +01-32-040 = PGC 40273

12 23 48.6 +07 11 11

V = 13.5;  Size 1.7'x0.9';  Surf Br = 13.8;  PA = 15d

 

17.5" (3/28/87): faint, fairly large, very diffuse.  Located 3.2' ENE of a mag 10 star and 5' NNW of NGC 4341 = IC 3260 in the NGC 4343 group.

 

Guillaume Bigourdan discovered IC 3259 = Big. 293 = Sn. 16, along with IC 3267, on 23 Apr 1895.  Schwassmann provided an accurate position (used in the IC 2) on a plate taken on 4 Nov 1899 at the Kšnigstuhl Observatory.

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IC 3267 = UGC 7474 = MCG +01-32-044 = PGC 40317

12 24 05.6 +07 02 27

V = 13.4;  Size 1.2'x1.2';  Surf Br = 13.7

 

17.5" (3/28/87): faint, moderately large, round, quite diffuse, low even surface brightness.  Last of five galaxies in the NGC 4343 group.  Located 5.0' SSE of NGC 4341 = IC 3260 and 6.6' E of NGC 4342 = IC 3256.

 

Guillaume Bigourdan discovered IC 3267 = Big. 295 = Sn. 18, along with IC 3259, on 23 Apr 1895.  Schwassmann provided an accurate position (used in the IC 2) on a plate taken on 4 Nov 1899 at the Kšnigstuhl Observatory.

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IC 3274 = NGC 4360B = MCG +02-32-027 = CGCG 070-050 = Holm 393b = WBL 404-007 = PGC 40344

12 24 14.7 +09 16 00

V = 14.6;  Size 0.5'x0.3';  Surf Br = 12.4

 

17.5" (3/24/90): very faint, extremely small, round, low surface brightness, just non-stellar.  Located just 2' SW of brighter NGC 4360.

 

Arnold Schwassmann discovered IC 3274 = Sn. 96 on a plate taken on 15 Feb 1900 with the 6" Astrocamera at the Kšnigstuhl Observatory in Heidelberg.  He noted "eF, vS, ?."  Identified as NGC 4360B in the RNGC.

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IC 3290 = ESO 322-004 = MCG -06-27-024 = LGG 298-001 = PGC 40470

12 25 09.0 -39 46 32

V = 12.0;  Size 2.0'x1.4';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 43d

 

18" (3/28/09): faint, fairly small, round, 25" diameter.  Located just 2' SW of NGC 4373, though missed by John Herschel.

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 3290 = Sw XI-137 on 30 Jan 1898 and reported "pF; vS; R; close p [NGC] 4373. Note."  His note mentions this object (and others) "appear at first glance like double stars 6" or 8" apart."  His position is 1 minute of RA too far west, but the identification is certain.  Herbert Howe measured an accurate position in 1900 (used in the IC 2).

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IC 3303 = UGC 7500 = MCG +02-32-035 = PGC 40485

12 25 15.3 +12 42 51

V = 13.8;  Size 1.0'x0.6';  Surf Br = 13.3;  PA = 73d

 

24" (4/28/14): faint to fairly faint, small, elongated 4:3 WSW-ENE, 24"x18".  Located 8.3' WNW of NGC 4388.

 

17.5" (4/25/87): very faint, very small, slightly elongated, can just hold steadily with averted.  Located 8.4' WNW of NGC 4388 and 10' SSE of M84 in the central core of the Virgo cluster.

 

17.5" (1/31/87): very faint, very small, elongated.

 

Arnold Schwassmann discovered IC 3303 = Sn. 244 on a plate taken on 14 Sep 1900 with the 6" Astrocamera at the Kšnigstuhl Observatory in Heidelberg.  Royal Frost also reported it on a plate taken at the Arequipa station on 10 May 1904.  He noted "bM, magn 14 (Sch 244)".

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IC 3310

12 25 55.3 +15 40 49

 

17.5": IC 3310 is probably a mag 14 star at the northwest end of NGC 4396 just 1.1' from center.  Although this identification does not match the IC position, it agrees if Bigourdan's offsets apply to the same reference star he used for NGC 4396.

 

Guillaume Bigourdan discovered IC 3310 = Big. 297 on 1 Apr 1894.  He made an error for the position of his reference star, but once corrected his offsets matches this star.  See Malcolm Thomson's IC Corrections and Harold Corwin's identification comments.

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IC 3311 = UGC 7510 = MCG +02-32-038 = CGCG 070-063 = FGC 1429 = PGC 40530

12 25 33.1 +12 15 37

V = 14.3;  Size 1.7'x0.3';  Surf Br = 13.4;  PA = 135d

 

24" (5/29/14): faint, fairly small, elongated 2:1 SW, 0.5'x0.25', low even surface brightness.  Located 24' SSW of NGC 4388 in the central region of the Virgo Cluster.

 

Arnold Schwassmann discovered IC 3311 = Sn. 185 on a plate taken on 12 Sep 1900 with the 6" Astrocamera at the Kšnigstuhl Observatory in Heidelberg.  Royal Frost also reported it on a plate taken at the Arequipa station on 10 May 1904.  He noted "streak; 1.2' by 0.2' at 135ˇ (Sch 185)".

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IC 3349 = CGCG 070-081 = VCC 940 = PGC 40744

12 26 47.1 +12 27 14

V = 14.4;  Size 0.9'x0.8'

 

24" (4/28/14): very faint, very small, round, 12" diameter, low surface brightness.  Located 10' SSE of NGC 4413 in the core of the Virgo cluster.

 

Royal H. Frost discovered IC 3349 = F. 904 on a plate taken on 10 May 1904 at Harvard's Arequipa station using the 24" f/5.6 Bruce photographic refractor.  He noted "vS, R, lbM, magn 15."

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IC 3355 = UGC 7548 = VV 511 = DDO 124 = MCG +02-32-056 = CGCG 070-085 = Holm 403g = PGC 40754

12 26 51.1 +13 10 33

V = 14.9;  Size 1.1'x0.5';  Surf Br = 14.0;  PA = 168d

 

24" (5/29/14): extremely faint, small, round?, ~20" diameter, very low surface brightness.  Situated 16.6' NE of M86.

 

Arnold Schwassmann discovered IC 3355 = Sn. 251 on a plate taken on 17 Nov 1900 with the 6" Astrocamera at the Kšnigstuhl Observatory in Heidelberg.  Royal Frost also reported it on two plates taken at the Arequipa station in May 1904.  He noted "streak; 1.0' by 0.2' at 170ˇ (Sch 251)".

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IC 3370 = ESO 322-014 = MCG -06-27-029 = LGG 298-029 = PGC 40887

12 27 37.3 -39 20 17

V = 11.0;  Size 2.9'x2.3';  Surf Br = 13.1;  PA = 45d

 

18" (3/28/09): fairly bright, moderately large, elongated 4:3 SW-NE.  Unusually bright for an IC galaxy that was missed by John Herschel.  Located 28' NW of mag 7.8 HD 108684 and 36' NE of NGC 4373 in a subgroup on the NW side of the Centaurus Cluster (AGC 3526).

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 3370 = Sw XI-139 on 30 Jan 1898 and logged "pB; pL; R; 7m * with distant companion near p[receding]."  Howe reobserved it in 1900 and reported "I see no "7m * nr p", but found one of mag 8.5, which precedes 15 seconds, 1.5' south."  Howe also measured an accurate micrometric position that was used in the IC 2.

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IC 3381 = UGC 7589 = MCG +02-32-074 = PGC 40985

12 28 14.9 +11 47 22

V = 13.4;  Size 1.2'x0.9';  Surf Br = 13.5;  PA = 110d

 

17.5" (4/18/87): faint, small, slightly elongated, weak concentration.  Located 2.2' S of a mag 7.7 SAO 10014 that detracts from viewing.  Forms a pair with NGC 4452 7.2' ESE.

 

Arnold Schwassmann discovered IC 3381 = Sn. 192 on a plate taken on 12 Sep 1900 with the 6" Astrocamera at the Kšnigstuhl Observatory in Heidelberg.  Royal Frost also reported it on a plate taken at the Arequipa station on 10 May 1904.  Frost noted "bM, R magn 14 (Sch 192)".

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IC 3388 = CGCG 070-109 = PGC 41018

12 28 28.1 +12 49 25

V = 14.5;  Size 0.7'x0.5';  PA = 73d

 

24" (4/28/14): very faint to faint, small, round, 15"-18" diameter, low even surface brightness.  Located 15' SE of NGC 4438.  Slightly brighter IC 3393 lies 6.5' NNE.

 

Royal H. Frost discovered IC 3388 = F. 918 on a plate taken on 10 May 1904 at Harvard's Arequipa station using the 24" f/5.6 Bruce photographic refractor.  He noted "R, lbM, 0.2' dia, magn 15."

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IC 3392 = UGC 7602 = MCG +03-32-049 = PGC 41061

12 28 43.3 +14 59 58

V = 12.2;  Size 2.3'x1.0';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 40d

 

17.5" (5/23/87): faint, fairly small, elongated SW-NE, weak concentration.  Located 14' E of NGC 4419.

 

Royal H. Frost discovered IC 3392 = F. 920 on a plate taken on 7 May 1904 at Harvard's Arequipa station using the 24" f/5.6 Bruce photographic refractor.  He noted "possible spiral, ellip, 1.5' by 0.3' at 225ˇ, B * M."

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IC 3393 = MCG +02-32-081 = CGCG 070-113 = PGC 41054

12 28 41.7 +12 54 57

V = 14.0;  Size 1.3'x0.4';  Surf Br = 13.0;  PA = 132d

 

24" (4/28/14): faint, small, elongated 5:3 NW-SE, 25"x15", low even surface brightness.  Located 15' ESE of NGC 4438 in the core of the Virgo cluster.  IC 3388 lies 6.5' SSW.

 

Royal H. Frost discovered IC 3393 = F. 921 on a plate taken on 10 May 1904 at Harvard's Arequipa station using the 24" f/5.6 Bruce photographic refractor.  He noted "Elliptical, 0.5' by 0.2' at 125ˇ, bM, magn 14."

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IC 3442 = CGCG 070-144 = MCG +02-32-111 = PGC 41435

12 31 20.2 +14 06 55

V = 13.5;  Size 0.9'x0.7';  PA = 20d

 

18" (5/12/07): this Virgo cluster dwarf was surprisingly faint and appeared extremely faint, small, round, 20" diameter, low surface brightness.  Located 20' SW of M88.

 

Royal H. Frost discovered IC 3442 = F. 936 on a plate taken on 10 May 1904 at Harvard's Arequipa station using the 24" f/5.6 Bruce photographic refractor.  He noted "F, R, lbM, 0.2' dia."

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IC 3470 = MCG +02-32-122 = CGCG 070-153 = LGG 285-041 = PGC 41573

12 32 23.4 +11 15 47

V = 13.7;  Size 0.9'x0.9'

 

24" (6/4/16): fairly faint, fairly small, round, 20" diameter, weak concentration.  Located 6.7' NE of NGC 4503.

 

Royal Frost discovered IC 3470 = F. 950 on a plate taken on 10 May 1904 at Harvard's Arequipa Observatory in Peru.  He noted, "bM, magn 13.5."

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IC 3476 = UGC 7695 = MCG +02-32-125 = VV 563 = PGC 41608

12 32 41.9 +14 03 02

V = 12.7;  Size 2.1'x1.8';  Surf Br = 14.0;  PA = 30d

 

48" (4/5/13): at 488x, this irregular galaxy appeared bright, fairly large, irregular, elongated ~2:1 SSW-NNE.  Unusual asymmetric appearance with an extension to the southwest, which includes a small HII knot (possibly double), roughly 0.6' SW of center.  The overall size is roughly 1.5'x0.8'.  The noted HII region was the site of SN 1970A.  Located 25' SSE of M88.

 

17.5" (4/25/87): fairly faint, fairly small, slightly elongated ~N-S.  Appears diffuse with just a weak concentration.  Forms a pair with IC 3478 8' N.

 

Arnold Schwassmann discovered IC 3476 = Sn. 288 on a plate taken on 22 Nov 1900 with the 6" Astrocamera at the Kšnigstuhl Observatory in Heidelberg.  Royal Frost also reported it on a plate taken at the Arequipa station on 10 May 1904.  He noted "Fan-shaped, 1.0' by 0.5', bM (Sch 288)."

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IC 3481 = Zwicky's Triplet = Arp 175 NED1 = VV 43a = MCG +02-32-027 = CGCG 070-159 = PGC 41634

12 32 52.2 +11 24 15

V = 13.6;  Size 0.9'x0.8'

 

24" (6/4/16): fairly faint to moderately bright, small, round, fairly high surface brightness, 20" diameter, fairly bright stellar nucleus.  Based on my size estimate, I only noticed the bright core region.

 

IC 3481 is the first of three in a linear trio (Arp 175 = Zwicky's Triplet) with IC 3481A 1.4' SE and IC 3483 5.5' SE.  IC 3481A appeared faint, small, round, 12" diameter, low surface brightness.  On deep images, IC 3481 and 3481A are connected by a tidal plume and a huge arcing tail from IC 3481A reaches about 2/3 of the way to IC 3483.  But IC 3483 has a very low recessional velocity, so a true connection of all three galaxies is very unlikely.

 

Royal Frost discovered IC 3481 = F. 953 on a plate taken 10 May 1904 at Harvard's Arequipa Observatory in Peru.  He noted, "bM, magn 13."

 

Zwicky  first discussed the interaction between this triple in his 1952 paper "Luminous Intergalactic Matter".  It was also discussed in his 1956 paper "Multiple Galaxies".  The trio is identified as "Zwicky's Triplet" in the RC2, although CGCG 252-003, called "Zwicky's Connected System" is generally given this nickname.

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IC 3528 = MCG +03-32-074A = CGCG 099-095 = Holm 421b = PGC 41882

12 34 55.9 +15 33 56

V = 14.4;  Size 0.5'x0.5';  Surf Br = 12.7

 

17.5" (5/23/87): extremely faint and small, round.  Forms the fainter member of a pair 2' ENE of NGC 4540.

 

Royal H. Frost discovered IC 3528 = F. 970 on a plate taken on 7 May 1904 at Harvard's Arequipa station.  He noted "bM, magn 14."

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IC 3546 = NGC 4565B = MCG +04-30-005 = CGCG 129-009 = CGCG 159-020 = Holm 426c = PGC 41976

12 35 41.7 +26 13 20

V = 14.3;  Size 0.8'x0.4';  Surf Br = 12.9;  PA = 139d

 

17.5" (5/13/88): very faint, very small, roundish.  Forms the east vertex of an equilateral triangle with two mag 15 stars 1.3' WSW and 1.3' WNW.  Located 17' NW of NGC 4565.

 

17.5" (5/10/86): faint, small, roundish at 222x.

 

Max Wolf discovered IC 3546 = W. IV-222 on a Heidelberg plate taken 23 Mar 1903.  He reported "F, S, lE 150ˇ."

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IC 3550 = NGC 4559C = Holm 423d

12 35 52.1 +27 55 55

Size 0.2'

 

48" (4/7/13): IC 3550 appeared as a faint, very small, 8" HII knot in NGC 4559.  Appears to be detached from the galaxy on the southwest side, 2.1' SW of center and 0.8' WNW of a mag 15 star = IC 3554.

 

Max Wolf discovered IC 3550 = W. IV-218, along with IC 3551, 3552, 3554, 3555, 3563 and 3564, on a Heidelberg plate taken 23 Mar 1903.  He reported "F, S, lE 150ˇ."  I don't know where the letter designation NGC 4559C originates.  It's not used in the RC1 or RC2.

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IC 3551

12 35 53.7 +27 57 51

Size 10"

 

48" (4/7/13): IC 3551 is a faint, 10" HII knot on the west side of the core of NGC 4559, 0.9' WNW of center.

 

Max Wolf discovered IC 3551 = W. IV-219 on a Heidelberg plate taken 23 Mar 1903.

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IC 3554

12 35 55.2 +27 55 38

 

48" (4/7/13): this mag 15 star is off the south side of NGC 4559, 2.0' from center.  IC 3550 = NGC 4559C, an HII region, lies 0.8' WNW.

 

Max Wolf discovered IC 3554 = W. IV-222 on a Heidelberg plate taken 23 Mar 1903.  This is the only object he catalogued within NGC 4559 that is not an HII region or star cloud.

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IC 3555

12 35 55.9 +27 59 20

Size 0.3'x0.1'

 

48" (4/7/13): IC 3555 is faint, 20"x10" HII region in NGC 4559, extended NW-SE, situated 1.8' NNW of center in the halo.  IC 3552 is a fainter, extremely compact HII knot less than 30" NW that was not seen.

 

Max Wolf discovered IC 3555 = W. IV-223 on a Heidelberg plate taken 23 Mar 1903.  The identification is certain.

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IC 3556 = MCG +05-30-029 = CGCG 159-025 = PGC 42005

12 35 58.5 +26 57 57

V = 14.7;  Size 0.8'x0.5';  PA = 177d

 

18" (5/12/07): very faint, small, slightly elongated N-S, 20"x15".  Located 2' SE of NGC 4558 in the NGC 4556 group.  This galaxy is misidentified in CGCG, MCG, UGC, and PGC as NGC 4563 or NGC 4558.

 

Max Wolf discovered IC 3556 = W. IV-225 on a Heidelberg plate taken 23 Mar 1903.  He reported "F, S, R, bM."  Although his position is accurate, the NGC 2000, MCG and PGC misidentify IC 3556 as NGC 4558 and CGCG and UGC "Notes" misidentify IC 3556 as NGC 4563!

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IC 3559 = MCG +05-30-031 = PGC 42012

12 36 03.4 +26 59 14

V = 15.7;  Size 0.5'x0.2';  PA = 69d

 

18" (5/12/07): this marginal object was only glimpsed knowing the exact location in the NGC 4556 group.  Located 2.4' E of NGC 4558 and 1.7' NE of IC 3556 in a tight group of a half dozen galaxies.

 

Max Wolf discovered IC 3559 = W. IV-226 on a Heidelberg plate taken 23 Mar 1903.  He reported "vF, vS, R, bM."  MCG, PGC and HyperLeda omit the NGC label, although the identification is certain.

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IC 3561 = MCG +05-30-032 = CGCG 159-026 = PGC 42013

12 36 04.8 +26 53 58

V = 14.7;  Size 0.6'x0.2';  PA = 71d

 

18" (5/12/07): very faint, very small, round, 20" diameter.  Located 4.2' ESE of NGC 4556 in a small group of galaxies.

 

Max Wolf discovered IC 3561 = W. IV-228 on a Heidelberg plate taken 23 Mar 1903.  He reported "cF, vS, R, bM *."

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IC 3563

12 36 07.2  +27 55 38

Size 6"

 

48" (4/7/13): IC 3563 is a very compact HII region and IC 3564 a star association attached at its east side.  Both objects were easily visible, but not resolved, as a fairly faint 20" patch near the southeast end of NGC 4559, 3' from center.

 

Max Wolf discovered IC 3563 = W. IV-229 on a Heidelberg plate taken 23 Mar 1903.

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IC 3564

12 36 08.1 +27 55 42

Size 15"

 

48" (4/7/13): IC 3564 is a stellar association attached to IC 3563 near the southeast end of NGC 4559.  At 375x, both objects were easily visible, but not resolved, as a fairly faint 20" patch, 3' from center.

 

Max Wolf discovered IC 3564 = W. IV-230 on a Heidelberg plate taken 23 Mar 1903.

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IC 3568 = Theoretician's Planetary = Lemon Slice Nebula = PK 123+34.1 = UGC 7731 = PGC 41662 = PN G123.6+34.5

12 33 06.7 +82 33 50

V = 10.6;  Size 18"

 

48" (11/1/13): at 488x unfiltered contains an extremely high surface brightness inner disc, ~8" diameter.  The mag 13.5 central star was only occasionally visible in very soft seeing.  A fairly bright halo increases the diameter 2.5x to roughly 20".  A mag 13 star is just off the west side, ~15" from center.

 

18" (11/7/07): at 450x unfiltered a very bright, high surface brightness disc 6"-8" in diameter is surrounded by a much fainter 15"-18" halo.  With direct vision, the difficult mag 13.5 central star is sometimes visible within the very high surface brightness glow.  The outer envelope is round, though with a uneven or fuzzy edge.  A mag 13.5-14 star is close off the west edge just 15" from the center and a mag 11.5 star lies 1.6' SSW.

 

18" (2/16/07): at 323x unfiltered, this small planetary is dominated by a 6"-8" high surface brightness disc.  Surrounding this well-defined disc is a much fainter, round outer halo of 15"-18".  A mag 13.5 star is just off the west edge of this outer halo.  With direct vision what appears to be the central star occasionally pops out in the center of the very high surface brightness glow.

 

17.5" (5/15/99): at 220x unfiltered, appears as a very small, high surface brightness disc, ~10" diameter with a mag 13.5-14 star close off the west edge.  At 380x, the disc is concentrated to a quasi-stellar nucleus, but it was difficult to distinguish the central star due to the high surface brightness glow.  Surrounding the central region is a much fainter, round, outer shell that increases the diameter to 15"-20".  Seeing not steady enough for higher power.

 

13": bright, small, round, high surface brightness disc 15" diameter.  A mag 13.5 star is almost in contact at the west edge 15" from the center. 

 

8": just non-stellar at 100x, definite disc seen at 165x.  This planetary can take high power due to its high surface brightness.

 

Robert Aitken discovered IC 3568 visually on 31 Aug 1900 while examining comet Borrelly-Brooks with the 12-inch refractor at Lick Observatory. With the 36-inch, he described this object as a nebulous star or planetary with a mag 10.5-11 central star (BD +83ˇ.357) and a 5"-6" halo.

 

Brian Skiff notes the UGC misidentification (UGC 7731) as a galaxy.  The UGC description is "Compact or *" and description "alm compl stellar on PA prints, prob extr compact gx."  Because of the misclassification in UGC, this planetary is has the galaxy designation PGC 41662, though HyperLeda now shows the object type as a planetary..

 

The nickname "Theoretician's Planetary" is from the quote "If IC 3568 did not exist, it might have been created by theoreticians" in the 1997 article "The shapes and shaping of the planetary nebulae IC 3568, NGC 40, and NGC 6543" by Balick, Owen, Bignell and Hjellming in 1987AJ.....94..948B (http://adsabs.harvard.edu/full/1987AJ.....94..948B)

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IC 3583 = Arp 76 Companion = UGC 7784 = MCG +02-32-154 = CGCG 070-191 = PGC 42081

12 36 43.5 +13 15 34

V = 12.8;  Size 2.2'x1.1';  Surf Br = 13.6;  PA = 0d

 

24" (6/4/16): at 322x; faint, fairly small, roughly oval 5:3 N-S, low even surface brightness, diffuse appearance with no structure.  A mag 13 star is at the southeast edge and a mag 11 star is 1' NE of the geometric center.  Located 6' NNW of M90.  This irregular galaxy is interacting with M90 (forming Arp 76), and apparently disturbing the outer arm on the northeast side, which appears somewhat stretched towards IC 3583.

 

Isaac Roberts discovered IC 3583 on a photograph taken 29 Apr 1892 with a 20" reflector at his Starfield observatory in Crowborough, Sussex.  He described "a streak of nebulosity extending in north preceding direction from a 13th mag star; two 12th mag stars near, and the faint comes of the one on the north following side seems to touch the nebulosity."  Frost also catalogued it based on a plate taken 10 May 1904 at Harvard's Arequipa station.  He noted "Elliptical, 1.1' x 0.2' at 185ˇ, a 13 mag * f[ollows] 2 or 3 s[econds]."

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IC 3585 = UGC 7783 = MCG +05-30-035 = CGCG 159-028 = PGC 42067

12 36 39.9 +26 49 48

V = 13.4;  Size 1.1'x0.9';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 126d

 

18" (5/12/07): faint, small, round, 20" diameter, weak even concentration.  A mag 12-12.5 star lies 0.8' S.  Located 13' SE of NGC 4556 in a group.

 

Max Wolf discovered IC 3585 = W. IV-239 on a Heidelberg plate taken 23 Mar 1903.  He noted "cF, S, neb *."

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IC 3600 = MCG +05-30-041 = CGCG 159-035 =  PGC 42161

12 37 41.1 +27 07 44

Size 0.7'x0.4';  PA = 134d

 

18" (5/12/07): very faint, extremely small, round, 10" diameter.  Located to the NE of the core of the NGC 4556 group (29' NE of NGC 4556).

 

Max Wolf discovered IC 3600 = W. IV-240 on a Heidelberg plate taken 23 Mar 1903.  He noted "F, vS, neb *."

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IC 3668 = 2MASX J12413292+4107257

12 41 32.9 +41 07 27

V = 14.9;  Size 0.4'x0.2';  PA = 31d

 

48" (4/7/13): IC 3668 is a bright, elongated HII region(s) at the south end of the singe prominent arm of NGC 4618 = Arp 23, ~20"x10".  Situated 1.7' S of center.

 

18" (5/15/10): extending mostly to the south side of the central bar of NGC 4618 is a faint, beefy arm that often appears detached and barely connected on the east end of the central region.  This broad arm winds counterclockwise from east to south roughly 100ˇ with IC 3668, the brightest region or knot, near the south end of the arm, ~1.8' from the center of the bar.

 

WH possibly discovered IC 3668 = Wolf V-2 on 9 Apr 1787 in his observation of NGC 4618.  He recorded "Two. The most north considerably or vB.  The most south pB.  Their nebulosities run into each other; the most north vmbM."  The southern object may be IC 3668, the HII complex on the south end of the galaxy .  JH also called this galaxy double.  On 12 Apr 1830 he logged, "Double; a B, L nebula, gbM, with a F one attached, 70ˇ sf, so as to run together into one; moonlight."  JH included two GC designations, but Dreyer combined them in the NGC. 

 

NGC 4618 was observed several times at Birr Castle and two knots were clearly noted on the south side, probably IC 3668 and 3669.  On 10 Apr 1855, R.J. Mitchell wrote, "The s branch is patchy, having 2 B spots near p end."  Three nights later he added "Seen as before, I susp a * in the f of the 2 knots in s branch."  On 27 Mar 1868, C.E. Burton remarked, "The s end of annulus suspected to have two B patches in it."  Max Wolf independently discovered IC 3668 on a Heidelberg plate taken 21 Mar 1903 and is credited in the IC.  He noted "pF, pS, iF, N."

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IC 3669

12 41 35.9 +41 08 10

 

48" (4/7/13): IC 3669 is a brighter arc or section of the single broad arm on the southeast side about 1' SE of the core of NGC 4618.

 

R.J. Mitchell probably discovered IC 3669, along with IC 3668, during an observation of NGC 4618.  On 10 Apr 1855, he wrote, "The s branch is patchy, having 2 B spots near p end."  Three nights later he added "Seen as before, I susp a * in the f of the 2 knots in s branch."  A later observation in 1868 by C.E. Burton also noted, "The s end of annulus suspected to have two B patches in it.; S st inv."   Max Wolf independently discovered IC 3669 = W. V-3 on a Heidelberg plate taken 21 Mar 1903.  Wolf is credited with the discovery in the IC.

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IC 3806 = UGC 7974 = MCG +03-33-006 = CGCG 100-008 = PGC 43303

12 48 55.5 +14 54 28

V = 13.6;  Size 1.5'x0.5';  Surf Br = 13.2;  PA = 177d

 

17.5" (5/14/94): faint, small, elongated 2:1 N-S, 1.0'x0.5', no concentration.  A mag 10 star is 9.1' SSE.  Picked up viewing NGC 4710 19' NE.

 

Royal H. Frost discovered IC 3806 = F. 1039 on two plates taken from May 1904 at Harvard's Arequipa station.  He noted "R, 0.2' diam, bM, mag 13.5."

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IC 3827 = MCG -02-33-021 = IC 3838 = PGC 43487

12 50 52.1 -14 29 31

V = 13.4;  Size 1.0'x0.7';  Surf Br = 12.8;  PA = 60d

 

18" (5/16/09): very faint, small, slightly elongated ~N-S, 24"x20".  A mag 14.7 star is just 34' S of center.  Located 10' S of the NGC 4724/4727 duo.  IC 3831 lies 8' SE.

 

Herbert Howe found IC 3827 = Ho I-15 on 20 Apr 1898.  He gave a micrometric position in the notes to list III (MN LX. 2), though it's 5.5 seconds of time too large.  According to Harold Corwin, Bigourdan's #304 (later IC 3838) is the first observation on 14 Apr 1895, though his RA is 1 minute too large due to an error with the offset star.

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IC 3831 = MCG -02-33-027 = PGC 43536

12 51 18.6 -14 34 25

V = 12.6;  Size 1.4'x0.9';  Surf Br = 12.8;  PA = 151d

 

18" (5/16/09): fairly faint, fairly small, elongated 5:3 NW-SE, gradually increases to the center with a small bright core.  IC 3827 lies 8' NW.

 

Guillaume Bigourdan discovered IC 3831 = Big. 301 = Ho II-10 on 14 Apr 1895.  Herbert Howe independently discovered it in on 11 May 1899, noted "F; vS; R" and measured an accurate position (used in the IC 2).

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IC 3834 = NGC 4740? = MCG -02-33-030 = PGC 43559

12 51 32.3 -14 13 15

V = 13.6;  Size 0.8'x0.4';  Surf Br = 12.3;  PA = 85d

 

18" (5/16/09): faint, small, round, low even surface brightness.  A mag 15 star lies 43" W of center.  Located 11' NE of NGC 4727/4724 pair.

 

Guillaume Bigourdan discovered IC 3834 = Big. 302 on 14 Apr 1895.  His position matches PGC 43559, a galaxy often taken as NGC 4740 or NGC 4726.  Herbert Howe searched for NGC 4726 in 1899 but found IC 3834, which he assumed was NGC 4726. Dreyer gave his position in the IC 2 Notes and modern catalogues (with the exception of NED) identify IC 3834 as NGC 4726.  Harold Corwin concludes that NGC 4740, found by Swift, is a reobservation of NGC 4727.  See NGC 4726 and 4740 for more.

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IC 3864 = PGC 4346459

12 54 12.3 +18 57 05

V = 17.9;  Size 0.2'x0.15';  PA = 146d

 

48" (4/2/11): IC 3864 is one of the very faintest entries in the entire IC.  This galaxy is located at the west end of AGC 1638 in a 5' oval group containing a half-dozen members of AGC 1638.  Extremely faint and small, 5" diameter.  A brighter mag 16.4 star lies 30" S.

 

Max Wolf discovered IC 3864 = W. VI-80, along with several other faint IC galaxies within AGC 1638, on a Heidelberg plate taken 27 Jan 1904.  He reported "vF, vS, iF, * 14 s 30"; many other neb about."

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IC 3867 = PGC 87471

12 54 19.6 +18 56 30

V = 15.6;  Size 0.5'x0.3';  PA = 115d

 

48" (4/2/11): fairly faint, small, oval 4:3 NW-SE, 20"x15".  Brightest of 7 in AGC 1638 along with IC 3864, IC 3869, IC 3871, IC 3872, IC 3874 and IC 3886.  Six of these galaxies (with the exception of IC 3886) form the outline of a 5' oval centered about 6' WSW of a mag 10 star.  Jimi Lowrey and I tracked down this group as IC 3886, IC 3864 and IC 3874 are among the faintest galaxies in the IC (discovered photographically, of course)!

 

Max Wolf discovered IC 3867 = W. VI-83, along with several other faint IC galaxies within AGC 1638, on a Heidelberg plate taken 27 Jan 1904.  He reported "vF, S, iF, N."

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IC 3869 = PGC 87472

12 54 21.3 +18 58 17

V = 16.4;  Size 0.3'x0.2'

 

48" (4/2/11): very faint, very small, elongated 3:2 SW-NE, 0.3'x0.2'.  Located 1.8' NNE of IC 3867 in a faint group of IC galaxies within AGC 1638.

 

Max Wolf discovered IC 3869 = W. VI-85, along with several other faint IC galaxies within AGC 1638, on a Heidelberg plate taken 27 Jan 1904.  He reported "vF, vS, iF, N."

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IC 3871 = PGC 3798192

12 54 25.7 +18 55 45

V = 15.9;  Size 0.4'x0.4';  PA = 13d

 

48" (4/2/11): faint, very small, round, 9" diameter.  Located 1.6' SE of IC 3867 in a 5' group of 6 IC galaxies at the west side of AGC 1638

 

Max Wolf discovered IC 3871 = W. VI-87, along with several other faint IC galaxies within AGC 1638, on a Heidelberg plate taken 27 Jan 1904.  He reported "vF, vS, R, bM."

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IC 3872 = PGC 3798227

12 54 30.6 +18 57 47

V = 15.9;  Size 0.3'x0.3'

 

48" (4/2/11): faint, very small, round, 12" diameter.  IC 3874 lies 1' ESE.  A mag 16-16.5 star lies 1.2' ESE. Located on the west side of AGC 1638 in a 5' group of a half-dozen IC galaxies.

 

Max Wolf discovered IC 3872 = W. VI-88, along with several other faint IC galaxies within AGC 1638, on a Heidelberg plate taken 27 Jan 1904.  He reported "vF, vS, iF, N."

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IC 3874 = PGC 87473

12 54 34.4 +18 57 25

V = 15.9;  Size 0.4'x0.3';  PA = 101d

 

48" (4/2/11): faint, very small, round, 12" diameter.  Similar IC 3874 lies 1' WNW.  This pair of galaxies is at the east end of 5' circlet of 6 IC galaxies on the west side of AGC 1638.  A mag 16.3 star lies 22" SE of center.

 

Max Wolf discovered IC 3874 = W. VI-90, along with several other faint IC galaxies within AGC 1638, on a Heidelberg plate taken 27 Jan 1904.  He reported "vF, vS, iF, * 15 sf 0.3'."

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IC 3886 = PGC 4346995

12 55 00.3 +19 00 42

V = 17.4;  Size 0.2'x0.2'

 

48" (4/2/11): extremely faint and small, 6" diameter.  This galaxy was chosen to track down as it one of the faintest galaxies listed in the IC!  Located 17' ESE of mag 7.1 HD 112084 and 3.4' NE of a mag 10.3 star.  This galaxy is on the NE side of AGC 1638 with several additional faint but easier IC galaxies packed into an compact arrangement (ring) ~9' SW.

 

Max Wolf discovered IC 3886 = W. VI-98, along with several other faint IC galaxies within AGC 1638, on a Heidelberg plate taken 27 Jan 1904.  He reported "vF, vS, iF, bM.", with the note "Ch!! conn 1'n, &&, viF."  Harold Corwin translates this description as "Very remarkable chain connecting 1 arcmin north, very irregular figure."  Although there are two stars 1' north, they are not connected in any way to this extremely faint galaxy.

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IC 3896 = ESO 219-012 = PGC 44180

12 56 43.2 -50 20 49

V = 10.9;  Size 2.5'x1.9';  Surf Br = 12.6;  PA = 10d

 

24" (4/11/08 - Magellan Observatory, Australia): at 260x, this galaxy appeared fairly bright, moderately large, elongated 3:2 ~N-S, 1.2'x0.8'.  Sharply concentrated with a very small, very bright core ~10" diameter.  IC 3896A lies 20' NW and ESO 219-021, a large elongated galaxy, lies 54' E.  This bright IC galaxy is located 1.7ˇ SW of NGC 4945.

 

Royal H. Frost discovered IC 3896 = F. 1040 on two plates taken in May 1904 at Harvard's Arequipa station.  He noted "bM, magn 14."

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IC 3900 = MCG +05-31-009 = CGCG 160-019 = PGC 44068 = PGC 1802312

12 55 41.4 +27 15 02

V = 14.0;  Size 0.7'x0.5';  Surf Br = 12.7;  PA = 0d

 

17.5" (5/14/94): fairly faint, very small, round, high surface brightness, weakly concentrated, occasional stellar nucleus.  Collinear with a mag 13 star and a mag 10.5 star 1.3' S and 3.1' S of center, respectively.  Easily picked up 14.5' SW of NGC 4798 in AGC 1656.

 

Stephane Javelle discovered IC 3900 = J. 3-1228 on 25 Jun 1903 with the 30-inch refractor at the Nice Observatory.

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IC 3943 = CGCG 160-069 = PGC 44485

12 58 36.4 +28 06 49

V = 14.5;  Size 0.7'x0.2';  PA = 59d

 

18" (4/20/12): at 282x this Coma cluster member appeared faint, small, elongated 2:1 SW-NE, 21"x10".  Situated at the midpoint of a mag 14.8 star 1.3' SSW and a mag 13.5 star 1.3' NNE.

 

17.5" (4/21/90): very faint, very small, slightly elongated.  Located between two mag 13 and 15 stars.  Member of AGC 1656 with the NGC 4858/NGC 4860 pair 6' E.

 

Hermann Kobold discovered IC 3943 = K. 2-7 on 28 May 1895 with the 18-inch refractor at the Strassburg Observatory.

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IC 3946 = MCG +05-31-050 = CGCG 160-210 = PGC 44508

12 58 48.7 +27 48 37

V = 14.0;  Size 0.7'x0.4';  Surf Br = 12.5;  PA = 80d

 

17.5" (4/21/90): very faint, small, elongated 2:1 WSW-ENE.  A mag 14 star is 1.1' NW.  Located in AGC 1656 with IC 3949 2.1' NE and IC 3947 1.7' SSE.

 

Hermann Kobold discovered IC 3946 = K. 2-8, along with IC 3947 and 3949, on 12 May 1896 with the 18-inch refractor at the Strassburg Observatory.  He noted "F, pS, bM." and measured an accurate micrometric position.

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IC 3947 = CGCG 160-211 = PGC 44515

12 58 52.1 +27 47 05

V = 14.5;  Size 0.3'x0.2'

 

17.5" (4/21/90): extremely faint and small, round.  Located in AGC 1656 with IC 3946 1.7' NNW and IC 3949 3.0' NNE.

 

Hermann Kobold discovered IC 3947 = K. 2-9, along with IC 3946 and 3949, on 12 May 1896 with the 18-inch refractor at the Strassburg Observatory.  His micrometric position matches CGCG 160-211.

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IC 3949 = UGC 8096 = MCG +05-31-052 = PGC 44524

12 58 56.1 +27 49 59

V = 14.3;  Size 1.0'x0.2';  Surf Br = 12.3;  PA = 73d

 

17.5" (4/21/90): very faint, fairly small, edge-on SW-NE, weak concentration.  A mag 12.5 star is 1.5' N.  Located in a rich section of AGC 1656 with IC 3946 2.1' SW, IC 3960 2.9' NE and IC 3947 3.0' SSW.

 

13" (4/29/84): very faint, elongated.  Situated between two stars in AGC 1656.

 

Hermann Kobold discovered IC 3949 = K. 2-10, along with IC 3946 and 3947, on 12 May 1896 with the 18-inch refractor at the Strassburg Observatory.  He described it as "F, pS, E."

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IC 3955 = CGCG 160-216 = PGC 44544

12 59 06.0 +27 59 48

V = 14.4;  Size 0.6'x0.4';  PA = 41d

 

18" (4/20/12): faint, small, elongated 5:3 SSW-NNE, ~20"x12".  Located 7' WNW of NGC 4872 and 2' NW of NGC 4864/4867 in the Coma cluster.

 

17.5" (4/21/90): extremely faint and small, round.  Located 2' NW of the NGC 4864/NGC 4867 pair and 7' WNW of NGC 4872 in a rich portion of AGC 1656.

 

Hermann Kobold discovered IC 3955 = K. 2-11 on 22 Apr 1895 with the 18-inch refractor at Strassburg and recorded "vF, S, N 14 mag."

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IC 3957 = MCG +05-31-060 = CGCG 160-217 = PGC 44554

12 59 07.5 +27 46 04

V = 14.8;  Size 0.4'x0.4';  Surf Br = 12.7

 

17.5" (4/28/90): extremely faint and small, round.  In a close trio with IC 3959 1.0' N and IC 3963 1.4' ENE within AGC 1656.

 

Hermann Kobold discovered IC 3957 = K. 2-12 on 12 May 1896 with the 18-inch refractor at Strassburg and recorded "cF, vS, R, bM."

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IC 3959 = MCG +05-31-059 = CGCG 160-218 = PGC 44553

12 59 08.2 +27 47 02

V = 14.3;  Size 0.5'x0.5';  Surf Br = 12.8

 

17.5" (4/21/90): very faint, very small, round.  A mag 12.5 star is 1.6' NNW.  In a close trio with IC 3957 1.0' S and IC 3963 1.3' SE, also IC 3947 lies 3.5' W.  Located in a rich section of AGC 1656.

 

Hermann Kobold discovered IC 3959 = K. 2-13 on 12 May 1896 with the 18-inch refractor at Strassburg and recorded "F, pS, R, lbM."

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IC 3960 = MCG +05-31-055 = CGCG 160-219 = PGC 44551

12 59 07.9 +27 51 18

V = 14.9;  Size 0.4'x0.4';  Surf Br = 12.7

 

17.5" (4/21/90): extremely faint, very small, round.  Located 8.8' SW of NGC 4874 in the core of AGC 1656.  Forms a pair with IC 3949 2.9' SW.

 

Hermann Kobold discovered IC 3960 = K. 2-14 on 12 May 1896 with the 18-inch refractor at Strassburg and recorded "vF, pS, diffic."

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Mrk 59 = PGC 93120

12 59 00 +34 51

Size 0.35'x0.30'

 

48" (4/7/13): NGC 4861 is dominated by a very high surface brightness HII region (Mrk 59) at the SSW end, about 15" in diameter and 13th magnitude. At 488x, the knot appeared extremely bright, roundish, sharp-edged.

 

17.5" (1/23/93): this is a high surface brightness knot at the SSW end of NGC 4861.  Easily takes up to 410x.  Fairly bright, very small, 15" diameter, estimate mag 12.0-12.5.  Appears more prominent than the low surface brightness galaxy NGC 4861!  Slightly fainter than the mag 12 star at the NE end of NGC 2366 but slightly brighter using an OIII filter.

 

13.1" (2/23/85): attached to the south end of NGC 4861, stellar at low power, slightly nebulous at 166x, definite nonstellar knot at 312x.  This knot is an unusually bright HII region and is identified as NGC 4861 in the UGC and CGCG.

 

Max Wolf found IC 3961 = W. V-105, a reobservation of NGC 4831 on a Heidelberg plate from 21 Mar 1903.  His description "pF, pL, lE, 30ˇ, bM" applies to NGC 4861, although UGC, RNGC and CGCG all misapply the number to the emission knot at the SSW end of the galaxy.  Interestingly, both John Herschel and Rosse both described a "star" at the south end of NGC 4861 as being "ill-defined" and "little knot", so Mrk 59 arguably should have received a NGC designation.

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IC 3963 = MCG +05-31-061 = CGCG 160-220 = PGC 44567

12 59 13.5 +27 46 28

V = 14.8;  Size 0.7'x0.3';  Surf Br = 12.8

 

17.5" (4/28/90): extremely faint and small, elongated E-W.  Third of three in equilateral triangle with IC 3959 1.4' WNW and IC 3957 1.4' WSW in AGC 1656.

 

Hermann Kobold discovered IC 3963 = K. 2-15 on 12 May 1896 with the 18-inch refractor at Strassburg and recorded "vF, vS, R, bM."

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IC 3973 = CGCG 160-228 = PGC 44612

12 59 30.8 +27 53 03

V = 14.4;  Size 0.5'x0.3';  PA = 160d

 

18" (4/20/12): fairly faint, small, slightly elongated NNW-SSE, 20"x15".  Situated 4.7' SSW of NGC 4874 in the swarm of small galaxies that surround 4874 in the Coma cluster.

 

17.5" (4/21/90): very faint, very small, slightly elongated WNW-ESE.  Located in the central core of AGC 1656 just 4.6' S of NGC 4874.  Also first of three on a SW-NE line with NGC 4875 2.1' NE and NGC 4876 3.5' ENE.  IC 3976 lies 2.1' S.

 

Hermann Kobold discovered IC 3973 = K. 2-18 on 20 May 1895 with the 18-inch refractor at Strassburg and recorded "F, vS, R, N 13 mag.."

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IC 3976 = CGCG 160-226 = PGC 44603

12 59 29.4 +27 51 00

V = 14.7;  Size 0.5'x0.2';  PA = 160d

 

18" (4/20/12): very faint, small, oval NNW-SSE, 18"x12".  Located 2' SSW of brighter IC 3973 in the Coma cluster.

 

17.5" (4/21/90): very faint, extremely small, elongated NW-SE.  Located in core of AGC 1656 6.7' SSW of NGC 4874.  IC 3973 lies 2.0' N.

 

Hermann Kobold discovered IC 3976 = K. 2-19 on 13 May 1896 with the 18-inch refractor at Strassburg and recorded "*14 inv in vF neb."

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IC 3986 = ESO 443-024 = MCG -05-31-012 = LGG 324-001 = PGC 44852

 

13 01 00.8 -32 26 29

V = 11.8;  Size 1.9'x1.5';  Surf Br = 12.8;  PA = 165d

 

14" (4/4/16 - Coonabaraban, 184x): moderately bright to fairly bright, fairly small, slightly elongated NNW-SSE, 40"x30", small bright nucleus.  A mag 11.6 star is 1.2' NW of center, a mag 11.1 star is 2' WNW and a mag 7.9 star is 10' SE.  A 5' string of stars extends to the south-southwest.  HCG 63 lies 25' SE.

 

This galaxy is the brightest member of the galaxy group LGG 324, which includes three members of HCG 63 as well as ESO 443-032 (identified as IC 3986 in modern sources) 11' NE.  ESO 443-032 appeared fairly faint to moderately bright, fairly small, slightly elongated, 35"x30", contains a small bright nucleus.  ESO 443-029, just 4.8' NE (a member of more distant AGC 3537) was very faint, small, round, 25" diameter, low surface brightness.

 

17.5" (5/22/93): fairly faint, small, round, weak concentration, crisp-edged.  Forms part of the "Bowl" of a "Dipper" asterism formed by an 8' group of stars mostly to the south.  HCG 63 lies 25' SE.

 

Lewis Swift discovered IC 3986 = Sw XI-147 on 31 Jan 1898 and reported "eeF; pS; R; 10m * nr nf."  His RA is over 1.0 minute west of ESO 443-032, which is not unusual for his discoveries during his last year of observing.  But there is no brighter star near, casting doubt on this identification.  A good candidate is ESO 443-024, which is 10' south of Swift's position and 30 seconds of RA east.  A mag 10.5 star is nearby (as well as a closer mag 11.5 star), although the closer star is north-northwest, not northeast.  Still, assuming he mixed up the direction, ESO 443-024 is somewhat brighter and a better candidate.  I suggested this identification to Harold Corwin in April 2016 and he agreed.

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IC 3998 = CGCG 160-236 = PGC 44664

12 59 46.8 +27 58 26

V = 14.6;  Size 0.8'x0.5';  PA = 10d

 

18" (4/20/12): one of the numerous galaxies in the halo of NGC 4874 (2.6' ENE of center), this member of the Coma cluster is located about a third of the way from NGC 4874 to NGC 4889.  At 322x it appeared faint, small, oval 4:3 N-S, 16"x12", contains a very small brighter nucleus.

 

17.5" (4/21/90): located in the central core of AGC 1656 between NGC 4874 and NGC 4889.  Extremely faint and small, round.  Forms a close pair with PGC 44652 = Goodwin #458 1.1' SSE.  Located 2.6' ENE of NGC 4874 and a swarm of galaxies are in the field surrounding NGC 4874.  Also located 4.7' due west of NGC 4889 (brightest in AGC 1656).

 

13" (4/29/84): extremely faint, very small, between NGC 4874 and NGC 4889 in core of AGC 1656.

 

Hermann Kobold discovered IC 3998 = K. 2-20 on 22 Apr 1895 with the 18-inch refractor at Strassburg and recorded "eF, pS."

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